US confrontation with Iran US confrontation with Iran us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran us_force_against_iran iran_specific_cases_and_issues key_events iran_general_topic_areas 1970s us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1968 false 1 ------ The Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK), a militant Iranian political organization formed in the 1960s, kills US military personnel and US civilians working on defense projects in Tehran. MEK is currently led by husband and wife Massoud and Maryam Rajavi. MEK is part of a larger political organization know as the National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI). [[ | Globalsecurity [.org], n.d. ]] [[ | US Department of State, 4/2005 ]] [[ | National Council of Resistance of Iran website, n.d. ]] [[ | MIPT database MEK profile ]] [[ | Patterns of Global Terrorism 2002, 4/30/2003 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Maryam Rajavi )) ((+ Massoud Rajavi )) ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) 1975 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_875 false 1 ------ The administration of Gerald Ford produces a strategy paper commending Iran's decision to develop a massive nuclear energy industry. The document cites Iran's energy security as a prime reason for supporting the plan. Tehran needs to &ldquo;prepare against the time&mdash;about 15 years in the future&mdash;when Iranian oil production is expected to decline sharply,&rdquo; the paper says. The &ldquo;introduction of nuclear power will both provide for the growing needs of Iran's economy and free remaining oil reserves for export or conversion to petrochemicals.&rdquo; [[ | Washington Post, 3/27/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> << us_force_against_iran_WesternBusiness >> April 22, 1975 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_871 false 1 ------ Secretary of State Henry Kissinger circulates National Security Decision Memorandum 292 on &ldquo;US-Iran Nuclear Cooperation&rdquo; outlining the administration's negotiating strategy for the sale of nuclear energy equipment to Iran. The document states the government would permit &ldquo;US material to be fabricated into fuel in Iran for use in its own reactors and for pass through to third countries with whom [the US has] agreements.&rdquo; According to the document, the administration would &ldquo;[a]gree to set the fuel ceiling at the level reflecting the approximate number of nuclear reactors planned for purchase from US suppliers,&rdquo; but would consider increasing the ceiling &ldquo;to cover Iran's entitlement&rdquo; from their proposed $1 billion investment in a 20 percent stake in one of the private US uranium enrichment facilities that would be supplying Iran. The strategy paper also explains under what terms the Ford administration would be willing to grant Iran approval to reprocess US supplied fuel. [[ | Washington Post, 3/27/2005 ]] [[ | Source: National Security Decision Memorandum 292 ]] ------ Three decades later, Kissinger will tell the Washington Post that the Ford administration was never concerned about the possibility of Iran building nuclear weapons or the potential for proliferation. &ldquo;I don't think the issue of proliferation came up,&rdquo; he will recall. &ldquo; They were an allied country, and this was a commercial transaction. We didn't address the question of them one day moving toward nuclear weapons,&rdquo; he also says. [[ | Washington Post, 3/27/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_WesternBusiness >> << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> ((+ Henry A. Kissinger )) 1976 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_870 false 1 ------ President Gerald R. Ford signs a presidential directive giving the Iranian government the opportunity to purchase a US-built nuclear reprocessing facility for extracting plutonium from nuclear reactor fuel. Iran, with support from the US, wants to develop a massive nuclear energy industry that has complete &ldquo;nuclear fuel cycle&rdquo; capability so fissile materials can be supplied self-sustaining basis. US companies, chief among them Westinghouse, stands to make $6.4 billion from the sale of six to eight nuclear reactors and parts. The shah has argued that Iran needs a nuclear energy program in order to meet Iran's growing energy demand. Iran is known to have massive oil and gas reserves, but the shah considers these finite reserves too valuable to be spent satisfying daily energy needs. In a 1975 strategy paper, the Ford administration supported this view saying that &ldquo;introduction of nuclear power will both provide for the growing needs of Iran's economy and free remaining oil reserves for export or conversion to petrochemicals.&rdquo; Top officials in the Ford administration&mdash;including Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, Chief of Staff Dick Cheney, and Paul Wolfowitz, who is responsible for nonproliferation issues at the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency&mdash;are strong supporters of Iran's ambitions. Kissinger will tell the Washington Post 30 years later that the Ford administration was not concerned about the possibility of Iran using the facilities to produce nuclear weapons. &ldquo;I don't think the issue of proliferation came up,&rdquo; he says. But Charles Naas, deputy US ambassador to Iran at this time, will tell the Post that nuclear experts had serious concerns about potential proliferation. Naas will explain that the administration was attracted to the nuclear deal &ldquo;terms of commerce&rdquo; and interested in maintaining good relations with the shah. [[ | Washington Post, 3/27/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> << us_force_against_iran_WesternBusiness >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr )) ((+ Henry A. Kissinger )) ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) ((+ Richard ("Dick") Cheney )) November 4, 1979-January 20, 1981 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1970 false 1 ------ About 500 Iranian students take over the American Embassy in Tehran and hold 52 Americans hostage for 444 days. The Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK) is one of the groups that supports the take-over. (( Patterns of Global Terrorism 2002, 4/30/2003 )) [[ | PBS Timeline, n.d. ]] [[ | Council on Foreign Relations, n.d. ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) November 14, 1979 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_198 false 1 ------ Shortly after the seizure of the US embassy in Tehran (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1970 ]]), President Jimmy Carter issues Executive Order 12170 freezing Iranian government assets held in the United States under the authority of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA). [[ | Executive Order 12170 ]] ------ Iran has an estimated $12 billion in bank deposits, gold, and other properties, including $5.6 billion in deposits and securities held by overseas branches of US banks. [[ | Office of Foreign Assets Control: US Department of the Treasury, 11/1979 ]] ====== Late 1979 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1969 false 1 ------ The Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK) is expelled from Iran and takes refuge in Iraq. In exile, the group develops an overseas support structure and creates the National Liberation Army (NLA), which acquires tanks, armored vehicles, and heavy artillery. The group will receive support from Saddam Hussein until he is toppled by a US invasion in 2003 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1215 ]]). (( Patterns of Global Terrorism 2002, 4/30/2003 )) ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) Mid- to late- 1980s us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1972 false 1 ------ With support from Saddam Hussein, the Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK), a militant Iranian opposition group, joins Iraqi troops in fighting against the Iranians. (( Patterns of Global Terrorism 2002, 4/30/2003 )) [[ | Christian Science Monitor, 12/31/2003 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) January 19, 1981 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_196 false 1 ------ The US and Iran sign the Algiers Accords. Under the terms of the agreement, the US is required to transfer Iranian assets (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_198 ]]) held in US banks to Iran. However a portion of this amount is to be held in a security account at the Central Bank for the purpose of ensuring payment of awards to successful US claimants. The balance in this account must never fall below $500 million. Additionally, the agreement requires the US to pledge noninterference in Iran's affairs. [[ | MSN Encarta, 5/27/2005 ]] [[ | Clinton Report to Congress, 11/16/1998 ]] [[ | US Department of the Treasury, 8/22/1996 ]] ====== June 28, 1981 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1971 false 1 ------ The Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK), a militant Iranian opposition group, bombs the Islamic Republic Party headquarters and the Premier's office, killing some 70 high-ranking Iranian officials, including chief Justice Ayatollah Mohammad Beheshti, President Mohammad-Ali Rajaei, and Premier Mohammad-Javad Bahonar. (( Patterns of Global Terrorism 2002, 4/30/2003 )) ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) ((+ Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Beheshti )) ((+ Mohammad-Javad Bahonar )) ((+ Mohammad-Ali Rajaei )) 1982 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_355 false 1 ------ Iran becomes a net importer of refined products, despite its huge oil reserves. Iran begins importing refined oil products to compensate for the inability of its refineries to keep up with internal demand. [[ | Energy Information Administration, 3/2005 ]] ------ In 1979, Iran's refinery capacity was just 750,000 bpd. [[ | Alexander's Gas and Oil Connections, 2/25/2004 ]] ====== 1983 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_400 false 1 ------ A Dutch court sentences Abdul Qadeer Khan to four years in jail after convicting him in absentia for espionage. Khan denies that he stole plans from URENCO, a maker of uranium enrichment centrifuges, when he worked there translating documents in the 1970s. Khan was employed by Physical Dynamics Research Laboratory, or FDO, a company that was sub-contracted by the URENCO consortium. [[ | NBC News, 2004 ]] [[ | CNN, 2/5/2004 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> ((- Abdul Qadeer Khan )) 1987 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_120 false 1 ------ In Dubai, Sri Lankan businessman Mohamed Farouqand and German engineer Heinz Mebus meet with as many as three Iranian officials, presenting them with an offer to sell Iran the expertise and materials needed to develop a nuclear weapons program. Both Farouqand and Mebus are connected to Abdul Qadeer Khan, the head of Pakistan's nuclear program who also operates a network of nuclear manufacturers and suppliers located in more than 30 countries. According to two Western diplomats interviewed by the Washington Post in 2005, the offer lays out a five-step plan which would begin with the provision of technical drawings for Pakistani centrifuges. In phase two of the plan, the network would supply Iran with a starter kit of one or two centrifuges. This would be followed by the sale of as many as 2,000 centrifuges, which could then be used to enrich uranium. In the final phases of the plan, Iran would be provided with auxiliary items for the centrifuges and enrichment process as well as reconversion and casting equipment for building the core of a bomb. It is not known whether or not the Iranians accept this particular deal; however, at some point the Iranians do eventually obtain centrifuge parts from Khan (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_343 ]]). [[ | Washington Post, 2/27/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> ((- Abdul Qadeer Khan )) 1991 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1973 false 1 ------ The Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK), a militant Iranian opposition group, helps Saddam Hussein suppress the Shia uprisings in southern Iraq and the Kurdish uprisings in the north. (( Patterns of Global Terrorism 2002, 4/30/2003 )) ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) January 20, 1992 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_227 false 1 ------ The US Task Force on Terrorism and Unconventional Warfare of the House Republican Research Committee concludes that by the end of 1991 there was a &ldquo;98 percent certainty that Iran already had all [or virtually all] of the components required for two to three operational nuclear weapons [aerial bombs and SSM warheads] made with parts purchased in the ex-Soviet Muslim republics.&rdquo; Shai Feldman, director of Tel Aviv University's Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies, will say in 1998 that he &ldquo;didn't give these reports credibility at the time,&rdquo; and that it &ldquo;seemed like the kind of information that the Iranian opposition put out.&rdquo; He will also recall that at the time &ldquo;everybody said there was no evidence of a warhead transfer.&rdquo; [[,2360,652,168,446 | Jerusalem Post, 4/9/1998 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> April 1992 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1974 false 1 ------ Various cells of Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK), a militant Iranian opposition group, attack Iranian embassies and installations in 13 different countries. (( Patterns of Global Terrorism 2002, 4/30/2003 )) ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) 1993 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_441 false 1 ------ India and Iran sign a memorandum of understanding for a 2,670 kilometer pipeline that would transport natural gas from Iran's South Pars fields through 707 kilometers of Pakistani territory to India. The $3-5 billion pipeline would provide India with gas at half the cost of what it now pays. Though Pakistan would stand to earn $600-700 million a year from transit fees and would be permitted to purchase some of the gas for its own use, it is highly unlikely that the proposed pipeline will be constructed any time soon due to the poor relations between India and Pakistan. Furthermore, the pipeline would have to travel through Pakistan's Balochistan region over which Islamabad has only limited control. [[ | Asia Times, 10/15/2004 ]] [[ | Indo-Asian News Service, n.d. ]] [[ | Alexander's Oil and Gas Journal, 7/7/2000 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_iranIndiaPipeline >> << us_force_against_iran_oilAndGas >> << keyEvents >> August 1993 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_2002 false 1 ------ The National Council of Resistance, a front group for the Mujahedeen-e Khalq [MEK], elects Maryam Rajavi to serve as the interim president in Iran in the event that the mullahs are overthrown. She and her husband, Massoud, have headed the MEK since 1985. [[ | Iran-e Azad website, 6/10/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) ((+ Maryam Rajavi )) 1994 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_595 false 1 ------ Iran and India begin negotiations on the proposed Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline (See [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_441 ]]). But due to persistent tension between Pakistan and India, little progress is made. [[ | Economic Times, 10/24/2004 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_iranIndiaPipeline >> 1994 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_337 false 1 ------ Referring to UN headquarters in New York City, John Bolton says: &ldquo;The Secretariat building in New York has 38 stories. If it lost 10 stories, it wouldn't make a bit of difference.&rdquo; [[ | USA Today, 3/7/2005 ]] ====== ((+ John R. Bolton )) 1994 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_188 false 1 ------ Abdul Qadeer Khan sells uranium enrichment equipment to Iran for $3 million in cash. Sri Lankan businessman Bukhary Syed Abu Tahir, Khan's key associate, arranges for two containers containing used centrifuge units to be delivered from Pakistan to Iran via an Iranian-owned merchant ship. [[ | Washington Times, 9/9/2004 ]] [[,2933,111980,00.html | Associated Press, 2/20/2004 ]] [[ | BBC, 2/12/2004 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> ((- Abdul Qadeer Khan )) ((+ Buhary Syed Abu Tahir )) March 15, 1995 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_487 false 1 ------ US President Bill Clinton issues Executive Order 12957 imposing strict oil and trade sanctions on Iran. US companies and their foreign subsidiaries are hence prohibited from entering into any contract &ldquo;for the financing of the development of petroleum resources located in Iran.&rdquo; [[ | BBC, 3/17/2000 ]] [[ | Energy Information Administration, 8/2004 ]] [[ | Source: Executive Order 12957 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_WesternBusiness >> May 6, 1995 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_501 false 1 ------ US President Bill Clinton issues Executive Order 12959 prohibiting US businesses from engaging in virtually all trade with Iran except for information and informational materials. Corporate criminal penalties for violations of the Iranian Transactions Regulations range up to $500,000, with individual penalties of up to $250,000 and 10 years in jail. [[ | Source: Executive Order 12959 ]] [[ | US Department of the Treasury, 8/22/1996 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_WesternBusiness >> 1996 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_354 false 1 ------ The &ldquo;Shanghai Five&rdquo; is formed in Shanghai with China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan as its founding members. Its purpose is to resolve old Soviet-Chinese border disputes between the countries and ease military tension in the border regions. An agreement titled &ldquo;Treaty on Deepening Military Trust in Border Regions&rdquo; is signed at this time. The five members are said to be bound together by mutual distrust of US hegemony in the region. [[ | Global Security, 4/27/2005 ]] [[ | BBC, 6/21/2001 ]] [[ | Jane's Intelligence, 7/19/2001 ]] ====== ((+ Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) )) August 12, 1996 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_331 false 1 ------ Turkey signs a $23 billion deal with Iran, agreeing to buy up to 350 million cubic feet per day (mmcf/d) of Iranian liquefied natural gas (LNG). The deal is met with criticism by the United States, which wants to isolate Iran. Turkey's demand for natural gas is expected to quintuple by 2010 to 2.9 billion cubic feet per year (Bcf/d). Under the terms of the agreement, Iran will supply Turkey with three billion cubic meters of gas a year, increasing to 10 billion cubic meters (353 billion cubic feet) by 2007. [[ | Energy Information Administration, 2/1997 ]] [[,2,7;journal,49,76;linkingpublicationresults,1:102442,1 | Taylor & Francis Group, 10/1/2001 ]] [[ | BBC, 7/30/2001 ]] ====== 1997 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1975 false 1 ------ The US State Department includes the Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK), a militant Iranian opposition group, in its list of foreign terrorist organizations. [[ | Newsweek, 9/26/2002 ]] [[ | US State Department, 2003 ]] [[ | White House, 9/12/2002 ]] ------ MEK, which in English means, &#8220;People's Holy Warriors,&#8221; [[ | Christian Science Monitor, 7/29/2004 ]] ------ is later described by its former members as a cult. Its husband-and-wife leaders, Massoud and Maryam Rajavi, exercise absolute control over the group's rank-and-file, requiring that members worship them and practice Mao-style self-denunciations. Many of the MEK's members are tricked into joining the group. For example, the parents of Roshan Amini will tell the Christian Science Monitor in 2003 that their son joined because he had been told he would be able to complete two school grades in one year and earn a place in college. But after joining, Amini was not permitted to leave. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 12/5/2004 ]] [[ | Christian Science Monitor, 12/31/2003 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Maryam Rajavi )) ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) ((+ Massoud Rajavi )) February 17, 1998 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_168 false 1 ------ Richard Falkenrath, Executive Director of the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government, speaks at the Washington Institute's Policy Forum on the issue of Iran and weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Falkenrath argues that Iran &ldquo;poses a greater long- term threat to US interests in the Persian Gulf,&rdquo; asserting that it possesses significant quantities of chemical weapons, is developing and has small stocks of biological weapons, and intends to &ldquo;produce medium-range ballistic missiles capable of reaching Israel and beyond.&rdquo; The US should be concerned, he says, because a WMD-armed Iran would allow it to &ldquo;deter the United States, disrupt US-led coalitions, and foment regional instability and arms races.&rdquo; He recommends that the EU end its unconditional political and commercial ties with Iran, and work with the US and other allies to develop a new policy toward Iran and states like Russia that have been supplying Iran with nuclear materials. He also stresses that &ldquo;US allies should enhance their ability to participate in US-led military operations against WMD-armed adversaries.&rdquo; [[,2360,652,168,423 | Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs, 6/8/1998 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_thinkTanks >> << keyEvents >> April 9, 1998 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_167 false 1 ------ The Jerusalem Post reports that Israel obtained a collection of Iranian documents containing correspondences between Iranian government officials and leaders of the Revolutionary Guards discussing efforts to secure nuclear warheads from former Soviet republics. According to the Jerusalem Post, &ldquo;US congressional experts&rdquo; determined the papers were authentic. But a senior Israeli source who is quoted in the paper says, &ldquo;At this point, we can't say for certain whether these are genuine. But they look awfully real.&rdquo; The article does not provide information about when precisely the documents were found, though a US government consultant is quoted saying that Israel has &ldquo;had them for years.&rdquo; [[,2360,652,168,446 | Jerusalem Post, 4/9/1998 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_israel >> November 16, 1998 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_197 false 1 ------ President Clinton submits his biannual report to Congress on the &ldquo;National Emergency with respect to Iran&rdquo; that was declared in Executive Order 12170 (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_198 ]]). The report, required under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, states that Iran is not in full compliance with the Algiers Accords (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_196 ]]) which require Iran to maintain a certain amount of funds in a special security account for the purpose of honoring claims made against Iran by US claimants. [[ | President Clinton's Report to Congress, 11/16/1998 ]] ====== 1999 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_467 false 1 ------ Mark Burles authors a report for the RAND Corporation on the subject of recent Chinese policy toward Russia and Central Asia. The report notes that while &ldquo;China's relationships with the countries of Central Asia do not carry the same potential threat to US interests as its relationship with Russia does,&rdquo; China's support &ldquo;for the extension of pipeline routes from Central Asia through Iran [does have]the potential to generate conflict between Beijing and Washington.&rdquo; Burles says China's &ldquo;pledge to help construct a pipeline from Kazakhstan to the Kazakh-Turkmen border, with the goal of eventually extending through to an Iranian port ... would run counter to the current US policy of denying Iran access to Central Asian oil.&rdquo; [[ | Rand Corporation, 1999 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_thinkTanks >> << us_force_against_iran_geopolitics >> April 1999 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1976 false 1 ------ The Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK), a militant Iranian opposition group, assassinates the deputy chief of the Iranian Armed Forces General Staff. (( Patterns of Global Terrorism 2002, 4/30/2003 )) ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) Early 2000 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1977 false 1 ------ US Immigration and Naturalization Services (INS) agents arrest Mahnaz Samadi, a leading spokeswoman for the National Council of Resistance, at the Canadian border because several years earlier, when she was seeking political asylum in the US, she had not disclosed her past &#8220;terrorist&#8221; ties as an MEK &#8220;military commander&#8221; or the fact that she had trained in an MEK camp that was located in Iraq. Hearing about the case from his constituents, Missouri Senator John Ashcroft comes to the rescue and writes a letter on May 10, 2000 to Attorney General Janet Reno opposing Samadi's arrest. In his letter, he calls her a &#8220;highly regarded human-rights activist.&#8221; [[ | Slate, 3/21/2003 ]] [[ | Newsweek, 9/26/2002 ]] [[ | US State Department, 2003 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> << keyEvents >> ((+ John Ashcroft )) ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) ((+ Mahnaz Samadi )) 2000-2001 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1978 false 1 ------ As part of &#8220;Operation Great Bahman,&#8221; the Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK), a militant Iranian opposition group, conducts mortar attacks and hit-and-run raids on Iranian military and law-enforcement units and government buildings near Iran's border with Iraq. (( Patterns of Global Terrorism 2002, 4/30/2003 )) ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) February 2000 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1979 false 1 ------ The Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK), a militant Iranian opposition group, launches a mortar attack against the leadership complex in Tehran where the offices of the Supreme Leader and the president are located. (( Patterns of Global Terrorism 2002, 4/30/2003 )) ====== ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) April 2000 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1980 false 1 ------ The Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK), a militant Iranian opposition group, attempts to assassinate the commander of Nasr headquarters in Tehran, Iran's interagency board responsible for coordinating policies on Iraq. (( Patterns of Global Terrorism 2002, 4/30/2003 )) ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) September 2000 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1981 false 1 ------ When the Iranian National Council of Resistance, a front group for the militant Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK), holds a demonstration outside the United Nations protesting a speech by Iranian President Mohammed Khatami, Republican Senators Ashcroft and Chris Bond from Missouri issue a joint statement expressing solidarity with the organization. [[ | US State Department, 2003 ]] [[ | Newsweek, 9/26/2002 ]] [[ | Slate, 3/21/2003 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Chris Bond )) ((+ John Ashcroft )) ((+ National Council of Resistance )) ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) October 2000 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_208 false 1 ------ The Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK) claims responsibility for mortar attacks against two separate headquarters of Iran's elite Revolutionary Guards in Tehran. The attacks are described by Iranian television as an &ldquo;indiscriminate act of terrorism.&rdquo; [[ | BBC, 10/22/2000 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) 2001 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_512 false 1 ------ Illegal arms dealers sell 12 Soviet Kh55 (X-55) cruise missiles to Iran and six to China. The missiles, with a range of 1550 miles, would give Iran the capability to strike Israel. The missiles, designed to carry nuclear warheads, were manufactured in 1987 with a reported service life of eight years. [[ | GlobalSecurity, n.d. ]] [[ | The Daily Star, 3/18/2005 ]] [[ | BBC, 3/18/2005 ]] [[ | Itar Tass News, 3/18/2005 ]] [[ | Financial Times, 3/18/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> July 18, 2001 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_465 false 1 ------ Ariel Cohen of the Heritage Foundation authors a report warning that recent agreements between Russia and China demonstrate that the two countries are &ldquo;positioning themselves to define the rules under which the United States, the European Union, Iran, and Turkey will be allowed to participate in the strategically important Central Asian region.&rdquo; --- Good Neighborliness, Friendship and Cooperation Treaty --- The treaty, signed two days before, includes a commitment to pursue &ldquo;[j]oint actions to offset a perceived US hegemonism.&rdquo; Cohen says the treaty &ldquo;should signal to the Western world that a major geopolitical shift may be taking place in the Eurasian balance of power.&rdquo; --- Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) --- Cohen says the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), created on June 14 (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_356 ]]), and consisting of Russia, China, and the Central Asian States of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, could undermine US influence in Central Asia. --- Military partnership --- Cohen warns that the two counties are interested in boosting &ldquo;each other's military potential as well as that of other countries that pursue anti-American foreign policies.&rdquo; They could encourage the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in order to &ldquo;force the United States to spread its resources thinly to deal with evolving crises in different regions simultaneously.&rdquo; --- Russian and Chinese economic cooperation --- There are &ldquo;numerous projects for developing free economic zones along the Chinese-Russian border and an international port in the mouth of the Tumannaya river (Tumangan)...,.&rdquo; The Russian and Chinese also plan to &ldquo;cooperate in developing a network of railroads and pipelines in Central Asia, building a pan-Asian transportation corridor (the Silk Road) from the Far East to Europe and the Middle East.&rdquo; --- Cohen's conclusion --- Cohen urges US policy makers to &ldquo;examine the changing geostrategic reality and take steps to ensure that US security and national interests are not at risk.&rdquo; [[ | Heritage Foundation, 7/18/2001 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << us_force_against_iran_thinkTanks >> << us_force_against_iran_geopolitics >> ((+ Ariel Cohen )) ((+ Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) )) July 26, 2001 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_376 false 1 ------ Despite a history of technical problems, the National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) and the Turkish oil and gas company, Botas, open a 2,577 km pipeline gas pipeline from the northeastern city of Tabriz to Ankara. Iran becomes Turkey's largest supplier of natural gas. Under the terms of the 1996 agreement (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_331 ]]), Iran will supply Turkey with three billion cubic meters of gas a year, increasing to 10 billion cubic meters (353 billion cubic feet) by 2007. [[ | BBC, 7/30/2001 ]] [[ | AME Info FZ LLC, 2/9/2005 ]] [[ | AME Info FZ LLC, 10/2002 ]] [[ | Energy Information Administration, 12/2001 ]] ====== November 2, 2001 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_262 false 1 ------ The British government adds 25 groups to its list of organizations whose assets it wants to freeze as part of the fight against terrorism. The list includes the Mujahedeen-e Khalq Organization (MEK), but not the National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI), an organization that is later tied to MEK and included on the US list of terrorist organizations in August 2004 (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_45 ]]). [[ | BBC, 11/2/2001 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) November 20, 2001 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_434 false 1 ------ The Wall Street Journal publishes an op-ed piece by Eliot Cohen advocating the overthrow of the mullahs in Iran. Cohen writes: &ldquo;First, if one front in this war is the contest for free and moderate governance in the Muslim world, the US should throw its weight behind pro-Western and anticlerical forces there. The immediate choice lies before the US government in regard to Iran. We can either make tactical accommodations with the regime there in return for modest (or illusory) sharing of intelligence, reduced support for some terrorist groups and the like, or do everything in our power to support a civil society that loathes the mullahs and yearns to overturn their rule. It will be wise, moral and unpopular (among some of our allies) to choose the latter course. The overthrow of the first theocratic revolutionary Muslim state and its replacement by a moderate or secular government, however, would be no less important a victory in this war than the annihilation of bin Laden.&rdquo; [[ | Wall Street Journal, 11/20/2001 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << us_force_against_iran_neocons >> ((+ Eliot A. Cohen )) December 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_670 false 1 ------ The Bush administration sends two Defense officials, Harold Rhode and Larry Franklin, to meet with Iranians in Rome in response to an Iranian government offer to provide information relevant to the war on terrorism. The offer had been back-channeled by the Iranians to the White House through Manucher Ghorbanifar, an Iranian arms trader and a central person in the Iran-Contra affair, who contacted another Iran-Contra figure, Michael Ledeen of the American Enterprise Institute. Ledeen passed the information on to his friends in the Defense Department who then relayed the offer to National Security Adviser Stephen Hadley. Hadley expressed no reservations about the proposed meeting and informed George J. Tenet, the director of the CIA, and Deputy Secretary of State Richard L. Armitage. According to officials interviewed by the New York Times, the United States Embassy in Rome was not notified of the planned meeting as required by standard interagency procedures. Neither the US embassy nor CIA station chief in Rome learn of the three-day meeting, apparently attended by both Ghorbanifar and Ledeen, until after it happens. When they do catch wind of the meeting, they notify CIA and State Department headquarters in Washington which complain to the administration about how the meetings had been arranged. [[ | Newsday, 8/9/03 ]] [[ | Washington Post, 8/9/03 ]] [[ | New York Times, 12/7/2003 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_thinkTanks >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Larry Franklin )) ((+ George Tenet )) ((+ Stephen Hadley )) ((+ Michael Ledeen )) ((+ Manucher Ghorbanifar )) ((+ Harold Rhode )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) (2002 and after) 2002 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_531 false 1 ------ In Los Angeles, local CIA and FBI stations increase efforts to obtain intelligence from the local Iranian exile community. According to officials, Iranian businessmen and expatriates who travel frequently between the States and Iran are viewed as potential sources of intelligence on Iran's internal opposition and the country's nuclear program. Iranian-Americans interviewed by the Los Angeles Times in 2005 will acknowledge having supplied the CIA and FBI with information. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 3/20/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_USIntelIran >> January 19, 2002 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_241 false 1 ------ George Melloan, a deputy editor of the Wall Street Journal editorial page, calls on the Bush administration to adopt a hardline policy toward Iran. &ldquo;Mr. Bush has already advised the clerics to butt out of Afghanistan. Next will come attention to Iran's support of terrorism. It will need to start with a demand that Iran, the PLO and Hezbollah recognize Israel's right to exist or accept the consequences of refusal.&rdquo; [[ | Wall Street Journal, 1/19/2002 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << us_force_against_iran_neocons >> February 8, 2002 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_436 false 1 ------ Israeli Defense Minister Benjamin Ben-Eliezer meets with US Vice President Dick Cheney and tells him that Israel is concerned that Iran, which Israel believes will have nuclear weapons by 2005, represents a greater threat to Israel than Iraq. &ldquo;The danger, as I see it, is from a Hezbollah-Iran-Palestinian triangle, with Iran leading this triangle and putting together a coalition of terror,&rdquo; he tells Cheney. [[ | Ha'aretz, 2/9/2002 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_israel >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Richard ("Dick") Cheney )) February 9, 2002 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_437 false 1 ------ Prime Minister Ariel Sharon meets with President George W. Bush. According to the Ha'aretz Daily, the goal of the meeting is to &ldquo;convince the United States that Iran constitutes a strategic threat to Israel.&rdquo; [[ | Ha'aretz, 2/9/2002 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << us_force_against_iran_israel >> ((+ George W. Bush )) February 18, 2002 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_162 false 1 ------ Reuel Marc Gerecht, a resident fellow at the American Enterprise Institute, calls on the Bush administration to adopt an aggressive policy awards Iran. He says the US must make it clear that it &ldquo;favors real popular government in Iran.&rdquo; There are &ldquo;only two meaningful options,&rdquo; he writes, &ldquo;confront clerical Iran and its proxies militarily or ring it with an oil embargo.&rdquo; Gerecht clearly opposes any sort of dialog with Iran's government. &ldquo;If Washington wants to dissuade and punish the clerical regime, it will have to use force, the only currency the clerics truly respect.... Starting at the periphery of the Iranian world&mdash;Lebanon and possibly Afghanistan&mdash;probably makes the most tactical and strategic sense. Lebanon, in particular, offers the United States the option of hitting three targets&mdash;Hezbollah, the clerics, and the Assad regime&mdash;at once. However, if al-Qaeda's liaison with Iran is active, then Washington should probably take the gloves off and hit the clerical regime with enormous force.&rdquo; As a start, the US should tell Iran to halt its flights to Damascus, which &ldquo;supply Hezbollah in Lebanon&rdquo; with arms. Some of the arms are then routed to &ldquo;Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank,&rdquo; he says. They should also be warned that &ldquo;any aircraft suspected of carrying military materiel will be forcibly diverted to Israel, shot down, or destroyed on the tarmac.&rdquo; [[,filter./news_detail.asp | The Weekly Standard, 2/18/2002 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_neocons >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Reuel Marc Gerecht )) March, 2002 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_48 false 1 ------ The conservative National Review publishes an op-ed article by Sam Dealy titled &ldquo;A Very, Very Bad Bunch,&rdquo; commenting on the Iranian opposition group known as People's Mujahedeen of Iran (MEK) and &ldquo;its surprising American friends.&rdquo; Dealy's piece is an attack on Congresspersons who support the MEK despite the exile group's past history of anti-Americanism (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1968 ]] and [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1970 ]]). &ldquo;How has a terrorist group managed to win the support of mainstream US politicians?&rdquo; he asks. &ldquo;Simple: Its political representatives in the US have worked hard to repackage the group as a legitimate dissident organization fighting for democracy in Iran&mdash;by whitewashing its record and duping our leaders.&rdquo; Dealy emphasizes that the group's initial ideological underpinning had been influenced by the likes of Marx, Ho Chi Minh, and Che Guevara, whose ideas the MEK attempted to apply to Shiite society. [[ | National Review Online, 3/25/2002 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) June 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_81 false 1 ------ In Paris, Defense Department officials (including either Harold Rhode or Larry Franklin) meet with Iranian officials and Manucher Ghorbanifar, an Iranian arms trader who had been a central figure in the Iran-Contra affair. The meeting reportedly resulted from &ldquo;an unplanned, unscheduled encounter,&rdquo; that took place without White House approval. An earlier meeting involving several of the same figures had taken place seven months earlier (See [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_670 ]]). [[ | Washington Post, 8/9/03 ]] [[ | New York Times, 12/7/2003 ]] ------ When Secretary of State Colin Powell learns of the meeting, he complains directly to Condoleezza Rice and the office of Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld. [[ | Newsday, 8/9/03 ]] [[ | Washington Post, 8/9/03 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> ((+ Harold Rhode )) ((+ Larry Franklin )) ((+ Michael Ledeen )) ((+ Manucher Ghorbanifar )) ((+ Colin Powell )) July 9, 2002 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_439 false 1 ------ Iran's Deputy Foreign Minister for Economic Affairs Hussein Adeli says during a press conference that Iran has begun feasibility studies on exporting Iranian gas to India (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_441 ]]) and is considering the possibility of transporting gas to Europe via a pipeline. He says that the Iranian government is also looking into the possibility of exporting gas to members of the Persian Gulf Cooperation Council (PGCC) and is also considering selling gas to Armenia, the south Caucasus, and the Republic of Azerbaijan. [[ | Tehran Times, 7/9/2002 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_iranIndiaPipeline >> << us_force_against_iran_oilAndGas >> << us_force_against_iran_geopolitics >> August 2002 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_584 false 1 ------ Alireza Jafarzadeh, a spokesman for the National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI), supplies the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) with information about two hidden sites in Iran&mdash;an underground uranium enrichment at Natanz and a heavy-water production plant at Arak. Iran will later declare both sites to the UN International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). [[ | Reuters, 3/24/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> August 28, 2002 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_249 false 1 ------ German authorities seize a boat in the port of Hamburg containing a shipment of rubber parts&mdash;allegedly bound for Iran&mdash;that could be used to make tracks for tanks and US-made M-113 armored personnel carriers. The seized boat, the Zim Anvers, is owned by the Zim-American Israeli Shipping Company. An Israeli company, PAD, headed by Avihai Weinstein, 34, had been issued a German export license for the shipment. The license specifies Thailand as its final destination, but according to German customs, the shipment is really destined for Iran. According to the Israeli daily Yediot Aharonot, it was to be transferred in Hamburg to an Iranian cargo ship headed to the southern Iranian port of Bandar Abbas. Weinstein claims he had no knowledge of the shipment's actual destination. Raphael Eitan, an adviser on terrorism for several Israeli governments between 1978 and 1985, tells public radio the next day that it would have been impossible for Weinstein &ldquo;not to know what the final destination of the shipment was.&rdquo; &ldquo;In this type of affair, there is no innocent contract. He knew the shipment was headed to Iran,&rdquo; he says. Tehran denies any involvement with the boat. [[ | Agence France Presse, 8/29/2002 ]] ====== ((+ Zim-American Israeli Shipping Co. )) October 2002 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_2004 false 1 ------ Representative Ileana Ros-Lehtinen of Florida circulates a letter in Congress that expresses support for the Mujahedeen-e Khalq [MEK]. At the same time, however, Republican Congressmen, Henry Hyde (R-Ill.) and Tom Lantos (D-Calif.), outspoken critics of Iran's government, circulate a dissident letter chastising Ros-Lehtinen for including partial and inaccurate information in her letter. &#8220;We are strong opponents of the current government of Iran but do not believe that it is necessary to use terrorism or make common cause ... [with] Saddam Hussein to change Iran's government,&#8221; they write. &#8220;Particularly in view of the fact that the MEK is based in Iraq, has taken part in operations against the Kurds and Shia, has been responsible for killing Americans in Iran, and has supported the takeover of the American Embassy in Tehran, we wanted you to have the full background on this organization as most recently reported by the Department of State, so that you may best decide whether to lend your name to this letter.&#8221; Ros-Lehtinen adds, &#8220;Some colleagues have signed similar letters in the past and then been embarrassed when confronted with accurate information about the MEK.&#8221; [[ | The Hill, 4/8/2003 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> << keyEvents >> << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> ((- Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) ((+ Ileana Ros-Lehtinen )) ((+ Henry Hyde )) November 2, 2002 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_664 false 1 ------ In an interview with the Times of London, Ariel Sharon says that Iran must be toppled after the US invades Iraq. Sharon calls Iraq &ldquo;a very, very dangerous country led by an insane regime&rdquo; and describes Iran as the &ldquo;center of world terror&rdquo; and a direct threat to Israel (see also [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_437 ]]). [[,,7-469593,00.html | The Times of London, 11/2/2002 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_israel >> December 12, 2002 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_608 false 1 ------ The Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS) releases a report saying that satellite photos indicate that Iran is constructing two nuclear facilities. The report says the first facility, near Arak, is a heavy-water production facility, which raises concerns that Iran might be constructing a nuclear reactor moderated by heavy water. Lending further suspicion to the purpose behind the heavy-water facility is the fact that the Russian-built Bushehr nuclear reactor does not use heavy water. Additionally, the ISIS reports, Iran's existing research reactors do not consume enough heavy water to warrant the need for a heavy-water plant. The report also says that Iran appears to be building a uranium enrichment plant, possibly using gas centrifuge technology, at a site called Natanz, 25 miles southeast of the city of Kashan. [[ | Nuclear Threat Initiative, 12/13/2002 ]] [[ | ISIS, 12/12/2002 ]] ------ The following day, Iran's UN Ambassador Javad Zarif tells CNN that his country is not developing nuclear weapons. &ldquo;No. Absolutely not,&rdquo; Zarif says in response to a question on whether Iran is developing a nuclear weapons program. &ldquo;Iran is a member of the [Nuclear] Nonproliferation Treaty. We have safeguard agreements with the IAEA. Nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction do not have a place in our defense doctrine. We have stated that clearly. And we have shown it.&rdquo; [[ | CNN, 12/13/2002 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> ((- Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) Late 2002 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_252 false 1 ------ Michael Ledeen joins with Morris Amitay, vice-president of the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs; ex-CIA head James Woolsey; former Reagan administration official Frank Gaffney; former senator Paul Simon; and oil consultant Rob Sobhani to set up a group called the Coalition for Democracy in Iran (CDI). [[ | The Sunday Herald, 6/1/2003 ]] ------ CDI says it &ldquo;fully agrees with President Bush's inclusion of Iran in the &lsquo;axis of evil&rsquo; and supports congressional initiatives to bring about needed change in Iran.&rdquo; [[ | Coalition for Democracy, 1/16/2004 ]] ------ The group has strong ties to Reza Pahlavi, the son of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the US-backed leader of Iran who was removed from power by the 1979 Iranian Revolution. [[ | International Herald Tribune, 6/6/2003 ]] ====== ((+ Michael Ledeen )) ((+ Frank Gaffney )) ((+ James Woolsey )) 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_396 false 1 ------ Trade between China and Iran increases by 50 percent. China is a major exporter of manufactured goods to Iran, including computer systems, household appliances, and automobiles. The growth of Chinese-Iranian trade has undermined the effectiveness of US sanctions against companies doing business with Iran, which the Bush administration claims is pursuing the development of nuclear weapons and has ties to terrorist organizations. &ldquo;Sanctions are not effective nowadays because we have many options in secondary markets, like China,&rdquo; Hossein Shariatmadari, a leading conservative Iranian theorist and editor of the Kayhan newspapers, will tell the Washington Post in 2005. [[ | Washington Post, 11/17/2004 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_WesternBusiness >> << us_force_against_iran_geopolitics >> January 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_362 false 1 ------ Russia is negotiating a long-term oil swap contract with the National Iranian Oil Co (NIOC). As part of the swap deal, Russia would send crude oil to Iran's northern refineries for domestic consumption via a chinese-built pipeline in exchange for an equal amount of Iranian oil being sent to Russia's buyers at Iran's Gulf oil terminals. The arrangement would make Russian oil available to non-European buyers at a competitive price by decreasing the cost of delivery. [[ | Asia Times, 2/11/2003 ]] ------ United Press International will note in 2005 that the swap agreements are &ldquo;a direct challenge to the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) Pipeline Project.&rdquo; [[ | United Press International, 6/29/2005 ]] ====== January 27, 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_594 false 1 ------ Iranian President Mohammad Khatami visits India to urge the construction of a multi-billion pipeline that would bring Iranian natural gas to the region. Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee says after meeting with President Khatami that &ldquo;Iran has gas and we want it.&rdquo; But Vajpayee adds, &ldquo;There are some impediments in the middle.&rdquo; [[ | BBC, 1/27/2003 ]] ------ The so-called &ldquo;peace pipeline&rdquo; would bypass unstable Afghanistan entirely. The pipeline would originate near the Iranian South Pars fields by the Persian Gulf; travel through Khuzdar and Multan, Pakistan; and terminate in Delhi. In Pakistan, one section would branch off and divert gas to Karachi on the Arabian Sea coast. [[ | Trade Environment Database (TED), 1/2001 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_iranIndiaPipeline >> February 17, 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_124 false 1 ------ Prime Minister Ariel Sharon tells a visiting delegation of American congressmen, joined by US Undersecretary of State John Bolton, that Iran, Libya and Syria should be stripped of weapons of mass destruction after Iraq. &ldquo;These are irresponsible states, which must be disarmed of weapons mass destruction, and a successful American move in Iraq as a model will make that easier to achieve,&rdquo; Sharon reportedly says. He says Israel considers Iran a security threat, and that the US should have plans for dealing with Iran. Sharon also says that Israel was not involved in the war with Iraq &ldquo;but the American action is of vital importance.&rdquo; [[ | Ha'aretz, 2/18/2003 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_israel >> ((+ John R. Bolton )) March 4, 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_413 false 1 ------ The Brookings Institution hosts the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) Pipeline Project Roundtable. The proposed pipeline would transport Caspian Sea oil 1000 miles from Azerbaijan, through Georgia, and to the Turkish Mediterranean port of Ceyhan. Delegates from each of the three countries and executives and consultants from British Petroleum attend the discussion. The US is a strong supporter of the pipeline project because it believes the pipeline will deny Iran leverage in the transportation of oil and gas from Central Asia and the Caspian Basin. [[ | Alexander's Gas & Oil, 11/27/2002 ]] [[ | Brookings Institution, 3/4/2003 ]] ====== April 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1984 false 1 ------ The US orders the bombing of Mujahedeen-e Khalq's (MEK) camps in Iraq. But the orders are called off after the MEK voluntarily disarms and negotiates a cease-fire agreement with US authorities. The MEK will be held in US custody at Camp Ashraf, located roughly 60 miles north of Baghdad, and its members will be screened for war crimes and terrorism. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 12/5/2004 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) April 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_113 false 1 ------ Britain's Daily Telegraph newspaper notes that with the construction of proposed US bases in Iraq, Iran would be surrounded. &ldquo;[T]heir proximity to Syria and Iran could help the US to apply added pressure on those countries,&rdquo; the paper says. &ldquo;With US troops also stationed in Afghanistan, Iran is now almost surrounded by American forces.&rdquo; [[ | Telegraph 4/21/03 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_geopolitics >> April 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_2003 false 1 ------ Representative Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (R-FL) defends her support for the Mujahedeen-e Khalq [MEK], a militant Iranian opposition group that has been included in the US State Department's list of foreign terrorist organizations since 1997 (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1975 ]]). &#8220;This group loves the United States&#8221; and they are &#8220;assisting us in the war on terrorism; they're pro-US,&#8221; she says. &#8220;This group has not been fighting against the US. It's simply not true.&#8221; Regarding the group's past history, which has included attacks against US citizens, collusion with Saddam Hussein, and terrorist attacks against Iran, she says that they are &#8220;past history,&#8221; asserting that they have &#8220;no bearing on what is going on right now in the field.&#8221; Ros-Lehtinen further says that there is &#8220;wide support&#8221; in Congress for the group and that the MEK will be &#8220;one of the leading groups in establishing secular government in Iran.&#8221; Ros-Lehtinen currently chairs the House International Relations committee's Central Asia and Middle East Subcommittee. [[ | The Hill, 4/8/2003 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> ((+ Ileana Ros-Lehtinen )) ((- Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) April 8, 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_2005 false 1 ------ In an article about Representative Ileana Ros-Lehtinen's support for the Mujahedeen-e Khalq [MEK] (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_2003 ]]), The Hill quotes Iran experts who dispute the notion that MEK's history of terrorism and collusion with Saddam Hussein is insignificant, as Ros-Lehtinen has argued. &#8220;I know about support on Capitol Hill for this group, and I think it's atrocious,&#8221; Dan Brumberg of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace tells The Hill. &#8220;I think it's due to total ignorance and political manipulation. ...There's not much debate [about the MEK] in the academic circles of those who know Iran and Iraq.&#8221; Similarly, Elahe Hicks of Human Rights Watch notes that &#8220;many, many Iranians resent&#8221; the MEK. &#8220;Because this group is so extremely resented inside Iran, the Iranian government actually benefits from having an opposition group like this.&#8221; And James Phillips of the Heritage Foundation, who is also interviewed by The Hill says: &#8220;When they sided with Iraq against Iran in the [1980-88] war, that was the kiss of death for their political future. Even Iranians who might have sympathized with them were enraged that they became the junior partner of their longstanding rival.&#8221; He adds that even though &#8220;Some of their representatives are very articulate, ... they are a terrorist group&#8221; and they have &#8220;a longstanding alliance with Saddam Hussein, and they have gone after some of the Kurds at the behest of Saddam Hussein.&#8221; [[ | The Hill, 4/8/2003 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> ((- Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) ((- Ileana Ros-Lehtinen )) April 30, 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1983 false 1 ------ The US Department of State releases its annual &#8220;Patterns of Global Terrorism&#8221; report. Included in its list of terrorist organizations is the Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK), an Iranian opposition group in Iraq that has offices in Washington, DC. The report notes that the MEK helped Saddam Hussein during Iraq's war with Iran and assisted the dictator in suppressing the Shia uprisings in southern Iraq and the Kurdish uprisings in the north after the first Gulf War. (( Patterns of Global Terrorism 2002, 4/30/2003 )) ------ During a press briefing that coincided with the release of the report, US Ambassador Cofer Black, Coordinator for Counterterrorism in the US State Department, is asked to explain why the US has permitted MEK to have an office in Washington. &#8220;The Secretary has recommended that the president determine that the laws that apply to countries that support terrorism no longer apply to Iraq,&#8221; Black explains. &#8220;The president's determination to provide greater flexibility in permitting certain types of trade with and assistance to Iraq; thus, we can treat Iraq like any other country not on the terrorist list.&#8221; He insists that the &#8220;United States Government does not negotiate with terrorists,&#8221; but contends that MEK &#8220;is a pretty special group&#8221; and that the US considers the agreement as a &#8220;prelude to the group's surrender.&#8221; [[ | US State Department, 2003 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Cofer Black )) ((- Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) May 6, 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_173 false 1 ------ The American Enterprise Institute (AEI) hosts &ldquo;The Future of Iran Mullahcracy, Democracy, and the War on Terror&rdquo; at Washington DC's Wohlstetter Conference Center. The forum, cosponsored by Hudson Institute and the Foundation for the Defense of Democracies, includes a discussion on &ldquo;What lies ahead for Iran?&rdquo; and &ldquo;What steps can the United States take to promote democratization and regime change in Iran?&rdquo; Noted moderators and panelists include: Meyrav Wurmser, The Hudson Institute; Uri Lubrani, Israeli Defense Ministry; US Senator Sam Brownback; Michael A. Ledeen and Reuel Marc Gerecht, both of the AEI; Bernard Lewis, Princeton University; and Morris Amitay of The Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs. [[,filter./event_detail.asp | American Enterprise website, n.d. ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_thinkTanks >> ((+ American Enterprise Institute )) ((+ Meyrav Wurmser )) ((+ Reuel Marc Gerecht )) ((+ Michael Ledeen )) May 19, 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_250 false 1 ------ Senator Sam Brownback (R-KS) introduces the Iran Democracy Bill (S. 1082) to encourage regime change in Iran. The bill would require the US to adopt a policy aimed at supporting &ldquo;an internationally-monitored referendum in Iran by which the Iranian people can peacefully change the system of government in Iran.&rdquo; It would also ensure that Radio Farda, a US-sponsored effort to improve the United States' image among Iranians, devotes &ldquo;a significant percentage of [its] programming ... to discussing democratic change in Iran including an internationally-monitored democratic referendum in Iran.&rdquo; [[ | Senator Brownback website, 5/19/2003 ]] [[ | US Congress, 5/19/2003 ]] ====== May 29, 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_490 false 1 ------ CNN reports that despite US government prohibitions (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_487 ]] and [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_501 ]]) banning US citizens and business from doing business with Iran, dozens of US companies are actively conducting business there, including Halliburton, ConocoPhillips and General Electric. The companies are using a complicated array of corporate loop-holes and off-shore accounts to maneuver around US laws. Michael Ledeen, interviewed by CNN, says these companies are aiding terrorism. &ldquo;The oil companies are a wholly owned subsidiary of the government...the government is the primary sponsor of terrorism,&rdquo; he says, additionally claiming that &ldquo;they have separate organizations that are used to funnel oil profits and other profits into the terror network.&rdquo; [[ | CNN, 2/10/2003 ]] [[ | CNN, 5/29/2003 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_WesternBusiness >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Michael Ledeen )) ((+ Halliburton, Inc. )) Summer 2003 June 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_261 false 1 ------ Humayun Khan (no relation to AQ Khan) of Pakistan e-mails Israeli electronics expert Asher Karni, who is living in South Africa, with a request to purchase 200 dual purpose US-manufactured triggered spark gaps. Such devices are typically used in high-tech medical machines to break up kidney stones, but they can also be used to detonate a nuclear weapon. Khan asks Karni not to reveal that the end destination is Pakistan. Karni responds a few days later, informing Khan that he cannot fulfill the order because the US government would require an expert license for the deal. &ldquo;I know it is difficult, but that's how we came to know each other,&rdquo; Khan replies. &ldquo; Please help to negotiate this from any other source.&rdquo; Nine hours later, Karni responds in another email: &ldquo;Will do.&rdquo; Karni places the order, indicating that the destination is Baragwanath Hospital in Soweto, South Africa. According to US special agent John McKenna, the emails are intercepted by an informant in South Africa who promptly forwards them to the US Commerce Department. [[ | Mother Jones, 5/2005 ]] [[ | PBS, 7/26/2005 ]] ====== June 23, 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_2007 false 1 ------ France's Secret Service raids the compound of the Iranian terrorist opposition group, Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK), an anti-Iranian group that has been on the US State Department's list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations since 1997. Among those arrested are husband-and-wife leaders Maryam and Massoud Rajavi. Following the arrests, nine MEK members across Europe set themselves on fire in protest. At least three of the protesters die. Critics claim that the self-immolations were ordered by MEK's leadership. [[ | New York Post, 6/17/2003 ]] [[ | BBC, 7/1/2003 ]] [[ | CNN, 6/22/2003 ]] [[ | Los Angeles Times, 12/5/2004 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) ((+ Maryam Rajavi )) ((+ Massoud Rajavi )) August 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_358 false 1 ------ Five of the six members of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) conduct their first ever military exercises together. Experts say the joint-maneuvers demonstrate how important the SCO is to China in its effort to counter the growing US military presence in Central Asia. Alex Vatanka, of the London based Jane's Intelligence, suggests the point of the exercises is to show the Central Asian states what China can offer as a partner that the US cannot. [[ | Radio Free Europe, 8/5/2003 ]] ====== ((+ Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) )) August 2, 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_499 false 1 ------ Hossein Khomeini, Ayatollah Khomeini's grandson, tells the Dutch Daily newspaper NRC Handelsblad that he would welcome a US intervention aimed at overthrowing the ruling mullahs. He says, &ldquo;If it is only America that can bring freedom to us, let them do so.&rdquo; [[ | NRC Handelsblad, 8/2/2003 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_oppositionGroups >> August 9, 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_257 false 1 ------ Newsday reports that according to a senior official and another source within the Bush administration, the &ldquo;ultimate objective&rdquo; of Undersecretary of Defense Douglas Feith and &ldquo;a group of neo-conservative civilians inside the Pentagon is change of government in Iran.&rdquo; The report says that the &ldquo;immediate objective appeared to be to &lsquo;antagonize Iran so that they get frustrated and then by their reactions harden US policy against them.&rsquo;&rdquo; It apparently is no secret within the administration, as Secretary of State Colin Powell has recently complained directly to the Defense Secretary, Donald Rumsfeld, about Feith's activities. [[ | Newsday, 8/9/03 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_planning >> << keyEvents >> << us_force_against_iran_neocons >> ((+ Douglas Feith )) August 15, 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_45 false 1 ------ On order of US Secretary of State Colin Powell, the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control freezes the financial assets of the National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI), which a State Department official says functions &ldquo;as a part of the MEK [Mujahedeen-e Khalq].&rdquo; Powell's order also calls for the closure of the organization's two offices in Washington. NCRI has hitherto enjoyed the support of several US legislators. [[ | Voice of America, 8/15/2003 ]] [[ | Associated Press, 8/15/2003 ]] ------ Powell's order amends Executive Order 13224 on terrorist financing [[ | US State Department, 8/15/2003 ]] ------ , issued on September 23, 2001, which blocked the assets of organizations and individuals that US authorities believe are linked to terrorism. [[ | US State Department, 12/20/2002 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) ((+ Colin Powell )) August 31, 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_195 false 1 ------ Iran claims to have arrested dozens of spies. &ldquo;The Intelligence Ministry has arrested several spies who were transferring Iran's nuclear secrets out of the country,&rdquo; Yunsei says. But he provides few details about the identities of those arrested, other than to say that members of the armed opposition group Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK) played prominently in the operation. [[ | Jerusalem Post, 8/31/03 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_oppositionGroups >> ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) September 12, 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_246 false 1 ------ Under pressure from the United States and European countries, the 35-member governing board of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) passes a strongly worded resolution requiring Iran to comply with a number of demands related to its nuclear program by October 31. The action is spurred in part by a recent discovery of traces of highly enriched, weapons-grade uranium at an Iranian nuclear facility. The resolution&mdash;sponsored by Australia, Canada, and Japan&mdash;states that Iran must suspend all uranium enrichment activities, submit a full declaration of all imported material for its uranium enrichment program, and grant IAEA inspectors unfettered access to all its facilities. Iran must also &ldquo;promptly and unconditionally&rdquo; agree to an additional protocol that would give IAEA inspections more access than currently required by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). [[ | London Telegraph, 9/13/2004 ]] [[,2933,97252,00.html | Fox News, 9/13/2003 ]] [[ | IAEA Resolution, 9/12/03 ]] [[ | China Daily, 9/13/2003 ]] ------ The US, which has long argued that Iran has a secret nuclear weapons program, said in a statement before the resolution was passed that it believed &ldquo;the facts already established by the agency about Iran's nuclear program would fully justify an immediate finding of non-compliance by Iran with its safeguards obligations.&rdquo; A finding of non-compliance would bring the issue before the UN Security Council, which could then levy sanctions on Iran. The other members of the board disagreed with the US position, instead arguing in favor of giving Iran &ldquo;a last chance.&rdquo; [[ | US Department of State, 9/12/2003 ]] [[,2933,97252,00.html | Fox News, 9/13/2003 ]] ------ After the passing of the resolution, the Iranian delegation storms out in protest. Iran's ambassador to the United Nations in Vienna, Ali Akbar Salehi, issues a veiled threat that Iran might withdraw from the NPT. &ldquo;We will have no choice but to have a deep review of our existing level and extent of engagement with the agency vis-a-vis this resolution,&rdquo; he says. He also states, &ldquo;It is no secret that the current US administration ... entertains the idea of invasion of yet another territory as they aim to re-engineer and reshape the entire Middle East region.&rdquo; [[,2933,97252,00.html | Fox News, 9/13/2003 ]] ------ In Washington, a US official tells Reuters, &ldquo;This time we hope there's not going to be a way to escape because this resolution is really tightening the noose on them.&rdquo; If Iran is declared in non-compliance, the official adds, &ldquo;Iran will forfeit its right to share nuclear technology for peaceful purposes&rdquo; and Russia will not be able to provide nuclear fuel for Iran's Bushehr nuclear plant. [[ | China Daily, 9/13/2003 ]] ====== September 26, 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_492 false 1 ------ American Enterprise Institute hosts Hossein Khomeini, grandson of the Ayatollah Rohallah Khomeini. Khomeini leads a discussion or Iran's future at the Wohlstetter Conference Center in Washington D.C. He is introduced by Michael Ledeen. [[,filter.all/event_detail.asp | American Enterprise Institute, 9/26/2003 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_oppositionGroups >> << us_force_against_iran_neocons >> ((+ Michael Ledeen )) October 24, 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_411 false 1 ------ Iran's foreign minister, Kamal Kharrazi, says in a statement that Iran would allow Iraq to export oil through Iranian terminals or to enter into an oil swap arrangement of up to 350,000 barrels a day. A swap deal would help Iraq finance its reconstruction by allowing the country to export its oil to Iran's refineries while Iran sells a comparable amount of Iranian crude oil on Iraq's behalf. Iran also offers to supply its neighbor with electricity and gas, and says it could also help Iraq secure up to $300 million in buyers' and suppliers' credits. [[ | Reuters, 10/24/2003 ]] ====== November 10, 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_301 false 1 ------ The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports that it has found &ldquo;no evidence&rdquo; Iran is trying to make nuclear weapons. But it says that because Iran has been secretive in the past it is not ruling out the possibility. The report, authored by IAEA chief Mohamed ElBaradei, says, &ldquo;To date there is no evidence that the previous undeclared nuclear material and activities ... were related to a nuclear weapons program.&rdquo; [[ | CNN, 11/10/2003 ]] ====== ((+ Mohamed ElBaradei )) November 12, 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_264 false 1 ------ John Bolton, speaking at a dinner for the right-wing publication American Spectator, calls the conclusions of a forthcoming IAEA report (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_301 ]]) on Iran's nuclear activities &ldquo;impossible to believe.&rdquo; The widely leaked report says inspectors have found no evidence that Tehran is developing nuclear weapons. Bolton insists that Iran's &ldquo;massive and covert ... effort to acquire sensitive nuclear capabilities make sense only as part of a nuclear weapons program.&rdquo; [[ | US Department of State, 11/12/2003 ]] ------ Responding to Bolton's remarks, IAEA's Director General Mohamed ElBaradei tells Time magazine, &ldquo;We are not in the business of judging intentions. What we look for are facts and proof, and so far we have no proof of a nuclear-weapons program. The jury is still out.&rdquo; [[ | Time Europe, 11/24/2003 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_israel >> ((+ Mohamed ElBaradei )) ((+ John R. Bolton )) December 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1986 false 1 ------ The US-appointed Iraq Governing Council orders the Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK) to leave Iraq by the end of year citing its &#8220;black history&#8221; in Iraq as a &#8220;terrorist organization,&#8221;&#8212;a reference to the militant organization's long history of working with Saddam Hussein (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1973 ]])(see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1986 ]]). But Pentagon officials do not want the MEK to leave Iraq, as they are considering plans to use the group against Iran. [[ | Christian Science Monitor, 12/31/2003 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> << keyEvents >> ((+ John Ashcroft )) ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) December 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_235 false 1 ------ In an interview with a Pakistani satellite channel, Abdul Qadeer Khan denies allegations that he was involved in selling nuclear secrets or equipment to Iran. &ldquo;I am being accused for nothing, I never visited Iran, I don't know any Iranian, nor do I know any Iranian scientist,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;I will be targeted naturally because I made the nuclear bomb, I made the missile.&rdquo; [[,2763,1135961,00.html | Guardian, 1/31/2004 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> ((- Abdul Qadeer Khan )) December 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_515 false 1 ------ Several Middle Eastern countries respond positively to Libya's pledge to end its weapons of mass destruction programs, including Iran. &ldquo;Iran welcomes any step taken by any country to dismantle weapons of mass destruction,&rdquo; says Iranian foreign ministry spokesman Hamid Reza Asefi. &ldquo;But it is the time for the world to push for Israel's disarmament, as the main threat to the region,&rdquo; he adds. Israel reportedly has more than 200 nuclear weapons. [[ | BBC, 8/23/2000 ]] [[ | BBC, 7/5/2000 ]] [[ | BBC, 10/21/2003 ]] [[ | Center for Nonproliferation Studies, 06/1998 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> << us_force_against_iran_israel >> December 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_425 false 1 ------ American Enterprise Institute's vice president, Danielle Pletka, says that guidelines set by Donald Rumsfeld in August restricting the Pentagon's communications with Iranian reformers have hindered analysts' efforts to collect important information. (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_412 ]]) &ldquo;I think information is a commodity we trade in freely in the United States,&rdquo; she says. &ldquo;The idea that informational meetings with Iranians should be off-limits to members of our government that deal with nonproliferation and national security seems to me to be foolish in the extreme.&rdquo; [[ | The New York Sun, 12/2/2003 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_neocons >> ((+ Danielle Pletka )) ((- Donald Rumsfeld )) December 19, 2003 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_562 false 1 ------ Michael Ledeen, in an op-ed piece published by the Wall Street Journal, makes numerous charges against the Iranian government saying it supports terrorism and is on the verge of developing a nuclear weapon. He asserts that the Bush administration must therefore act soon against Iran. He says Iran is the &ldquo;ultimate litmus test of the seriousness of the Bush administration&rdquo; and that the &ldquo;...[administration's] ability to conduct an effective campaign against the mullahs in Tehran will determine the outcome of the war against the terror masters.&rdquo; Ledeen asserts that the US does not need to invade Iran to &ldquo;liberate it,&rdquo; rather it only needs to support the &ldquo;enthusiastically pro-American&rdquo; people, as the US did the &ldquo;Serbs against Slobodan Milosovic, the Filipinos against the Marcoses, the Poles against Soviet Communism.&rdquo; [[ | Wall Street Journal, 12/19/2003 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_neocons >> ((+ Michael Ledeen )) 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_265 false 1 ------ General Electric does about $270 million in business in Iran through one of its foreign subsidiaries. The company has sold Iran hydroelectric equipment, medical equipment, and oil and gas equipment. Under current US law, companies are barred from doing business with nations that the US State Department has said are sponsors of terrorism. However the law does not prohibit a company's foreign subsidiaries from engaging in such business. [[ | Associated Press, 2/2/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_WesternBusiness >> 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_353 false 1 ------ Iran, despite being OPEC's second largest oil exporter, is forced to import a billion dollars worth of gasoline due to demand outstripping the country's limited refining capacity. &ldquo;We use 50 million liters of fuel each day, 10 percent more than just a year ago,&rdquo; Seyyed Reza Kasaizadeh, planning director for the national refining and distribution company NIORDC, tells the Persian daily Khorasan. Roughly a quarter of that amount is purchased by the government on the open market, and then sold to the public at the same subsidized price as domestically refined fuel&mdash;roughly 35 cents per gallon. [[ | Iran Daily, 12/12/2004 ]] ------ In addition to the subsidy program's actual costs, the program also represents &ldquo;a huge opportunity cost, because they could be selling that at world prices,&rdquo; Ben Faulks, an analyst for the London-based Economist Intelligence Unit, tells the Washington Post in mid-2005. Iran hopes that its nuclear energy program will solve this problem by reducing the country's industrial oil consumption needs. The country would then be able to sell more of its oil at market prices and substantially increase its revenue. [[ http:// | Washington Post, 7/4/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_oilAndGas >> << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> January 6, 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_494 false 1 ------ Hossein Khomeini, grandson of Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, returns to Iran on January 6, 2004. During 2003, he spent several months in Iraq and visited the US, speaking at the American Enterprise Institute (AEI) (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_492 ]]). Khomeini's return to Iran is a surprise to Michael Ledeen and the AEI. According to Ledeen, sources close to the Khomeini family suggest that he was lured back with a combination of threats and promises. Ledeen says that Khomeini's wife was recently visited by Iranian security agents who told her, &ldquo;If your children suddenly die in the streets, you must know that it was not our doing.&rdquo; [[,filter.all/pub_detail.asp | American Enterprise Institute, 1/26/2004 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_oppositionGroups >> ((+ Michael Ledeen )) ((+ Hossein Khomeini )) January 18, 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_377 false 1 ------ The Washington Times reports that an unpublished report by defense contractor Booz Allen Hamilton concludes that China is expanding its military and is &ldquo;building strategic relationships&rdquo; along sea lanes from the Middle East to Southern China &ldquo;in ways that suggest defensive and offensive positioning to protect China's energy interests, but also to serve broad security objectives.&rdquo; The paper, titled &ldquo;Energy Futures in Asia,&rdquo; was commissioned by Donald Rumsfeld. China intends to protect the sea lanes militarily, by strengthening its navy and developing undersea mines and a missile system. The report warns that these capabilities could be used &ldquo;to deter the potential disruption of its energy supplies from potential threats, including the US Navy, especially in the case of a conflict with Taiwan.&rdquo; Beijing is also developing strategic alliances with the states along the sea lanes in an effort to increase its influence in the region. [[ | Washington Times, 1/18/2005 ]] --- Pakistan --- Beijing is constructing a naval base at the Pakistani port of Gwadar and setting up electronic eavesdropping posts in the city which will monitor ship traffic through the Strait of Hormuz and the Arabian Sea. [[ | Washington Times, 1/18/2005 ]] --- Bangladesh --- China is developing closer ties to Bangladesh and building a container port facility at the city of Chittagong. [[ | Washington Times, 1/18/2005 ]] --- Burma --- China has established close relations with the military regime of Burma. It has provided Burma with &ldquo;billions of dollars in military assistance to support a de facto military alliance,&rdquo; is building naval bases there, and has already positioned electronic intelligence gathering facilities on islands in the Bay of Bengal and near the Strait of Malacca. Burma's location is of strategic importance to Beijing because of its close proximity to the Strait of Malacca, through which 80 percent of China's imported oil is shipped. [[ | Washington Times, 1/18/2005 ]] --- Cambodia --- In November 2003, China agreed to provide training and equipment to Cambodia's military. China and Cambodia are engaged in a joint effort to build a railway from southern China to the sea. [[ | Washington Times, 1/18/2005 ]] --- Thailand --- China may fund a $20 billion canal that would cut across the Kra Isthmus and allow ships to bypass the Strait of Malacca. [[ | Washington Times, 1/18/2005 ]] ====== January 24, 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_62 false 1 ------ Pentagon adviser Richard N. Perle speaks at a charity event whose stated purpose is to express &ldquo;solidarity with Iran&rdquo; and raise money for Iran earthquake victims. During the event, statements are made in support of &ldquo;regime change in Iran.&rdquo; The event is attended by FBI agents because of suspicions that the event has connections to the Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK), a militant Iranian opposition group that is included on the state department's list terrorist organizations. The US Treasury Department will freeze the assets of the event's prime organizer, the Iranian-American Community of Northern Virginia, two days later (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_2006 ]]). Perle tells the Washington Post that he was unaware of possible connections to MEK. [[ | Washington Post, 1/29/2004 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_neocons >> ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) ((+ Richard Perle )) January 26, 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_2006 false 1 ------ The US Treasury Department freezes the assets of the Iranian-American Community of Northern Virginia after the organization holds a fundraising event (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_62 ]]), the stated purpose of which was to provide support to earthquake victims. The FBI believes that some of the money raised was also meant to fund the Mujahedeen -e Khalq (MEK), a US-designated terrorist organization whose mission is to overthrow the government of Iran. [[;contentId=A58296-2004Jan28&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 1/29/2004 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_neocons >> ((+ US Department of the Treasury )) ((- Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) ((+ Iranian-American Community of Northern Virginia )) February 3, 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_300 false 1 ------ During a visit to Russia, US Undersecretary of State for Arms Control John Bolton tells the Russian daily Kyodo News that Iran is pursuing a secret nuclear weapons development program unbeknownst to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). [[ | Antiatom News, 2/3/2004 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> ((+ International Atomic Energy Agency )) ((+ John R. Bolton )) February 12, 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_221 false 1 ------ International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors say they have found designs for an advanced &ldquo;P-2&rdquo; centrifuge used to enrich uranium. The designs, which Iran should have declared to the IAEA, match drawings of enrichment equipment that were found in Libya and supplied by Pakistani nuclear scientist Abdul Qadeer Khan. [[,2933,111200,00.html | Associated Press, 2/12/2004 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> ((+ International Atomic Energy Agency )) ((- Abdul Qadeer Khan )) March 25, 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_357 false 1 ------ Asadollah Mikaeeli, the director of planning at National Iranian Oil Derivatives Refining and Distribution Company, announces that since 1982, Iran has doubled its oil refining capacity from 750,000 to 1.6 million barrels per day (mmpd). Notwithstanding, the country continues to import many petroleum products like gasoline and diesel, he says. [[ | Alexander's Gas and Oil Connections, 3/25/2004 ]] ====== April 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_651 false 1 ------ Ahmed Chalabi, a member of Iraq's governing council, meets with the Baghdad station chief for Iran's Ministry of Intelligence and Security and informs him that the US has broken the code used to encrypt Iran's intelligence communications. Chalabi says that he learned about the code-break from a drunk American official. A frantic exchange of communications takes place between the Iranian agent and Tehran concerning Chalabi's claim. The US intercepts and decodes all of them, revealing Chalabi's role. When the story is broken in the press, Chalabi denies having passed classified information to the Iranians. [[ | New York Times, 6/2/2004 ]] [[ | Newsweek, 5/10/2004 ]] [[ | News Insight, 6/9/2004 ]] [[ | CBS News, 6/3/2004 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> ((+ Ahmed Chalabi )) June 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_130 false 1 ------ The Guardian of London reports that Iran is preparing &ldquo;to launch an oil trading market for Middle East and OPEC producers.&rdquo; The Tehran oil bourse (French for &ldquo;purse&rdquo;; used to describe a financial transaction exchange system), to be opened in 2005, could give top oil producing nations in the region greater control of the oil trade, threatening the supremacy of world's current major oil market exchanges, the London IPE and New York's NYMEX. [[,,1239644,00.html | The Guardian, 6/16/2004 ]] [[ | Reuters, 5/15/2004 ]] ------ Some observers believe oil at the new exchange would likely be traded in Euros. &ldquo;From a purely economic and monetary perspective, a petroeuro system is a logical development given that the European Union imports more oil from OPEC producers than does the US, and the EU accounts for 45 percent of imports into the Middle East,&rdquo; notes the Center for Research on Globalization. [[ | Center for Research on Globalization, 10/27/2004 ]] ------ ====== << keyEvents >> << us_force_against_iran_financial >> June 24, 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_314 false 1 ------ John R. Bolton, under secretary of state for arms control, tells the House International Relations Committee Subcommittee on the Middle East and Central Asia that Iran is pursuing the development of nuclear weapons. &ldquo;[Iran's] activities [go] well beyond any conceivable peaceful nuclear program,&rdquo; he says, stating that no &ldquo;comparable oil-rich nation has ever engaged, or would be engaged, in this set of activities.&rdquo; He notes that Iran's uranium reserves account for less than one percent of its vast oil reserves and that its gas reserves are the second largest in the world. [[ | US Department of State, 6/24/2004 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << us_force_against_iran_neocons >> << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> ((+ John R. Bolton )) July 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_176 false 1 ------ Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld approves a top secret &ldquo;Interim Global Strike Alert Order&rdquo; directing the military to assume and maintain readiness to attack hostile countries that are developing weapons of mass destruction, specifically Iran and North Korea. ( see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_175 ]] ) The plan is revealed to be formally called CONPLAN 8022-02. The plans have contingency strategies for both a quick-action, highly choreographed strike on short notice against an enemy that is an imminent threat and also a more generic attack against an enemy's WMD infrastructure, possibly with the inclusion of earth-penetrating nuclear weapons. In concert with the military strike there would be coordinated disruption such as turning off the electricity, jamming and spoofing radars and communications, penetrating computer networks and garbling electronic commands. [[ | Washington Post, 5/15/2005 ]] ====== Mid-August 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_917 false 1 ------ Brig. Gen. Muhammad Baqer Zolqadr, Iran's deputy chief of the elite Revolutionary Guards, says in a statement that Iran would launch an immediate retaliation if Israel were to strike Iran's nuclear facilities &ldquo;If Israel fires a missile into the Bushehr nuclear power plant, it has to say goodbye forever to its Dimona nuclear facility, where it produces and stockpiles nuclear weapons,&rdquo; he says. [[ | UPI, 8/22/2004 ]] ====== July 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1989 false 1 ------ The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) publishes a 79-page report, titled &#8220;Iran: Time for a New Approach,&#8221; urging Washington to resume talks with Tehran. The study, co-chaired by Zbigniew Brzezinski, national security adviser under President Jimmy Carter (1977-1981), argues against the view&#8212;held by many prominent neoconservatives in Washington&#8212;that Iranians would welcome a US-led effort to change Iran's government. &#8220;Despite considerable political flux and popular dissatisfaction,&#8221; the report says, &#8220;Iran is not on the verge of another revolution. Those forces that are committed to preserving Iran's current system remain firmly in control.&#8221; Instead, it argues, Washington should resume bilateral talks with the government. The authors of the report also argue that the administration should discourage Israel from attacking Iran's nuclear facilities because of the &#8220;extremely adverse consequences&#8221; that such an action would have on Western relations with Iran and because it would likely provoke an Iranian retaliation against US positions in Iraq and Afghanistan. The report recommends a five-step process: (( Iran: Time for a New Approach )) [[ | Inter Press Service, 7/20/2004 ]] --- * --- The US should offer Tehran a &#8220;direct dialog on specific issues of regional stabilization.&#8221; [[ | Inter Press Service, 7/20/2004 ]] --- * --- The administration should work out an agreement with Iran on the status of al-Qaeda operatives being detained by Tehran and that of the militant Iranian exile group, Mujahedeen-e-Khalq which is currently being held in US custody in Iraq. Tehran would have to agree not to provide any support to groups seeking to violently oppose the governments in Iraq and Afghanistan. [[ | Inter Press Service, 7/20/2004 ]] --- * --- The administration should work with Europe and Russia to negotiate an agreement with Iran requiring it to permanently ban all enrichment-related and reprocessing activities. In exchange, The US should end its objections to an Iranian civil nuclear program. [[ | Inter Press Service, 7/20/2004 ]] --- * --- Washington should take a lead role in resolving the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians, which the report notes is &#8220;central to eventually stemming the tide of extremism in the region&#8221; [[ | Inter Press Service, 7/20/2004 ]] --- * --- The US should encourage an expansion of trade and relations between Iran and the wider world and support Iran's application to begin accession talks with the World Trade Organization (WTO). [[ | Inter Press Service, 7/20/2004 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_predictions >> << us_force_against_iran_policyPapers >> << keyEvents >> << us_force_against_iran_thinkTanks >> ((+ Zbigniew Brzezinski )) ((+ Council on Foreign Relations )) July 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1988 false 1 ------ After a 16-month review by the US State Department and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Bush administration says it has found no basis to charge any of the 3,800 Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK) fighters held in custody by the US at Camp Ashraf with violations of American law. The decision is made in spite of the group's long history of collusion with Saddam Hussein. MEK fought alongside Iraqi forces against Iran during the 1980s (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1986 ]]) and helped Saddam's internal security forces brutally put down the 1991 Shia uprisings (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1973 ]]). The organization was also responsible for a number of American deaths during the 1970s (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1968 ]]) and has been listed on the State Department's list of &#8220;foreign terrorist organizations&#8221; since 1997 (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1975 ]]). &#8220;A member of a terrorist organization is not necessarily a terrorist,&#8221; a senior American official explains. &#8220;To take action against somebody, you have to demonstrate that they have done something.&#8221; [[ | New York Times, 7/27/2004 ]] [[ | Christian Science Monitor, 7/29/2004 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) ((+ Bush administration )) July 16-17, 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_367 false 1 ------ The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) holds its summit in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. [[ | Central Asian Gateway Newsletter, 6/2004 ]] [[ | GlobalSecurity [.org] website, 7/4/2005 ]] ------ SCO members agree to form the Regional Antiterrorism Structure (RATS), a concept originally conceived in 2002 to encourage the exchange of information and to facilitate improved border coordination between members. [<a href="" target=_new>Shanghai Cooperation Organization website, 7/4/2005</a>] ------ Mongolia receives observer status at this summit, paving the way for future membership [[ | GlobalSecurity [.org] website, 7/4/2005 ]] ------ , and Pakistan, Indian, and Iran are considered for possible future membership (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_390 ]]). [[ | Harvard Asia Quarterly, Fall, 2002 ]] ====== July 21, 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1990 false 1 ------ Maj. Gen. Geoffrey D. Miller, the deputy commanding general in Iraq, says in a memorandum that the US has designated members of the Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK) as &#8220;protected persons.&#8221; According to the Fourth Geneva Convention, people who are designated as &#8220;protected&#8221; cannot be punished collectively or forced to leave an occupied country. The members were afforded the new status only after signing an agreement rejecting violence and terrorism, the memo says. [[ | New York Times, 7/27/2004 ]] [[ | Christian Science Monitor, 7/29/2004 ]] ------ The memorandum angers Tehran. &#8220;We already knew that America was not serious in fighting terrorism,&#8221; Iran's foreign ministry spokesman Hamid Reza Asefi says, adding that by affording MEK fighters the new status, the US has created a new category of &#8220;good terrorists.&#8221; &#8220;The American resort to the Geneva Conventions to support the terrorist hypocrites [MKO] is naive and unacceptable,&#8221; he says. ------ Despite the members' new status and despite having been cleared of any wrongdoing, the US military and the MEK leadership do not allow any of the group's members to leave Camp Ashraf. Several of the members say they were lured into joining the group with false promises and now want to return home to Iran. The MEK has been called cult-like (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1997 ]]) and its leadership compared to Stalin by former members of the group. [[ | Christian Science Monitor, 7/29/2004 ]] [[ | Christian Science Monitor, 12/31/2003 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) ((+ Geoffrey D. Miller )) July 22, 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_304 false 1 ------ The Senate approves Senate Concurrent Resolution 81 (S.Con.Res.81) calling on Iran to immediately and permanently halt all efforts to acquire nuclear fuel cycle capabilities, in particular uranium enrichment activities. [[ | S.Con.Res.81 ]] ------ The resolution, introduced by Senators Jon Kyl (R-Az) and Diane Feinstein (D-Ca)the year before [[ | Office of Senator Dianne Feinstein, 10/15/2003 ]] ------ , reminds Iran of its obligation under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) never to develop or acquire nuclear weapons, lists several areas of concern, and urges the European Union to take a tougher stance against the country. It also calls for Japan to halt development of Iran's Azadegan oil field, and France and Malaysia to withdraw their agreements with Iran to develop Iran's Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) fields. Additionally, it orders the suspension of all investment and investment-related activities that support Iran's energy industry. [[ | S.Con.Res.81 ]] ====== July 23, 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_160 false 1 ------ Danielle Pletka, vice president for foreign and defense policy studies at the American Enterprise Institute, authors the commentary &ldquo;The Hawks and the Doves Are Aflutter over US Iran Policy.&rdquo; Pletka provides a number of recommendations. &ldquo;The fact is, neither tough love nor tough talk will achieve results in Iran because [Iranian] government&mdash;not just the so-called hard-liners but the &lsquo;moderates&rsquo; and &lsquo;pragmatists&rsquo; as well&mdash;are committed to supporting terrorism, developing nuclear weapons and annihilating Israel... First, ... we must use the diplomatic and economic tools at our disposal to embarrass the regime for its abysmal human rights abuses, rally behind dissident student groups and unions and let them know that the US supports their desire for a secular democratic state in Iran. Second, the administration must persuade the European Union and the International Atomic Energy Agency to stand firm in their confrontation over Iran's nuclear programs... Finally, the US must lead in the containment of Iran. Iranian weapons imports and exports should be interdicted; financial transfers to terrorists must be identified and confiscated; terrorists traveling into and out of Iran should be aggressively pursued and eliminated. These steps would not deliver quick solutions, but they are the only rational course available to the US and its allies. We have seen that engagement with the current leadership of Iran would not achieve policy change; all it would do is buy an evil regime the time it needs to perfect its nuclear weapons and to build a network of terrorists to deliver them.&rdquo; [[,filter.all/news_detail.asp | American Enterprise Institute, 7/23/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_neocons >> ((+ Danielle Pletka )) August 17, 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_276 false 1 ------ Adam Ereli, the deputy spokesman at the State Department, says, &ldquo;Iran is engaged in a clandestine nuclear weapons program,&rdquo; Ereli adds that &ldquo;This program is a matter of concern to the international community.&rdquo; [[ | Associated Press, 8/17/2004 ]] ====== September 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_175 false 1 ------ The Shreveport Times, of Louisiana, interviews Lt. Gen. Bruce Carlson, commander of the 8th Air Force, who tells the newspaper that his fleet of B-2 and B-52 bombers are on alert to launch strikes anywhere in the world against enemy countries suspected of developing weapons of mass destruction. &ldquo;We're now at the point where we are essentially on alert,&rdquo; Carlson says, adding that his forces are the US Strategic Command's &ldquo;focal point for global strike&rdquo; (see also [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_176 ]]) and have the capability to execute an attack &ldquo;in half a day or less.&rdquo; [[ | Shreveport Times, 9/8/2004 ]] [[ | Washington Post, 5/15/2005 ]] ====== (Early September 2004) us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_643 false 1 ------ In a report to Congress, the Pentagon discloses its intention to sell 5,000 smart bombs to Israel. Included in the $319 million deal&mdash;to be financed by US aid money&mdash;are 500 one-ton bunker busters capable of penetrating two-meter-thick cement walls, 2,500 regular one-ton bombs, 1,000 half-ton bombs, and 500 quarter-ton bombs. According to the Pentagon, Israel needs these weapons to maintain its qualitative advantage and to promote US strategic and tactical interests. The sale is likely to go through despite Israel having used a one-ton bomb to assassinate a senior Hamas officer, Salah Shehadeh. Fifteen Palestinian civilians, including children, were killed in the internationally condemned attack. [[ | Ha'aretz, 9/21/2004 ]] ------ It is widely speculated that the weapons would be used by Israel in the event that it strikes against Iran's nuclear facilities; Israel and the US have alleged Iran is involved in the development of nuclear weapons. [[ | Seattle Post Intelligencer, 9/30/2004 ]] [[ | Christian Science Monitor, 9/24/2005 ]] [[ | Herald Tribune, 9/22/2004 ]] [[ | Ha'aretz, 9/26/2004 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << us_force_against_iran_planning >> << us_force_against_iran_israel >> September 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1987 false 1 ------ The Atlantic Monthly magazine commissions retired military officers, intelligence officials, and diplomats to participate in a war game scenario involving Iran. The three-hour war game deals &#8220;strictly with how an American President might respond, militarily or otherwise, to Iran's rapid progress toward developing nuclear weapons.&#8221; Its main objective is to simulate the decision-making process that would likely take place during a meeting of the &#8220;Principals Committee&#8221; in the event that Iran ignores the deadline set by the IAEA to meet its demands. Kenneth Pollack, of the Brookings Institution, and Reuel Marc Gerecht, of the American Enterprise Institute, both play the role of secretary of state&#8212;Pollack with a more Democratic perspective and Gerecht as more of a Republican. David Kay plays the CIA director and Kenneth Bacon, a chief Pentagon spokesman during the Clinton Administration, is the White House chief of staff. Sam Gardiner, a retired Air Force colonel, serves mostly as National Security Adviser, but plays other roles as well. He is also the person who designed the game. During the game, Israel's influence on the administration's Iran policy is highlighted, with Pollack noting at one point, &#8220;[I]n the absence of Israeli pressure how seriously would the United States be considering&#8221; the use of military force against Iran? One of the largest concerns raised, shared by all of the participants, is that a US attack on Iran would provoke the Iranians to interfere in Iraq. &#8220;[O]ne of the things we have going for us in Iraq, if I can use that term, is that the Iranians really have not made a major effort to thwart us ... If they wanted to make our lives rough in Iraq, they could make Iraq hell.&#8221; At the conclusion of the three-hour exercise, it is apparent that the players believe that the game's scenario offered the US no feasible options for using military force against Iran. [[ | Atlantic Monthly, 12/2004 ]] [[,3604,1392687,00.html | Guardian, 1/18/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_predictions >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Kenneth Pollack )) ((+ Sam Gardiner )) ((+ Reuel Marc Gerecht )) ((+ David Kay )) September 2, 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_302 false 1 ------ The International Atomic Energy Agency announces that weapons inspectors have found no evidence to support accusations that Iran is secretly developing a nuclear weapon. [[ | CNN, 9/2/2004 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> ((+ International Atomic Energy Agency )) September 24, 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_442 false 1 ------ Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Pakistan President Gen. Pervez Musharraf meet at the Roosevelt Inn in Manhattan for an India-Pakistan summit to discuss how relations between the two countries can be improved. During the discussions, they consider the possibility of the long proposed Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline project (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_441 ]]). &ldquo;Such a project could contribute to the welfare and prosperity of the people of both countries and should be considered in the larger context of expanding trade and economic relations between India and Pakistan,&rdquo; they say in a joint statement. [[ | Indo-Asian News Service, 9/24/2004 ]] [[ | Associated Press, 9/24/2004 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_iranIndiaPipeline >> September 25, 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_403 false 1 ------ Senator Barack Obama (D-Ill) says in an interview with the Chicago Daily Tribune that the US may one day need to use military force against Iran or Pakistan to prevent extremists from gaining control of nuclear weapons. He suggests that one possible scenario requiring the use force might be if Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf is overthrown in a coup and extremists take over. Military force may also be necessary if negotiations with Iran fail, he says. &ldquo;I guess my instinct would be to err on not having those weapons in the possession of the ruling clerics of Iran. ... And I hope it doesn't get to that point,&rdquo; he says. [[,1,4555304.story | Chicago Daily Tribune, 9/25/2004 ]] ====== ((+ Barack Obama )) October 25, 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_864 false 1 ------ Vice President Dick Cheney says during a &ldquo;town hall meeting&rdquo; at Minnesota State University: &ldquo;They're already sitting on an awful lot of oil and gas. Nobody can figure why they need nuclear as well to generate energy.&rdquo; [[ | White House, 10/5/2004 ]] ------ The Washington Post later notes that &ldquo;Cheney, Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld and outgoing Deputy Secretary Paul Wolfowitz held key national security posts when the Ford administration made the opposite argument 30 years ago.&rdquo; (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_870 ]]) [[ | Washington Post, 3/27/2005 ]] ====== October 29, 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_381 false 1 ------ China and Iran negotiate a $70-$100 billion deal that gives China's state oil company a 51 percent stake in Iran's Yadavaran oil field, located near the Iraq border. The Yadavaran oil field, once thought to be two separate oil fields (Koushk and Hosseinieh), contains more than 3 billion barrels of recoverable oil and a total reserve of 17 billion barrels. [[ | Washington Post, 11/17/2004 ]] [[ | Chinese Daily, 11/8/2004 ]] ------ China agrees to purchase ten million tons of liquefied natural gas (LNG) annually for a 25-year period once Iran has constructed plants to liquefy the natural gas, a feat that could take more than five years. The amount could increase to as much as $200 billion if an oil deal, currently under negotiation, is also agreed upon by the two nations. [[ | Persian Journal, 10/31/2004 ]] ------ As part of the deal, Sinopec, China's state oil company, will have the right to exploit Iran's Yadavaran oil field, located near the Iraq border, on a buy-back basis in cooperation with another major international oil company. The Yadavaran oil field contains more than 3 billion barrels of exploitable reserves and comprises the Koushk and Hosseinieh oil fields, &ldquo;which were recently found to be connected at various layers, forming an oil field with a cumulative in-place reserve of 17 billion barrels,&rdquo; the Chinese Daily reports. [[ | Chinese Daily, 11/8/2004 ]] ------ Iran is estimated to have a 26.6-trillion-cubic-meter gas reservoir, the second-largest in the world. About half of its reserves are located offshore. Some observers suggest that the Iran-China agreement could establish a precedent that opens the way for other nations to do business with Iran. The US Iran-Libya Sanctions Act of 1996 (ILSA), which penalizes foreign companies for investing more than $20 million in Iran's oil and gas industry, has so far discouraged many companies from doing a large amount of business with the Islamic state. [[ | Asia Times, 11/6/2005 ]] ------ Additionally, the Iran-China deal dramatically reduces the Bush administration's leverage over Iran, as its threat to bring Iran to the UN Security Council over its nuclear program is greatly weakened by the fact that China, as a permanent member, holds a veto at the council. [[ | Washington Post, 11/17/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_oilAndGas >> << us_force_against_iran_geopolitics >> << keyEvents >> November 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_146 false 1 ------ The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) begins investigating a 1987 meeting (See also [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_120 ]]) where two associates of Abdul Qadeer Khan presented Iranian officials with an offer to sell Iran nuclear technology and materials . [[ | Washington Post, 2/27/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> ((+ International Atomic Energy Agency )) ((- Abdul Qadeer Khan )) November 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1991 false 1 ------ In Washington, 15,000 attend a rally supporting the Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK), a militant Iranian opposition group that has an office in the capital. Representative Bob Filner, a Democrat from San Diego, speaks at the demonstration and calls for the removal of MEK from the State Department's terrorist list. [[ | San Francisco Chronicle, 1/25/2005 ]] [[ | Los Angeles Times, 12/5/2004 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> ((- Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) ((+ Bob Filner )) November 22, 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_266 false 1 ------ Iran agrees to suspend nuclear enrichment activities at its Isfahan and Natanz nuclear plants. The deal was arranged by Britain, France, and Germany. Iran insists the facilities are for peaceful civilian use and are not capable of producing the quantity or quality of refined products needed for the development of nuclear weapons. [[ | BBC, 11/22/2004 ]] ====== November 24, 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_384 false 1 ------ Pakistani prime minister Shaukat Aziz meets with Indian Petroleum Minister Mani Shankar Aiyar in Delhi. Summarizing the meeting, Aiyar tells the press: &ldquo;We did repeat what we have said earlier about using Pakistan as [a] transit corridor [for sourcing gas from Iran] creating mutual dependency [and] ... we need to replicate such mutual dependency ... in the wider trade and economic relationship between the two countries.&rdquo; It has been reported that Washington is pressuring Pakistan not to enter into any sort of pipeline agreement with Iran. &ldquo;The project, if it materializes, would also foreclose whatever prospects remain of the revival of the trans-Afghan pipeline project, which many still see as a raison d'etre of the US intervention in Afghanistan,&rdquo; the Asian Times notes. [[ | Asia Times, 1/11/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_iranIndiaPipeline >> << keyEvents >> December 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_628 false 1 ------ Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld visits Kabul, Afghanistan. During his visit Afghan President Hamid Karzai consents to Washington's decision to establish nine more permanent military bases in the country. The bases, to be manned by 2,200 troops, will be constructed in Helmand, Herat, Nimrouz, Balkh, Khost and Paktia. In the provinces of Khost and Paktia, there will be two bases. [[ | News Insight, 3/5/2005 ]] ------ Observers note that Afghan President Hamid Karzai had little choice in the matter given that his government's continuing existence is dependent upon the private security forces provided by the US. [[ | Asia Times, 3/30/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_geopolitics >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) ((+ Hamid Karzai )) December 2, 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_550 false 1 ------ The New York Times reports that according to unnamed diplomats, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) believes that satellite photographs indicate Iran may be testing high explosives and that procurement records suggest Iran may have the equipment necessary for making bomb-grade uranium. [[ | Reuters, 12/2/2004 ]] ------ This information was reportedly provided by the National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI). [[ | BBC, 11/18/2004 ]] ------ UN diplomats tell Reuters that inspectors for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) would like to inspect Iranian military sites at Parchin, southeast of Tehran, and Lavizan II, in northeastern Tehran. However, the IAEA is not permitted to inspect those sites because it only has legal authority to visit sites where there are declared civilian nuclear programs. [[ | Reuters, 12/2/2004 ]] ------ Five buildings in Parchin will later be inspected by the IAEA in January 2005 (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_555 ]]). ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> << keyEvents >> December 8, 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_2008 false 1 ------ Knight Ridder reports that, according to US officials, congressional aides and other sources, Pentagon and White House officials &#8220;are developing plans to increase public criticism of Iran's human-rights record, offer stronger backing to exiles and other opponents of Iran's repressive theocratic government and collect better intelligence on Iran.&#8221; Additionally, the administration would like to withdrawal troops from Iraq so Bush would have &#8220;greater flexibility in dealing with Iran,&#8221; one official tells the newspaper. [[ | Knight Ridder, 12/8/2004 ]] ------ The news agency also says that the US is using the Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK) as a source for intelligence on Iran's weapons programs, even though the organization &ldquo;remains on the State Department's list of foreign terrorist groups.&rdquo; [[ | Knight Ridder Newspapers, 12/8/2004 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_planning >> << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) December 12, 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_183 false 1 ------ James Dobbins, director of the International Security and Defense Policy Center at the RAND Corporation, writes an analytical piece on the subject of engagement with Iran: &ldquo;Washington is not ready to join the Europeans in negotiating limits on Iran's program, nor is it willing to offer any incentives. Conversely, the United States cannot threaten Iran with political isolation or economic sanctions because America already has in place a comprehensive economic embargo and blackout on communication.&rdquo; Dobbins adds that &ldquo;America has refused to negotiate, to offer concessions or to join in multilateral economic and political arrangements that its European allies may negotiate.... [W]hile Europe offers carrots, Washington brandishes no sticks. Given American difficulties in Iraq, a military invasion of Iran is implausible. An aerial attack on known nuclear sites in Iran might slow that country's weapons program, but only at the cost of accelerated efforts at clandestine sites.... Washington is no more than an excited bystander offering advice from a safe distance.&rdquo; In conclusion, Dobbins states that: &ldquo;If blocking Iran's nuclear weapons aspirations is as urgent as it would seem, then engagement on that issue is imperative. At present, nothing Iran does or fails to do will alter the American posture. This unyielding attitude undercuts the prospects for Europe's effort to negotiate a positive resolution to the nuclear crisis. It also provides the weakest possible basis for common action in the absence of such a settlement.&rdquo; [[ | Rand Corporation, 12/2/2004 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_thinkTanks >> << keyEvents >> Late 2004 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_668 false 1 ------ Two Iranians attempting to illegally export thousands of American-made night-vision systems to Iran are arrested in Vienna by US and Austrian authorities. [[ | Associated Press, 3/26/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_iranPrep >> January 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1996 false 1 ------ The US Air Force begins flying sorties over Iran from its bases in Afghanistan and Iraq in order to lure Tehran into turning on air defense radars so the US can develop &#8220;an electronic order of battle for Iran.&#8221; &#8220;We have to know which targets to attack and how to attack them,&#8221; an unnamed administration official tells United Press International. (( Unnamed Bush administration officials )) [[ | United Press International, 1/26/2005 ]] ------ Washington initially denies the overflight reports. [[,12858,1401310,00.html | Guardian, 1/29/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_covertOperations >> << keyEvents >> January 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1999 false 1 ------ A Farsi-speaking former CIA officer says he was approached by neoconservatives in the Pentagon who asked him to go to Iran and oversee &#8220;MEK [Mujahedeen-e Khalq] cross-border operations&#8221; into Iran, which he refused to do. Commenting on the neoconservatives' ambitions in Iran, the former officer says, &#8220;They are bringing a lot of the old war-horses from the Reagan and Iran-contra days into a sort of kitchen cabinet outside the government to write up policy papers on Iran.&#8221; He says their plans for Iran are &#8220;delusional.&#8221; &#8220;They think in Iran you can just go in and hit the facilities and destabilize the government. They believe they can get rid of a few crazy mullahs and bring in the young guys who like Gap jeans, all the world's problems are solved,&#8221; he says. [[,3604,1392687,00.html | Guardian, 1/18/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_covertOperations >> << keyEvents >> Early 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_114 false 1 ------ Iran reportedly begins preparing its military defenses for a possible US attack. An article in the Washington Times quotes one unnamed Iranian official who says &ldquo;Iran would respond within 15 minutes to any attack by the United States or any other country.&rdquo; Iranian newspapers report that Iran is expanding its 7-million-strong &ldquo;Basiji&rdquo; militia forces. Interviewed by the Times, a Western military expert based in Tehran says he believes Iran would not attempt to repel an initial invasion by US forces but would rather engage them in asymmetrical warfare once they are in. [[ | Newhouse News Service, 2/21/05 ]] [[ | The Washington Times 2/19/05 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_iranPrep >> January 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_2000 false 1 ------ The Guardian of London interviews Reuel Marc Gerecht, a prominent neoconservative at the American Enterprise Institute, about the Bush administration's policy in Iran. Gerecht, who is also a former CIA officer, says he believes that US strikes on Iran could set back Iran's nuclear program. &#8220;It would certainly delay [the program] and it can be done again. It's not a one-time affair. I would be shocked if a military strike could not delay the program.&#8221; Gerecht says that members of the Bush administration have not yet agreed on a policy for dealing with Iran and that the internal debate is just beginning. &#8220;Iraq has been a fairly consuming endeavor, but it's getting now toward the point where people are going to focus on [Iran] hard and have a great debate.&#8221; [[,3604,1392687,00.html | Guardian, 1/18/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_predictions >> << us_force_against_iran_neocons >> ((+ Reuel Marc Gerecht )) January 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_147 false 1 ------ Iran hands over documents from a 1987 meeting in Dubai (See also [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_120 ]]) to a International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) investigation (See also [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_146 ]]). During the 1987 meeting, associates of Abdul Qadeer Khan presented Iranian officials with an offer to sell Iran the technology and materials to build a nuclear bomb. However, the IAEA does not uncover any evidence suggesting that the equipment was used in anything other than Iran's civilian nuclear energy program. The violations are technical and based only on the fact that Iran failed to report the program. Despite its recent findings, the IAEA investigation claims it still lacks a clear understanding of Iran's nuclear program. [[ | Washington Post, 2/27/2005 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> ((- Abdul Qadeer Khan )) Early January 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_382 false 1 ------ In Delhi, the India government hosts the first-ever round-table of Asian oil ministers from the Persian Gulf, China and Southeast Asia. Iranian Oil Minister Bijan Namdar Zanghaneh recommends creating an Asian Bank for Energy Development to finance energy projects in Asia, such as the long-proposed Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline project (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_441 ]]). He also calls for lower prices for Asian energy supplies that are sold to Asian consumers. [[ | Asia Times, 1/11/2005 ]] [[ | World Peace Herald, 1/17/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_geopolitics >> (Early January 2005) us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1995 false 1 ------ Investigative reporter Seymour Hersh interviews a government consultant with close ties to the Pentagon about the administration's plans to invade Iran. He says that Pentagon officials, including Rumsfeld and Wolfowitz, believe that a limited attack on Iran would inspire a secular revolution in the country. &#8220;The minute the aura of invincibility which the mullahs enjoy is shattered, and with it the ability to hoodwink the West, the Iranian regime will collapse,&#8221; the consultant says. [[ | New Yorker, 1/24/2005 ]] [[ | CNN, 1/17/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_predictions >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) (Early 2005) us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_282 false 1 ------ The US sends teams of US-trained former Iranian exiles, sometimes accompanied by US Special Forces, into southern and eastern Iran to search for underground nuclear installations. [[ | New Yorker, 1/24/2005 ]] [[,12858,1401310,00.html | Guardian, 2/29/2005 ]] [[ | United Press International, 1/26/2005 ]] ------ In the north, Israeli-trained Kurds from northern Iraq, occasionally assisted by US forces, look for signs of nuclear activity as well. [[ | United Press International, 1/26/2005 ]] ------ Both teams are tasked with planting remote detection devices, known as &#8220;sniffers,&#8221; which can sense radioactive emissions and other indicators of nuclear-enrichment programs while also helping US war planners establish targets. [[ | New Yorker, 1/24/2005 ]] [[ | United Press International, 1/26/2005 ]] ------ The former Iranian exiles operating in the south and east are members of Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK), a group that has been included in the State Department's list of foreign terrorist organizations since 1997 (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1975 ]]) and included in a government white paper (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_138 ]]) that criticized Iraq for its support of the group. After the US invaded Iraq, members of MEK were &#8220;consolidated, detained, disarmed, and screened for any past terrorist acts&#8221; by the US (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1988 ]]) and designated as &#8220;protected persons.&#8221; (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1990 ]]) Initially, the MEK operate from Camp Habib in Basra, but they later launch their incursions from the Baluchi region in Pakistan. [[ | Newsweek, 2/15/2005 ]] [[ | United Press International, 1/26/2005 ]] ------ They are assisted by information from Pakistani scientists and technicians who have knowledge of Iran's nuclear program. [[ | New Yorker, 1/24/2005 ]] ------ Pakistan apparently agreed to cooperate with the US in exchange for assurances that Pakistan would not have to turn Abdul Qadeer Khan, the so-called &#8220;father of Pakistan's nuclear bomb,&#8221; to the IAEA or to any other international authorities for questioning. Khan, who is &#8220;linked to a vast consortium of nuclear black-market activities,&#8221; could potentially be of great assistance to these agencies in their efforts to undermine nuclear weapons proliferation. [[ | New Yorker, 1/24/2005 ]] ------ In addition to allowing Pakistan to keep A.Q. Khan, the US looks the other way as Pakistan continues to buy parts for its nuclear-weapons arsenal in the black market, according to a former high-level Pakistani diplomat interviewed by Seymour Hersh [[ | New Yorker, 1/24/2005 ]] ------ The United States' use of MEK is criticized by western diplomats and analysts who agree with many Iranians who consider the group to be traitors because they fought alongside Iraqi troops against Iran in the 1980s. [[ | Christian Science Monitor, 12/31/2003 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_covertOperations >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) ((+ Abdul Qadeer Khan )) ((+ Bush administration )) January 6, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_385 false 1 ------ Indian Petroleum Minister Mani Shankar Aiyar announces that he has invited Iranian officials to visit Delhi to discuss the long proposed Iran-Pakistan-India gas-pipeline project (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_441 ]]). &ldquo;A delegation from Iran will visit India on the eve of the Asian gas buyers' summit commencing on February 14 to initiate negotiations on a term-sheet for the delivery of Iranian natural gas by pipeline at the India-Pakistan border,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;Our anticipated demand in 2025 for gas would be 400 million standard cubic meters (mscm) per day. Our output today is less than 100 mscm per day. It is not possible to meet the incremental demand from domestic production.... [I]mport of LNG, and natural gas through [a] pipeline is needed to meet the demands of the growing economy.&rdquo; [[ | Asia Times, 1/11/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_iranIndiaPipeline >> January 6, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_2001 false 1 ------ Representative Ileana Ros-Lehtinen of Florida re-introduces a bill on United States' policy toward Iran (a similar bill was introduced in the 108th Congress in 2003). The bill, named the Iran Freedom Support Act (HR 282), says, &#8220;[I]t should be the policy of the United States to support independent human rights and pro-democracy forces in Iran.&#8221; It would also authorize the president to &#8220;provide financial and political assistance (including the award of grants) to foreign and domestic individuals, organizations, and entities that support democracy and the promotion of democracy in Iran and that are opposed to the non-democratic Government of Iran.&#8221; These efforts would be paid for with funds already &#8220;available to the Middle East Partnership Initiative (MEPI), the Broader Middle East and North Africa Initiative, and the National Endowment for Democracy (NED).&#8221; (( Iran Freedom Support Act (H. R. 282) )) [[ | Financial Times, 1/18/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_covertOperations >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Ileana Ros-Lehtinen )) January 7, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_383 false 1 ------ India announces that it has agreed to a $40 billion deal with Iran. Under the terms of the agreement, the National Iranian Oil Co (NIOC) will sell 5 million tons of liquefied natural gas (LNG) annually to India over a 25-year period with the possibility of increasing the quantity to 7.5 million tons. India's price will be computed at 0.065 of Brent crude average plus $1.2 with an upper ceiling of $31 per barrel. As part of the deal, India's ONGC Videsh Ltd (OVL) will participate in the development of Yadavaran, Iran's largest oil field. India's share in the oil field will be 20 percent, which translates into roughly 60,000 barrels per day of oil. Iran has retained a 30 percent stake while the Chinese state oil company Sinopec secured a 50 percent share in an agreement signed at the end of October (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_381 ]]). India's deal with Iran will also provide India with 100 percent of the rights in the 300,000-barrel-per-day Jufeir oilfield. [[ | Asia Times, 1/11/2005 ]] [[ | World Peace Herald, 1/17/2005 ]] ------ The agreement could give new impetus to the long proposed Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline project (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_441 ]]). The Tehran Times, which is known to represent the views of the Iranian government, comments, &ldquo;The Iran-India agreement on LNG exports will pave the way for the implementation of the project to pipe Iranian gas to India via Pakistan and the dream of the peace pipeline could become a reality in the near future.&rdquo; [[ | Asia Times, 1/11/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_oilAndGas >> << us_force_against_iran_iranIndiaPipeline >> << keyEvents >> << us_force_against_iran_geopolitics >> January 12, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_99 false 1 ------ The Council on Foreign Relations in Washington, DC hosts the &ldquo;Transition 2005: US Policy Toward Iran&rdquo; discussion with David Kay and Kenneth M. Pollack of the Brookings Institution. Pollack states that &ldquo;...the MEK as best I can tell, [inaudible] on the intelligence community, has very little support inside of Iran.&rdquo; [[ | Council on Foreign Relations, 1/12/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> ((+ Council on Foreign Relations )) ((+ David Kay )) ((+ Kenneth Pollack )) Mid-January 2005 January 16, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_555 false 1 ------ Iran allows International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors to visit five buildings at the Parchin military site in response to US allegations that Iran has used the site to test explosives components for a nuclear bomb. Other buildings in the area, and four other areas at the Parchin site that the agency has identified as being of potential interest, remain off limits to inspectors. During their visit, the inspectors take samples from Parchin to test for the presence of nuclear activity. [[ | BBC, 1/19/2005 ]] [[ | Global Security (.org), 2005 ]] [[,5744,11926583%255E1702,00.html | The Weekend Australian, 1/13/2005 ]] [[ | BBC, 1/5/2005 ]] [[ | BBC, 1/19/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> January 25, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_905 false 1 ------ Military analyst Bill Arkin publishes 3,000 US military code names along with brief descriptions in his book Code Names: Deciphering US Military Plans, Programs, and Operations in the 9/11 World. Included in his list is CONPLAN 8022 (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_906 ]]), a top-secret pre-emptive plan to take out nuclear facilities and other threats in Iran, Syria, and North Korea. Another plan mentioned is Oplan 4305, which is a contingency plan for defending of Israel. [[ | MSNBC, 5/17/2005 ]] [[ | MSNBC, 2/10/2005 ]] [[ | Arkin, 2005 ]] ------ Retired CIA officer Bill McNair accuses Arkin of &ldquo;...endangering national security.&rdquo; [[ | MSNBC, 2/10/2005 ]] ====== January 31, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_217 false 1 ------ The National Iranian American Council releases findings from a national letter writing campaign, conducted between January 24 and 29, indicating that 98.1 percent of Iranian Americans would be opposed to the use of US military force against Iran. 89.5 percent of the participants said they favored negotiations between US and Iran as the best way to address current tensions. 30.4 percent supported joint disarmament of both Iran and Israel. [[ | National Iranian American Council, 1/31/2005 ]] ====== Late January 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_451 false 1 ------ Iran and Russia agree to work jointly on the design and launch of the first Iranian communications satellite, Zohre, at a cost of $132 million. One of the signers to the agreement, Felix Myasnikov, the general director of the Aviaexport, says he believes &ldquo;that the contract will be a starting point for Russian-Iranian cooperation in space exploration as well as in other spheres of high technologies, in particular, in the aircraft industry.&rdquo; [[ | Islamic Republic News Agency, 1/31/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_geopolitics >> Early February 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_220 false 1 ------ Sri Lankan, Buhary Syed Abu Tahir, is accused by President Bush of being the chief financial officer for an international nuclear black market linked to Abdul Qadeer Khan, the so-called father of Pakistan's nuclear bomb. Tahir sat on the board Kaspudu Sendirian Berhad- owned my the Malaysian prime minister's son, Kamaluddin Abdullah. The Associated Press claim that a search of publicly accessible files reveal the paper trail that outlines links between Kamaluddin Abdullah and Buhary Syed Abu Tahir. The paperwork revealed that Tahir and Kamaluddin Abdullah were both executives at Kaspudu Sendirian Berhad when Tahir made a deal for Scomi Precision Engineering to build components that Western intelligence sources claim were for use in Libya's nuclear program. The Scomi Group fulfilled a $3.5 million manufacturing contract for machine parts negotiated by Tahir. Scomi officials say the did know what the parts were for while Nonproliferation authorities claim they were for 14 centrifuges. US officials insist the components, tubes made up of thousands of small pieces, could only be used in a uranium-enrichment program. A Scomi spokeswoman insisted that the company was told the parts were for the oil and gas industry. After the revelation Kamaluddin Abdullah severed ties to Tahir. Malaysian Police say neither Tahir or Scomi have committed any crime and no arrests have been made, which the official government report backed up. President Bush has accused Tahir of using a Dubai based company (Gulf Technical Industries) as a front for Khan's network. (See also: [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_231 ]] ) [[,13673,501040223-591356,00.html | Time, 2/16/2005 ]] [[ | CNN, 2/18/2005 ]] [[ | Malaysian Government Report, 2/21/2004 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> ((- Abdul Qadeer Khan )) February 1, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_450 false 1 ------ On a visit to Moscow, Iranian Ambassador Gholamreza Shafei says that Iran hopes to work jointly with Russia in space and announces for the first time ever that &ldquo;Russian-Iranian cooperation is also developing in the military and technical sphere.&rdquo; [[ | Middle East News Online, 2/3/2005 ]] [[ | Islamic Republic News Agency, 2/1/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_geopolitics >> << keyEvents >> February 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_645 false 1 ------ Two thousand Austrian Steyr Mannlicher GmbH high-powered armor-piercing sniper rifles are delivered to Iran, to be used as part of Iran's effort to clamp down on the drug smugglers pouring in across the border from Afghanistan. The weapons deal, approved by Austria in November 2004, is opposed by the US, which expressed concerns that the weapons could ultimately be used against US soldiers in Iraq, Afghanistan, and potentially Iran. [[ | Arms Technology, 4/4/2005 ]] [[ | Associated Press, 3/26/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_iranPrep >> February 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_373 false 1 ------ During a private meeting of Ariel Sharon's inner cabinet at the prime minister's private ranch in the Negev desert, Sharon gives &ldquo;initial authorization&rdquo; for an attack on Iran's nuclear facilities. [[,,2089-1522978,00.html | Sunday Times, 3/13/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_israel >> February 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_66 false 1 ------ The Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK) says that it has provided the International Atomic Energy Administration (IAEA) with information that Iran is now producing polonium-210, beryllium, and neutron generators, giving Iran the capability to produce a detonator. MEK claims that Iran plans to have a nuclear weapon by the end of 2005. Mohammed Mohaddessin, head of the group's foreign affairs committee, tells reporters that the information was obtained from &ldquo;the Iranian people&rdquo; and MEK's network inside Iran. [[ | Associated Press, 2/3/2005 ]] [[ | Associated Press, 2/3/2005 ]] ====== ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) February 2, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_219 false 1 ------ General Electric (GE) follows Halliburton and ConocoPhillips, announcing that the company will no longer accept business from Iran. &ldquo;Because of uncertain conditions related to Iran, including concerns about meeting future customer commitments, we will not accept any new orders for business in Iran effective Feb. 1,&rdquo; explains Gary Sheffer, a GE spokesman. &ldquo;This moratorium on new orders will be re-evaluated as conditions relating to Iran change.&rdquo; [[ | Associated Press, 2/2/2005 ]] [[ | Forbes, 2/2/2005 ]] ------ Under current US law, companies are barred from doing business with nations that the US State Department has said are sponsors of terrorism. However the law does not prohibit a company's foreign subsidiaries from engaging in such business. [[ | Associated Press, 2/2/2005 ]] [[ | BBC, 7/20/2004 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_WesternBusiness >> ((+ Halliburton, Inc. )) February 9, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_96 false 1 ------ In an op-ed piece published by the Washington Post, David Kay, formerly of the Iraq Survey Group, recommends five steps the US should follow in order to avoid making the same &ldquo;mistake&rdquo; it made in Iraq when it wrongly concluded that Iraq had an active illicit weapons program. Three of the points address the issue of politicized intelligence. He implies that the US should learn from the experience it had with the Iraqi National Congress (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_474 ]]), which supplied US intelligence with sources who made false statements about Iraq's weapon program. &ldquo;Dissidents and exiles have their own agenda&mdash;regime change&mdash;and that before being accepted as truth any &lsquo;evidence&rsquo; they might supply concerning Iran's nuclear program must be tested and confirmed by other sources,&rdquo; he says. In his fourth point, Kay makes it clear that the motives of administration officials should also be considered. He says it is necessary to &ldquo;understand that overheated rhetoric from policymakers and senior administration officials, unsupported by evidence that can stand international scrutiny, undermines the ability of the United States to halt Iran's nuclear activities.&rdquo; And recalling the CIA's infamous 2002 National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) on Iraq (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_7 ]]), he says that an NIE on Iran &ldquo;should not be a rushed and cooked document used to justify the threat of military action&rdquo; and &ldquo;should not be led by a team that is trying to prove a case for its boss.&rdquo; [[ | Washington Post, 2/9/05 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_USIntelIran >> ((+ David Kay )) Mid-February 2005 February 10, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_203 false 1 ------ Newsweek interviews Maryam Rajavi, one of the leaders of Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK), at the organization's compound in the French village of Auvers sur Oise. &ldquo;I believe increasingly the Americans have come to realize that the solution is an Iranian force that is able to get rid of the Islamic fundamentalists in power in Iran,&rdquo; Rajavi tells the magazine. She also insists that her group's history of anti-Americanism has long past. [[ | Newsweek, 2/15/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> ((+ Maryam Rajavi )) ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) February 14, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_268 false 1 ------ Newsweek reports that there is disagreement in the Bush administration over what to do with 3,800 Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK) fighters being held in custody by the US at Camp Ashraf (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_1984 ]]). The magazine says that parts of the Defense Department want &ldquo;to cull useful MEK members as operatives for use against Tehran, all while insisting that it does not deal with the MEK as a group.&rdquo; They would be sent to Iran to gather intelligence and possibly reawaken a democratic movement in Iran. The CIA however has objected to this strategy &ldquo;because senior officers regard them as unreliable cultists under the sway of Rajavi and her husband,&rdquo; Newsweek explains. A Defense Department spokesman however denies there is any &ldquo;cooperation agreement&rdquo; with the MEK and claims that the Pentagon has no plans for using MEK members in any capacity. But an MEK official interviewed by Newsweek said the opposite: &ldquo;They [want] to make us mercenaries.&rdquo; Representative Brad Sherman, a Democrat from California, also feels the Defense Department has plans for MEK members. &ldquo;The Defense Department is thinking of them as buddies and the State Department sees them as terrorists. The truth is probably somewhere in the middle,&rdquo; he told Newsweek. [[ | Newsweek, 2/15/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> February 16, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_240 false 1 ------ In Iran, a blast occurring at a dam construction site near the town of Dailam triggers false reports of a missile strike on Iran's Russian-built Bushehr nuclear plant. News of the blast sends stocks on Wall Street downward and pushes up oil prices. Iranian official Ali Agha Mohammadi of the Supreme National Security Council claims that the false reports were engineered by Washington as part of &ldquo;psychological warfare&rdquo; against Tehran. [[ | Reuters, 2/17/2005 ]] [[ | Associated Press, 2/16/2005 ]] ====== February 18, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_42 false 1 ------ Former UN weapons inspector Scott Ritter, appearing with journalist Dahr Jamail, tells a packed house at Olympia Washington's Capitol Theater that George W. Bush has &ldquo;signed off&rdquo; on plans to bomb Iran in June 2005. [[ | United For Peace of Pierce County, 2/19/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_planning >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Scott Ritter )) ((+ George W. Bush )) February 21, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_115 false 1 ------ Sam Seder, hosting Air America's Randi Rhodes show, interviews Scott Ritter about statements he made at Olympia's Capitol Theater three days earlier (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_42 ]]). Responding to a question about possible US military air strikes on Iran, Ritter says: &ldquo;I have sources, which are unimpeachable, which I would not state who they are, who told me in October of 2004 that the president had been briefed on military strike options against Iran that were to commence in June of 2005. And that the president signed off on these plans.&rdquo; [[ | The Randi Rhodes Show, 2/21/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_planning >> ((+ Scott Ritter )) ((+ George W. Bush )) February 22, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_90 false 1 ------ During a news conference with European Union leaders in Brussels, President Bush says that rumors suggesting the US is preparing to strike Iran are &ldquo;simply ridiculous.&rdquo; But he quickly adds that &ldquo;all options are on the table.&rdquo; [[ | Reuters, 2/22/2005 ]] [[ | Associated Press, 2/22/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_planning >> << keyEvents >> ((+ George W. Bush )) February 22, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_234 false 1 ------ Pentagon spokesman Lawrence Di Rita denies that the US is flying drones on reconnaissance missions over Iran. He claims that recent news reports about the drones are inaccurate. &ldquo;I would consider the source and leave it at that. I'm telling you that we're not doing those kinds of activities,&rdquo; Di Rita says. &ldquo;To the best of our knowledge, it isn't happening: period.&rdquo; [[ | US Department of Defense, 2/22/2005 ]] [[ | US Department of State, 2/22/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_covertOperations >> February 22, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_687 false 1 ------ Five US senators&mdash;John McCain, Hillary Clinton, Susan Collins, Lindsey Graham, and Russ Feingold&mdash;visit Kabul. McCain tells reporters that he is committed to a &ldquo;strategic partnership that we believe must endure for many, many years.&rdquo; He says that as part of this partnership, the US would provide &ldquo;economic assistance, technical assistance, military partnership, ... and ... cultural exchange.&rdquo; He also adds that in his opinion, this would mean the construction of &ldquo;permanent bases.&rdquo; The bases would help the US protect its &ldquo;vital national security interests,&rdquo; he explains. However, a Karzai spokesman reminds the press that the approval of a yet-to-be-created Afghan parliament would be needed before the Afghan government could allow the bases to be built. McCain's office will later amend the senator's comments, saying that he was advocating a long-term commitment to helping Afghanistan &ldquo;rid itself of the last vestiges of Taliban and al-Qaeda.&rdquo; That does not necessarily mean that the US will have to have permanent bases, the office explains. [[ | Associated Press, 2/22/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_geopolitics >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Russell D. Feingold )) ((+ John McCain )) ((+ Lindsey Graham )) February 25, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_452 false 1 ------ Kazakh Foreign Minister Kasymzhomart Tokayev says during a news conference that the foreign ministries of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) are reviewing membership applications submitted by Iran and Pakistan. [[ | Interfax Kyrgyzstan News, 2/25/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_geopolitics >> ((+ Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) )) February 25, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_127 false 1 ------ Hassan Rowhani, Tehran's chief nuclear negotiator, tells France's Le Monde newspaper that Iran may be hiding its nuclear technology inside special tunnels because of threats of attack by the United States. Rowhani is asked, &ldquo;Is it accurate that Iran has built tunnels meant to serve Iran's nuclear activities?&rdquo; He responds that these reports &ldquo;could be true.&rdquo; &ldquo;From the moment the Americans threaten to attack our nuclear sites, what are we to do? We have to put them somewhere,&rdquo; Rowhani says. [[ | USA Today, 2/25/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> February 27, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_394 false 1 ------ Alexander Rumyantsev, head of Russia's Federal Atomic Energy Agency, and Iranian Vice President Gholamreza Aghazadeh sign a nuclear fuel supply deal. Under the provisions of the agreement, Russia will supply Iran with uranium fuel for Iran's Russian-built Bushehr nuclear power plant, which once complete will produce 1,000 megawatts of electricity. Iran will be required to return all of the spent fuel to Russia to prevent the possibility that some of it will be used to produce bomb-grade plutonium. According to Rumyantsev, the first batch of enriched uranium fuel is waiting in Siberia ready to be shipped. [[,1,5819210.story?coll=la-headlines-world | Los Angeles Times, 2/28/2005 ]] [[ | Reuters, 2/27/2005 ]] ------ Russia's more than $1 billion contract to build the reactor is said to have played a significant role in maintaining the strength of Russia's nuclear energy industry. Russia, which has sent more than 2,000 workers to work with 3,000 Iranians at Bushehr, is keen on securing more contracts with the Iranian government. An additional 1,500 Russian specialists are scheduled to go to Bushehr soon to install more equipment. [[,1,5819210.story?coll=la-headlines-world | Los Angeles Times, 2/28/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> << us_force_against_iran_geopolitics >> << keyEvents >> Late February 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_388 false 1 ------ US ambassador to New Delhi David Mulford informs India's Oil Minister Mani Shankar Aiyar in a meeting that the Bush administration has reservations about Indian attempts to strike a deal with Iran on the long proposed $3-4 billion Iran-Pakistan-India gas-pipeline project (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_441 ]]). According to the Indian Express, the meeting marks the first time the US has formally conveyed its concerns about the pipeline proposal. [[ | Dawn, 3/11/2005 ]] [[ | Agence France-Presse, 3/10/2005 ]] [[ | Voice of America, 3/17/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_iranIndiaPipeline >> << us_force_against_iran_geopolitics >> << us_force_against_iran_oilAndGas >> << keyEvents >> March 1, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_556 false 1 ------ The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports in a statement to its 35-member board that the agency's inspectors continue to have lingering questions about Iranian activities at the Parchin military site and that Iran has denied requests for additional visits to the complex. [[ | BBC, 3/1/2005 ]] ------ Iran claims that it is not legally required to allow further inspections at Parchin, reasoning in a February 27 note to the IAEA that the &ldquo;expectation of the Safeguards Department in visiting specified zones and points in Parchin Complex are fulfilled and thus there is no justification for any additional visit.&rdquo; The agency disagrees. [[ | New York Times, 3/1/2005 ]] ------ Additionally, the agency says in its statement that Iran has failed to provide information on how Iran obtained its advanced P-2 centrifuge equipment. The inspectors also say they are concerned about certain dual-use technologies at the Lavisan site, which Iran is also refusing to open to inspectors. [[ | New York Times, 3/1/2005 ]] ------ A Western diplomat says the statement demonstrates &ldquo;another failure to disclose activities, which fits a disturbing pattern,&rdquo; adding, &ldquo;It's more evidence that the Iranians are unwilling to provide full disclosure.&rdquo; [[ | New York Times, 3/1/2005 ]] ------ But other officials note that the statement contains no evidence that Iran has an active weapons program. &ldquo;The facts don't support an innocent or guilty verdict at this point,&rdquo; one agency official observes. [[ | New York Times, 3/1/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> << keyEvents >> (March 1, 2005) us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_157 false 1 ------ In response to a BBC request for her views on the crisis in Iran, Danielle Pletka of the American Enterprise Institute says: &ldquo;The longer we wait and the more we negotiate, the longer Iran has to pursue a covert program.... The road to co-operation between Europe and the US involves pursuing the &lsquo;good cop, bad cop&rsquo; routine because it will force the Iranians to be serious about dealing with the friendlier party. However, there's a suspicion in the US and in Europe, and a strong certainty in Iran, that when push comes to shove, the Europeans aren't going to be willing to cut the ties with the Iranians and say simply that Iran has been cheating, the deal is broken. We need to persuade the Europeans that even if you're the good cop, you have to be prepared to pull the gun and make the arrest.&rdquo; [[ | BBC, 3/1/2005 ]] [[ | Christian Science Monitor, 3/2/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_neocons >> ((+ Danielle Pletka )) March 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_525 false 1 ------ More than 250 members of the Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK), a militant Iranian opposition group, return to Iran from Camp Ashraf in Iraq, accepting Iran's December offer of amnesty. For years, the MEK leadership has assured the group's members they faced certain death if they returned to Iran. Many remaining MEK members, over 3,500 in Iraq alone, say they are skeptical of the Iranian government's promises and [[ | Christian Science Monitor, 3/22/2005 ]] ------ dismiss the defectors as &ldquo;quitters.&rdquo; According to the Los Angeles Times, which interviewed several of Camp Ashraf's residents, remaining MEK members appear to &ldquo;show no interest&rdquo; in going back. [[,1,3102238.story?ctrack=1&cset=true | Los Angeles Times, 3/19/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_USPolicyTowardsMEK >> ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) March 2, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_155 false 1 ------ Jackie Sanders, chief US delegate to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) board of governors, accuses Iran of &ldquo;cynically&rdquo; pursuing the development of nuclear weapons and attempting to deceive the world with claims that its nuclear program is peaceful. Her comments are in response to a recent report by the IAEA that said that Iran is not cooperating fully with inspectors, is continuing to construct a heavy water reactor despite agency requests to stop building, and is not fulfilling its reporting requirements in a timely fashion. Sanders called the IAEA report a &ldquo;startling list of Iranian attempts to hide and mislead and delay the work&rdquo; of the IAEA. [[ | Associated Press, 3/2/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> March 2, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_186 false 1 ------ Frances Townsend, Homeland Security Adviser to President Bush, tells the Club of Madrid, &ldquo;State sponsors of terrorism such as Iran and Syria are with the terrorists and therefore against all of us.&rdquo; She adds, &ldquo;From this day forward the community of nations must be united in demanding a complete end to the state sponsorship of terrorism.&rdquo; Praising Saudi Arabia and Pakistan, she refers to them as &ldquo;ever stronger partners in the war against terror.&rdquo; [[ | Reuters, 3/2/2005 ]] ====== ((+ Fran Townsend )) March 4, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_284 false 1 ------ The Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS) releases satellite images that show a heavy water plant under construction in Iran. Critics of Iran's nuclear program say that once the plant is complete, it will be capable of supplying a heavy water reactor with enough heavy water to produce enough plutonium for one atomic bomb a year. But the heavy water plant is not illegal and Iran does not yet have a heavy water reactor. Iran claims its nuclear program is for civilian energy purposes only. [[ | Reuters, 3/4/2005 ]] [[ | Institute for Science and International Security, 3/4/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> March 4, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_277 false 1 ------ The Bush administration says it will not back Europe's plan to offer Iran economic and political incentives to abandon its uranium enrichment program unless there is a way to enforce it. The Bush administration favors an arrangement where the issue would be hauled before the UN Security Council, which has the authority to impose sanctions, in the event of Iranian non-compliance. [[ | Reuters, 3/4/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_diplomacy >> << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> March 5, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_286 false 1 ------ Iran's chief nuclear negotiator, Hassan Rohani, says the Middle East will become even more unstable if Iran is sent to the UN Security Council over its nuclear program. &ldquo;This would be a particular problem for the United States because it has a lot of troops and equipment in [the] region and is in fact our imposed neighbor,&rdquo; he says. Iran has complained that United States forces have effectively encircled it, with troops stationed in both Iraq and Afghanistan. [[;:422a368f:4dfac8f7ef388021?type=topNews&localeKey=en_ZA&storyID=7815655 | Reuters, 3/5/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_geopolitics >> March 7, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_298 false 1 ------ President George Bush selects John Bolton, currently an official in the State Department, to be the US ambassador to the UN. Bolton is a staunch neoconservative with a long record of opposing multilateral efforts. As undersecretary of state for arms control, Bolton opposed a multilateral effort in July 2001 to create broad worldwide controls on the sale of small arms (see [[ treaties_1802 ]]). In February 2002, Bolton made it clear that the Bush administration did not feel bound to the 1978 pledge not to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear states (see [[ us_military_1711 ]]). Bolton was also a strong advocate of taking unilateral action against Saddam Hussein (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_482 ]]) and in May 2002, he effectively removed the US signature from the Rome Statute, which established the International Criminal Court (ICC) (see [[ treaties_1792 ]]). [[ | USA Today, 3/7/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_diplomacy >> << keyEvents >> ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ John R. Bolton )) March 8, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_297 false 1 ------ The New York Times reports that a nine-member bipartisan presidential panel is due to provide President Bush with a classified report describing American intelligence on Iran and North Korea by March 31 (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_659 ]]). After a 14-month review, the panel, led by Laurence Silberman, a retired federal judge, and Charles S. Robb, a former governor and senator from Virginia, will conclude that US intelligence lacks sufficient intelligence to make firm judgments on Iran's weapons programs. The Times reports that one of its sources said the &ldquo;panel's deliberations and conclusions characterized American intelligence on Iran as &lsquo;scandalous,&rsquo; given the importance and relative openness of the country.&rdquo; [[,,11069-1518524,00.html | The Times of London, 3/10/05 ]] [[ | New York Times, 3/9/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_USIntelIran >> << keyEvents >> March 10, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_343 false 1 ------ Pakistan Minister for Information and Broadcasting Sheikh Rashid Ahmed says that the now pardoned A.Q. Khan was involved in black market nuclear arms deals and that he gave the Iranians centrifuge parts. &ldquo;[Khan] had given centrifuges to Iran in his individual capacity and the government of Pakistan had nothing to do with this,&rdquo; Ahmed tells reporters. Despite these acknowledgments, Ahmed says Pakistan &ldquo;will not hand over [Dr Khan] to any other country.&rdquo; The Pakistani government insists that it had no knowledge of Dr Khan's activities, but numerous experts have questioned these claims noting that it would have been impossible for him to keep his activities secret. [[ | BBC, March 10, 2005 ]] [[ | CNN, March 10, 2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> << keyEvents >> ((- Abdul Qadeer Khan )) March 11, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_368 false 1 ------ The United States and European Union (EU) indicate that they are ready to work together on a diplomatic approach to encourage Iran to give up its nuclear program. Condoleezza Rice says that the US is willing to drop it objections to Iran's application to the WTO and &ldquo;consider, on a case-by-case basis, the licensing of spare parts of Iranian civilian aircraft.&rdquo; Europe, on the other hand, which has been under pressure from the Bush administration to harden its policy toward Iran, says it will have &ldquo;no choice&rdquo; but to support the issue being brought up at the UN Security Council if Iran does not discontinue its suspected nuclear weapons program. Up until now, the US and EU have been unable to agree on a single approach to dealing with Iran. [[ | New York Times, 3/12/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_diplomacy >> << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) March 12, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_399 false 1 ------ The India Daily reports that two US Navy aircraft carriers, the USS Theodore Roosevelt and USS Carl Vinson, appear to be heading toward the Middle East where they will be joined by a third carrier group. The newspaper notes that the convergence of three carriers in the region would send a strong signal to both Syria and Iran. [[ | India Daily, 3/12/2005 ]] ------ There is speculation that Iran may face a US naval blockade. [[ | India Daily, 3/15/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_planning >> << keyEvents >> March 12, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_363 false 1 ------ Iran says that incentives put forward by Europe and the United States the previous day (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_368 ]]) are meaningless. &ldquo;The Islamic Republic of Iran is determined to use peaceful nuclear technology and no pressure, intimidation or threat can make Iran give up its right,&rdquo; says Foreign Ministry spokesman Hamid Reza Asefi. The European Union and United States unveiled a &ldquo;carrot and stick&rdquo; approach to pressure Tehran to give up uranium enrichment which can be used to make bomb-grade fuel. Asefi argues that US prohibitions against the sale of aircraft spare parts to Iran should never have been imposed in the first place. &ldquo;Lifting them is no concession and entering the WTO is a clear right of all countries.&rdquo; He also says that Iran would be happy to implement measures&mdash;such as allowing intrusive UN inspections of its nuclear sites&mdash;in order to provide &ldquo;objective guarantees&rdquo; that it is not developing nuclear weapons. [[ | Reuters, 3/12/05 ]] [[ | Voice of America, 3/12/05 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_diplomacy >> << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> March 13, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_364 false 1 ------ The Sunday Times reports that Israel has drawn up plans for a combined air and ground attack on Iranian nuclear installations if Tehran does not give up its nuclear program. The plans have been discussed with US officials who, according to the Times, &ldquo;are said to have indicated provisionally that they would not stand in Israel's way if all international efforts to halt Iranian nuclear projects failed.&rdquo; In preparation for the possible military strike, Israel has conducted military exercises using a mock-up of Iran's Natanz uranium enrichment plant. &ldquo;Their tactics include raids by Israel's elite Shaldag (Kingfisher) commando unit and air strikes by F-15 jets from 69 Squadron, using bunker-busting bombs to penetrate underground facilities,&rdquo; the Sunday Times says. [[,,2089-1522978,00.html | Sunday Times, 3/13/2005 ]] ------ Ariel Sharon gave &ldquo;initial authorization&rdquo; for an attack on Iran's nuclear facilities a month earlier (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_373 ]]). ====== << keyEvents >> << us_force_against_iran_israel >> March 16, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_472 false 1 ------ Iranian Oil Minister Bijan Namdar Zanganeh signs a memorandum of understanding with his Indonesian counterpart Purnomo Yusgiantoro that Iran will build a $3 billion refinery in Indonesia. As part of the deal, Indonesia will receive 300,000 barrels per day of heavy crude and Tehran will get a 30 percent stake in PT Pertamina, Indonesia's state oil company. National Iranian Oil Company and Pertamina will lead the four-year project, which Iran hopes will provide security for Iran's market supply. [[ | Bloomberg News, 3/18/2005 ]] [[ | Iranian News Agency, 3/16/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_geopolitics >> << us_force_against_iran_oilAndGas >> March 17, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_416 false 1 ------ Vice Admiral Lowell E. Jacoby, director of the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), testifies before the Senate Armed Services Committee that the agency believes Iran will probably have the capability to produce a nuclear weapon &ldquo;early in the next decade.&rdquo; [[ | Washington Times, 2/21/2005 ]] [[ | Senate Armed Services Committee, 3/17/2005 ]] ====== ((+ Lowell E. Jacoby )) March 18, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_468 false 1 ------ The Ukrainian government admits illegal arms dealers sold 12 Kh55 (X-55) cruise missiles to Iran and six to China in 2001 (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_512 ]]). The missiles, with a range of 1550 miles, would give Iran the capability to strike Israel. The missiles, designed to carry nuclear warheads, were manufactured in 1987 with a reported service life of eight years. Former Russian Air Force commander Viktor Strelnikov and specialists who examined the missiles said that they were marked with the inscription &ldquo;training.&rdquo; Iran does not operate long-range bombers and experts say Iran would probably have to adapt its Soviet-built Su-24 strike aircraft to launch the missile. [[ | BBC, 3/18/2005 ]] [[ | The Daily Star, 3/18/2005 ]] [[ | GlobalSecurity, n.d. ]] [[ | Itar Tass News, 3/18/2005 ]] [[ | Financial Times, 3/18/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_iranPrep >> March 19, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_5880 false 1 ------ US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice says the US is opposed to the proposed Iran-India-Pakistan gas pipeline because it would strengthen Iran and thus negatively affect the United States economically. &ldquo;Our views concerning Iran are very well known by this time, and we have communicated our concerns about gas pipeline cooperation,&rdquo; she says. [[ | Al Jazeera, 3/19/2005 ]] ------ ====== << us_force_against_iran_iranIndiaPipeline >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) March 21, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_483 false 1 ------ Iran's Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, tells pilgrims in Mashad that it is &ldquo;fiction&rdquo; that Iran is developing an atomic bomb. He says that he would give his life on the battlefield if Iran were attacked by the US and adds that he would not go into hiding if that were to occur, referring to President Bush's low profile during the September 11 attacks. [[ | Al Jazeera, 3/21/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> March 24, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_547 false 1 ------ Iran presents the European Union with a proposal whereby Iran would be permitted to produce enriched uranium on a small scale. The proposed pilot plant would have a small number of centrifuges, arranged in successive order to refine out enriched uranium. Experts say the plan would involve 500 to 2,000 centrifuges as opposed to the 54,000 that Iran currently has planned for large-scale industrial use. As part of the proposed agreement, Iranian officials would allow close monitoring of the pilot facility by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). [[ | Agence France-Presse, 3/24/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_diplomacy >> << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> March 24, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_538 false 1 ------ Alireza Jafarzadeh&mdash;a former spokesman of the National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI), an organization that is listed by the State Department as a foreign terrorist organization (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_45 ]])&mdash;says that according to &ldquo;well-placed sources&rdquo; within the Iranian regime, &ldquo;Iran has completed an underground tunnel-like facility in Parchin, which is now engaged in laser enrichment.&rdquo; Jafarzadeh, who now heads the Washington-based think-tank Strategic Policy Consulting and regularly serves as a Fox News foreign affairs analyst, also says that &ldquo;the underground site is camouflaged and built in an area of Parchin that deals with the chemical industry.&rdquo; It is connected to &ldquo;Iran's secret nuclear weapons program,&rdquo; he further claims. The underground facility is reportedly located in an area known as &ldquo;Plan 1.&rdquo; [[ | Seattle Times, 3/25/2005 ]] [[ | Strategic Policy Consulting, 2/20/2005 ]] [[ | Reuters, 3/24/2005 ]] [[,1280,-4889295,00.html | Associated Press, 3/24/2005 ]] ------ Iran has refused to give inspectors from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) unfettered access to Parchin (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_556 ]]), and the US alleges that Iran is testing explosive devices there that could be used in nuclear weapons. ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> March 28, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_588 false 1 ------ India's petroleum and natural gas minister, Mani Shankar Aiyar, announces that Pakistan has invited India to join them in talks, set for April 2005, with the Iranian government on a proposal to construct a natural gas pipeline from Iran to India. India is Asia's third-largest energy user and has long awaited such an invitation to join the $4 billion, 2,775 km pipeline project. [[ | Bloomberg, 3/28/2005 ]] [[ | Agence France Presse, 3/28/2005 ]] [[ | BBC, 2/5/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_iranIndiaPipeline >> << keyEvents >> March 30, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_633 false 1 ------ Iranian President Mohammad Khatami personally accompanies about 30 journalists deep into the underground nuclear plant at Natanz, a uranium enrichment facility located 250 km (150 miles) south of Tehran. The group of foreign and local journalists is permitted to film and take video footage of the complex. Natanz is built more than 18 meters (54 feet) below ground due to &ldquo;security problems.&rdquo; The journalists are shown another facility in the city of Isfahan. &ldquo;If we were looking to make atomic weapons, we could have completed these [facilities] in hiding,&rdquo; Khatami tells the reporters. The gesture is viewed by many as an attempt to undermine support for a possible aerial attack by the United States or Israel. [[ | Reuters, 3/30/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> March 31, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_635 false 1 ------ The Mujahedeen-e Khalq's (MEK) political wing, the National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI), holds a press conference in Paris. Mohammad Mohaddessin of the NCRI tells reporters, &ldquo;In mid-2004, Khamenei allocated $2.5 billion to obtain three nuclear warheads.&rdquo; Mohaddessin claims the Iranian regime is accelerating work on a reactor in Arak, 150 miles south of Tehran, which could produce enough plutonium for one atomic bomb per year. &ldquo;The regime told the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) the reactor would be operational in 2014, but in reality, they want to start it in 2006 or 2007,&rdquo; he says. In August 2002, the NCRI first revealed information about the Arak heavy-water production plant, along with the Natanz uranium enrichment plant (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_584 ]]) describing it then as part of a secret nuclear weapons program. Iran later declared both sites to the IAEA. [[ | Reuters, 3/31/05 ]] [[ | MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base, 5/12/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) Early April 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_292 false 1 ------ Rumors spread in the Arab-dominated western Iranian city of Ahwaz that the government is considering the forced migration of Arabs to Iran's northern provinces. The rumors are based on a letter purportedly written by Iran's vice president, Muhammad Ali Abtahi. [[ | BBC, 4/19/2005 ]] [[ | Al Jazeera, 4/17/2005 ]] ------ The Iranian government claims the letter was fabricated by &ldquo;foreign agents,&rdquo; and aimed at exploiting ethnic tensions to create civil unrest. [[ | Xinhuanet, 5/26/2005 ]] ------ The Popular Democratic Front of Ahwazi Arabs in Iran, however, insists the letter is authentic and represents the regime's long-standing objective to forcibly relocate Arabs. The controversial letter results in clashes between police and ethnic Arabs in Ahwaz. Although Arabs dominate Ahwaz, they account for only three percent of Iran's total population. [[ | Al Jazeera, 4/17/2005 ]] [[ | BBC, 4/19/2005 ]] ====== April 1, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_641 false 1 ------ Mani Shankar Aiyar, India's petroleum and natural gas minister, suggests routing the proposed $4.16 billion Iran-India gas pipeline (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_441 ]]) through the heavily populated areas of Pakistan in order to minimize the risk that it will be attacked by militant extremists. This alternative route would run along the Makran coast, past Guadar, through Hub Chowk, into Karachi, and beyond to Umarkot. From there the liquefied gas would flow to the Munnabau-Kokharabad crossing. Aiyer is set to visit Iran in June, to sign a deal for the delivery of Iranian gas from India's border with Pakistan. Pakistan would make a separate deal with the Iranians for the 760-kilometer route through Pakistan. [[ | Asia Times, 4/1/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_iranIndiaPipeline >> April 2, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_657 false 1 ------ Asian News International reports that according to official Pakistani sources the US government is reconsidering its opposition to the $4.2 billion dollar Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_441 ]]). The Bush administration has been opposed to the proposed pipeline on grounds that it would help Iran, a potential target of future US military strikes. But since the consortium is hoping to involve US corporations, these companies are apparently putting pressure on the White House to back the pipeline. Without the approval of the US government, the companies would be barred from participating in the pipeline's construction. According sources, the US is considering pursuing a strategy that would leverage its possible support for the pipeline against Iran in its disagreement over the country's nuclear program. [[ | Asian News International, 4/2/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_iranIndiaPipeline >> << us_force_against_iran_WesternBusiness >> << keyEvents >> April 2, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_659 false 1 ------ As expected (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_297 ]]), the Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction concludes that the CIA's intelligence on Iran is weak. The nine-member commission, headed by Federal appeals court judge, Laurence Silberman, and Charles S. Robb, a former governor and senator from Virginia, finds that US intelligence had few human assets in Iran and only limited direct knowledge of Iran's missile and nuclear programs. [[ | Middle East News Line, 4/2/05 ]] [[ | New York Times, 3/9/2005 ]] [[,1,1155886.story?coll=la-headlines-nation | Los Angeles Times, 4/1/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_USIntelIran >> << keyEvents >> April 2, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_404 false 1 ------ Fox News interviews two retired US military generals and a military expert and asks them to discuss the Bush administration's military options for dealing with Iran. [[,2933,154245,00.html | Fox News, 4/24/2005 ]] ------ They offer four possible scenarios: ------ --- Covert action --- The Bush administration could send CIA agents or commandos to sabotage Iran's nuclear facilities. --- Naval blockade --- The US could implement a naval blockade at the Strait of Hormuz and halt Iranian oil exports. --- Surgical strikes --- The US could launch cruise missiles at Iran's nuclear facilities. &ldquo;We are moving some aircraft carrier groups into the Persian Gulf as we speak,&rdquo; notes retired Army Major Gen. Paul Vallely. &ldquo;They will be positioned to launch any aircraft from the Mediterranean Sea, the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf.&rdquo; After the cruise missiles, F-117 stealth fighter jets would destroy the country's radar system and B-2 bombers would drop 5,000-pound laser-guided bunker busters on buried targets like the Natanz enrichment site or the deep tunnels in Isfahan. --- All-out assault --- An all-out assault involving ground troops, according to the experts interviewed by Fox, would be the least likely scenario. ====== << us_force_against_iran_predictions >> << us_force_against_iran_thinkTanks >> ((+ Council on Foreign Relations )) April 11, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_308 false 1 ------ Lorne Craner, president of the International Republican Institute (IRI), praises the Bush administration's plan to spend three million dollars on the &ldquo;advancement of democracy and human rights&rdquo; in Iran (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_271 ]]). &ldquo;I am pleased to hear it has happened,&rdquo; he tells United Press International. &ldquo;The United States has been spreading democracy for years in other countries, it's good we're now doing it in Iran.&rdquo; He also tells the newswire that IRI hopes to be awarded one of the State Department's &ldquo;democracy advancement&rdquo; grants so it can work with Iranian groups. [[ | United Press International, 4/11/2005 ]] ------ Only a year before, the Republican-controlled IRI was implicated in the ousting of Haitian President Jean Bertrand Aristide. It was accused of providing a cover for the training of a 600-member paramilitary army of anti-Aristide Haitians (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_672 ]]). ====== ((+ International Republican Institute )) April 11, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_271 false 1 ------ The Bush administration announces plans to spend $3 million on supporting &ldquo;the advancement of democracy and human rights&rdquo; in Iran. The State Department's Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor says it expects to award between three and 12 grants ranging from $250,000 to $1 million to educational institutions, humanitarian groups, nongovernmental organizations, and individuals. [[ | Associated Press, 4/11/05 ]] [[ | US Department of State, 4/8/2005 ]] ------ Iran's ambassador to the United Nations, Mohammad Javad Zarif, says the plan is &ldquo;a clear violation&rdquo; of the 1981 Algiers Accords which prohibits the US from intervening &ldquo;directly or indirectly, politically or militarily in Iran's internal affairs.&rdquo; [[ | Islamic Republic News Agency, 4/11/05 ]] ------ ====== April 14, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_260 false 1 ------ The National Convention for a Democratic, Secular Republic in Iran is held in Washington, DC and attended by about 300 supporters. Speakers at the event include members of Congress, legal scholars, and Maryam Rajavi, president-elect of the National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI), the political wing of Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK). Rep. Bob Filner (D-Calif.) tells the crowd, &ldquo;Unless we deal with Iran, there will never be a solution in Iraq.&rdquo; [[ | US Newswire, 4/13/2005 ]] [[ | National Convention for a Democratic, Secular Republic in Iran website, 5/27,2005 ]] ====== ((+ Maryam Rajavi )) ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) ((+ Bob Filner )) April 14, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_862 false 1 ------ Speaking at a forum on Middle East peace sponsored by The Week magazine, former US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger warns that if Iran succeeds in building nuclear weapons it could touch off an arms race that could lead to the end of civilization. &ldquo;I do not believe that living in a world with 20 or 30 nuclear states is a situation that civilized life can support,&rdquo; he says. [[ | New York Daily News, 4/15/2005 ]] ------ But during the 1970s, Kissinger and other US officials had supported Iranian efforts to develop a nuclear energy program (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_870 ]] and [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_871 ]]). At the time, they were not concerned about the potential for Iran to use the technology to develop nuclear weapons. Nor were they concerned about proliferation. Kissinger told the Washington Post in March that he didn't &ldquo;think the issue of proliferation came up.&rdquo; [[ | Washington Post, 3/27/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> ((+ Henry A. Kissinger )) April 26, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_321 false 1 ------ Leslie Gelb, president of the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), returns from a trip to Iraq and complains that Washington is exhibiting a &ldquo;totally unrealistic optimism&rdquo; about events in that country. Gelb, a former Pentagon official, also says in his report that the US military is preparing Iraqis for a future war with Iran. &ldquo;It became very apparent to me that these 10 divisions were to fight some future war against Iran. It had nothing to do&mdash;nothing to do&mdash;with taking that country over from us and fighting the insurgents,&rdquo; Gelb concludes. [[ | Boston Globe, 6/17/2005 ]] [[ | Council on Foreign Relations, 4/26/2005 ]] ====== ((+ Council on Foreign Relations )) April 28, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_866 false 1 ------ Russian President Vladimir Putin dismisses Israeli concerns that Russian sales of nuclear components to Iran represent a threat to Israel's security. According to the terms of Russia's agreement with Iran, Putin explains, Iran must return all of its spent nuclear fuel to Russia so it cannot be used for military purposes. [[ | Associated Press, 4/28/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> << us_force_against_iran_israel >> May 1, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_861 false 1 ------ Iran announces that it will resume nuclear enrichment-related activities within a week following unsuccessful talks with European nations. In remarks that follow the announcement, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei says Iran has the right to develop a nuclear energy program. &ldquo;Anybody who comes to power through the presidential elections will not want, nor will the nation allow him to, take a step against the people's interests,&rdquo; he says. [[ | Associated Press, 5/1/05 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_nuclear >> May 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_918 false 1 ------ Human Rights Watch reports that 12 former members of the Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK) have alleged they were subjected to routine detention, solitary confinement, beatings, and torture as punishment for criticizing MEK leadership or trying to leave its ranks. The former MEK members, now in Europe, told Human Rights Watch that they spent several years in Abu Ghraib prison until Saddam released them during his last year in power. One of those interviewed, according to the report, recalled that during the mid-1990s a prisoner died after an intense beating. Two other former MEK members said they were held in solitary confinement for extensive periods of time, one for five years, and the other for eight and a half years. After the report's release, Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK) denies the allegations cited in the report. [[ | Human Rights Watch, 5/2005 ]] [[ | BBC, 5/19/2005 ]] ====== ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) May 4, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_244 false 1 ------ In an interview with Britain's Channel 4 television, British Prime Minister Tony Blair, insists his country has no intention of invading Iran. &ldquo;I've got no intention of bombing their nuclear installations or anything else,&rdquo; Blair says. [[ | Channel 4 TV, 5/4/2005 ]] ====== ((+ Tony Blair )) May 11, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_916 false 1 ------ The foreign ministers of Britain, France, and Germany write to Hassan Rouhani, head of Iran's Supreme Security Council, warning that they will end negotiations with the Iranian government if it resumes its nuclear energy program. The letter marks the first time European countries have threatened to sign on to the Bush administration's hardline strategy in dealing with Iran. [[ | Washington Post, 5/12/2005 ]] ====== May 12, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_891 false 1 ------ South of Tehran, over 200 men and women attend a ceremony to volunteer themselves as suicide bombers against Israelis and against American forces in Iraq. It marks the third such ceremony organized by the Headquarters for Commemorating Martyrs of the Global Islamic Movement in the past year. The group is calling for martyrdom attacks against Israel, the assassination of British author Salman Rushdie, and &ldquo;attacks against occupiers of holy places&rdquo; in Iraq. The Iranian government has distanced itself from the organization. [[ | Associated Press, 5/12/05 ]] ====== May 15, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_893 false 1 ------ UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan warns the US that the Security Council would probably deadlock on any resolution to levy sanctions against Iran for its refusal to halt its nuclear energy program. The US and Britain have been urging that Iran be brought before the Security Council if it does not give up its program. In an interview with USA Today, Annan explains that both China and Russia, with their close ties to Iran, would certainly veto any proposal to impose sanctions. [[ | USA Today, 5/15/2005 ]] ====== May 15, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_906 false 1 ------ The Washington Post reports that during the summer of 2004, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld approved a top secret Interim Global Strike Alert Order (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_176 ]]), code-named CONPLAN 8022, &ldquo;directing the military to assume and maintain readiness to attack hostile countries that are developing weapons of mass destruction, specifically Iran and North Korea.&rdquo; [[ | Shreveport Times (2004 archive), 9/8/2004 ]] [[ | Washington Post, 5/15/2005 ]] ====== ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) (May 15, 2005) us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_898 false 1 ------ Sen. Norm Coleman, R-Minn., calls on Kofi Annan to resign as the UN's secretary-general. He says Annan is &ldquo;damaged goods&rdquo; and &ldquo;can't do the heavy lifting [needed] to reform the UN.&rdquo; [[ | USA Today, 5/15/2005 ]] ====== May 16, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_894 false 1 ------ Representatives from Iran, Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Azerbaijan meet in Tehran as part of an effort to resolve territorial disputes concerning oil and gas exploitation in the Caspian Sea. During the meeting, Iran's special representative for the Caspian Sea Affairs, Mehdi Safari, says that Iran is opposed to the militarization of the Caspian region. [[ | Xinhuanet, 5/16/2005 ]] ====== May 16, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_895 false 1 ------ The governments of Iran and Azerbaijan sign a non-aggression pact agreeing that neither government will allow a third state to set up a military base on its soil in order to launch military strikes on the other. [[ | Islamic Republic News Agency, 5/16/2005 ]] ====== May 17, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_896 false 1 ------ Iran's foreign minister, Kamal Kharrazi, visits Iraq and meets with top officials, including Iraqi Prime Minister Ibrahim al-Jaafari. The visit marks the highest profile meeting between Iran and Iraq since US forces ousted Saddam Hussein in spring of 2003. At a news conference, Kharrazi tells reporters, &ldquo;We will not allow terrorists to use our lands to access Iraq,&rdquo; and adds, &ldquo;We will watch our borders and will arrest infiltrators, because securing Iraq is securing the Islamic Republic.&rdquo; [[ | Reuters, 5/18/2005 ]] [[ | CNN, 5/17/2005 ]] ====== May 21, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_239 false 1 ------ India's Ministry of External Affairs, known as South Block, produces a report on the potential legal implications of going ahead with the long-proposed $4.3 billion Iran-Pakistan-India gas-pipeline project (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_441 ]]). The report warns that India could get slapped with sanctions by the US under the Iran and Libya Sanctions Act of 1996. South Block says activities that lead to annual investments of over $40 million and directly increase Iran's ability to develop its oil and gas resources may trigger sanctions from the US. But South Block also notes in its report that Turkey, Great Britain, Holland, and Japan all invested in Iran's hydrocarbon sector after the Act went into force and did not attract sanctions. The European Union and Canada have both challenged the law and Iran has called the law &ldquo;inadmissible intervention in its internal and external affairs.&rdquo; [[ | Indian Express, 5/21/05 ]] [[ | Iran and Libya Sanctions Act of 1996 ]] ====== May 22, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_258 false 1 ------ About 500 protesters demonstrate in Huntington Beach, near Los Angeles, calling on the Bush administration to back the Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK), an Iranian opposition group, and remove the organization from the State Department's list of US-designated foreign terrorist organizations. One of the speakers at the event is Maryam Rajavi, president-elect of the National Council of Resistance of Iran, the political front for the MEK. Addressing the crowd via satellite, she tells them that she believes the opposition's efforts will soon payoff. [[,0,4240646.story?coll=la-home-world | Los Angeles Times, 5/22/2005 ]] ====== ((+ Mujahedeen-e Khalq )) ((+ Maryam Rajavi )) May 25, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_410 false 1 ------ The $4 billion US-backed Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline officially opens. The pipeline begins in Baku, Azerbaijan and travels 1,762 km (1,000 miles) through Georgia to the Mediterranean port city of Ceyhan in Turkey. The pipeline has been under construction for ten years and was built by a consortium of oil companies including Amerada Hess, ConocoPhillips, Eni, Inpex, Itochu, Statoil, Total, SOCAR, TPAO, Unocal, and BP. The pipeline is expected to bring one million barrels of oil per day to the West. [[ | Brookings Institution, 3/4/2003 ]] [[ | BBC, 5/25/2005 ]] [[ | BBC, 5/5/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_oilAndGas >> << keyEvents >> May 26, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_193 false 1 ------ Iran's information minister, Ali Younesi, accuses the US of pursuing a policy of regime change in Iran by exploiting ethnic and racial tension. One month before, the Iranian government claimed that &ldquo;foreign agents&rdquo; were behind an April letter (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_292 ]]) purportedly written by Iran's former vice president, Mohammad Ali Abtahi, promoting the forced relocation of Iranian Arabs to the country's northern provinces. Also that month, Washington earmarked $3 million to &ldquo;promote democracy in Iran&rdquo; (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_271 ]]), a move criticized by Tehran as interfering in Iran's internal affairs. [[ | Xinhuanet, 5/26/2005 ]] ====== May 29, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_218 false 1 ------ The London Sunday Times reports that according to a senior insurgent commander in Iraq, injured Jordanian militant Abu Musab al-Zarqawi has fled Iraq, possibly to Iran. Zarqawi has claimed responsibility for numerous bombings, assassination, and beheadings across Iraq since the fall of Saddam Hussein in March 2003. According to the insurgent commander, al-Zarqawi's convoy was attacked as they were escaping an American offensive near the town of al-Qaim in northwestern Iraq in early April. [[,,2089-1632576,00.html | The Sunday Times, 5/29/2005 ]] ------ Iranian Foreign Ministry spokesperson Hamid Reza Asefi dismisses the report as &ldquo;amateur newsmaking.&rdquo; [[ | Associated Press, 5/29/2005 ]] ====== ((+ Abu Musab al-Zarqawi )) May 30, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_387 false 1 ------ Christopher Brown of the Hudson Institute writes that the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is &ldquo;perhaps the most dangerous organization that the American people have never heard of.&rdquo; Brown asserts that the SCO's publicly stated goals, including fighting terrorism, are a sham. He writes that the SCO is the most obvious but most ignored challenge to the US and warns that the potential future inclusion of Iran into the organization could lead to weapons proliferation. He reasons that &ldquo;since one of the programs of the SCO is the linking of the road systems in the region,&rdquo; the transportation of dangerous goods between Iran and China would increase dramatically. [[ | Hudson Institute, 5/30/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_thinkTanks >> << us_force_against_iran_geopolitics >> ((- Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) )) ((+ Hudson Institute )) June 1, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_326 false 1 ------ US Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld warns governments in Middle East not to help Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, recently reported to have been seriously injured in Iraq. &ldquo;Were a neighboring country to take him in and provide medical assistance or haven for him, they, obviously, would be associating themselves with a major linkage in the al-Qaeda network and a person who has a great deal of blood on his hands.&rdquo; [[ | US Department of Defense, 6/1/05 ]] ------ Zarqawi is rumored to have fled to Iran for treatment (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_218 ]]). ====== ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) June 1, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_330 false 1 ------ Iran announces it has successfully tested a new solid-fuel missile motor for use in its Shahab-3 missiles. A Shahab-3 missile using solid-fuel has a range of 2,000 km (1,280 miles) compared to the standard Shahab 3 with a range of only 1,500 km (930 miles), putting US regional military bases and Israel within reach. The Shahab-3 can be configured as a two-stage missile equipped with a warhead. Solid fuel engines make ballistic missiles more accurate and improve deployment time. [[ | Federation of American Scientists, 4/6/2005 ]] [[ | New York Times, 6/1/2005 ]] [[ | Ha'aretz, 6/1/2005 ]] ====== June 4, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_336 false 1 ------ Jephraim P Gundzik, president of Condor Advisers, Inc., writes in the Asia Times that George Bush's unilateralist foreign policy has spurred &ldquo;monumental changes in the world's geostrategic alliances.&rdquo; Chief among these &ldquo;is the formation of a new triangle comprised of China, Iran, and Russia,&rdquo; he notes. &ldquo;To China and Russia, Washington's &lsquo;democratic reform program&rsquo; is a thinly disguised method for the US to militarily dispose of unfriendly regimes in order to ensure the country's primacy as the world's sole superpower. The China-Iran-Russia alliance can be considered as Beijing's and Moscow's counterpunch to Washington's global ambitions. From this perspective, Iran is integral to thwarting the Bush administration's foreign policy goals. This is precisely why Beijing and Moscow have strengthened their economic and diplomatic ties with Tehran. It is also why Beijing and Moscow are providing Tehran with increasingly sophisticated weapons.&rdquo; [[ | Asia Times, 6/4/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_geopolitics >> June 5-7, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_391 false 1 ------ A delegation from India visits Pakistan to discuss cooperation in the oil and gas sectors. The 11-person delegation is headed by Indian Minister for Petroleum and Natural Gas Mani Shankar Aiyar. The two countries agree to establish a working group to review the legal, technical, commercial, and financial parameters of the proposed Iran-India-Pakistan gas pipeline (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_441 ]] and [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_594 ]]) that would transport natural gas 2,775 km from Iran to India via Pakistan. They plan to start the project by December 31, 2005. [[ | Islamic Republic News Agency, 6/5/2005 ]] [[ | The Tribune India, 6/5/2005 ]] ------ At a press conference on June 6, Aiyar is asked about US concerns expressed by Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice in March (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_5880 ]]) that the pipeline would strengthen Iran. Aiyar responds that construction of the pipeline is contigent only upon an agreement being made between India and Pakistan. [[ | The Tribune India, 6/5/2005 ]] ------ India and Pakistan also discuss the Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan (TAP) pipeline (see [[ a011805pipelinerenewed ]]), which they agree should extend to India. [[ | The Tribune India, 6/5/2005 ]] [[ | Associated Press, 6/5/2005 ]] ------ The delegation also explores the possibility of exporting Indian diesel to Pakistan. [[ | Islamic Republic News Agency, 6/5/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_iranIndiaPipeline >> << us_force_against_iran_oilAndGas >> June 6, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_390 false 1 ------ Iran, India, and Pakistan join the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) as observers, paving the way for permanent membership. [[ | Islamic Republic News Agency, 6/6/2005 ]] ====== ((+ Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) )) June 8, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_418 false 1 ------ In his new book, &ldquo;Countdown to Terror,&rdquo; Congressman Curt Weldon (R-PA), the vice chairman of the House Homeland Security and Armed Services Committees, accuses the CIA of dismissing an informant who he says has valuable information on Iran. Weldon's source claims to have knowledge that Osama Bin Laden is in Iran and that Iran's supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, ordered a terrorist assault on the US called the &ldquo;12th Imam attack.&rdquo; But according to Bill Murray, a former CIA Station Chief in Paris who met with Weldon's source on four occasions, the information provided by the informant was believed to have originated with Manucher Ghorbanifar, a &ldquo;known fabricator,&rdquo; familiar to the CIA since the 1980s (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_670 ]] and [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_425 ]]). Murray compares Ghorbanifar to Ahmed Chalabi, whose false claims about Iraqi WMD were fed to US intelligence, Congress, and the public during the lead-up to war with Iraq. [[ | American Prospect, 4/1/2005 ]] [[ | New York Times, 6/8/2005 ]] ====== ((+ Curt Weldon )) ((- Ahmed Chalabi )) ((- Manucher Ghorbanifar )) June 9, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_409 false 1 ------ Iran downplays the significance of the opening of the US-backed $4 billion dollar Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_410 ]]) that will carry oil from the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean port city of Ceyhan, Turkey. The project was supported by the US government, which believes the pipeline will weaken Iran's leverage over the distribution of oil. Mahmood Khagani, director for Caspian Sea Oil and Gas Affairs in Iran's petroleum ministry, says the project makes little economic sense. &ldquo;Iran's route is the shortest, cheapest, and potentially the most lucrative,&rdquo; he says. [[ | Agence France-Press, 6/9/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_iranIndiaPipeline >> << us_force_against_iran_oilAndGas >> << keyEvents >> (June 12, 2005) us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_359 false 1 ------ India's petroleum Minister Mani Shankar says that Iran has agreed to research the possibility of extending the proposed 2,670 km Iran-Pakistan-India pipeline (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_441 ]]) to China. [[ | PakTribune, 6/13/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_iranIndiaPipeline >> << us_force_against_iran_oilAndGas >> << keyEvents >> June 15, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_230 false 1 ------ Vice President of the Academy of Geopolitical Problems Leonid Ivashov says during a press conference that the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) should be more forceful in expressing its position regarding the US presence in Central Asia. Russia sees the region as highly strategic and believes that the SCO should resist US attempts to replace Russian military forces in the region. &ldquo;We [Russia] should not have left Central Asian countries face to face with the US in this issue. We should have expressed our position within the SCO framework on NATO striving for presence in the region,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;It is impossible to break the US and NATO resistance in the sphere of base preservation single-handed,&rdquo; he adds. [[ | Russian News & Information Agency, 6/19/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_geopolitics >> ((- Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) )) June 17, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_228 false 1 ------ Tehran's ultra-conservative mayor, Mahmoud Ahmedinejad, wins 19.5 percent of the vote in Iran's national election for president putting him in second place behind the moderate Ayatollah Hashemi Rafsanjani, who receives 21 percent. A run-off election is scheduled for June 25 (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_346 ]]). Many say the strong voter turn-out&mdash;62.7 percent&mdash;is a response to George Bush's denunciations of Iran's electoral system and government which angered many Iranians. &ldquo;I picked Ahmadinejad to slap America in the face,&rdquo; says one voter. Abdollah Momeni, a political affairs expert at Tehran University, tells the Washington Post: &ldquo;People faced a dilemma. In people's minds it became a choice between voting or giving Bush an excuse to attack.&rdquo; [[ | Washington Post, 6/19/2005 ]] [[ | Associated Press, 6/18/2005 ]] ------ Mehdi Karroubi, a reformist cleric and former parliamentary speaker who comes in third, alleges voter fraud and calls for an investigation. &ldquo;There has been bizarre interference. Money has changed hands,&rdquo; he says. [[ | BBC, 6/18/2005 ]] ====== June 17, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_232 false 1 ------ Four Iranians are arrested in London under Britain's anti-terror laws. The suspects are reportly connected to the dissident pro-monarchy group, Anjomane Padeshahi. The leader of the group, Dr. Froud Fouladvand, is among those arrested. London police say the men were arrested in connection with militant activity in the Middle East, possibly involving Iran's elections (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_349 ]]). [[,,1509219,00.html | Guardian, 6/18/2005 ]] [[ | Agence France-Presse (AFP), 6/18/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_oppositionGroups >> ((+ Anjomane Padeshahi )) June 23, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_335 false 1 ------ The National Iranian Gas Company announces the awarding of a $2.2 billion contract to construct a gas refinery in the southwestern Iranian province of Khuzestan to a consortium headed by the British construction firm Costain Oil, Gas & Process (COGAP). [[ | Costain News, 6/24/2005 ]] [[ | Forbes, 6/24/2005 ]] ====== June 29, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_365 false 1 ------ An article in the Washington Times suggests that Iran is &ldquo;in effect doing an end run around US sanctions threats&rdquo; by expanding oil, gas, and petrochemical deals with US allies such as India, Russia, and Iraq. [[ | Washington Times, 6/29/05 ]] ------ The Times list the following examples: --- Proposed Iraq Oil Swap --- &ldquo;A proposed pipeline from Bandar Imam in Iran to Iraq's Basra port would carry Iraqi crude oil to Iran's Abadan refinery and refined oil products back to Iraq.&rdquo; (see also [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_411 ]]). [[ | Washington Times, 6/29/05 ]] --- Iran-Pakistan-India gas-pipeline project --- &ldquo;[A] 1,700-mile pipeline&mdash;sometimes referred to as the &lsquo;peace pipeline&rsquo;&mdash;that would transport Iranian natural gas through Pakistan to India (see also [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran ]]). [[ | Washington Times, 6/29/05 ]] --- Russia --- &ldquo;Iran ... is pursuing plans to let Russia export its Caspian Sea oil through a Persian Gulf [oil] swap scheme, under which Russia's oil would be piped into Iran.&rdquo; The Times notes: &ldquo;The scheme is a direct challenge to the recently completed Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) oil pipeline, which, built with US backing, was designed to get Caspian Sea oil to market through Turkey while bypassing both Russia and Iran.&rdquo; [[ | Washington Times, 6/29/05 ]] ====== June 29, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_405 false 1 ------ Vyacheslav Nikonov, a leading Russian political scientist and the president of the Moscow-based Polity Foundation, says during a news conference in Moscow that the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is resetting its priorities and that curbing US influence in Central Asia has become one of the organization's central objectives. &ldquo;The SCO is now emerging as something of an interest club,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;The member countries are coming to share an interest in the possible restriction of American influence in Asia.&rdquo; [[ | RIA Novosti News, 6/29/2005 ]] ====== ((+ Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) )) July 1, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_351 false 1 ------ The US House of Representatives approves House Resolution 344 (H.Res.344) with a 398 to 15 vote urging President Bush to block the proposed takeover of Unocal Oil by the Chinese National Overseas Oil Company (CNOOC Ltd) on the grounds of national security. CNOOC has bid $18.5 billion for Unocal against a $16.5 billion bid by Chevron. In a written statement, China's foreign ministry says, &ldquo;CNOOC's bid to take over the US Unocal company is a normal commercial activity between enterprises and should not fall victim to political interference.&rdquo; [[ | Washington Post, 7/4/2005 ]] ------ Congressman Duncan Hunter (R-CA) warns that the &ldquo;Chinese would also be advantaged by such a transaction because it would extend their military and economic reach in such a way that could potentially impact ... [US] involvement in East Asia.&rdquo; [[ | House of Representatives, 7/1/2005 ]] ====== July 5, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_303 false 1 ------ Russian foreign minister, Vitaly Vorobyov, says Afghanistan may be granted observer status in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). [[ | Novosti Russian News Agency, 7/6/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_geopolitics >> ((+ Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) )) July 5, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_401 false 1 ------ The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), meeting in Astana, Kazakhstan, calls on the US to set a withdrawal date for US military forces in Afghanistan. &ldquo;As the active military phase in the anti-terror operation in Afghanistan is nearing completion, the SCO would like the coalition's members to decide on the deadline for the use of the temporary infrastructure and for their military contingents' presence in those countries,&rdquo; the organization says in its declaration. [[ | Associated Press, 7/5/2005 ]] ------ The declaration also advocates limited outside interference in a country's internal affairs, while at the same time the organization asserts its right to work with Afghanistan on security matters. &ldquo;We have to make every effort to step up security cooperation or else all our talks about stability will be pointless,&rdquo; says Chinese President Hu Jintao after the conference. [[ | Eurasia Daily Monitor, 7/6/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_geopolitics >> ((+ Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) )) July 9, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_267 false 1 ------ Iranian security forces shoot and kill political activist Shivan Qaderi. According to Qaderi's brother, Qaderi was approached by security forces in public, shot three times, and then tied to a military vehicle and dragged through the city. The government had accused Qaderi of &ldquo;moral and financial violations.&rdquo; In the aftermath, protests erupt across the western province of Kurdistan. [[ | Human Rights Watch, 8/11/2005 ]] [[,1,7360677.story?coll=chi-newsnationworld-hed | Associated Press, 8/14/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_oppositionGroups >> September 6, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_278 false 1 ------ Deputy Secretary of State Robert Zoellick tells reporters that if China continues to pursue energy contracts with Iran it will find itself increasingly in conflict with the United States. He adds that it isn't clear whether the force behind China's dealmaking comes from new Chinese oil companies or some government &ldquo;strategic plan.&rdquo; He also asserts that China will not be able to guarantee its energy security through contracts with countries such as Iran &ldquo;because you can't lock up energy resources&rdquo; in the global marketplace. [[ | Reuters, 9/6/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_oilAndGas >> << us_force_against_iran_geopolitics >> ((+ Robert B. Zoellick )) September 10, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_310 false 1 ------ During a news conference in Washington, US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice urges China, Russia, and India to support US threats of imposing sanctions against Iran for its nuclear programs. Iran needs to get a &ldquo;unified message,&rdquo; she says. &ldquo;I think that after the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) report a couple of days ago, it is clear that Iran is not living up to its obligations, and so UN Security Council referral seems to be a reasonable option.&rdquo; [[ | US Department of State, 9/9/2005 ]] [[ | BBC, 9/10/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_oilAndGas >> ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) September 24, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_312 false 1 ------ The International Atomic Energy Agency's Board of Governors passes a resolution declaring Iran in non-compliance with its safeguard obligations under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). The resolution calls on Iran to suspend all enrichment-related activity, cease construction on a heavy water research reactor, and provide agency inspectors access to research and development locations and documentation. The resolution also calls on Iran to &ldquo;[p]romptly ... ratify and implement in full the Additional Protocol,&rdquo; which would require Iran to allow short-notice inspections of Iran's nuclear facilities. [[ | IAEA, 9/24/2005 ]] ------ Iran has signed but not ratified it. [[ | Washington Post, 9/26/2005 ]] ------ If Iran fails to comply with this resolution, the board could decide at its next meeting in November to refer the matter to the UN Security Council. A referral to the Security Council would set the stage for the possible imposition of sanctions on Iran. Iran has repeatedly stated that it will not relinquish its right under the NPT to enrich uranium for peaceful purposes. The resolution, sponsored by Britain, France, and Germany, passes with 22 votes. Twelve countries abstain, including Russia, China, Pakistan, South Africa and Brazil, and only one&mdash;Venezuela&mdash;opposes the resolution. India, under strong pressure from the US (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_310 ]]), backs the resolution, despite its close ties to Iran. The resolution marks the third time in two decades that an IAEA resolution has not been approved unanimously. [[ | BBC, 9/25/2005 ]] [[ | Associated Press, 9/25/2005 ]] [[,curpg-3.cms | India Economic Times, 9/26/2005 ]] [[ | Washington Post, 9/25/2005 ]] ------ Foreign Minister Manouchehr Mottaki calls the resolution &ldquo;politically motivated, illegal, and illogical,&rdquo; asserting that the &ldquo;three European countries implemented a planned scenario already determined by the United States.&rdquo; [[,curpg-3.cms | India Economic Times, 9/26/2005 ]] ------ ====== << us_force_against_iran_oilAndGas >> << keyEvents >> September 28, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_280 false 1 ------ Britain's Foreign Secretary, Jack Straw, says there are no plans to use military force against Iran. &ldquo;All United States presidents always say all options are open. But it is not on the table, it is not on the agenda. I happen to think that it is inconceivable,&rdquo; he says, referring to President Bush's history of stating &ldquo;all options are on the table&rdquo; when describing the situation with Iran. [[,2933,170645,00.html | Associated Press, 9/28/2005 ]] [[ | London Telegraph, 9/28/2005 ]] ====== September 28, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_281 false 1 ------ Iran's Supreme National Security Council spokesman, Ali Aghamohammadi, says that Iran has no intention of withdrawing from a multi-billion dollar deal to sell natural gas to India. There have been rumors that Iran, upset over India's support of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) resolution declaring Iran in breach of its Safeguard Agreements (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_312 ]]), had informed India the deal was in jeopardy. &ldquo;We have had good, deep relations with India in many fields and regional affairs and their behavior at the IAEA was strange and we didn't expect them to vote against Iran,&rdquo; he says. Nonetheless, &ldquo;We don't want to review our current relations with India and their vote against Iran doesn't affect the gas project.&rdquo; [[ | BBC, 9/28/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_iranIndiaPipeline >> << us_force_against_iran_oilAndGas >> << keyEvents >> October 3, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_324 false 1 ------ Hundreds of women from 23 women's organizations demonstrate outside the British Embassy in Tehran protesting Britain's support of international efforts to deny Iran its right to have a civilian nuclear energy program. [[ | United Press International, 10/3/2005 ]] ====== October 5, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_309 false 1 ------ Britain accuses Iran of having played a role in the transfer of explosive technology from Hezbollah in Lebanon to the Shia cleric Moqtada Sadr's Mehdi army in Iraq. British officials say Iran is responsible for the deaths of all eight UK soldiers killed in Iraq this year, all of whom died in explosions. Iran denies the charges. [[ | Al Jazeera, 10/6/2005 ]] [[ | BBC, 9/5/2005 ]] ====== << us_force_against_iran_covertOperations >> << keyEvents >> October 6, 2005 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_325 false 1 ------ State Department spokesman Sean McCormack says that, despite reports to the contrary, there are no plans to establish direct diplomatic contact with Iran. &ldquo;[T]here is no change in our policy with respect to Iran. I think that over the past, if anything, over the past weeks and months you have seen an even tougher-minded US policy as well as a tougher-minded policy from the international community with respect to Iran's behavior,&rdquo; he says. A recent State Department briefing paper reportedly suggested establishing direct diplomatic contact with Iran in an effort to reopen negotiations with the European Union. [[,1280,-5326115,00.html | Associated Press, 10/6/2005 ]] [[ | US Department of State, 10/6/2005 ]] ======