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General Topic Areas

The opposition/post-Artistide gov't (68)
Economic policy, foreign interference (24)
Foreign involvement
The overthrow of Aristide (16)
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The 2004 removal of Jean-Bertrand Aristide

 
  

Project: 2004 Ousting of Jean-Bertrand Aristide

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(2001-2004)

       The United States Government funds and trains a 600-member paramilitary army of anti-Aristide Haitians in the Dominican Republic with the authorization of the country's president, Hipolito Mejia. The funds—totaling $1.2 milllion—are directed through the International Republican Institute (IRI) on the pretext of encouraging democracy in Haiti. In order to evade attention, the paramilitary soldiers appear at their training sessions dressed in the uniforms of the Dominican Republic national police. The training—provided by some 200 members of the US Special Forces—takes place in the Dominican villages of Neiba, San Cristobal, San Isidro, Hatillo and Haina, and others. Most of the training takes place on property owned by the Dominican Republic Government. Technical training, conducted once a month, takes place in a Santo Domingo hotel through the IRI. Among the Hatians that take part in the program are known human rights violators including Guy Philippe and Louis-Jodel Chamblain. [Democracy Now!, 4/7/2004; Radio Mundo, 4/2/2004; Xinhuanet, 3/29/2004; Newsday, 3/16/2004]
People and organizations involved: Louis-Jodel Chamblain, Guy Philippe, International Republican Institute
          

2001-2003

       According to Haiti expert Robert Maguire of Trinity College, the permanent US representative to the Organization of American States Roger Noriega and US Special Envoy to Latin America Otto Reich lead a “relatively small group of people” who develop strategies toward Haiti. [Dollars and Sense, 9/2003]
People and organizations involved: Roger Francisco Noriega, Otto Juan Reich
          

2001

       Clinton holdover US Ambassador to Haiti Brian Dean Curran complains that Stanley Lucas of the Republican-dominated International Republican Institute (IRI) is “undermining” international efforts to help Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide and the Democratic Convergence come to a compromise over Haiti's contested 2000 congressional elections (see May 21, 2000). [Newsday, 3/16/2004]
People and organizations involved: Brian Dean Curran, International Republican Institute, Stanley Lucas, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Democratic Convergence
          

October 2002

       The US ships 20,000 M-16s to the Dominican Republic. Though some US officials will later claim that the weapons transfer had only been agreed to at this time—not completed—there will be much evidence to the contrary. [Newsday, 3/16/2004; Washington Times, 3/4/2004; Web Ready Corporation, 3/26/04; Fox News, 3/2/2004] According to the Florida-based website, fuerzasmildom.com, which provides a detailed history and description of the Dominican military forces, the Dominican military receives a “donation of 20,000 surplus M16 rifles from the US Military Assistance Program” in October 2002. [Web Ready Corporation, 3/26/04] Additionally, according to one of the staff aides of US Senator Christopher Dodd, several Defense Department letters written in 2002 and 2003 appear to show that the weapons transfer had been completed. [Newsday, 3/16/2004] After Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide is ousted a year and a half later, his attorney, Ira Kurzman, will tell Fox News that the guns had been provided to the Dominican by the US “in an operation called Jade Project where they [sic] secretly trained Dominican army people.” [Fox News, 3/2/2004]
People and organizations involved: Ira Kurzman, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Christopher Dodd
          

November 19, 2002

       The Haiti Democracy Project (HDP) is formally established. At its official launching, which takes place at the Brookings Institution in Washington, D.C., speakers warn that the current “crisis” in democracy in Haiti is worsening at an ever increasing pace. “... Luigi Einaudi opened the talks with dire predictions that Haiti was fast approaching a point where diplomatic means would no longer contribute to solve the crisis. According to Einaudi, those concerned about Haiti should at this time be gathering for a ‘wake.’ The rapidly deteriorating economic situation, the inability of the main protagonists to advance the negotiating process and the increasing protest demonstrations throughout the country made for a very bleak future.” US ambassador to the OAS, Roger Noriega also speaks at the ceremony. At one point, Noriega says, referring to the contested 2000 Haitian elections (see May 21, 2000), “We have to get them [The Haitian people] that opportunity as they will not participate in a farce.” [Haiti Democracy Project, 11/20/2004] Attending the event are some questionable figures including Stanley Lucas and Olivier Nadal. Lucas is said to be the point man in Haiti for the USAID-financed International Republican Institute, which is providing training and funds to anti-Aristide Haitian rebels in the Dominican Republic (see (2001-2004)). Nadal is a Miami-based Haitian businessman and the former president of the Haitian Chamber of Commerce. [Haiti Democracy Project, 11/20/2004] Nadal is implicated in a peasant massacre that occurred in the Haitian town of Piatre. In 1990, a group of peasants were killed by Nadal's security after they squatted on unused land that he owned. [National Coalition for Haitian Rights, 4/24/2004; Haitis Progres, 7/21/1999] The prominent businessman Antoine Izmery said shortly before he was murdered that Nadal had been one of the financiers of the 1991 coup d'etat (see October 31, 1991-October 15, 1994) that ousted Aristide from office. And in 1994, the United States government froze Nadal's assets because of his suspected involvement in the coup. [Haitis Progres, 7/21/1999] The Haiti Democracy Project is funded by the wealthy, right-wing Haitian Boulos family, which owns several companies including Pharval Pharmaceuticals, the USAID-funded Radio Vision 2000, the Delimart supermarket, and Le Matin. In February 2002, Rudolph Boulos was under investigation for his possible involvement in the assassination of Haitian journalist Jean Dominique who had been very critical of Pharval after contamination of the company's “Afrebril and Valodon” syrups with diethyl alcohol had resulted in the deaths of 60 children. [Haiti Weekly News, 2/28/02; Haiti Democracy Project, 11/20/2004; Haiti Progres, 7/21/1999; Knight Ridder, 3/11/2004] The project's board of directors includes Rudolph Boulos, CEO of Pharval Laboratories; Vicki Carney of CRInternational; Prof. Henry F. Carey of Georgia State University; Timothy Carney, US ambassador to Haiti (1998-1999); Clotilde Charlot, former vice-president of the Haitian Association of Voluntary Agencies; Lionel Delatour of the Center for Free Enterprise and Democracy (CLED); Ira Lowenthal, an “Anthropologist”; Charles Manus; Orlando Marville, Chief of the OAS electoral mission to Haiti in 2000; James Morrell, the Haiti Democracy Project's executive director; Lawrence Pezzullo, US special envoy for Haiti (1993-1994); and Ernest H. Preeg, US ambassador to Haiti (1981-1983). [Haiti Democracy Project, 3/26/2004]
People and organizations involved: Antoine Izmery, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Olivier Nadal, Haiti Democracy Project, Vicki Carney, Jean Dominique, Henry F. Carey, Rudolph Boulos, Stanley Lucas, Luigi Einaudi, Timothy Carney, Roger Francisco Noriega, Ernest H. Preeg, Lawrence Pezzullo, James Morrell, Orlando Marville, Clotilde Charlot, Lionel Delatour, Ira Lowenthal, Charles Manus
          

December 2002

       The Haiti Democracy Project creates the “Coalition of 184 Civic Institutions,” which is comprised of Haitian NGOs funded by USAID and/or the International Republican Institute (IRI ), the Haitian-American Chamber of Commerce, as well as several other groups. [Dollars and Sense, 9/7/2003] The coalition's leader is Andre Apaid, a US citizen born to Haitian parents who is the head of Alpha Industries,“one of the oldest and largest assembly factories in Haiti.” His factories—located in Haiti's free trade zones—produce textiles and assemble electronic products for several US companies, including Sperry/Unisys, IBM, Remington and Honeywell, some of which are used in US Government computers and US Defense Department sonar and radar equipment. According to a report by the National Labor Committee, Apaid's businesses are known to have forced their employees to work 78-hour work-weeks at wages below the minimum rate. [London Review of Books, 4/15/2004; National Labor Committee for Worker and Human Rights, 1/1996; Haiti Progres, 11/12/2003]
People and organizations involved: Haiti Democracy Project, Andre Apaid, USAID, International Republican Institute
          

January 2003

       Denis Paradis, Canada's Secretary of State for Latin America, hosts a two-day meeting at the Meech Lake Lodge called the “Ottawa Initiative.”; The meeting is designed to look at the current situation in Haiti, and is held without public access. In attendance are two high-ranking officials from the US State Department, officials from France, EU, El Salvador, and Canada. No one from Haiti is invited. What is discussed at the meeting is kept secret until it is leaked in March (see March 22, 2005). [News Haiti, 8/28/2004]
People and organizations involved: Denis Paradis
          

February 2003

       Stanley Lucas, who is the point man in Haiti for the Republican-dominated International Republican Institute (IRI) based in the Dominican Republic, meets with Haitian rebel Guy Philippe and his men. Three months later the group will cross into Haiti and attack a hydroelectric power plant. Lucas has long ties to the Haitian military (see Early May 2003). After the toppling of Aristide's government 12 months later, it will be learned that the group had been funded and trained through the IRI (see (2001-2004)). [Interhemispheric Resource Center (IRC), 2/27/2004; The Black Commentator, 5/15/2003]
People and organizations involved: Guy Philippe, Stanley Lucas, International Republican Institute
          

April 23, 2003

       John Ashcroft states that US authorities have “noticed an increase in third country nations (Pakistanis, Palestinians, etc.) using Haiti as a staging point for attempted migration to the United States. This increases the national security interest in curing use of this migration route.” Commenting on the remarks, State Department spokesman Stuart Patt says, “'We all are scratching our heads. We are asking each other, ‘Where did they get that?’ ” No evidence is ever offered by Ashcroft or anyone else in the Justice Department to support the accusation. Miami Immigration attorney Ira Kurzban, who will later represent Jean-Bertrand Aristide after his removal, says the statements are “part of a concerted plan involving the destruction of the Haitian people by creating the chaotic economic conditions in Haiti while forcing people to go back there.” Kurzban adds: “There is no basis of fact for the attorney general's claims. No information of this nature has been presented to the Haitian government. It's a false claim. It's used to perpetuate a discriminatory policy against Haitians.” [Miami Herald, 4/25/2003]
People and organizations involved: Ira Kurzman, John Ashcroft, Stuart Patt
          

April 28, 2003

       The Haitian Press Agency (AHP) reports that diplomats at the Organization of American States are openly circulating demands for the removal of Haitian president Jean-Bertrand Aristide. “One document's author suggested that it would be best if the situation kept deteriorating, saying that any aid should be blocked until 2005 in order to eliminate the party in power, Fanmi Lavalas [Lavalas Family], which will be of no help to the population, according to him.” [The Black Commentator, 5/15/2003] Though the news report does not provide any names, one possible source for the remarks is Roger Noriega, the US permanent representative to the Organization of American States. Noriega is a known critic of Aristide.
People and organizations involved: Roger Francisco Noriega, Jean-Bertrand Aristide
          

Early May 2003

       A group of at least 20 paramilitary soldiers—trained and funded by the US (see (2001-2004)) —cross into Haiti from the neighboring Dominican Republic and attack a hydroelectric power plant on Haiti's central plateau. Shortly after the attack, Dominican authorities, at the behest of the Haitian government, arrest five men, including Guy Philippe, in connection with the paramilitary operation. But they are quickly released by the Dominicans who say there is no evidence of their involvement in the attack. Philippe is interviewed by the Associated Press afterwards and asked what he is doing in the Dominican. Philippe, who mentions to the reporter that he would support a coup against Aristide, refuses to “say how he makes a living or what he does to spend his time in the Dominican Republic.” Less than one year later, Philippe will participate in the overthrow of the Aristide government. [The Black Commentator, 5/15/2003] On the same day the five men are detained, Haitian authorities raid the Port-au-Prince residence of mayoral candidate Judith Roy of the Democratic Convergence opposition. The Haitians claim to find “assault weapons, ammunitions, and plans to attack the National Palace and Aristide's suburban residence.” The Haitian government contends that Roy is close to Philippe. [The Black Commentator, 5/15/2003]
People and organizations involved: Democratic Convergence, Judith Roy, Guy Philippe
          

May 15, 2003

       The Black Commentator magazine publishes an essay predicting a US-sponsored overthrow of Jean-Bertrand Aristide. An unnamed source in Haiti tells the magazine that Bush administration officials “want a subservient client in power when the bicentennial [festivities celebrating Haiti's 200 years of independence] comes down. ” The source adds, “They cannot control Aristide, therefore they must do as they always have in these situations, destroy him and his government by any means necessary.” [The Black Commentator, 5/15/2003]
          

July 31, 2003

       US Ambassador to Haiti Brian Dean Curran, a Clinton holdover, says in a farewell address to the Haitian-American Chamber of Commerce (HAMCHAM), “The United States accepts President Aristide as the constitutional president of Haiti for his term of office ending in 2006.” [New York Times, 2/29/2004; Haiti Papers, 11/2003] Curran is sent to Naples, Italy and succeeded by career diplomat James Foley. [Associated Press, 8/1/2003; New York Times, 2/29/2004]
People and organizations involved: James Foley, Brian Dean Curran
          

February 11, 2004

       US Representative Barbara Lee (D-CA) writes in a letter to US Secretary of State Colin Powell: “Our failure to support the democratic process and help restore order looks like a covert effort to overthrow a government. There is a violent coup d'etat in the making, and it appears that the United States is aiding and abetting the attempt to violently topple the Aristide Government. With all due respect, this looks like ‘regime change.’ How can we call for democracy in Iraq and not say very clearly that we support democratic elections as the only option in Haiti?” [Alternet, 3/1/2004; Lee, 2/11/2004 Sources: February 11, 2004 Letter from US Rep. Barbara Lee to Colin Powell]
People and organizations involved: Barbara Lee, Colin Powell
          

February 13, 2004

       US Representative Barbara Lee (D-CA) writes a letter to US Secretary of State Colin Powell accusing the State of intentionally subverting democracy in Haiti. “It has been clear to me for some time that the state department has been trying to undermine President Aristide... I am convinced that this effort to force President Aristide out of office by any means is a power-grab by the same forces that staged a coup d'etat and forced him out of office in 1991. The opposition that claims to be peaceful is not peaceful and they are responsible for the violence in Gonaives and other parts of Haiti. Should these actions by Andre Apaid and his Committee of 184, thugs and violent protestors receive support or encouragement from the United States, thereby increasing the risk of a coup d'etat, there may well be a bloodbath on the streets of Haiti.” [Lee, 2/11/2004; Alternet, 3/1/2004 Sources: February 14, 2004 Letter from US Rep. Barbara Lee to Colin Powell]
People and organizations involved: Barbara Lee, Colin Powell
          

February 18, 2004

       US Secretary of State Colin Powell states the US has “no enthusiasm” for sending troops to protect Haiti's government from the approaching rebel forces. [BBC, 2/18/04]
People and organizations involved: Colin Powell
          

February 25, 2004

       French Foreign Minister Dominique de Villepin outlines a proposal he will submit to the UN on February 26, which calls for Aristide's resignation and recommends that an international security force be dispatched to Haiti to help stabilize the country. According to the minister, President Aristide “bears heavy responsibility for the current situation” and it is his responsibility “to accept the consequences while respecting the rule of law.” Villepin adds: “Everyone sees quite well that a new page must be opened in Haiti's history.” [New York Times, 2/26/04] Notably, a few months before, Aristide's government had called on France to pay some $21 billion in reparations to Haiti (see November 2003). [London Review of Books, 4/15/2004]
People and organizations involved: Dominique de Villepin
          

February 28, 2004

       US Secretary of State Colin Powell calls former US Congressman Ron Dellums, who is working for Aristide as a Washington lobbyist, and warns him that the United States will not protect Aristide from the rebels. [Associated Press 3/2/2004]
People and organizations involved: Ron Dellums, Colin Powell
          

February 29, 2004

       With the removal of Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Boniface Alexandre, chief justice of the Supreme Court, is sworn in as president at the home of Prime Minister Yvon Neptune, in conformance with Haiti's constitutional rite of succession. The ceremony is attended by US Ambassador James Foley. However without a parliament (see January 2004), his appointment cannot be approved as required by Haiti's 1987 Constitution. [Reuters, 2/29/2004; Associated Press, 3/1/2004; New York Times, 3/1/2004]
People and organizations involved: Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Boniface Alexandre, James Foley
          

March 1, 2004

       US President George Bush announces that the US is sending US forces to Haiti to help stabilize the country. [Reuters, 3/1/2004]
People and organizations involved: George W. Bush
          

March 9, 2004

       Haitian Gerard Latortue is appointed Prime Minister by the seven-member Council of Sages formed under a plan approved by the United States, France and the Organization of American States (see March 5, 2004). Latortue, whose current place of residence is Boca Raton, Florida, has been living outside of Haiti for decades. [Reuters, 3/13/2004; NBC News, 3/11/2004; Agence-France Presse, 3/11/2004] The 69-year-old former foreign minister has worked for the UN Industrial Development Organization in Africa (1972-1994) and most recently has been working as an international business consultant in Miami. [Associated Press, 3/10/2004; NBC News, 3/11/2004; Haiti Support Group, 3/17/2004] Hours after the appointment, US members of the international security force are fired upon by gunmen in three separate incidents while on patrol near the prime minister's official residence. [Agence-France Presse, 3/11/2004; Associated Press, 3/11/2004]
People and organizations involved: Danielle Magliore, Ariel Henry, Gerard Latortue, Christian Rousseau, Anne-Marie Issa, Paul Emile Simon, Lamartine Clermont, Mac Donald Jean
          

March 25-26, 2004

       CARICOM members meet in Basseterre, St. Kitts and Nevis and call for a UN investigation into the February 29 ouster (see February 28, 2004-March 1, 2004) of Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide's. “In the light of contradictory reports still in circulation concerning the departure of President Aristide from office, heads of government (of CARICOM) believed that it is in the compelling interest of the international community that the preceding events and all the circumstances surrounding the transfer of power from a constitutionally elected head of state, be fully investigated,” the statement reads. [Inter Press Service, 4/13/2004; CARICOM, 3/26/2004] US Secretary of State Colin Powell will dismiss CARICOM's call for a probe on April 5. “I don't think any purpose would be served by an inquiry. We were on the verge of a bloodbath and President Aristide found himself in great danger.” [Washington Times, 4/6/2004; Agence-France Presse, 4/5/2004; Inter Press Service, 4/13/2004; US Department of State, 4/5/2004] And according to diplomatic sources interviewed by Inter Press Service, the US and France intimidate CARICOM into delaying its official request for a UN inquiry. Both countries warn that they will veto any resolution calling for a probe. [Inter Press Service, 4/13/2004 Sources: Unnamed sources]
People and organizations involved: Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM), Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Colin Powell
          

Late March 2004

       US National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice demands that Jamaica expel Jean-Bertrand Aristide from the region, claiming that his presence in the Caribbean will increase tension in Haiti. She also threatens Jamaica, saying that if anything happens to US soldiers in Haiti, that Jamaica would be blamed and subjected to the full force of the US. [Democracy Now!, 4/25/2004]
People and organizations involved: Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Condoleezza Rice
          

April 5, 2004

       The United States announces that it will send a seven-member advisory group to Haiti. One member of the team will assist Haiti's new minister of interior with planning as well as coordination with the United Nations, the Organization of American States (OAS) and Haiti's donors. Two advisors will work with the local police to vet its personnel and assist with “strategic planning, management, and command and control issues.” Two more advisors will help Haiti work on other issues related to internal security, one helping the new government restart its police academy, while the other will contribute in the area of local prison administration. The sixth member of the team will work with the courts and ministry of justice. The role of the last advisor will be to coordinate the activities of all the team's members. [US Department of State, 4/5/2004; United Press International, 4/6/2004]
          

April 14, 2004

       In a speech to the American Enterprise Institute, Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs Roger F. Noriega speaks about Haiti. On the issue of democracy, he says that under Aristide the people of Haiti had “lost their democracy,” explaining, “Leaders can undermine a republic and their own legitimacy by their actions and that is how a people can lose their democracy.” He contends that Aristide had willfully refused to “give any quarter to or compromise with political adversaries.” [US State Department, 4/14/2004] In the section of his speech titled, “Principles of US Engagement in Haiti,” Noriega says the US will help Haiti adopt neoliberal reforms: “We will provide technical and legal aid to update Haiti's Commercial Code, which dates from the 19th century, in order to help create the right environment for growth and wealth creation. We will also encourage the Government of Haiti to move forward, at the appropriate time, with restructuring and privatization of some public sector enterprises through a transparent process.” [US State Department, 4/14/2004]
People and organizations involved: Roger Francisco Noriega, American Enterprise Institute
          

April 18, 2004

       Haitian Prime Minister Gerard Latortue drops a demand that former president Jean-Bertrand Aristide had made to France—that the country's former colonizer pay reparations to Haiti in the amount of $21 billion (see November 2003). “This claim was illegal, ridiculous and was made only for political reasons,” Prime Minister Gerard Latortue claims, adding that Haiti wants to have good relations with France. “This matter is closed. What we need now is increased cooperation with France that could help us build roads, hospitals, schools and other infrastructure.” France, significantly, had called for Aristide's resignation before his ouster (see February 25, 2004), leading many to speculate that its involvement in the intervention had been motivated by its interest in ending the reparations demand. During a visit earlier in the month, Defense Minister Michele Alliot-Marie denied this allegation, saying that French involvement had been motivated solely by a desire to help Haiti. [Reuters, 4/18/2004]
People and organizations involved: Gerard Latortue, Michele Alliot-Marie
          

Mid-March 2004

       “Following a US-backed plan,” Haitian Prime Minister Gerard Latortue meets with political leaders to begin the process of selecting thirteen ministers for a new interim government. People who had worked in the government since 2000 are automatically disqualified. Additionally, no representatives from any political parties—the Lavalas Family Party or the opposition—are supposed to be included in the interim cabinet. Notably, several of those chosen have held posts in international development organizations, which as the Haiti Support Group notes, “have been very active in Haiti for many decades without making any discernible progress with the country's social or economic development.” Among those chosen are Yvon Simeon as foreign minister; Bernard Gousse, an anti-Aristide lawyer, as justice minister; Henri Bazan, president of the Haitian Association of Economists, UN consultant, as finance minister; former Gen. Herard Abraham as interior minister; Josette Bijoux, World Health Organization, as public health minister; Daniel Saint-Lot, Director of Training for the controversial USAID-funded, community radio development program, RAMAK, as commerce, industry and tourism minister, Pierre Buteau, as education and culture minister; Roland Pierre, agronomist, as planning and environment minister, Smarck Michel, former primer minister, as planning minister. [Haiti Support Group, 3/17/2004; CNN, 3/16/2004] Despite Latortue's assurances, several of these people do have ties to political parties. Yvon Simeon, was the Democratic Convergence's representative in Europe and Bernard Gousse is said to be an active member of the Group of 184. [Haiti Support Group, 3/17/2004] Interestingly, many of the new cabinet members, lilke Mr. LaTortue himself, are from Boca Raton, Florida, leading some observers to refer to the new government as the “Boca Regime.” [Zmag, 5/5/2004]
People and organizations involved: Daniel Saint-Lot, Josette Bijoux, Herard Abraham, Pierre Buteau, Roland Pierreas, Smarck Michel, Henri Bazan, Bernard Gousse, Yvon Simeon, Gerard Latortue, Lamartine Clermont, Anne-Marie Issa, Christian Rousseau, Ariel Henry, Danielle Magliore, Mac Donald Jean, Paul Emile Simon
          

March 22, 2005

       While in Argentina, Donald Rumsfeld gives a speech praising foreign participation in the UN mission to Haiti. Rumsfeld says that Argentina in particular is “playing a truly vital role in the multinational peacekeeping forces in Haiti.” In response to Donald Rumsfeld's speech, sociologist Emilio Taddei denounces the UN intervention in Haiti saying that the US and France are pressuring Latin American armies to intervene. Taddei adds that “humanitarian missions are the new disguise for the old colonial invasions that served to legitimise a coup d'etat.” [Inter Press Service, 3/22/2005]
People and organizations involved: Donald Rumsfeld
          

March 22, 2005

       Discussions from the “Ottawa Initiative” meeting in January (see January 2003) are leaked to the CBC in an interview with Denis Paradis, Canada's Secretary of State for Latin America. Paradis concludes from the “Ottawa Initiative” that “the international community wouldn't want to wait for the five-year mandate of President Aristide to run its course in 2005.” Paradis states that a consensus was reached that “Aristide should go.” Paradis also says that military occupation might be necessary after an intervention and “until elections can be held.” [News Haiti, 8/28/2004]
People and organizations involved: Denis Paradis
          


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