The Center for Cooperative Research
U:     P:    
Not registered yet? Register here
 
Search
 
Current timeline only
Advanced Search


Main Menu
Home 
History Engine Sub-Menu
Timelines 
Entities 
Forum 
Miscellaneous Sub-Menu
Donate 
Links 
End of Main Menu

Volunteers Needed!
Submit a timeline entry
Donate: If you think this site is important, please help us out financially. We need your help!
Email updates
 



  View mode (info):
  Ordering (info):
  Time period (info):
Click here to join: Suggest changes to existing data, add new data to the website, or compile your own timeline. More Info >>

 

US-Iraq 1980s

 
  

Project: History of US Interventions

Export to XML Printer Friendly View Email to a Friend Increase Text Size Decrease Text Size


Showing 101-117 of 117 events (use filters to narrow search):    previous 100

November 2, 1989

       Kuwait's Director General of State Security sends a memo to the Minister of the Interior summarizing a meeting with CIA Director William Webster. He writes: “We agreed with the American side that it was important to take advantage of the deteriorating economic situation in Iraq in order to put pressure on that country's government to delineate our common border. The Central Intelligence Agency gave us its view of appropriate means of pressure, saying that broad cooperation should be initiated between us on condition that such activities be coordinated at a high level.” When Iraq invades Kuwait (see August 2, 1990), they find this memo and confront the Kuwaiti foreign minister with it during an Arab summit meeting in mid-August 1990. Upon seeing the memo, the Kuwaiti official reportedly faints. [Cited in Ahmed, 10/2/2001] The US says the memo is a forgery. [Sources: Apparatus of Lies]
People and organizations involved: William H. Webster
          

1990

       In response to a US company's concern that their product might be used by Iraq to develop nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles, the US Department of Commerce asks Iraq's government to provide a written guarantee that the company's product will be used for civilian purposes only. The Commerce Department tells the company that a license and review is unnecessary, and that there is no reason why the product in question should not be exported to Iraq. [Jentleson 1994, p. 110]
          

July 18, 1990-August 1, 1990

       The Bush administration's Commerce Department approves $4.8 million in sales of advanced technology products to Iraq's “MIMI” and “Saad 16” research centers. “MIMI” is known to be a development facility for chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons programs (see 1989) and “Saad 16” is known to be involved in the development of chemical and nuclear weapons (see November 1986) (see November 1986). [Committee on Government Operations, House, “Strengthening the Export Licensing System” cited in Hurd and Rangwala 12/12/2001]
          

July 25, 1990

       US ambassador to Baghdad, April Glaspie, meets with Saddam Hussein and promises him that Bush wants “better and deeper relations.” She also claims that the president is an “intelligent man,” adding, “He is not going to declare an economic war against Iraq.” [Washington Post,12/30/02; The Times 12/31/02] She also informs him that the United States has “no opinion” on Arab-Arab conflicts, such as Baghdad's border disagreement with its neighbor. [Los Angeles Times, 1/5/2003; Orlando Sentinel, 3/20/2003]
People and organizations involved: April Glaspie, George Herbert Walker Bush, Saddam Hussein
          

August 1, 1990

       The Bush administration approves the sale of $695,000 in advanced data transmission devices to Iraq. [Washington Post,3/11/1991]
          

August 2, 1990

       Iraq invades Kuwait.
          

(August 2, 1990)

       In response to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait (see August 2, 1990), the US suspends National Security Directive 26 (see October 2, 1989), which established closer ties with Baghdad and mandated $1 billion in agricultural loan guarantees to Iraq. [Frantz and Waas, 2/23/1992]
          

1992

       The last shipment of Clostridium Botulinum, a source of botulinum toxin, is sent to Iraq. [Sunday Herald 9/8/2002]
          

March 1992

       Iraq receives its last shipment from the US of Pralidoxine, an antidote to nerve gas which can also be reverse engineered to create actual nerve gas. [Sunday Herald 9/8/2002]
          

June 23, 1992

       Frank DeGeorge, inspector general for the Commerce Department, concedes that the department's officials altered 66 export licenses for Iraq prior to turning them over to congressional investigators. The export licenses had been changed from “vehicles designed for military use” to “commercial utility cargo trucks.” [Covert Action Quarterly]
People and organizations involved: Frank DeGeorge
          

July 9, 1992

       The House Judiciary Committee asks US Attorney General William Barr to appoint an independent counsel to investigate Iraqgate. [Covert Action Quarterly]
People and organizations involved: William P. Barr
          

August 1, 1992

       US Attorney General William Barr rejects the House Judiciary's request for him to appoint an independent counsel (see July 9, 1992), reasoning that the committee's accusations are too “vague.” He informs them that the Justice Department will instead continue with its own “investigation” of Iraqgate. [Covert Action Quarterly]
People and organizations involved: William P. Barr
          

November 4, 1992-November 5, 1992

       Rita Machakos, a paralegal at the Department of Justice's employment office, witnesses an employee of the US Department of Agriculture “spending an entire weekend shredding documents that described the administration's role in obtaining $5.5 billion in US-taxpayer-guaranteed agricultural loans for Iraq from the Banca Nazionale del Lavoro (BNL) (see 1985-1989).” [Mother Jones 2/1993]
People and organizations involved: Rita Machakos, Italian Banca Nazionale del Lavoro
          

July 21, 1995

       “David Satcher, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides Senator Donald Riegel (D-Mich.) with a complete list of all biological materials that the Center supplied Iraq between October 1, 1984 and October 13, 1993.” At the time of these deliveries, Iraq claimed that the samples were being used for legitimate medical research. [Associated Press 12/21/02; Business Week 9/20/2002 Sources: Letter from Center for Disease Control & Prevention to Senator Donald Riegle]
People and organizations involved: David Satcher
          

September 19, 2002

       Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld is subjected to intense questioning by Senator Robert Byrd about the United States' role in providing Iraq with the materials for its chemical and biological weapons and Rumsfeld's December 20, 1983 visit to Baghdad (see December 20, 1983). [Sources: US Congressional Record: September 20, 2002 (Senate) Page S8987-S8998]
Sen. Robert Byrd - “Mr. Secretary, to your knowledge, did the United States help Iraq to acquire the building blocks of biological weapons during the Iran-Iraq War? Are we, in fact, now facing the possibility of reaping what we have sown?” [Sources: US Congressional Record: September 20, 2002 (Senate) Page S8987-S8998]

Defense Secr. Donald Rumsfeld - “Certainly not to my knowledge. I have no knowledge of United States companies or government being involved in assisting Iraq develop chemical, biological or nuclear weapons.” [Sources: US Congressional Record: September 20, 2002 (Senate) Page S8987-S8998]

Sen. Robert Byrd - “[After reading Mr. Rumsfeld excerpts from a Newsweek article] Let me ask you again: Did the United States help Iraq to acquire the building blocks of biological weapons during the Iran-Iraq War? Are we, in fact, now facing the possibility of reaping what we have sown?” [Sources: US Congressional Record: September 20, 2002 (Senate) Page S8987-S8998]

Defense Secr. Donald Rumsfeld - “I have not read the article.... I was, for a period in late '83 and early '84, asked by President Reagan to serve as Middle East envoy after the Marines—241 Marines were killed in Beirut. As part of my responsibilities I did visit Baghdad. I did meet with Mr. Tariq Aziz. And I did meet with Saddam Hussein and spent some time visiting with them about the war they were engaged in with Iran. At the time our concern, of course, was Syria and Syria's role in Lebanon and Lebanon's role in the Middle East and the terrorist acts that were taking place. As a private citizen I was assisting only for a period of months. I have never heard anything like what you've read, I have no knowledge of it whatsoever, and I doubt it.” [Sources: US Congressional Record: September 20, 2002 (Senate) Page S8987-S8998]

People and organizations involved: Donald Rumsfeld, Robert C. Byrd
          

January 17, 2003

       Joost R. Hiltermann pens an op-ed in the International Herald Tribune titled, “America Didn't Seem to Mind Poison Gas,” in which he comments on how the US had sought to protect Iraq in 1988 from international condemnation after its attacks on Halabja using poison gas (see March 1988). [International Herald Tribune 1/17/03 Sources: Letter from Center for Disease Control & Prevention to Senator Donald Riegle]
People and organizations involved: Joost R. Hiltermann  Additional Info 
          

January 21, 2003

       Corpwatch reporter Russell Mokhiber asks White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer to comment on a January 17 op-ed piece in the International Herald Tribune (see January 17, 2003) which criticized the Bush administration for its hypocritical condemnation of Iraq's 1988 poison gas attacks on Halabja (see March 1988). [White House 1/21/03]
Mokhiber - “You and the president have repeatedly said that Saddam Hussein gassed his own people. The biggest such attack was in Halabja in March 1988, where some 6,800 Kurds were killed. Last week, in an article in the International Herald Tribune, Joost Hiltermann writes that while it was Iraq that carried out the attack, the United States at the time, fully aware that it was Iraq, accused Iran. This was apparently part of the US tilt toward Iraq in the Iran-Iraq war. The tilt included billions of dollars in loan guarantees. Sensing he had carte blanche, Saddam escalated his resort to gas warfare—graduating to ever more lethal agents. So, you and the president have said that Saddam has repeatedly gassed his own people. Why do you leave out the part that the United States in effect gave Saddam the green light?” [White House 1/21/03]

Ari Fleischer - “Russell, I speak for President George W. Bush in the year 2003. If you have a question about statements that were purportedly made by the administration in 1988, you need to address those somewhere other than this White House. I can't speak for that. I don't know if it is accurate, inaccurate, but you have all the means to ask those questions yourself.” [White House 1/21/03]

Mokhiber - “The San Francisco Chronicle reported yesterday that a number of major American corporations—including Hewlett-Packard and Bechtel —helped Saddam Hussein beef up its military in the 1980s. And also the Washington Post, last month in a front-page article by Michael Dobbs said the United States during the '80s supplied Iraq with cluster bombs, intelligence and chemical and biological agents. In that same article, they reported that Donald Rumsfeld, now Secretary of Defense, went to Baghdad in December 1983 and met with Saddam Hussein, and this was at a time when Iraq was using chemical weapons almost on a daily basis in defiance of international conventions. So there are some specifics, and the question is—if Iraq is part of the axis of evil, why aren't the United States and these American corporations part of the axis of evil for helping him out during his time of need?” [White House 1/21/03]

Ari Fleischer - “Russell, as I indicated, I think that you have to make a distinction between chemical and biological. And, clearly, in a previous era, following the fall of the Shah of Iran, when there was a focus on the risks that were underway in the region as a result of the rise of Islamic fundamentalism in Iran, different administrations, beginning with President Carter, reached different conclusions about the level of military cooperation vis-a-vis Iraq. Obviously, Saddam Hussein since that time has used whatever material he had for the purpose therefore of attacking Kuwait, attacking Saudi Arabia, attacking Israel. And, obviously, as circumstances warrant, we have an approach that requires now the world to focus on the threat that Saddam Hussein presents and that he presents this threat because of his desire to continue to acquire weapons and his willingness to use those weapons against others.” [White House 1/21/03]

Mokhiber - “If I could follow up on that— ” [White House 1/21/03]

Ari Fleischer - “Russell. Russell.” [White House 1/21/03]

Mokhiber - “If I could follow-up on it. You and the president have repeatedly said one of the reasons Saddam is part of the axis of evil is because he's gassed his own people. Well, he gassed his own people with our help. You saw the Washington Post, article, didn't you, by Michael Dobbs?” [White House 1/21/03]

Ari Fleischer - “I think that statement is not borne out by the facts.” [White House 1/21/03]

Mokhiber - “Did you see the Post, article by Dobbs?” [White House 1/21/03]

Ari Fleischer - “I think that he gassed his own people as a result of his decisions to use his weapons to gas his own people.” [White House 1/21/03]

Mokhiber - “But who gave him the weapons?” [White House 1/21/03]

Ari Fleischer - “And I think the suggestion that you blame America for Iraq's actions is way beyond the pale.” [White House 1/21/03]

Mokhiber - “Who gave him the weapons?” [White House 1/21/03]
(Ari moves on.) [White House 1/21/03]
People and organizations involved: Ari Fleischer
          
Showing 101-117 of 117 events (use filters to narrow search):    previous 100


Except where otherwise noted, the textual content of each timeline is licensed under the Creative Commons License below:

Creative Commons License Home |  About this Site |  Development |  Donate |  Contact Us
Privacy Policy  |  Terms of Use