Venezuela Venezuela venezuela us_interventions_project November 24, 1948 November 24, 1948 venezuela_37 false 1 ------ President Romulo Gallegos, Venezuela's first democratically elected leader, is overthrown within eight months of his election in a military coup led by Marcos Perez Jimenez, who forms a government with backing from the armed forces and the US. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/country_profiles/1229348.stm | BBC, 8/14/2004 ]] [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0618318534 | Keen, 1992 ]] ====== 1998 venezuela-1 false 1 ------ Hugo Chavez is elected president. He promises to try to raise Venezuela's minimum wage, which stands at $175 a month despite Venezuela's substantial oil wealth (the largest outside the middle east. It is the US' second largest supplier of oil). [[ http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/americas/9812/07/venezuela.02/ | CNN, 12/97/1998 ]] [[ http://www.fpif.org/commentary/2002/0204venezuela2.html | Foreign Policy in Focus, 4/17/2002 ]] [[ http://www.afa.org/magazine/June2002/0602chart.pdf | Air Force Magazine, 6/2002 ]] ====== ((+ Hugo Chavez Frias )) 1998-2002 venezuela-2 false 1 ------ Chavez challenges the oligarchs' control over land and petroleum and introduces reforms aimed at improving the social welfare of the population. --- * --- He attempts to renegotiate a 60-year old royalty agreement which pays as little as 1% to Venezuela, but which generates huge profits for oil companies such as Philips Petroleum and ExxonMobil. He also confirms the nationalization of the oil industry [[ http://lists.indymedia.org/mailman/public/imc-houston/2002-December/004966.html | Vheadlines, 12/6/2002 ]] [[ http://www.fpif.org/commentary/2002/0204venezuela2.html | Foreign Policy in Focus, 4/17/2002 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,876362,00.html | The Guardian, 1/17/2003 ]] [[ http://pilger.carlton.com/print/98841 | The New Statesman, 3/11/2002 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1932132.stm | BBC, 4/16/2002 ]] --- * --- He pushes significant land reforms. A this time, roughly two percent of the population controls sixty percent of the land while eighty percent lives in poverty. [[ http://lists.indymedia.org/mailman/public/imc-houston/2002-December/004966.html | Vheadlines, 12/6/2002 ]] [[ http://www.fpif.org/commentary/2002/0204venezuela2.html | Foreign Policy in Focus, 4/17/2002 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,876362,00.html | The Guardian, 1/17/2003 ]] [[ http://pilger.carlton.com/print/98841 | The New Statesman, 3/11/2002 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1932132.stm | BBC, 4/16/2002 ]] --- * --- Under his leadership, Venezuela establishes a new progressive constitution. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/529003.stm | BBC, 11/20/1999 ]] --- * --- Chavez succeeds in lowering infant mortality rates. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/views02/0412-08.htm | Commondreams, 4/12/2002 ]] [[ http://www.fpif.org/commentary/2002/0204venezuela2.html | Foreign Policy in Focus, 4/17/2002 ]] --- * --- Under his leadership, the government passes 49 laws which not only bring forward land reform, but also improve both the fairness and efficiency of the tax system, guarantee women's and indigenous people's rights, and introduce free healthcare and education up to university level. [[ http://pilger.carlton.com/print/103710 | The News Statesman, 4/29/2002 ]] ====== ((- Philips Petroleum )) ((- ExxonMobil )) ((+ Hugo Chavez Frias )) May 3, 2001-May 16, 2001 venezuela_1186 false 1 ------ Spanish Armed Forces conduct Operation Balboa, a military exercise involving a simulated attack on the western part of Venezuela. The attack is in response to a scenario where a popularly supported group has proposed “actions against the interests of the legally constituted government” and against properties of the US. The UN Security Council calls on the Venezuelan Revolutionary Force (VFL), which is operating in the western part of the country, to end its belligerent actions and come to an agreement with the national government. When the VFL fails to make peace, the Council authorizes the creation of an Allied Joint Combined Force—led by the US and its allies—to rescue the foreign residents. [[ http://www.vheadline.com/readnews.asp?id=21173 | Venezuela's Electronic News, 5/15/2004 ]] ------ According the “General Rules of Simulation” and the “Specific Exercise Plan for Operation Balboa,” the goal of the mock operation is to “destroy the enemy air force's potential, support the ground troops, occupy the northwest part of [Venezuela] to recover the [petroleum] capital, blockade the main ports in the occupied territory, and secure land communications to maintain logistic flow and military control of the area.” [[ http://www.vheadline.com/readnews.asp?id=21173 | Venezuela's Electronic News, 5/15/2004 ]] ------ 36 Lieutenant Colonels, other Spanish Air Force officials, as well as officials from other countries, participate in the exercise. Intelligence about Venezuela used in the exercise is provided by the US and NATO. [[ http://www.vheadline.com/readnews.asp?id=21173 | Venezuela's Electronic News, 5/15/2004 ]] ====== December 28, 2001 venezuela-4 false 1 ------ The San Francisco Examiner publishes an article speculating that the US may be planning a coup in Venezuela. The article also notes that Chavez has reduced inflation from 40 percent to 12 percent, generated economic growth of 4 percent, and increased primary school enrollment by 1 million students. [[ http://www.examiner.com/opinion/default.jsp?story=OPhallinan1228w | San Francisco Examiner, 12/28/2001 ]] [[ http://www.fpif.org/commentary/2002/0204venezuela2.html | Foreign Policy in Focus, 4/17/2002 ]] ====== ((+ Hugo Chavez Frias )) March 5, 2002 venezuela_26 false 1 ------ The CIA notes in its daily Senior Executive Intelligence Brief that “[o]pposition to President Chavez is mounting.” A heavily redacted copy of the document is later obtained by freelance investigative reporter, Jeremy Bigwood. The lead sentence in one of the document's paragraphs states, “A successful would be difficult to mount.” The remaining text of the paragraph—which appears to be an additional four lines in length—is whited out. [[ http://www.venezuelafoia.info/CIA/SEIB_03-05-02-pre-Coup_rumors/CIA-03-05-02.htm | Source: Senior Executive Intelligence Brief, March 5, 2002 ]] ====== April 6, 2002 venezuela_17 false 1 ------ The CIA files a Senior Executive Security Brief stating: “[D]issident military factions, including some disgruntled senior officers and a group of radical junior officers, are stepping up efforts to organize a coup against President Chavez, possibly as early as this month.... To provoke military action, the plotters may try to exploit unrest stemming from opposition demonstrations slated for later this month or ongoing strikes at the state-owned oil company PSVSA.” The brief also notes, “The level of detail in the reported plans [censored] targets Chavez and 10 other senior officials for arrest—lends credence to the information, but military and civilian contacts note that neither group appears ready to lead a successful coup and may bungle the attempt by moving too quickly.” But is also says that “repeated warnings that the US will not support any extraconstitutional moves to oust Chavez probably have given pause to the plotters.” [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/1124-02.htm | Newsday, 11/24/2004 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/1203-09.htm | Associated Press, 12/3/2004 ]] [[ http://www.venezuelafoia.info/CIA/SEIB_04-06-02-pre-Coup-conditions_ripen/CIA-04-06-02.htm | Source: Senior Executive Intelligence Brief, April 6, 2002 ]] ------ Senior Executive Security Briefs are one level below the highest-level Presidential Daily Briefs and are distributed to roughly 200 top-level US officials. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/1124-02.htm | Newsday, 11/24/2004 ]] ====== (April 7, 2002) April 7, 2002 venezuela_18 false 1 ------ The CIA files a Senior Executive Security Briefs noting that “repeated warnings that the US will not support any extraconstitutional moves to oust Chavez probably have given pause to the plotters.” Senior Executive Security Briefs are one level below the highest-level Presidential Daily Briefs and are distributed to roughly 200 top-level US officials. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/1124-02.htm | Newsday, 11/24/2004 ]] ====== April 8, 2002 venezuela_31 false 1 ------ The CIA states in its daily Senior Executive Intelligence Brief, “Disgruntled officers are planning a coup, although the military and the opposition as a whole appear to prefer that Chavez be removed by constitutional means.” The document adds, “An attempted coup would risk considerable violence and a severe crackdown by Chavez on any domestic opposition.” [[ http://www.venezuelafoia.info/CIA/SEIB_04-08-02-pre-Coup-disgruntled_officers/CIA-04-08-02.htm | Source: Senior Executive Intelligence Brief, April 8, 2002 ]] ====== April 11, 2002 venezuela-5 false 1 ------ Chavez is overthrown in a military coup reminiscent of previous CIA-coups in [[ guatemala | Guatemala ]], [[ chile | Chile ]], [[ brazil | Brazil ]] etc. The US welcomes the coup and congratulates the military, while denying involvement. The coup collapses after two days, however, and Chavez returns to power. The BBC notes: “Since his election, President Chavez has been a thorn in the side of the United States—which gets much of its oil from Venezuela. In particular, US officials were angered because Mr Chavez was selling cheap oil to Fidel Castro in Cuba. Mr. Chavez had also condemned US bombing of civilians in Afghanistan.” [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1929498.stm | BBC, 4/14/2002 ]] ------ Otto J. Reich, the US' assistant secretary for Western Hemisphere affairs, is in contact with Mr. Chavez's successor on the very day he takes over. The Bush administration claims Reich was pleading with him not to dissolve the National Assembly. [[ http://www.lossless-audio.com/usa/582071457.htm | New York Times, 4/17/02 ]] ------ The Pentagon also admits that Rogelio Pardo-Maurer, the Defense Department official responsible for Latin America, discussed the proposed coup in Washington with Gen. Lucas Romero Rincon, chief of the Venezuelan military command. Maurer spent the 1980s working in Washington as the chief spokesman for the Nicaraguan Contras. [[ http://www.worldpolicy.org/projects/arms/updates/ottoreich.htm | World Policy Institute, 4/9/2001 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/bush/story/0,7369,608019,00.html | The Guardian, 11/28/2001 ]] [[ http://www.colombiajournal.org/colombia117.htm | Columbian Journal, 6/10/2002 ]] [[ http://www.findarticles.com/cf_dls/m1141/36_37/77556870/p1/article.jhtml | National Catholic Reporter, 8/10/2001 ]] [[ http://yellowtimes.org/article.php?sid=253 | Yellow Times, 5/7/2002 ]] ------ It is revealed that senior Bush administration aides, including Assistant Secretary of State Otto Reich and White House advisor Elliott Abrams (both key players in the Reagan administrations covert network for supporting the contra terrorist war on Nicaragua in the 1980s), had met repeatedly in Washington with the coup's organizers. [[ http://observer.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,6903,688071,00.html | The Observer, 4/21/2002 ]] ------ Elliott Abrams is also known for his role in the [[ chile | 1973 coup in Chile ]], as well as his sponsorship of death squads in Argentina, [[ el_salvador | El Salvador ]], Honduras and [[ guatemala | Guatemala ]]. [[ http://yellowtimes.org/article.php?sid=253 | Yellow Times, 5/7/2002 ]] ------ The Washington Post reports: “Members of the country's diverse opposition had been visiting the U.S. Embassy here in recent weeks, hoping to enlist U.S. help in toppling Chavez. The visitors included active and retired members of the military, media leaders and opposition politicians.” Administration spokesmen insist however that these officials repeatedly urged the coup plotters not to take extra-constitutional action. [[ http://www.globalaging.org/pension/world/chavezforcedresign.htm | The Washington Post, 4/13/2002 ]] [[ http://www.monthlyreview.org/0902madsen.htm | Monthly Review, 9/2002 ]] [[ http://www.zmag.org/content/LatinAmerica/blum_coup.cfm | CounterPunch, 4/14/2002 ]] ------ A Defense Department official claims the administration's message was less categorical.“We were not discouraging people,” the official said. “We were sending informal, subtle signals that we don't like this guy. We didn't say, ‘No, don't you dare,’ and we weren't advocates saying, ‘Here's some arms; we'll help you overthrow this guy.’ We were not doing that.” [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1933526.stm | BBC, 4/16/2002 ]] [[ http://www.fpif.org/papers/venezuela.html | Foreign Policy in Focus, 6/2002 ]] ====== ((+ Otto Juan Reich )) ((+ Elliott Abrams )) ((+ Lucas Romero Rinconh )) ((+ Rogelio Pardo-Maurer )) ((+ Hugo Chavez Frias )) ((- Fidel Castro )) April 12, 2002 venezuela_35 false 1 ------ George A. Folsom, president of the International Republican Institute, applauds the ouster of Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez. “The Venezuelan people rose up to defend democracy in their country,” he says in a statement. “Venezuelans were provoked into action as a result of systematic repression by the government of Hugo Chavez.” [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0425-03.htm | New York Times, 4/25/2002 ]] ====== ((+ International Republican Institute (IRI) )) April 16, 2002 venezuela-6 false 1 ------ Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez alleges that “a plane with US registration numbers was at an army airstrip on Venezuela's Orchila Island, one of five places he was held in captivity during his brief removal from power,” reports the BBC. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1933526.stm | BBC, 4/16/2002 ]] ====== ((+ Hugo Chavez Frias )) April 17, 2002 April 17, 2002 venezuela_21 false 1 ------ An unnamed US senior administration official claims, “The United States did not know that there was going to be an attempt of this kind to overthrow—or to get Chavez out of power.” [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/1124-02.htm | Newsday, 11/24/2004 ]] ====== April 18, 2002 venezuela-7 false 1 ------ US President George W. Bush warns Chavez to draw a lesson from the unrest that his country has just experienced and insists that he commit himself to democracy. “If there's lessons to be learned, it's important that he learn them,” Bush says in a meeting with Colombian President Andres Pastrana. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1937598.stm | BBC, 4/18/2002 ]] ====== ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ Hugo Chavez Frias )) ((+ Andres Pastrana )) April 21, 2002 venezuela-8 false 1 ------ An official investigation by the Venezuelan government reveals that two high-ranking US officers joined the Venezuelan military commanders who backed the coup at Fort Tiuna, the largest military base in Caracas, where President Hugo Chavez was forcibly taken after being captured by soldiers supporting the overthrow of his government. [[ http://www.lossless-audio.com/usa/896913444.htm | Agence France-Presse, 4/20/2002 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/venezuela/story/0,12716,858072,00.html | The Guardian, 5/13/2002 ]] ====== ((- Hugo Chavez Frias )) May 14, 2002 venezuela-9 false 1 ------ Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez claims he has proof of US military involvement in the events that took place in April, claiming “he has radar images showing a foreign military vessel, a plane and a helicopter violating the country's waters and air space during the failed coup,” reports the BBC. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1988213.stm | BBC, 5/14/2002 ]] [[ http://www.fpif.org/papers/venezuela.html | Foreign Policy in Focus, 6/2002 ]] ====== ((+ Hugo Chavez Frias )) October 6, 2002 venezuela-10 false 1 ------ Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez claims to have foiled another coup plot to remove him from office. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/2303199.stm | BBC, 10/6/2002 ]] ====== ((+ Hugo Chavez Frias )) October 20, 2002 venezuela-11 false 1 ------ Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez claims to have escaped an assassination attempt while returning from a trip to Europe. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/2344973.stm | BBC, 10/20/02 ]] ====== ((+ Hugo Chavez Frias )) December 2002 venezuela-12 false 1 ------ A “strike” (referred to by some as an employers' lockout) organized by Venezuela's employers begins. [[ http://www.sptimes.com/News/121101/Worldandnation/Chavez_vows_clampdown.shtml | St. Petersburg Times, 12/11/2002 ]] [[ http://www.venezuelanalysis.com/articles.php?artno=1070 | Venezuelan Analysis, 12/3/2002 ]] ====== February 3, 2003 venezuela-14 false 1 ------ The strike ends after 63 days. Although some oil workers continue striking, oil output slowly returns to a level about half of pre-strike production. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/2719335.stm | BBC, 2/3/2003 ]] ====== December-January 2003 venezuela-13 false 1 ------ For the two-month duration of the strikes (See [[ venezuela-5 ]]), the only commercials on Venezuelan TV are pieces by the opposition attacking Chavez. [[ http://www.lossless-audio.com/usa/1828993777.htm | Adage, 2/10/2003 ]] ====== January 2004 venezuela-15 false 1 ------ Washington awards coup plotter Gustavo Cisnero the Inter-American Economic Council's “Prestigious Excellence in Leadership” award. [[ http://releases.usnewswire.com/GetRelease.asp?id=109-12242003 | US Newswire, 12/24/2004 ]] [[ http://www.vheadline.com/readnews.asp?id=14725 | Vheadlines, 1/30/2004 ]] [[ http://www.venezuelanalysis.com/print.php?newsno=1183 | Venezuelan Analysis, 1/29/2004 ]] [[ http://www.venezuelanalysis.com/print.php?artno=1024 | Venezuelan Analysis, 9/25/2003 ]] [[ http://www.zmag.org/content/LatinAmerica/Ahranoniancoup.cfm | Venezuelan Analysis, 4/28/2002 ]] [[ http://www.canadiandimension.mb.ca/extra/d0217nk.htm | The Guardian, 2/18/2003 ]] ====== ((+ Gustavo Cisnero )) February 3, 2004 venezuela-16 false 1 ------ VHeadline.com claims that the Bush administration is planning another coup in Venezuela. [[ http://www.lossless-audio.com/usa/2094727360.htm | Vheadlines, 2/3/2004 ]] ====== November 23, 2004 November 23, 2004 venezuela_22 false 1 ------ Peter Kornbluh, a senior analyst at the National Security Archive in Washington, tells Newsday that the documents recently acquired by the National Security Archive provide “substantive evidence that the CIA knew in advance about the coup, and it is clear that this intelligence was distributed to dozens of members of the Bush administration, giving them knowledge of coup plotting.” [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/1124-02.htm | Newday, 11/24/2004 ]] ======