US Knowledge of Iraq Chemical Warfare in 1980s US knowledge 1980s us_knowledge_1980s us_interventions_project 1979 us_knowledge_1980s_741 false 1 ------ The US State Department includes Iraq in its list of states that sponsor terrorism. [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1555532853 /centerforcoop-20 | Phythian, 1997 ]] ====== 1980 us_knowledge_1980s_745 false 1 ------ A US Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) document reports that since the mid-1970s, Iraq has been “actively acquiring” chemical weapons. [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1555532853 /centerforcoop-20 | Financial Times 2/23/83 cited in Phythian 1997 ]] ====== April 10, 1980 us_knowledge_1980s_742 false 1 ------ Saddam's Interior Ministry issues directive No. 2884, which orders the detainment of some 5,000 people—mostly Kurds of Iranian background—between the ages of 18 and 28. These people will never be seen again (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_743 ]]). [[ http://www.commondreams.org/views02/1214-01.htm | Independent, 12/13/02 ]] ====== Late Summer 1980 us_knowledge_1980s_743 false 1 ------ Roughly 5,000 Iraqis, mostly northern Kurds, are detained by Saddam's army—never to be seen again. According to numerous Kurds later interviewed by the Independent of London, the detainees were killed in gas and chemical weapons experiments. A Kurdish refugee in Lebanon will recall: “It is now clear, that during the war with Iran many of the young detainees were taken to secret laboratories in different locations in Iraq and were exposed to intense doses of chemical and biological substances in a myriad of conditions and situations. With every military setback at the front causing panic in Baghdad, these experiments had to be speeded up—which meant more detainees were needed to be sent to the laboratories, which had to test VX nerve gas, mustard gas, sarin, tabun, aflatoxin, gas gangrene and anthrax.” The refugee will also claim that Western intelligence was fully aware of what had happened to the 5,000 detainees. (( Unnamed Kurds )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/views02/1214-01.htm | Independent, 12/13/02 ]] ====== September 1980 us_knowledge_1980s_744 false 1 ------ Iraq invades Iran. ====== 1981-1988 us_knowledge_1980s_844 false 1 ------ The Reagan administration provides covert support to Iraq in an effort to prevent Iran from overrunning the oil-rich states of the Persian Gulf. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/nytimes081802.htm | New York Times, 8/18/2002 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A52241-2002Dec29?language=printer | Washington Post, 12/30/02 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/nation082602.htm | The Nation, 8/26/2002 ]] --- * --- US Air Force officers are secretly deployed to Iraq to assist their counterparts in the Iraqi military. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/nation082602.htm | The Nation, 8/26/2002 ]] --- * --- The US provides satellite photography to Iraq revealing the movements of the Iranian forces. (( Unnamed informed sources interviewed by reporter Bob Woodward )) (( senior military officers with direct knowledge of the program )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/nytimes081802.htm | New York Times, 8/18/2002 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/1980s/wpost121586.htm | Washington Post,12/15/1986 ]] --- * --- The US provides Iraq with intelligence gathered by Saudi-owned AWACS operated by the Pentagon. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/nation082602.htm | The Nation, 8/26/2002 ]] --- * --- Iraq uses US-supplied military intelligence “to calibrate attacks with mustard gas on Iranian ground troops....” (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_762 ]]) (( Unnamed informed sources interviewed by reporter Bob Woodward )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/1980s/wpost121586.htm | Washington Post,12/15/1986 ]] --- * --- “[M]ore than 60 officers of the Defense Intelligence Agency .... secretly ... [provide] detailed information on Iranian deployments, tactical planning for battles, plans for airstrikes and bomb-damage assessments for Iraq.” (( senior military officers with direct knowledge of the program )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/nytimes081802.htm | New York Times, 8/18/2002 ]] --- * --- President Reagan and Vice President George Bush personally deliver military advice to Saddam Hussein, both directly and through intermediaries (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_845 ]]). (( Teicher Affidavit )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A52241-2002Dec29?language=printer | Washington Post, 12/30/2002 ]] --- * --- The US closely monitors “third country arms sales to Iraq to make sure Iraq [has] the military weaponry required.” (( Teicher Affidavit )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A52241-2002Dec29?language=printer | Washington Post, 12/30/2002 ]] --- * --- According to the censured portion of Iraq's December 7, 2002 declaration to the UN (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_251 ]]) (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_262 ]]), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories help train Iraqi nuclear weapons scientists and provide nonfissile material for Iraq's nuclear weapons program. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0126-10.htm | San Francisco Chronicle, 1/28/2003 ]] ====== {{ statement_frank_carlucci_2 }} {{ statement_howard_teicher_2 }} {{ statement_david_newton_2 }} (1981-1993) us_knowledge_1980s_843 false 1 ------ US and British companies are among several Western firms that sell Iraq materials that can be used to develop nuclear, chemical, biological, and conventional weapons. [[ http://www.philly.com/mld/philly/news/nation/4185241.htm | Associated Press, 12/21/02 ]] [[ http://www.mideastfacts.com/cmpnies_soldchmcals2iraq.html | New York Times 12/21/02b ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A52241-2002Dec29?language=printer | Washington Post,12/30/02 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0126-10.htm | San Francisco Chronicle, 1/28/2003 ]] [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/31710 | Sunday Herald, 2/23/03 ]] --- United States --- --- * --- Biological: American Type Culture Collection, several biological precursor agents for diseases like anthrax, gangrene, and the West Nile virus; Alcolac International, Thiodiglycol, the mustard gas precursor; Al Haddad, 60 tons of a chemical that could be used to make sarin; Dow Chemical, $1.5 million of pesticides (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_799 ]]). [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A52241-2002Dec29?language=printer | Washington Post,12/30/02 ]] [[ http://www.mideastfacts.com/cmpnies_soldchmcals2iraq.html | New York Times 12/21/02b ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/dietageszeitung121702.htm | Die Tageszeitung 10/18/02 ]] --- * --- Nuclear: TI Coating; UNISYS; Tektronix; Leybold Vacuum Systems; Finnigan-MAT-US; Hewlett Packard; Dupont; Consarc; Cerberus (LTD) ; Canberra Industries; Axel Electronics Inc. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/dietageszeitung121702.htm | Die Tageszeitung 10/18/02 ]] [[ http://www.zmag.org/content/showarticle.cfm?SectionID=15&ItemID=2766 | Zmag 10/29/02 ]] [[ http://www.thememoryhole.org/corp/iraq-suppliers.htm | Memory Hole ]] --- * --- Rocket Program: Honeywell ;TI Coating; UNISYS; Honeywell; Semetex; Sperry Corp.; Tektronix; Hewlett Packard; Eastman Kodak; Electronic Associates; EZ Logic Data Systems, Inc. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/dietageszeitung121702.htm | Die Tageszeitung 10/18/02 ]] [[ http://www.zmag.org/content/showarticle.cfm?SectionID=15&ItemID=2766 | Zmag 10/29/02 ]] [[ http://www.thememoryhole.org/corp/iraq-suppliers.htm | Memory Hole ]] --- * --- Conventional weapons: Honeywell; Spektra Physics; TI Coating; UNISYS; Sperry Corp.; Rockwell; Hewlett Packard; Carl Zeis -U.S; Union Carbide. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/dietageszeitung121702.htm | Die Tageszeitung 10/18/02 ]] [[ http://www.zmag.org/content/showarticle.cfm?SectionID=15&ItemID=2766 | Zmag 10/29/02 ]] [[ http://www.thememoryhole.org/corp/iraq-suppliers.htm | Memory Hole ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0126-10.htm | San Francisco Chronicle, 1/28/2003 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A52241-2002Dec29?language=printer | Washington Post,12/30/02 ]] --- United Kingdom --- --- * --- : Nuclear weapons: Euromac Ltd-UK.; C Plath-Nuclear; Endshire Export Marketing; International Computer Systems; MEED International; International Computer Limited; Matrix Churchill Corp.; Ali Ashour Daghir.; Inwako; XYY Options, Inc. [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/31710 | Sunday Herald, 2/23/03 ]] --- * --- Chemical weapons: MEED International; International Computer Systems; International Military Services; Sheffield Forgemasters; Technology Development Group; International Signal and Control; Terex Corporation; Walter Somers Ltd. [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/31710 | Sunday Herald, 2/23/03 ]] --- * --- Conventional: International Computer Systems; International Computer Limited; TMG Engineering. [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/31710 | Sunday Herald, 2/23/03 ]] ====== ((+ Axel Electronics Inc. )) ((+ Dupont )) ((+ Hewlett Packard )) ((+ Alcolac International )) ((+ Tektronix )) ((+ Consarc )) ((+ TI Coating )) ((+ UNISYS )) ((+ Leybold Vacuum Systems )) ((+ Cerberus (LTD) )) ((+ Finnigan-MAT-US )) ((+ TMG Engineering )) ((+ Spektra Physics )) ((+ EZ Logic Data Systems, Inc. )) ((+ Rockwell )) ((+ American Type Culture Collection )) ((+ Carl Zeis -U.S )) ((+ Euromac Ltd-UK )) ((+ Electronic Associates )) ((+ Sperry Corp. )) ((+ Al Haddad )) ((+ Canberra Industries )) ((+ Dow Chemical )) ((+ Semetex )) ((+ Honeywell )) ((+ C Plath-Nuclear )) ((+ Union Carbide )) ((+ Endshire Export Marketing )) ((+ Sheffield Forgemasters )) ((+ Technology Development Group )) ((+ International Signal and Control )) ((+ Terex Corporation )) ((+ Walter Somers Ltd. )) ((+ XYY Options, Inc. )) ((+ Inwako )) ((+ International Military Services )) ((+ Matrix Churchill Corp. )) ((+ International Computer Systems )) ((+ Ali Ashour Daghir )) ((+ International Computer Limited )) ((+ MEED International )) ((+ Eastman Kodak )) August 13, 1981 us_knowledge_1980s_747 false 1 ------ The official Iranian news agency claims that Iraq used chemical weapons against Iranian forces along the northern section of the Iran-Iraq border. [[ http://www.seen.org/pages/reports/crude.shtml | Institute for Policy Studies, 3/24/03 ]] ------ By the end of the decade, some 100,000 people will die as a result of chemical warfare waged by the Iraqis. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0213-05.htm | New York Times, 2/13/03 ]] ====== {{ statement_an_unnamed_veteran_of_the_us_covert_program_which_supported_iraq_during_the_iraq-iran_war_2 }} {{ statement_an_unnamed_former_participant_in_the_program_which_supported_iraq_during_the_iraq-iran_war_2 }} {{ statement_patrick_lang_7 }} {{ statement_patrick_lang_8 }} 1982 us_knowledge_1980s_746 false 1 ------ President Reagan orders the Defense Department and the CIA to supply Iraq's military with intelligence information, advice, and hardware for battle after being advised to do so by CIA Director William Casey. Former Reagan National Security official Howard Teicher will later reveal that Casey “personally spearheaded the effort to insure that Iraq had sufficient military weapons, ammunition and vehicles to avoid losing the Iran-Iraq war.” The US will continue to provide this type of intelligence to Iraq until 1988. (( Teicher Affidavit )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/1990s/knightridder022495.htm | Knight Ridder 2/24/1995 ]] [[ http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=228&fcategory_desc=Under%20Reported | NBC News 8/18/02 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/nytimes081802.htm | New York Times 8/18/2002 ]] ====== ((+ William Casey )) ((+ Ronald Reagan )) 1982 us_knowledge_1980s_831 false 1 ------ According to some accounts, Iraq begins using chemical weapons against Iran at this time. However, Iran claims that Iraq's use of these weapons began in 1981 (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_747 ]]). [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0684193256/centerforcoop-20 | Shultz 1993, p. 238; see also ]] [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0756765331/centerforcoop-20 | Cole 1997, p. 87 ]] [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0393967123/centerforcoop-20 | Jentleson 1994, p. 48 ]] ====== February 1982 us_knowledge_1980s_748 false 1 ------ The Reagan administration—despite stern objections from Congress—removes Iraq from the US State Department's list of states sponsoring terrorism (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_741 ]]). [[ http://www.casi.org.uk/info/usdocs/usiraq80s90s.html | Freudenheim, Slavin, Rhoden, 2/28/1982 cited in Hurd and Rangwala 12/21/2001 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A52241-2002Dec29?language=printer | Washington Post, 12/30/02 ]] [[ http://www.prisonplanet.com/news_alert_123102_iraq1.html | The Times, 12/31/02 ]] ------ This clears the way for future US military aid to that country. [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1555532853 /centerforcoop-20 | Financial Times 2/23/83 cited in Phythian 1997 ]] ====== May 1982-June 1982 us_knowledge_1980s_840 false 1 ------ Iran discovers a hole in Iraq's defenses along the Iran-Iraq border between Baghdad and Basra and prepares to launch a massive invasion aimed at severing the country in two. As Howard Teicher will later note in his 1995 affidavit, a successful invasion would give Iran control over a huge quantity of oil—precisely the outcome that the US fears most. “United States Intelligence, including satellite imagery, had detected both the gap in the Iraqi defenses and the Iranian massing of troops across from the gap.” Teicher will explain. “At the time, the United States was officially neutral in the Iran-Iraq conflict. President Reagan was forced to choose between (a) maintaining strict neutrality and allowing Iran to defeat Iraq, or (b) intervening and providing assistance to Iraq. In June, 1982, President Reagan decided that the United States could not afford to allow Iraq to lose the war to Iran. President Reagan decided that the United States would do whatever was necessary and legal to prevent Iraq from losing the war with Iran.” (( Teicher Affidavit )) [[ http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=228&fcategory_desc=Under%20Reported | NBC News, 8/18/02 ]] [[ http://www.prisonplanet.com/news_alert_123102_iraq1.html | The Times, 12/31/02 ]] ====== June 1982 us_knowledge_1980s_1179 false 1 ------ President Reagan issues a national security directive which formalizes US policy toward the Iraq-Iran war, committing the US to continued support for Iraq to avoid an Iranian victory. The document is authored by National Security aides Howard Teicher and Geoff Kemp. (( Teicher Affidavit )) [[ http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=228&fcategory_desc=Under%20Reported | NBC News, 8/18/02 ]] [[ http://www.prisonplanet.com/news_alert_123102_iraq1.html | The Times, 12/31/02 ]] ====== ((+ Ronald Reagan )) ((+ Howard Teicher )) ((+ Geoff Kemp )) July 1982 us_knowledge_1980s_818 false 1 ------ Iraq uses chemical weapons against Iranian troops. (( Memo from Jonathan T. Howe to George Shultz regarding Iraq's use of chemical weapons, November 1, 1983 )) ====== October 1982 us_knowledge_1980s_819 false 1 ------ “Unspecified foreign officers [fire] lethal chemical weapons at the orders of Saddam [Hussein] during battles [against Iranian forces] in the Mandali area.” (( Memo from Jonathan T. Howe to George Shultz regarding Iraq's use of chemical weapons, November 1, 1983 )) ====== ((+ Saddam Hussein )) December 1982 us_knowledge_1980s_823 false 1 ------ The Italian subsidiary of Bell Textron, the manufacture of Bell helicopters, informs the US embassy in Rome that it has declined a request from Iraq to militarize recently purchased Hughes helicopters. [[ http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB82/ | National Security Archive, 2/25/2003 ]] ====== 1983 us_knowledge_1980s_754 false 1 ------ Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Egypt supply Iraq with US howitzers, helicopters, bombs and other weapons with the secret approval of the Reagan administration. [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1555532853 /centerforcoop-20 | Phythian, 1997, pg. 35 ]] ------ Italy also funnels arms to Iraq at the insistence of President Reagan who personally made the request to Prime Minister Guilio Andreotti. [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0788166948/centerforcoop-20 | Friedman 1983, 51-54 ]] [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1555532853 /centerforcoop-20 | Phythian 1997, pg. 36 ]] ====== ((+ Ronald Reagan )) ((+ Guilio Andreotti )) 1983 us_knowledge_1980s_752 false 1 ------ Iraq's use of chemical weapons against Iran increases significantly. The US is informed of Iraq's use of chemical weapons toward the end of the year. [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0684193256/centerforcoop-20 | Shultz 1993, p. 238 ]] [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0756765331/centerforcoop-20 | Cole 1997, p. 87 ]] [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0393967123/centerforcoop-20 | Jentleson 1994, p. 48 ]] ====== 1983 us_knowledge_1980s_751 false 1 ------ Secretary of Commerce Howard Baldridge and Secretary of State George Shultz successfully lobby the National Security Council (NSC) advisor to approve the sale of 10 Bell helicopters to Iraq in spite of objections from other NSC members. It is claimed that the helicopters will be used for crop spraying. These same helicopters are later used in 1988 to deploy poison gas against Iranians and possibly the Kurds.(see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_789 ]]) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/1990s/wpost031191.htm | Washington Post, 3/11/1991 ]] [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1555532853 /centerforcoop-20 | Phythian, 1997, pgs. 37-38 ]] ====== ((+ Howard Baldridge )) ((+ George Shultz )) 1983 us_knowledge_1980s_749 false 1 ------ The US State Department reports that Iraq's support for terrorist groups continues unabated. [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0393967123/centerforcoop-20 | Jentleson 1994 ]] ====== 1983 us_knowledge_1980s_750 false 1 ------ The Reagan administration approves the sale of 60 civilian Hughes helicopters to Iraq, even though it is widely understood that the helicopters can be weaponized with little effort. Critics will regard the sale as military aid cloaked as civilian assistance. [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1555532853 /centerforcoop-20 | Phythian, 1997, pgs. 37-38 ]] ====== (1983) us_knowledge_1980s_753 false 1 ------ Iranian diplomats bring photographs to the United Nations and several national capitals showing the swollen, blistered and burned bodies of injured and dead Iranians who have been victims of Iraqi chemical attacks. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0213-05.htm | New York Times, 2/13/03 ]] ====== April 12, 1983 us_knowledge_1980s_820 false 1 ------ Iraq warns Iran of “new weapons ... [to] be used for the first time in war ... not used in previous attacks because of humanitarian and ethical reasons ... that will destroy any moving creature.” (( Memo from Jonathan T. Howe to George Shultz regarding Iraq's use of chemical weapons, November 1, 1983 )) ====== June 1983 us_knowledge_1980s_824 false 1 ------ The South Korean government informs the State Department that it received a request from Iraq to militarize some helicopters. [[ http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB82/ | National Security Archive, 2/25/2003 ]] ====== July 1983-August 1983 us_knowledge_1980s_755 false 1 ------ Iraq uses “a chemical agent with lethal effects against ... Iranian forces invading Iraq at Haj Umran...” (( CIA Declassified Report, 1997 )) (( Memo from Jonathan T. Howe to George Shultz regarding Iraq's use of chemical weapons, November 1, 1983 )) ====== October 21, 1983 us_knowledge_1980s_832 false 1 ------ An Iraqi warplane drops a chemical bomb near the Iranian village of Bademjan. Iranian ambassador Said Rajaie Khorassani claims, “A white fume spread in the area causing severe skin injuries and several cases of loss of eyesight among people in the vicinity and 11 people lost their lives.” [[ http://www.seen.org/pages/reports/crude.shtml | Institute for Policy Studies, 3/24/03 ]] ====== ((+ Said Rajaie Khorassani )) November 1, 1983 us_knowledge_1980s_757 false 1 ------ US State Department official Jonathan T. Howe tells Secretary of State George P. Shultz that intelligence reports indicate that Saddam Hussein's troops are resorting to “almost daily use of CW [Chemical Weapons]” against their Iranian adversaries. (( Memo from Jonathan T. Howe to George Shultz regarding Iraq's use of chemical weapons, November 1, 1983 )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A52241-2002Dec29?language=printer | Washington Post,12/30/02 ]] [[ http://www.prisonplanet.com/news_alert_123102_iraq1.html | The Times 12/31/02 ]] ====== ((+ George Shultz )) ((+ Jonathan T. Howe )) November 21, 1983 us_knowledge_1980s_817 false 1 ------ US State Department official Jonathan T. Howe sends Secretary of Defense Lawrence Eagleburger a memo reporting that US intelligence has determined that “Iraq has acquired a CW [chemical weapons] production capability, primarily from Western firms, including possibly a US foreign subsidiary” and that Iraq has used chemical weapons against Iranian forces and Kurdish insurgents. Referring to the US policy “of seeking a halt to CW use wherever it occurs,” Howe says the US is “considering” approaching Iraq directly, but in a way that avoids playing “into Iran's hands by fueling its propaganda against Iraq.” Significantly, the memo acknowledges that the US has so far limited its “efforts against the Iraqi CW program to close monitoring because of our strict neutrality in the Gulf war, the sensitivity of sources, and the low probability of achieving desired results.” (( Memo from Jonathan T. Howe to George Shultz regarding Iraq's use of chemical weapons, November 1, 1983 )) ====== ((+ Jonathan T. Howe )) ((+ Lawrence Eagleburger )) November 26, 1983 us_knowledge_1980s_821 false 1 ------ US President Ronald Reagan issues National Security Directive 114 on the United States' policy toward the Iran-Iraq war. The document—which makes no mention of Iraq's use of chemical weapons—calls for increased regional military cooperation to protect oil facilities and for improving US military capabilities in the region. The directive states, “Because of the real and psychological impact of a curtailment in the flow of oil from the Persian Gulf on the international economic system, we must assure our readiness to deal promptly with actions aimed at disrupting that traffic.” (( US National Security Directive 114 )) ====== ((+ Ronald Reagan )) Late 1983 us_knowledge_1980s_756 false 1 ------ US intelligence begins receiving reports that Iraq's use of chemical weapons against Iran has increased. (( George Shultz )) [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0684193256/centerforcoop-20 | Shultz 1993, p. 238 ]] [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0756765331/centerforcoop-20 | Cole 1997, p. 87 ]] [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0393967123/centerforcoop-20 | Jentleson 1994, p. 48 ]] ====== December 1983 us_knowledge_1980s_758 false 1 ------ By the end of 1983, 60 Hughes MD 500 “Defender” helicopters have been shipped to Iraq despite objections from four Republican Senators. The US Department of Commerce had decided that the exporting of aircraft weighing less than 10,000 pounds to Iraq did not require an export license. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/1990s/middleeastdefensenews110992.htm | Middle East Defense News, 11/9/1992 ]] ====== December 2, 1983 us_knowledge_1980s_759 false 1 ------ The US State Department invites Bechtel officials to Washington to discuss plans for constructing the proposed Iraq-Jordan Aqaba oil pipeline. Former Bechtel president George Shultz is US Secretary of State at this time. [[ http://www.seen.org/pages/reports/crude.shtml | Institute for Policy Studies, 3/24/03 ]] ====== ((+ Bechtel )) ((+ George Shultz )) December 19, 1983 us_knowledge_1980s_760 false 1 ------ President Reagan dispatches US envoy to the Middle East, Donald Rumsfeld, to convey the administration's intention to “resume [US] diplomatic relations with Iraq.” [[ http://www.gulfwarvets.com/news11.htm | American Gulf War Veterans Association, 9/10/2001 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/views02/0924-05.htm | Seattle Post Intelligencer, 9/24/2002 ]] ====== ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) ((+ Ronald Reagan )) December 20, 1983 us_knowledge_1980s_761 false 1 ------ US Special Envoy Donald Rumsfeld—who at this time is CEO of the pharmaceutical company, GD Searle and Co.—personally meets with Saddam Hussein for 90 minutes in an attempt to reestablish diplomatic relations with Iraq. Rumsfeld also discusses US interest in the construction of the Iraq-Jordan Aqaba oil pipeline [to be built by Bechtel (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_759 ]])]. (( State Department memo concerning Rumsfeld's planned visit to Baghdad, December 10, 1983 )) (( Videotape of Donald Rumsfeld shaking hands with Saddam Hussein )) (( State Department memo summarizing Donald Rumsfeld's December 20 with Saddam Hussein, December 21, 1983 )) [[ http://www.pepeace.org/current_reprints/16/How_Saddam_Happened.htm | Newsweek, 9/23/2002 ]] [[ http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=228&fcategory_desc=Under%20Reported | NBC News, 8/18/02 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A52241-2002Dec29?language=printer | Washington Post,12/30/02 ]] [[ http://www.prisonplanet.com/news_alert_123102_iraq1.html | The Times, 12/31/02 ]] [[ http://www.seen.org/pages/reports/crude.shtml | Institute for Policy Studies, 3/24/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/04/14/opinion/14HERB.html | New York Times, 4/14/03 ]] [[ http://www.suntimes.com/output/novak/cst-edt-novak26.html | Baltimore Sun 9/26/2001 ]] ------ Rumsfeld does not raise the issue of Iraq's use of chemical weapons with Saddam. (( State Department memo summarizing Donald Rumsfeld's December 20 with Saddam Hussein, December 21, 1983 )) ------ After his meeting with the Iraqi president, Rumsfeld meets with Iraqi Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz. They agree that “the US and Iraq ... [share] many common interests.” Rumsfeld briefly mentions US concerns about Iraq's chemical weapons, explaining that US “efforts to assist [Iraq] ... [are] inhibited by certain things that made it difficult for us.....” (( State Department memo summarizing Donald Rumsfeld's December 20 with Saddam Hussein, December 21, 1983 )) ------ On September 19, 2002, almost two decades later, Rumsfeld will be questioned in Congress about this visit (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_788 ]]). [[ http://www.fas.org/irp/congress/2002_cr/s092002.html | US Congressional Record: September 20, 2002 (Senate) Page S8987-S8998 ]] ====== 1984 us_knowledge_1980s_762 false 1 ------ The CIA secretly provides Iraqi intelligence with instructions on how to “calibrate” its mustard gas attacks on Iranian troops. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/1980s/wpost121586.htm | Washington Post,12/15/1986 ]] ====== (Mid-March 1984) us_knowledge_1980s_828 false 1 ------ Iran presents a draft resolution to the UN which condemns Iraq's use of chemical weapons. The US delegate to the UN is instructed to push for a “no decision” on the resolution, or if not possible, cast an abstaining vote. Iraq's ambassador meets with the US ambassador to the UN, Jeane Kirkpatrick, and asks for “restraint” in responding to the issue of Iraq's use of chemical weapons. [[ http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB82/ | National Security Archive, 2/25/2003 ]] ====== ((+ Jeane Kirkpatrick )) February 1984 us_knowledge_1980s_765 false 1 ------ Western journalists reporting on the war between Iraq and Iran verify the use of chemical weapons. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0213-05.htm | New York Times, 2/13/03 ]] ====== February 1984 us_knowledge_1980s_764 false 1 ------ An Iraqi military spokesman warns Iran, “The invaders should know that for every harmful insect, there is an insecticide capable of annihilating it ... and Iraq possesses this annihilation insecticide.” (( Memo from Jonathan T. Howe to George Shultz regarding Iraq's use of chemical weapons, November 1, 1983 )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A52241-2002Dec29?language=printer | Washington Post,12/30/02 ]] ====== February 29, 1984 us_knowledge_1980s_833 false 1 ------ Bechtel executive H.C. Clark notes in an interoffice memo that “the State Department has exerted strong pressure on Ex-Im to make additional credits available [in Iraq], including for this [Aqaba ] pipeline.” [[ http://www.seen.org/pages/reports/crude.shtml | Institute for Policy Studies, 3/24/03 ]] ====== ((+ H.C. Clark )) ((+ Export-Import Bank )) March 1984 us_knowledge_1980s_767 false 1 ------ The United Nations dispatches experts to the conflict zone in the war between Iran and Iraq who document Iraq's use of chemical weapons. [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0393967123/centerforcoop-20 | Jentleson 1994, p. 76 ]] ====== March 1984 us_knowledge_1980s_766 false 1 ------ European-based doctors examine Iranian troops and confirm exposure to mustard gas. [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0393967123/centerforcoop-20 | Jentleson 1994, p. 76 ]] ====== March 5, 1984 us_knowledge_1980s_835 false 1 ------ The US State Department issues a public condemnation of Iraq's use of chemical weapons. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1223-04.htm | New York Times, 12/23/2003 ]] ====== March 6, 1984 us_knowledge_1980s_768 false 1 ------ A US Department of State telegram reports, “The United States has concluded that the available evidence substantiates Iran's charges that Iraq used chemical weapons.” (( US Department of State Telegram, March 1984 )) [[ http://www.casi.org.uk/info/usdocs/usiraq80s90s.html | Gwertzman 3/6/1984 cited in Hurd and Rangwala, 12/21/2001 ]] [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0756765331/centerforcoop-20 | Cole 1997; pg. 24 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0213-05.htm | New York Times, 2/13/03 ]] ====== March 9, 1984 us_knowledge_1980s_769 false 1 ------ Frank Ricciardone, a US State Department desk officer, urges the Export-Import Bank to provide Iraq with short-term loans “for foreign relations purposes.” [[ http://www.seen.org/pages/reports/crude.shtml | Institute for Policy Studies, 3/24/03 ]] ====== ((+ Frank Ricciardone )) ((+ Export-Import Bank )) March 15, 1984 us_knowledge_1980s_836 false 1 ------ US Secretary of Defense Lawrence Eagleburger meets with Iraqi diplomat Ismet Kattani to minimize the damage that the State Department's March 5 condemnation (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_835 ]]) of Iraqi chemical warfare has caused to US-Iraqi relations. Secretary of State George Shultz is also present and later sends a cable to embassies in the Middle East with a summary of the meeting. “Eagleburger began the discussion by taking Kittani aside to emphasize the central message he wanted him to take back: our policy of firm opposition to the prohibited use of CW [chemical weapons] wherever it occurs necessitated our March 5 statement condemning Iraq's use of CW,” the note explains. “The statement was not intended to provide fuel for Khomeini's propaganda war, nor to imply a shift in US policy toward Iran and Iraq. The US will continue its efforts to help prevent an Iranian victory, and earnestly wishes to continue the progress in its relations with Iraq. The Secretary [of State, Shultz] then entered and reiterated these points.” (( US Department of State cable summarizing meeting between Lawrence Eagleburger and Ismet Kittani, March 1984 )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1223-04.htm | New York Times, 12/23/2003 ]] ====== ((+ George Shultz )) ((+ Lawrence Eagleburger )) ((+ Said Rajaie Khorassani )) March 20, 1984 us_knowledge_1980s_770 false 1 ------ US intelligence officials says they have “incontrovertible evidence that Iraq has used nerve gas in its war with Iran and has almost finished extensive sites for mass-producing the lethal chemical warfare agent.” [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0756765331/centerforcoop-20 | Hersh 3/30/1984 cited in Cole 1997, pg. 243 ]] ====== March 23, 1984 us_knowledge_1980s_771 false 1 ------ Iran accuses Iraq of poisoning 600 of its soldiers with mustard gas and Tabun nerve gas. [[ http://www.gulfwarvets.com/news11.htm | UPI 3-23-1984 cited in American Gulf War Veterans Association 9/10/2001 ]] ====== March 24, 1984 us_knowledge_1980s_772 false 1 ------ The US State Department briefs Donald Rumsfeld who is preparing to make another visit to Baghdad (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_773 ]]). In a memo to Rumsfeld, Secretary of State George Shultz laments that relations with Iraq have soured because of the State Department's March 5 condemnation (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_835 ]]) of Iraq's use of chemical weapons and expresses considerable concern over the future of the Aqaba pipeline project [to be built by Bechtel (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_759 ]])] which the US is pushing. Shultz writes:“Two event have worsened the atmosphere in Baghdad since your last stop there in December: (1) Iraq has only partly repulsed the initial thrust of a massive Iranian invasion, losing the strategically significant Majnun Island oil fields and accepting heavy casualties; (2) Bilateral relations were sharply set back by our March 5 condemnation of Iraq for CW [chemical weapons] use, despite our repeated warnings that this issue would emerge [as a public issue] sooner or later. Given its wartime preoccupations and its distress at our CW statement, the Iraqi leadership probably will have little interest in discussing Lebanon, the Arab-Israeli conflict, or other matters except as they may impinge on Iraq's increasingly desperate struggle for survival. If Saddam or Tariq Aziz receives you against consider, and to reject, a pending application from Westinghouse to participate in a $160 million portion of a $1 billion Hyundai thermal power plant project in Iraq, this decision will only confirm Iraqi perceptions that ExIm [Export-Import Bank] financing for the Aqaba pipeline is out of the question. Eagleburger tried to put this perception to a rest, however, emphasizing to Kittani the administration's firm support for the line (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_836 ]]). The door is not yet closed to ExIm or other USG [US government] financial assistance to this project....” At the very end of the cable, it is noted that “Iraq officials have professed to be at a loss to explain our actions as measured against our stated objectives. As with our CW statement, their temptation is to give up rational analysis and retreat to the line that US policies are basically anti-Arab and hostage to the desires of Israel.” (( US Department of State briefing to Donald Rumsfeld, March 24, 1984 )) [[ http://www.seen.org/pages/reports/crude.shtml | Institute for Policy Studies, 3/24/03 ]] ====== ((+ George Shultz )) ((- Lawrence Eagleburger )) ((- Elda James, Esq. )) ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) (March 26, 1984) us_knowledge_1980s_773 false 1 ------ Donald Rumsfeld travels to Baghdad to meet with Iraqi foreign minister Tariq Aziz. While in Iraq, Rumsfeld discusses the proposed Iraq-Jordan Aqaba pipeline [to be built by Bechtel (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_759 ]])], relays an Israeli offer to help Iraq in its war against Iran, and expresses the Reagan administration's hope that Iraq will obtain Export-Import Bank credits. (( Teicher Affidavit )) [[ http://www.seen.org/pages/reports/crude.shtml | Institute for Policy Studies, 3/24/03 ]] [[ http://www.gulfwarvets.com/news11.htm | American Gulf War Veterans Association 9/10/2001 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/views02/0802-01.htm | Common Dreams, 8/2/2002 ]] ====== ((+ Tariq Aziz )) ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) (March 26, 1984) us_knowledge_1980s_816 false 1 ------ A UN investigation concludes that Iraq has been using mustard gas laced with a nerve agent on Iranian soldiers. “[C]hemical weapons in the form of aerial bombs have been used in the areas inspected in Iraq by the specialists,” the report says. [[ http://www.seen.org/pages/reports/crude.shtml | New York Times, 3/27/84 cited in Institute for Policy Studies, 3/24/03 ]] [[ http://www.gulfwarvets.com/news11.htm | American Gulf War Veterans Association 9/10/2001 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/views02/0802-01.htm | Common Dreams, 8/2/2002 ]] ====== March 29, 1984 us_knowledge_1980s_774 false 1 ------ During a meeting in Jordan, Iraqi diplomat Kizam Hamdoon and US diplomat James Placke discuss a proposed daft resolution that Iran presented to the UN Security Council (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_828 ]]) calling on the international body to condemn Iraq's use of chemical weapons. Hamdoon tells Placke that Iraq would prefer a Security Council presidential statement in lieu of a resolution, adding that the statement should (1) “mention former resolutions of the war”; (2) include a “strong call for progress toward ending the war through ceasefire or negotiations”; and (3) not identify any specific country as responsible for chemical weapons use. Placke says that he will honor the request but asks that Iraq halt its purchasing of chemical weapons from US suppliers so as not to “embarrass” the US. Placke also warns that the US would be implementing licensing requirements on five chemical compounds for both Iraq and Iran. Placke says that the US does not want to be the “source of supply for anything that could contribute to the production of CW,” but adds reassuringly that the US does “not want this issue to dominate our bilateral relationship.” (( State Department Summary of March 28 meeting between US diplomat James Plack and Iraqi representative Nizar Hamdoon )) [[ http://www.seen.org/pages/reports/crude.shtml | Institute for Policy Studies, 3/24/03 ]] ====== ((+ Kizam Hamdoon )) ((+ James Placke )) March 30, 1984 us_knowledge_1980s_827 false 1 ------ During a State Department press conference, reporters raise the issue of US relations with Iraq and the latter's use of chemical weapons. A reporter asks, “Has there been any export of these chemicals [referring to agents used for the production of chemical weapons] from the US to Iran or Iraq at all in the past, in the recent past?” The spokesperson responds, “No, we do not reason to believe that exports from the United States have been used by either Iran or Iraq in this connection.” Later in the press briefing, a reporter asks, “In light of your finding that Iraq has used nerve gas and/or other forms of chemical warfare, does this have any effect on US recent initiatives to expand commercial relationships with Iraq across a broad range, and also a willingness to open diplomatic relations?” The spokesperson answers, “No. I'm not aware of any change in our position. We're interested in being involved in a closer dialogue with Iraq.” (( US Department of State Press Briefing, March 30, 1984 )) ====== March 30, 1984 us_knowledge_1980s_829 false 1 ------ The United Nations Security Council issues a presidential statement condemning the use of chemical weapons without a specific reference to Iraq, despite Iran's insistence that the Security Council pass a binding resolution condemning Iraq's use of chemical weapons against Iran. Interestingly, the previous day (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_774 ]]), Iraqi diplomat Kizam Hamdoon and US diplomat James Placke had met and Hamdoon had stated Iraq's preference that no resolution be passed and that any statement avoid referring directly to Iraq. As a State Department memo by James Placke notes, “The statement, by the way contains all three elements Hamdoon wanted.” (( US Department of State Memo from James Placke, March 30, 1984 )) [[ http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB82/ | National Security Archive, 2/25/2003 ]] ====== ((+ James Placke )) April 5, 1984 us_knowledge_1980s_830 false 1 ------ US President Ronald Reagan issues presidential directive NSDD 139, titled, “Measures to improve US posture and readiness to respond to developments in the Iran-Iraq War.” The directive stresses the importance of ensuring US access to military facilities in the Gulf region and preventing “an Iraqi collapse.” Though the directive says that the US should maintain its policy of “unambiguous” condemnation of chemical warfare—without mentioning Iraq—the document also emphasizes that the US should “place equal stress on the urgent need to dissuade Iran from continuing the ruthless and inhumane tactics which have characterized recent offensives.” The directive does not suggest ending or reducing US support for Iraq. (( US Department of State Memo from James Placke, March 30, 1984 )) [[ http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB82/ | National Security Archive, 2/25/2003 ]] ====== ((+ Ronald Reagan )) April 10, 1984 us_knowledge_1980s_822 false 1 ------ Representatives from Bell Helicopter meet with Department of State officials in the Baghdad interests section to discuss a possible deal with Iraq involving the sale of 20-25 helicopters to Iraq's Ministry of Defense. A State Department document summarizing the meeting says that the “Bell reps are fully aware that any helicopters they sell the Iraqis can not be in any way configured for military use.” (( US Department of State document on meeting with Bell Helicopter Representatives, March 1984 )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/1980s/wpost121586.htm | Washington Post,12/15/1986 ]] ====== May 9, 1984 us_knowledge_1980s_825 false 1 ------ A Department of State memo from Special Adviser to the Secretary on Nonproliferation Policy and Nuclear Energy Affairs Memorandum, titled “US Dual-Use Exports to Iraq: Specific Actions,” states that the government is reviewing its policy for “the sale of certain categories of dual-use items to Iraqi nuclear entities” and the review's “preliminary results favor expanding such trade to include Iraqi nuclear entities.” (( Department of State memo, US Dual-Use Exports to Iraq: Specific Actions, May 9, 1984 )) ====== May 25, 1984 us_knowledge_1980s_834 false 1 ------ Bechtel official H.B. Scott informs his colleagues in a memo that “US government officials at the highest level in Washington know of the [Aqaba pipeline] project and the President supports the concept.... I cannot emphasize enough the need for maximum Bechtel management effort at all levels of the US government and industry to support this project. It has significant geopolitical overtones... The time may be right for this project to move promptly with very significant rewards to Bechtel for having made it possible.” [[ http://www.seen.org/pages/reports/crude.shtml | Institute for Policy Studies, 3/24/03 ]] ====== ((+ H.C. Clark )) June 21, 1984 us_knowledge_1980s_837 false 1 ------ The Export-Import Bank approves a preliminary commitment of $484.5 million in loan guarantees for the Iraq-Jordan Aqaba pipeline project. This commitment will remain in effect until 1986. [[ http://www.seen.org/pages/reports/crude.shtml | Institute for Policy Studies, 3/24/03 ]] ====== ((+ Export-Import Bank )) August 1984 us_knowledge_1980s_763 false 1 ------ The CIA establishes a direct intelligence link with Iraq. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/1980s/wpost121586.htm | Washington Post,12/15/1986 ]] ====== September 25, 1984 us_knowledge_1980s_826 false 1 ------ A Defense Intelligence Agency report concludes that Iraq will probably “continue to develop its formidable conventional and chemical capability, and probably pursue nuclear weapons.” (( US Department of State Press Briefing, March 30, 1984 )) ====== October 1, 1984-October 13, 1993 us_knowledge_1980s_839 false 1 ------ The Reagan and Bush administrations' commerce departments allow US companies and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to export chemical and biological agents as well as other dual-use items to Iraq, despite the country's known record of using chemical weapons. According to government regulations, the Commerce Department must send applications for export licenses which involve items related to national security to the appropriate US government agencies for review. Reviewing agencies include the State Department, Department of Defense, Energy Department, and Subgroup on Nuclear Export Coordination. But in many cases, the Commerce Department either does not send national security-related applications to these agencies for review, or if it does, it overrides a review agency's recommendation not to grant a license, allowing the item to be exported anyway. [[ http://www.cam.ac.uk/societies/casi/info/usdocs/usiraq80s90s.html | Hurd and Rangwala 12/12/2002 ]] [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0393967123/centerforcoop-20 | Jentleson 1994,p. 79 ]] [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0756707811/centerforcoop-20 | Timmerman 1991, pp. 202 and 410 n5 ]] ------ According to two Senate Committee Reports that will be completed in 1994, one on May 25 and another on October 7, dual-use chemical and biological agents exported to Iraq from the US significantly contributed to the country's weapons arsenal. The initial May report will say the agents “were not attenuated or weakened and were capable of reproduction” and the October report will reveal that the “microorganisms exported by the United States were identical to those the United Nations inspectors found and removed from the Iraqi biological warfare program.” The 1994 investigation also determines that other exports such as plans and equipment also contributed significantly to Iraq's military capabilities. “UN inspectors had identified many United States manufactured items that had been exported from the United States to Iraq under licenses issued by the Department of Commerce, and established] that these items were used to further Iraq's chemical and nuclear weapons development and its missile delivery system development program,” Donald Riegle, the chairman of the committee, will explain. He also says that between January 1985 and August 1990, the “executive branch of our government approved 771 different export licenses for sale of dual-use technology to Iraq.” (( US chemical and biological warfare-related dual-use exports to Iraq and their possible impact on the health consequences of the Persian Gulf War, May 25, 1994 )) (( US senate, committee on banking, housing, and urban affairs report, May 25, 1994 )) (( US chemical and biological warfare-related dual-use exports to Iraq and their possible impact on the health consequences of the Persian Gulf War, October 7, 1994 )) [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/27572 | Sunday Herald 9/8/2002 ]] [[ http://www.prisonplanet.com/news_alert_123102_iraq1.html | The Times 12/31/02 ]] [[ http://www.yellowtimes.org/article.php?sid=609&mode=thread&order=0 | Yellow Times 8/20/2002 ]] --- Biological and chemical agents --- --- * --- Bacillus Anthracis, cause of anthrax. [[ http://www.yellowtimes.org/article.php?sid=609&mode=thread&order=0 | Yellow Times 8/20/2002 ]] [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/27572 | Sunday Herald 9/8/2002 ]] --- * --- Clostridium Botulinum, a source of botulinum toxin. It was sold to Iraq right up until 1992. [[ http://www.yellowtimes.org/article.php?sid=609&mode=thread&order=0 | Yellow Times 8/20/2002 ]] [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/27572 | Sunday Herald 9/8/2002 ]] --- * --- Histoplasma Capsulatam, cause of a disease attacking lungs, brain, spinal cord and heart. [[ http://www.yellowtimes.org/article.php?sid=609&mode=thread&order=0 | Yellow Times 8/20/2002 ]] --- * --- Brucella Melitensis, a bacteria that can damage major organs. [[ http://www.yellowtimes.org/article.php?sid=609&mode=thread&order=0 | Yellow Times 8/20/2002 ]] [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/27572 | Sunday Herald 9/8/2002 ]] --- * --- Clotsridium Perfringens, a highly toxic bacteria causing systemic illness, gas gangrene. [[ http://www.yellowtimes.org/article.php?sid=609&mode=thread&order=0 | Yellow Times 8/20/2002 ]] [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/27572 | Sunday Herald 9/8/2002 ]] --- * --- Clostridium tetani, highly toxigenic. [[ http://www.yellowtimes.org/article.php?sid=609&mode=thread&order=0 | Yellow Times 8/20/2002 ]] [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/27572 | Sunday Herald 9/8/2002 ]] --- * --- Also, Escherichia Coli (E.Coli); genetic materials; human and bacterial DNA. [[ http://www.yellowtimes.org/article.php?sid=609&mode=thread&order=0 | Yellow Times 8/20/2002 ]] --- * --- VX nerve gas. [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/27572 | Sunday Herald 9/8/2002 ]] --- * --- Pralidoxine, an antidote to nerve gas which can also be reverse engineered to create actual nerve gas. This was sold to Iraq in March 1992, after the end of the Gulf War. [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/27572 | Sunday Herald 9/8/2002 ]] --- Other exports --- --- * --- Chemical warfare-agent production facility plans and technical drawings. [[ http://www.unitedforpeace.org/article.php?id=358 | Newsday 12/13/02 ]] --- * --- Chemical warfare filling equipment. [[ http://www.unitedforpeace.org/article.php?id=358 | Newsday 12/13/02 ]] --- * --- Missile fabrication equipment. [[ http://www.unitedforpeace.org/article.php?id=358 | Newsday 12/13/02 ]] --- * --- Missile system guidance equipment. [[ http://www.unitedforpeace.org/article.php?id=358 | Newsday 12/13/02 ]] --- * --- Graphics terminals to design and analyze rockets. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/1990s/wpost031191.htm | Washington Post,3/11/1991 ]] --- * --- Machine tools and lasers to extend ballistic missile range. [[ http://www.cam.ac.uk/societies/casi/info/usdocs/usiraq80s90s.html | Committee on Government Operations, House, Strengthening the Export Licensing System, 2 July 1991, section National Security vs. Export Promotion: Sales to Iraq, para. 16. cited in Hurd and Rangwala 12/12/2002 ]] --- * --- Computers to develop ballistic missiles and nuclear weapons. [[ http://www.cam.ac.uk/societies/casi/info/usdocs/usiraq80s90s.html | Sub-committee on Commerce, Consumer and Monetary Affairs of the House Committee on Government Operations, Strengthening the Export Licensing System, 2 July 1991cited in Hurd and Rangwala 12/12/2002 ]] --- * --- $1 million in computers, flight simulators and other technology products that went to Saad 16 research center in Iraq (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_781 ]]). [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/1990s/wpost031191.htm | Washington Post,3/11/1991 ]] ====== ((+ Donald Riegle )) {{ commentary_james_tuite_2 }} {{ duplicate_donald_rumsfeld_16 }} {{ duplicate_donald_riegle_2 }} November 26, 1984 us_knowledge_1980s_775 false 1 ------ The United States Government re-establishes full diplomatic ties with Baghdad even though it is fully aware that Iraq has been using chemical weapons in its war against Iran. [[ http://www.casi.org.uk/info/usdocs/usiraq80s90s.html | Gwertzman 11-27-1984 ]] [[ http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB82/ | National Security Archive, 2/25/2003 ]] ====== 1985 us_knowledge_1980s_777 false 1 ------ US Secretary of State George Shultz successfully convinces Rep. Howard Berman to drop a House bill that would have put Iraq back on the State Department's list of states that sponsor terrorism. Shultz's argument is that the United States is actively engaged in “diplomatic dialogue on this and other sensitive issues.” He asserts that “Iraq has effectively distanced itself from international terrorism” and insists that if the US discovers any evidence implicating Iraq in the support of terrorist groups, the US government “would promptly return Iraq to the list.” [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0393967123/centerforcoop-20 | Jentleson 1994, p. 54 ]] ====== ((+ George Shultz )) ((+ Howard Berman )) 1985-1989 us_knowledge_1980s_776 false 1 ------ Christopher Drogoul of the Atlanta branch of the Italian Banca Nazionale del Lavoro begins embezzling funds to Iraq. The funds consist of government backed loans meant for agricultural purposes as well as unreported loans that have been made in secret. While roughly half the funds will be used by Saddam Hussein's government to purchase agricultural goods, the remainder will be used to “supply Iraqi missile, chemical, biological and nuclear weapons programs with industrial goods such as computer controlled machine tools, computers, scientific instruments, special alloy steel and aluminum, chemicals, and other industrial goods.” Additionally, the money spent on agriculture will allow Saddam's regime to divert a significant portion of its own funds to the task of weapons development. [[ http://www.fas.org/spp/starwars/congress/1992/h920428g.htm | US Congress, 4/28/92 H2694 ]] [[ http://www.cjr.org/year/93/2/iraqgate.asp | Columbia Journalism Review, March/April 1993 ]] ------ Between 1985 and 1989 roughly $5 billion makes its way to Iraq from the US. Internal government memos reveal that both the Federal Reserve and Department of Agriculture suspect that Iraq is using these funds inappropriately. Iraq eventually defaults on the government-backed loans, leaving US taxpayers with $2 billion dollars in unpaid debts. [[ http://www.cjr.org/year/93/2/iraqgate.asp | Columbia Journalism Review, March/April 1993 ]] [[ http://www.mojones.com/mother_jones/JF93/pizzo.html | Mother Jones 2/1993 ]] ====== ((+ Christopher Drogoul )) ((+ Italian Banca Nazionale del Lavoro )) 1985-1986 us_knowledge_1980s_838 false 1 ------ Several current and former top US officials—including Attorney General Edwin Meese; National Security Adviser Robert McFarlane; former Secretary of Energy, Secretary of Defense, and Director of the CIA James Schlesinger; and former Secretary of Interior; national security advisor, and deputy secretary of state Judge William B. Clark—attempt to make arrangements that will provide security and insurance for the proposed Iraq-Jordan Aqaba pipeline in order to obtain Iraqi approval for the project. They go to extraordinary lengths to satisfy the preconditions Iraq has set for the piepline, including bribing Israeli Labor officials in exchange for assurances that Israel would not attack the pipeline and pushing the US government-backed Overseas Private Investment Fund and Citibank to provide a political-risk insurance fund with up to $400 million in coverage. Iraq and Jordan ultimately refuse the deal explaining that the plan “does not meet specific requirements of the Project and does not satisfy our objectives.” [[ http://www.seen.org/pages/reports/crude.shtml | Institute for Policy Studies, 3/24/03 ]] ====== ((+ Edwin Meese )) ((+ Robert C. McFarlane )) ((+ James R. Schlesinger )) ((+ William B. Clark )) ((+ Export-Import Bank )) 1986 us_knowledge_1980s_845 false 1 ------ US President Ronald Reagan sends a secret message to Saddam Hussein recommending that he order his military to intensify its air attacks against Iran. The message is delivered by Vice President Bush who conveys the message to Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, who in turn passes it on to Saddam Hussein. The talking points for Bush's meeting with Mubarak are authored by national security aide Howard Teicher. (( Teicher Affidavit )) [[ http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=228&fcategory_desc=Under%20Reported | NBC News 8/18/02 ]] ====== ((+ Saddam Hussein )) ((+ Ronald Reagan )) ((+ George Herbert Walker Bush )) ((+ Hosni Mubarak )) ((+ Howard Teicher )) 1986 us_knowledge_1980s_779 false 1 ------ The Central Intelligence Agency authors a classified report acknowledging that Iraq is still using chemical weapons as an “integral part” of its military strategy and that it is a “regular and recurring tactic.” [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0213-05.htm | New York Times, 2/13/03 ]] ====== 1986 us_knowledge_1980s_842 false 1 ------ The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sends “samples of a strain of West Nile virus to a microbiologist at a university in Basra.” [[ http://www.philly.com/mld/philly/news/nation/4185241.htm | Associated Press 12/21/02 ]] ====== Early 1986 us_knowledge_1980s_850 false 1 ------ Iraq uses poison gas in an unsuccessful attempt to recapture the Fao Peninsula from Iran. A UN team examines the bodies of 700 Iranian casualties which indicate that mustard and nerve gases were used. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/nation082602.htm | The Nation, 8/26/2002 ]] ====== 1986 us_knowledge_1980s_841 false 1 ------ The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sends samples of botulinum toxin and botulinum toxiod “directly to the Iraqi chemical and biological weapons complex at al-Muthanna.” [[ http://www.philly.com/mld/philly/news/nation/4185241.htm | Associated Press 12/21/02 ]] ====== May 2, 1986 us_knowledge_1980s_780 false 1 ------ Two batches each of bacillus anthracis and bacterium clostridium botulinum are shipped from the US to the Iraqi Ministry of Higher Education. [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/27572 | Sunday Herald, 9/8/2002 ]] ====== August 1986 us_knowledge_1980s_846 false 1 ------ The CIA establishes “a direct, top-secret Washington-Baghdad link to provide the Iraqis with better and more timely satellite information.” As a result, “The Iraqis receive the information from satellite photos ‘several hours’ after .... bombing raid[s]... ” The US-provided intelligence information is considered “vital” to Iraqi military strategy. (( Unnamed source with first-hand knowledge )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/1980s/wpost121586.htm | Washington Post,12/15/1986 ]] ====== October 1986 us_knowledge_1980s_847 false 1 ------ CIA Director William J. Casey meets with Iraqi Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz and Iraq's ambassador to the United States, Nizar Hamdoon, to make sure the new Washington-Baghdad intelligence link (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_846 ]]) is helping the Iraqis and to encourage more attacks on Iranian economic targets. (( Unnamed sources with first hand knowledge )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/1980s/wpost121586.htm | Washington Post,12/15/1986 ]] ====== ((+ Tariq Aziz )) ((+ Kizam Hamdoon )) ((+ William Casey )) November 1986 us_knowledge_1980s_781 false 1 ------ US intelligence learns that Iraq's “Saad 16” research center is attempting to develop ballistic missiles. This information is relayed by the Defense Department's Undersecretary for Trade Security Policy, Stephen Bryen, to the Commerce Department's (CD) Assistant Secretary for Trade Administration. In spite of this, the Commerce Department will subsequently approve more than $1 million in computer sales to the Iraqi research center over the next four years. In 1991, the House Committee on Government Operations will report that 40 percent of the equipment at the “Saad 16” research center had come from the US. [[ http://www.cam.ac.uk/societies/casi/info/usdocs/usiraq80s90s.html | Committee on Government Operations, House, Strengthening the Export Licensing System, 2 July 1991, para.10. cited in Hurd and Rangwala 12/12/02 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/1990s/wpost031191.htm | Washington Post,3/11/1991 ]] ====== ((+ Stephen Bryen )) November 13, 1986 us_knowledge_1980s_849 false 1 ------ US President Ronald Reagan says in a speech with regard to the Iran-Iraq war: “The slaughter on both sides has been enormous, and the adverse economic and political consequences for that vital region of the world have been growing. We sought to establish communications with both sides in that senseless struggle, so that we could assist in bringing about a cease-fire and, eventually, a settlement. We have sought to be evenhanded by working with both sides ... We have consistently condemned the violence on both sides.” [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/1980s/wpost121586.htm | Washington Post,12/15/1986 ]] ====== ((+ Ronald Reagan )) Late November 1986 us_knowledge_1980s_848 false 1 ------ Shortly after the Iran-Contra scandal is first revealed in the press, CIA Director William J. Casey meets with Iraq's ambassador to the United States, Nizar Hamdoon, a second time (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_847 ]]) and assures him that the new Washington-Baghdad intelligence link (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_846 ]]) will remain open. (( Unnamed sources with first hand knowledge )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/1980s/wpost121586.htm | Washington Post,12/15/1986 ]] ====== ((+ William Casey )) ((+ Kizam Hamdoon )) April 1987-March 1987 us_knowledge_1980s_782 false 1 ------ The United Nations dispatches experts to the conflict zone on a mission that documents Iraq's use of chemical weapons against Iran. [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0393967123/centerforcoop-20 | Jentleson 1994, p. 76 ]] ====== August 31, 1987 us_knowledge_1980s_783 false 1 ------ One batch each of salmonella and E coli is sent to the Iraqi State Company for Drug Industries with the approval of the US Department of Commerce. [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/27572 | Sunday Herald 9/8/2002 ]] ====== 1988 us_knowledge_1980s_784 false 1 ------ The US provides Baghdad with $500 million in credits to buy American farm products. [[ http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/news/opeds/2002/power_icc_wsj_071002.htm | Wall Street Journal 7/10/2002 ]] ====== Early 1988 us_knowledge_1980s_851 false 1 ------ Iraq uses chemical weapons to retake the Fao Peninsula. After the attacks, Lt. Col. Rick Francona, a defense intelligence officer, is dispatched to the battlefield where he meets with Iraqi officers. “He reported that Iraq had used chemical weapons to cinch its victory..... [He] saw zones marked off for chemical contamination, and containers for the drug atropine scattered around, indicating that Iraqi soldiers had taken injections to protect themselves from the effects of gas that might blow back over their positions.” (( Unnamed former Defense Intelligence Agency official interviewed by the New York Times in late 2002 )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/nytimes081802.htm | New York Times, 8/18/2002 ]] ====== 1988 us_knowledge_1980s_785 false 1 ------ The US increases the amount of military intelligence it provides Iraq, a significant portion of which is channeled to the Iraqis through the CIA's Baghdad office. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A52241-2002Dec29?language=printer | Francona 1999 cited in Washington Post,12/30/02 ]] ====== January 1988-February 1988 us_knowledge_1980s_787 false 1 ------ The US Commerce Department allows the export of equipment to Iraq for its SCUD missile program, allowing the Iraqis to increase the range of its SCUD missiles. [[ http://www.cam.ac.uk/societies/casi/info/usdocs/usiraq80s90s.html | Committee on Government Operations, House, Strengthening the Export Licensing System, 2 July 1991, para. 25 cited in Hurd and Rangwala, 12/12/02 ]] ====== Mid-1988-late 1988 us_knowledge_1980s_797 false 1 ------ A US delegation travels to Turkey at the request of the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee and confirms that Iraq is “using chemical weapons on its Kurdish population.” [[ http://www.cam.ac.uk/societies/casi/info/usdocs/usiraq80s90s.html | Committee on Foreign Relations, US Senate, Chemical Weapons Use in Kurdistan: Iraq's Final Offensive, October 1988 Hurd and Rangwala 12/12/2001 ]] ====== mid-August 1988 us_knowledge_1980s_793 false 1 ------ The United Nations sends a delegation of experts to the Iraq-Iran War conflict zone to investigate Iraq's use of chemical weapons. [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0393967123/centerforcoop-20 | Jentleson 1994, p. 76 ]] ------ However, Baghdad refuses to cooperate and the US makes no serious attempt to press Baghdad to comply with the UN Security Council's decision. US Secretary of State George Shultz downplays the charges against Iraq, arguing that interviews with Kurdish refugees in Turkey and “other sources” did not conclusively support the allegations being made against Saddam's government. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/nation082602.htm | The Nation 8/26/2002 ]] ====== ((+ George Shultz )) March 1988 us_knowledge_1980s_789 false 1 ------ According to several accounts, Iraq uses US-supplied Bell helicopters to deploy chemical weapons during its campaign to recapture lost territories in its war with Iran. One of the towns that is within the conflict zone is the Kurdish village of Halabja, with a population of about 70,000. Between 3,200 and 5,000 Halabja civilians are reportedly killed by poison gas. Other accounts, however, suggest that Iranian gas is responsible for the attack on Halabja, a version that is promoted by the Reagan administration in order to divert the blame away from Iraq. Some believe the US version of the Halabja massacre is “cooked up in the Pentagon.” A declassified State Department document “demonstrate[s] that US diplomats received instructions to press this line with US allies, and to decline to discuss the details.” [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/1990s/wpost031191.htm | Washington Post, 3/11/1991 ]] [[ http://www.casi.org.uk/info/usdocs/usiraq80s90s.html | Weinstein and Rempel, 2/13/1991 cited in Hurd and Rangwala, 12/21/2001 ]] [[ http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/ops/war/docs/3203/ | Johnson and Pelletiere, 12/10/1990 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0131-08.htm | New York Times, 1/31/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0117-01.htm | International Herald Tribune 1/17/03 ]] ====== March-April 1988 us_knowledge_1980s_790 false 1 ------ The United Nations sends experts to the Iraq-Iran war conflict zone to document Iraq's use of chemical weapons. [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0393967123/centerforcoop-20 | Jentleson 1994, p. 76 ]] ====== May 1988 us_knowledge_1980s_791 false 1 ------ During a symposium hosted by the US-Iraq Business Forum, Assistant Secretary of State Peter Burleighin encourages US companies to do business in Iraq. The business forum reportedly has strong ties to Baghdad. [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0393967123/centerforcoop-20 | Jentleson 1994, p. 84-85 ]] ====== ((+ Peter Burleighin )) July 1988 us_knowledge_1980s_786 false 1 ------ The United Nations dispatches two delegations of experts to the conflict zone on a mission that documents Iraq's use of chemical weapons against Iran. [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0393967123/centerforcoop-20 | Jentleson 1994, p. 76 ]] ====== August 1988 us_knowledge_1980s_792 false 1 ------ Iraq reportedly uses chemical weapons against northern Iraqi Kurds. [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0393967123/centerforcoop-20 | Jentleson 1994, p. 38 ]] ====== September 1988-December 1988 us_knowledge_1980s_795 false 1 ------ “65 licenses ... [are] granted for dual-use technology exports. This averages out as an annual rate of 260 licenses, more than double the rate for January through August 1988.” [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0393967123/centerforcoop-20 | Jentleson, 1994, p. 38 ]] ====== September 8, 1988 us_knowledge_1980s_796 false 1 ------ The US Senate unanimously passes the “Prevention of Genocide Act of 1988” which makes Iraq ineligible to receive US loans, military and non-military assistance, credits, credit guarantees and items subject to export controls. It also makes it illegal for the US to import Iraqi oil. [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0393967123/centerforcoop-20 | Jentleson 1994, p. 78 ]] [[ http://www.cam.ac.uk/societies/casi/info/usdocs/usiraq80s90s.html | US Senate, “Prevention of Genocide Act of 1988,” 100th Congress, 2nd session, 8 September 1988 cited in Hurd and Rangwala, 12/12/2001 ]] ------ Immediately after the bill is passed by the Senate, the Reagan administration launches a campaign to prevents its passage in the House. With the help of its allies in the House, the administration succeeds in killing the bill on the last day of the legislative session. [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0393967123/centerforcoop-20 | Jentleson 1994, p. 78 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0213-05.htm | New York Times, 2/13/03 ]] ====== September 8, 1988 us_knowledge_1980s_794 false 1 ------ In a memo regarding the issue of Iraq's use of chemical weapons, Assistant Secretary of State Richard W. Murphy writes, “The US-Iraqi relationship is . . . important to our long-term political and economic objectives. We believe that economic sanctions will be useless or counterproductive to influence the Iraqis.” [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A52241-2002Dec29?language=printer | Washington Post,12/30/02 ]] ====== ((+ Richard W. Murphy )) October 1988 us_knowledge_1980s_798 false 1 ------ The US Senate Foreign Relations Committee confirms reports that between 1984 and 1988 “Iraq repeatedly and effectively used poison gas on Iran.” [[ http://www.cam.ac.uk/societies/casi/info/usdocs/usiraq80s90s.html | Committee on Foreign Relations, US Senate, Chemical Weapons Use in Kurdistan: Iraq's Final Offensive, October 1988 in Hurd and Rangwala, 12/12/2001 ]] ====== December 1988 us_knowledge_1980s_799 false 1 ------ Dow Chemical sells $1.5 million of pesticides to Iraq. An Export-Import Bank official says in a memorandum that he can find “no reason” to prevent the sale. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A52241-2002Dec29?language=printer | Washington Post,12/30/02 ]] ====== 1989 us_knowledge_1980s_806 false 1 ------ The US learns that the Iraqi research center, “Saad 16,” is involved in the development of chemical and nuclear weapons. Three years earlier it had been discovered that the facility was developing ballistic missiles (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_781 ]]). The Commerce Department will continue to ship advanced technology products to the center. [[ http://www.cam.ac.uk/societies/casi/info/usdocs/usiraq80s90s.html | Committee on Government Operations, House, “Strengthening the Export Licensing System” cited in Hurd and Rangwala 12/12/2001 ]] ====== 1989 us_knowledge_1980s_802 false 1 ------ Rep. Henry Gonzalez (D-Tex) states that in spite of the CIA and the Bush administration's knowledge that Iraq's Ministry of Industry and Military Industrialization (MIMI) was “involved in Iraq's clandestine nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons programs and missile programs ... the Bush administration [approved] dozens of export licenses that [allowed] United States and foreign firms to ship sophisticated US dual-use equipment to MIMI-controlled weapons factories.” [[ http://www.cam.ac.uk/societies/casi/info/usdocs/usiraq80s90s.html | Statement by Rep. Henry Gonzalez (D-Tex), “Details on Iraq's Procurement Network,” 102nd Congress, 2nd session, 10 August 1992 cited in Hurd and Rangwala, 12/12/2001 ]] ====== ((+ Henry Gonzalez )) March 1989 us_knowledge_1980s_800 false 1 ------ CIA director William Webster acknowledges to Congress that Iraq is the largest producer of chemical weapons in the world. [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0393967123/centerforcoop-20 | US Congress, Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations, “Chemical and Biological Weapons Threat: The Urgent Need for Remedies,” Hearings, 101st Congress, 1st Session, 1 March 1989, pp. 27-45 cited in Jentleson 1994, p. 106 ]] ====== ((+ William H. Webster )) March 24, 1989 us_knowledge_1980s_801 false 1 ------ Secretary of State James Baker receives a memo from the State Department informing him that Iraq is aggressively developing chemical and biological weapons, as well as new missiles. In spite of this disturbing intelligence, the memo also instructs Baker to express the administration's “interest in broadening US-Iraqi ties” to Iraqi Undersecretary Kizam Hamdoon. [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0393967123/centerforcoop-20 | State Department memorandum, “Meeting with Iraqi Under Secretary Hamdoon,” 24 March 1989, cited in Jentleson 1994, p. 107 ]] ====== ((- Kizam Hamdoon )) ((+ James Baker )) August 1989 us_knowledge_1980s_803 false 1 ------ Christopher Drogoul, the manager of the Italian Banca Nazionale del Lavoro's branch in Atlanta, is charged with making unauthorized, clandestine and illegal loans to Iraq. The loans were used by Iraq to develop its weapons programs (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_776 ]]). [[ http://www.cjr.org/year/93/2/iraqgate.asp | Columbia Journalism Review, March/April 1993 ]] ====== ((+ Christopher Drogoul )) ((+ Italian Banca Nazionale del Lavoro )) October 2, 1989 us_knowledge_1980s_804 false 1 ------ By this date, all international banks have cut off loans to Iraq. Notwithstanding, President Bush signs National Security Directive 26 establishing closer ties to the Baghdad regime and providing $1 billion in agricultural loan guarantees to that government. These funds allow Iraq to continue its development of weapons of mass destruction. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/1980s/uspresident100289.htm | US President 10/2/1989 ]] [[ http://www.casi.org.uk/info/usdocs/usiraq80s90s.html | Frantz and Waas 2/23/1992 cited in Hurd and Rangwala, 12/21/2001 ]] [[ http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/news/opeds/2002/power_icc_wsj_071002.htm | Wall Street Journal 7/10/2002 ]] ====== ((+ George Herbert Walker Bush )) 1990 us_knowledge_1980s_805 false 1 ------ In response to a US company's concern that their product might be used by Iraq to develop nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles, the US Department of Commerce asks Iraq's government to provide a written guarantee that the company's product will be used for civilian purposes only. The Commerce Department tells the company that a license and review is unnecessary, and that there is no reason why the product in question should not be exported to Iraq. [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0393967123/centerforcoop-20 | Jentleson 1994, p. 110 ]] ====== July 18, 1990-August 1, 1990 us_knowledge_1980s_1181 false 1 ------ The Bush administration's Commerce Department approves $4.8 million in sales of advanced technology products to Iraq's “MIMI” and “Saad 16” research centers. “MIMI” is known to be a development facility for chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons programs (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_802 ]]) and “Saad 16” is known to be involved in the development of chemical and nuclear weapons (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_781 ]]) (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_781 ]]). [[ http://www.cam.ac.uk/societies/casi/info/usdocs/usiraq80s90s.html | Committee on Government Operations, House, “Strengthening the Export Licensing System” cited in Hurd and Rangwala 12/12/2001 ]] ====== July 25, 1990 us_knowledge_1980s_807 false 1 ------ US ambassador to Baghdad, April Glaspie, meets with Saddam Hussein and promises him that Bush wants “better and deeper relations.” She also claims that the President is an “intelligent man,” adding, “He is not going to declare an economic war against Iraq.” [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A52241-2002Dec29?language=printer | Washington Post,12/30/02 ]] [[ http://www.prisonplanet.com/news_alert_123102_iraq1.html | The Times 12/31/02 ]] ====== ((+ George Herbert Walker Bush )) ((+ April Glaspie )) ((+ Saddam Hussein )) August 1, 1990 us_knowledge_1980s_808 false 1 ------ The Bush administration approves the sale of $695,000 in advanced data transmission devices to Iraq. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/1990s/wpost031191.htm | Washington Post,3/11/1991 ]] ====== August 2, 1990 us_knowledge_1980s_809 false 1 ------ Iraq invades Kuwait. In response, the US suspends National Security Directive 26 (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_804 ]]), which established closer ties with Baghdad and mandated $1 billion in agricultural loan guarantees to Iraq. [[ http://www.casi.org.uk/info/usdocs/usiraq80s90s.html | Frantz and Waas, 2/23/1992 ]] ====== 1992 us_knowledge_1980s_810 false 1 ------ The last shipment of Clostridium Botulinum, a source of botulinum toxin, is sent to Iraq. [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/27572 | Sunday Herald 9/8/2002 ]] ====== March 1992 us_knowledge_1980s_811 false 1 ------ Iraq receives its last shipment from the US of Pralidoxine, an antidote to nerve gas which can also be reverse engineered to create actual nerve gas. [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/27572 | Sunday Herald 9/8/2002 ]] ====== June 23, 1992 us_knowledge_1980s_812 false 1 ------ Frank DeGeorge, inspector general for the Commerce Department, concedes that the department's officials altered 66 export licenses for Iraq prior to turning them over to congressional investigators. The export licenses had been changed from “vehicles designed for military use” to “commercial utility cargo trucks.” [[ http://www.mediafilter.org/MFF/BushCIAstonewall.html | Covert Action Quarterly ]] ====== ((+ Frank DeGeorge )) July 9, 1992 us_knowledge_1980s_813 false 1 ------ The House Judiciary Committee asks US Attorney General William Barr to appoint an independent counsel to investigate Iraqgate. [[ http://www.mediafilter.org/MFF/BushCIAstonewall.html | Covert Action Quarterly ]] ====== ((+ William Barr )) August 1, 1992 us_knowledge_1980s_814 false 1 ------ US Attorney General William Barr rejects the House Judiciary's request for him to appoint an independent counsel (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_813 ]]), reasoning that the committee's accusations are too “vague.” He informs them that the Justice Department will instead continue with its own “investigation” of Iraqgate. [[ http://www.mediafilter.org/MFF/BushCIAstonewall.html | Covert Action Quarterly ]] ====== ((+ William Barr )) November 4, 1992-November 5, 1992 us_knowledge_1980s_815 false 1 ------ Rita Machakos, a paralegal at the Department of Justice's employment office, witnesses an employee of the US Department of Agriculture “spending an entire weekend shredding documents that described the administration's role in obtaining $5.5 billion in US-taxpayer-guaranteed agricultural loans for Iraq from the Banca Nazionale del Lavoro (BNL) (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_776 ]]).” [[ http://www.mojones.com/mother_jones/JF93/pizzo.html | Mother Jones 2/1993 ]] ====== ((+ Italian Banca Nazionale del Lavoro )) ((+ Rita Machakos )) July 21, 1995 us_knowledge_1980s_1180 false 1 ------ “David Satcher, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides Senator Donald Riegel (D-Mich.) with a complete list of all biological materials that the Center supplied Iraq between October 1, 1984 and October 13, 1993.” At the time of these deliveries, Iraq claimed that the samples were being used for legitimate medical research. (( Letter from Center for Disease Control & Prevention to Senator Donald Riegle )) [[ http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/sep2002/nf20020920_3025.htm | Business Week 9/20/2002 ]] [[ http://www.philly.com/mld/philly/news/nation/4185241.htm | Associated Press 12/21/02 ]] ====== ((+ David Satcher )) September 19, 2002 us_knowledge_1980s_788 false 1 ------ Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld is subjected to intense questioning by Senator Robert Byrd about the United States' role in providing Iraq with the materials for its chemical and biological weapons and Rumsfeld's December 20, 1983 visit to Baghdad (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_761 ]]). (( US Congressional Record: September 20, 2002 (Senate) Page S8987-S8998 )) --- Sen. Robert Byrd --- “Mr. Secretary, to your knowledge, did the United States help Iraq to acquire the building blocks of biological weapons during the Iran-Iraq War? Are we, in fact, now facing the possibility of reaping what we have sown?” (( US Congressional Record: September 20, 2002 (Senate) Page S8987-S8998 )) --- Defense Secr. Donald Rumsfeld --- “Certainly not to my knowledge. I have no knowledge of United States companies or government being involved in assisting Iraq develop chemical, biological or nuclear weapons.” (( US Congressional Record: September 20, 2002 (Senate) Page S8987-S8998 )) --- Sen. Robert Byrd --- “[After reading Mr. Rumsfeld excerpts from a Newsweek article] Let me ask you again: Did the United States help Iraq to acquire the building blocks of biological weapons during the Iran-Iraq War? Are we, in fact, now facing the possibility of reaping what we have sown?” (( US Congressional Record: September 20, 2002 (Senate) Page S8987-S8998 )) --- Defense Secr. Donald Rumsfeld --- “I have not read the article.... I was, for a period in late '83 and early '84, asked by President Reagan to serve as Middle East envoy after the Marines—241 Marines were killed in Beirut. As part of my responsibilities I did visit Baghdad. I did meet with Mr. Tariq Aziz. And I did meet with Saddam Hussein and spent some time visiting with them about the war they were engaged in with Iran. At the time our concern, of course, was Syria and Syria's role in Lebanon and Lebanon's role in the Middle East and the terrorist acts that were taking place. As a private citizen I was assisting only for a period of months. I have never heard anything like what you've read, I have no knowledge of it whatsoever, and I doubt it.” (( US Congressional Record: September 20, 2002 (Senate) Page S8987-S8998 )) ====== ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) ((+ Robert C. Byrd )) {{ duplicate_donald_riegle_3 }} January 17, 2003 us_knowledge_1980s_852 false 1 ------ Joost R. Hiltermann pens an op-ed in the International Herald Tribune titled, “America Didn't Seem to Mind Poison Gas,” in which he comments on how the US had sought to protect Iraq in 1988 from international condemnation after its attacks on Halabja using poison gas (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_789 ]]). (( Letter from Center for Disease Control & Prevention to Senator Donald Riegle )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0117-01.htm | International Herald Tribune 1/17/03 ]] ====== ((+ Joost R. Hiltermann )) {{ excerpt_joost_r._hiltermann_3 }} {{ excerpt_joost_r._hiltermann_4 }} {{ excerpt_joost_r._hiltermann_2 }} January 21, 2003 us_knowledge_1980s_853 false 1 ------ Corpwatch reporter Russell Mokhiber asks White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer to comment on a January 17 op-ed piece in the International Herald Tribune (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_852 ]]) which criticized the Bush administration for its hypocritical condemnation of Iraq's 1988 poison gas attacks on Halabja (see [[ us_knowledge_1980s_789 ]]). [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0121-09.htm | White House 1/21/03 ]] --- Mokhiber --- “You and the President have repeatedly said that Saddam Hussein gassed his own people. The biggest such attack was in Halabja in March 1988, where some 6,800 Kurds were killed. Last week, in an article in the International Herald Tribune, Joost Hiltermann writes that while it was Iraq that carried out the attack, the United States at the time, fully aware that it was Iraq, accused Iran. This was apparently part of the US tilt toward Iraq in the Iran-Iraq war. The tilt included billions of dollars in loan guarantees. Sensing he had carte blanche, Saddam escalated his resort to gas warfare—graduating to ever more lethal agents. So, you and the President have said that Saddam has repeatedly gassed his own people. Why do you leave out the part that the United States in effect gave Saddam the green light?” [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0121-09.htm | White House 1/21/03 ]] --- Ari Fleischer --- “Russell, I speak for President George W. Bush in the year 2003. If you have a question about statements that were purportedly made by the administration in 1988, you need to address those somewhere other than this White House. I can't speak for that. I don't know if it is accurate, inaccurate, but you have all the means to ask those questions yourself.” [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0121-09.htm | White House 1/21/03 ]] --- Mokhiber --- “The San Francisco Chronicle reported yesterday that a number of major American corporations—including Hewlett-Packard and Bechtel —helped Saddam Hussein beef up its military in the 1980s. And also the Washington Post, last month in a front-page article by Michael Dobbs said the United States during the '80s supplied Iraq with cluster bombs, intelligence and chemical and biological agents. In that same article, they reported that Donald Rumsfeld, now Secretary of Defense, went to Baghdad in December 1983 and met with Saddam Hussein, and this was at a time when Iraq was using chemical weapons almost on a daily basis in defiance of international conventions. So there are some specifics, and the question is—if Iraq is part of the axis of evil, why aren't the United States and these American corporations part of the axis of evil for helping him out during his time of need?” [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0121-09.htm | White House 1/21/03 ]] --- Ari Fleischer --- “Russell, as I indicated, I think that you have to make a distinction between chemical and biological. And, clearly, in a previous era, following the fall of the Shah of Iran, when there was a focus on the risks that were underway in the region as a result of the rise of Islamic fundamentalism in Iran, different administrations, beginning with President Carter, reached different conclusions about the level of military cooperation vis-a-vis Iraq. Obviously, Saddam Hussein since that time has used whatever material he had for the purpose therefore of attacking Kuwait, attacking Saudi Arabia, attacking Israel. And, obviously, as circumstances warrant, we have an approach that requires now the world to focus on the threat that Saddam Hussein presents and that he presents this threat because of his desire to continue to acquire weapons and his willingness to use those weapons against others.” [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0121-09.htm | White House 1/21/03 ]] --- Mokhiber --- “If I could follow up on that— ” [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0121-09.htm | White House 1/21/03 ]] --- Ari Fleischer --- “Russell. Russell.” [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0121-09.htm | White House 1/21/03 ]] --- Mokhiber --- “If I could follow-up on it. You and the President have repeatedly said one of the reasons Saddam is part of the axis of evil is because he's gassed his own people. Well, he gassed his own people with our help. You saw the Washington Post, article, didn't you, by Michael Dobbs?” [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0121-09.htm | White House 1/21/03 ]] --- Ari Fleischer --- “I think that statement is not borne out by the facts.” [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0121-09.htm | White House 1/21/03 ]] --- Mokhiber --- “Did you see the Post, article by Dobbs?” [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0121-09.htm | White House 1/21/03 ]] --- Ari Fleischer --- “I think that he gassed his own people as a result of his decisions to use his weapons to gas his own people.” [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0121-09.htm | White House 1/21/03 ]] --- Mokhiber --- “But who gave him the weapons?” [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0121-09.htm | White House 1/21/03 ]] --- Ari Fleischer --- “And I think the suggestion that you blame America for Iraq's actions is way beyond the pale.” [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0121-09.htm | White House 1/21/03 ]] --- Mokhiber --- “Who gave him the weapons?” [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0121-09.htm | White House 1/21/03 ]] ------ (Ari moves on.) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0121-09.htm | White House 1/21/03 ]] ====== ((+ Ari Fleischer ))