Torture, rendition, and other abuses against captives in Iraq, Afghanistan, and elsewhere Torture in Iraq, Afghanistan and elsewhere torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere us_torture_abuse torture_themes 1993-2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_854 1 false Selected foreign terrorism suspects in custody of the United States government who are unresponsive to interrogations are covertly &#8220;rendered&#8221; to foreign countries for further questioning. http://www.infowars.com/saved%20pages/Police_state/torture_wapost.htm Washington Post, 3/11/2002 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A15981-2004May10?language=printer Washington Post, 5/11/2004 News Article http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/09/international/09DETA.html The New York Times, 3/9/2003 News Article unnamed_us_officials source The countries receiving the rendered suspects are often known human rights violators like Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Morocco, which have histories of using torture and other unlawful methods of interrogation. The rendition program often ignores local and international extradition laws. http://www.infowars.com/saved%20pages/Police_state/torture_wapost.htm Washington Post, 3/11/2002 News Article unnamed_us_officials source In fact, US officials have admitted that the justification for rendition is sometimes fabricated&#8212;the US requests that a suspect be rendered, and then the allied foreign government charges the person &#8220;with a crime of some sort.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37943-2002Dec25.html Washington Post, 12/26/2002 News Article http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fg-mullah1feb01,0,7768057.story?coll=la%2Dhome%2Dheadlines Los Angeles Times, 2/1/2003 News Article unnamed_us_officials source After a suspect is relocated to another country, US intelligence agents may &#8220;remain closely involved&#8221; in the interrogations, sometimes even &#8220;doing [them] together&#8221; with the foreign government's intelligence service. The frequency of renditions will increase dramatically after the September 11 attacks (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_859 ]]). http://www.infowars.com/saved%20pages/Police_state/torture_wapost.htm Washington Post, 3/11/2002 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A15981-2004May10?language=printer Washington Post, 5/11/2004 News Article http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/09/international/09DETA.html The New York Times, 3/9/2003 News Article unnamed_us_officials source Amnesty International's 2003 annual report says that in Egypt, &#8220;Torture and ill-treatment of detainees continued to be systematic&#8221; during 2002. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37943-2002Dec25.html Washington Post, 12/26/2002 News Article http://www.infowars.com/saved%20pages/Police_state/torture_wapost.htm Washington Post, 3/11/2002 News Article http://web.amnesty.org/report2003/egy-summary-eng Amnesty International, 2003 News Article The State Department's 2001 annual human rights report states, &#8220;The most frequently alleged methods of torture include sleep deprivation, beatings on the soles of the feet, prolonged suspension with ropes in contorted positions and extended solitary confinement.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37943-2002Dec25.html Washington Post, 12/26/2002 News Article http://www.infowars.com/saved%20pages/Police_state/torture_wapost.htm Washington Post, 3/11/2002 News Article Morocco &#8220;has a documented history of torture, as well as longstanding ties to the CIA.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37943-2002Dec25.html Washington Post, 12/26/2002 News Article http://www.infowars.com/saved%20pages/Police_state/torture_wapost.htm Washington Post, 3/11/2002 News Article Amnesty International's 2003 annual report notes: &#8220;Hundreds of political prisoners remained in prolonged detention without trial or following sentences imposed after unfair trials. Some were ill but were still held in harsh conditions. Ten prisoners of conscience were sentenced to up to 10 years' imprisonment after unfair trials before the Supreme State Security Court (SSSC) or the Criminal Court. There were fewer reports of torture and ill-treatment, but cases from previous years were not investigated. At least two people died in custody.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37943-2002Dec25.html Washington Post, 12/26/2002 News Article http://web.amnesty.org/report2003/syr-summary-eng Amnesty International, 2003 News Article &#8220;Based largely on the Central American human rights experience, we don't do torture, and we can't countenance torture in terms of we can't know of it. [But if a country offers the US information that was acquired from interrogations] we can use the fruits of it.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37943-2002Dec25.html Washington Post, 12/26/2002 News Article statement &#8220;People tend to regard it as an extra-judicial kidnapping; it's not. There is a long history of this. It has been done for decades. It's absolutely legal&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A15981-2004May10?language=printer Washington Post, 5/11/2004 News Article statement &#8220;We don't kick the shit out of them. We send them to other countries so they can kick the shit out of them.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37943-2002Dec25.html Washington Post, 12/26/2002 News Article statement &#8220;[O]btaining human intelligence from foreign governments is fraught with its own downside risk: such intelligence, filtered through a foreign government, may contain information tainted by that governments biases or hidden policy objectives.&#8221; http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/02summer/smith.htm Parameter, Summer 2002, pgs. 33-46 News Article http://www.petermaass.com/core.cfm?p=1&amp;mag=99&amp;magtype=1 New York Times, 3/8/2002 News Article commentary &#8220;In some cases [involving interrogations in Saudi Arabia], we're able to observe through one-way mirrors the live investigations. In others, we usually get summaries. We will feed questions to their investigators. They're still very much in control.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37943-2002Dec25.html Washington Post, 12/26/2002 News Article statement hr_rendition August 21, 1996 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_984 1 false The War Crimes Act (HR 3680) becomes Public Law No: 104-192. It prohibits Americans&#8212;top officials and soldiers alike&#8212;from committing &#8220;grave breaches&#8221; of the Geneva Conventions. It states: &#8220;Whoever, whether inside or outside the United States, commits a grave breach of the Geneva Conventions,&#8221; provided that the perpetrator or the victim is a member of the US military or a national of the US, &#8220;shall be fined under this title or imprisoned for life or any term of years, or both, and if death results to the victim, shall also be subject to the penalty of death.&#8221; http://conversations.tamu.edu/topics/2001fall/torture.html Newsweek, 11/5/2001 News Article us_104th_congress,_h._r._3680 source hr_torture 1998 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_856 1 false Talaat Fouad Qassem, 38, a known leader of the Islamic Group, an Egyptian extremist organization, is arrested and detained in Croatia as he travels from Bosnia to Denmark, where he has been granted political asylum. Qassem, allegedly an associate of Ayman Zawahiri, the &#8220;number-two man in Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda network,&#8221; is questioned aboard a US ship off the Croatian coast and then sent to Cairo, Egypt &#8220;where a military tribunal has already sentenced him to death in absentia.&#8221; http://www.infowars.com/saved%20pages/Police_state/torture_wapost.htm Washington Post, 3/11/2002 News Article unnamed_egyptian_lawyers source ayman_zawahiri activeparticipant talaat_fouad_qassem activeparticipant hr_rendition 1998 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_857 1 false CIA officers working with police in Albania arrest and detain five members of Egyptian Islamic Jihad who the CIA suspects are planning to bomb the US Embassy in Tirana, Albania's capital. After only three days of interrogation, the five men are &#8220;flown to Egypt aboard a plane that [is] chartered by the CIA&#8221; where two of them are subsequently put to death. http://www.infowars.com/saved%20pages/Police_state/torture_wapost.htm Washington Post, 3/11/2002 News Article hr_rendition 1998 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_855 1 false Walter Schumm, a retired Army Reserve colonel, writes a piece in the Military Review making the observation that few military officers understand the legal requirements for handling prisoners. In one part of the essay he notes, &#8220;It only takes one improperly trained soldier among a thousand to commit an offense against the Geneva Conventions that would cause our nation considerable embarrassment.&#8221; http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2004-05-13-warnings_x.htm USA Today, 5/13/2004 News Article walter_schumm activeparticipant hr_torture hr_indications (September 11, 2001-2004) torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_859 1 false After the September 11 attacks, the frequency of US-requested &#8220;renditions&#8221; (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_854 ]]) increases, and by the end of 2002, the number of terrorism suspects sent to foreign countries is in the thousands. Many of the renditions involve captives from the US operation in Afghanistan. http://www.infowars.com/saved%20pages/Police_state/torture_wapost.htm Washington Post, 3/11/2002 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37943-2002Dec25.html Washington Post, 12/26/2002 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A15981-2004May10?language=printer Washington Post, 5/11/2004 News Article http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fg-mullah1feb01,0,7768057.story?coll=la%2Dhome%2Dheadlines Los Angeles Times, 2/1/2003 News Article unnamed_western_diplomats,_intelligence_sources,_officials source &#8220;There was a debate after 9/11 about how to make people disappear,&#8221; a former intelligence official will tell the New York Times in May 2004. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0513-03.htm New York Times, 5/13/2004 News Article unnamed_former_administration_official source &#8220;This is a very highly classified area, but I have to say that all you need to know: There was a before 9/11, and there was an after 9/11. After 9/11 the gloves come off.&#8221; http://intelligence.senate.gov/0209hrg/020926/black.pdf Senate Intelligence Committee 9/26/2002 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37943-2002Dec25.html Washington Post, 12/26/2002 News Article statement &#8220;After September 11, these sorts of movements have been occurring all the time. It allows us to get information from terrorists in a way we can't do on US soil.&#8221; http://www.infowars.com/saved%20pages/Police_state/torture_wapost.htm The Washington Post, 3/11/02 News Article statement hr_rendition (Late September 2001) torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_990 1 false Shortly after the September 11 attacks, President George Bush signs a secret order authorizing the CIA to set up a network of secret detention and interrogation centers outside the United States where high value prisoners can be subjected to harsh interrogation tactics. http://msnbc.msn.com/id/4989422/site/newsweek/ Newsweek, 5/24/2004 News Article george_w._bush activeparticipant hr_torture hr_highlevel (October 2001-2004) torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_860 1 false US intelligence officers at a CIA-run interrogation center (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_858 ]]) at Bagram Air Base in Afghanistan use torture techniques to interrogate detainees. The captives&#8212;imprisoned in metal shipping containers&#8212;are subjected to a variety of &#8220;stress and duress&#8221; interrogation tactics. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37943-2002Dec25.html Washington Post, 12/26/2002 News Article www.nytimes.com/2003/03/09/international/09DETA.html The New York Times, 3/9/2003 News Article unnamed_former_intelligence_sources_and_current_us_national_security_officials,_several_of_whom_have_witnessed_the_actual_handling_of_prisoners source The US captors force the detainees to stand or kneel for hours, wear black hoods or spray-painted goggles for long periods of time, and stand or sit in awkward and painful positions. They are also thrown into walls, kicked, punched, deprived of sleep and subjected to flashing lights and loud noises. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37943-2002Dec25.html Washington Post, 12/26/2002 News Article http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR511142003 Amnesty International, 8/19/2003 News Article www.nytimes.com/2003/03/09/international/09DETA.html The New York Times, 3/9/2003 News Article unnamed_former_intelligence_sources_and_current_us_national_security_officials,_several_of_whom_have_witnessed_the_actual_handling_of_prisoners source Some detainees tell of being &#8220;chained to the ceiling, their feet shackled, [and being] unable to move for hours at a time, day and night.&#8221; http://www.intellnet.org/news/2003/03/04/17509-1.html New York Times, 3/4/03 News Article Psychological interrogation methods such as &#8220;feigned friendship, respect, cultural sensitivity&#8221; are used as well. For instance, female officers sometimes conduct the interrogations, a technique described as being &#8220;a psychologically jarring experience for men reared in a conservative Muslim culture where women are never in control.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37943-2002Dec25.html Washington Post, 12/26/2002 News Article unnamed_former_intelligence_sources_and_current_us_national_security_officials,_several_of_whom_have_witnessed_the_actual_handling_of_prisoners source Human rights monitors are not permitted to visit the facility. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37943-2002Dec25.html Washington Post, 12/26/2002 News Article http://www.why-war.com/news/2002/12/29/usdenies.html Agence France Presse, 12/29/2002 News Article The US claims that the interrogation techniques used at Bagram do not violate international laws. &#8220;Our interrogation techniques are adapted,&#8221; General Daniel McNeil claims in early March 2003. &#8220;They are in accordance with what is generally accepted as interrogation techniques, and if incidental to the due course of this investigation, we find things that need to be changed, we will certainly change them.&#8221; http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,909295,00.html The Guardian, 3/7/2003 News Article &#8220;Our interrogation techniques are adapted. They are in accordance with what is generally accepted as interrogation techniques, and if incidental to the due course of this investigation, we find things that need to be changed, we will certainly change them.&#8221; http://www.intellnet.org/news/2003/03/04/17509-1.html New York Times, 3/4/03 News Article duplicate daniel_mcneil activeparticipant hr_torture (October 2001-2004) torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_858 1 false The United States government creates a multi-layered international system of detention centers and prison camps where suspected terrorists, enemy combatants, and prisoners of war are detained and interrogated. http://www.infowars.com/saved%20pages/Police_state/torture_wapost.htm Washington Post, 3/11/2002 News Article The Washington Post reports in May 2004: &#8220;The largely hidden array includes three systems that only rarely overlap: the Pentagon-run network of prisons, jails and holding facilities in Iraq, Afghanistan, Guantanamo and elsewhere; small and secret CIA-run facilities where top al-Qaeda and other figures are kept; and interrogation rooms of foreign intelligence services&#8212;some with documented records of torture&#8212;to which the US government delivers or &#8216;renders&#8217; mid- or low-level terrorism suspects for questioning.... The detainees have no conventional legal rights: no access to a lawyer; no chance for an impartial hearing; and ... no apparent guarantee of humane treatment accorded prisoners of war under the Geneva Conventions or civilians in US jails.&#8221; http://www.infowars.com/saved%20pages/Police_state/torture_wapost.htm Washington Post, 3/11/2002 News Article One administration official tells the New York Times that some high-level detainees may be held indefinitely. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0513-03.htm New York Times, 5/13/2004 News Article unnamed_administration_official source Secrecy permeates the system. For example, renditions are done covertly and the locations of the secret CIA-run interrogation centers are considered &#8220;so sensitive that even the four leaders of the House and Senate intelligence committees, who are briefed on all covert operations, do not know them.&#8221; http://www.infowars.com/saved%20pages/Police_state/torture_wapost.htm Washington Post, 3/11/2002 News Article In May 2004, it is estimated that there are 10,000 prisoners being held is US facilities around the world. They come from a number of countries including the Palestinian territories, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Sweden, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom and Yemen. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/storydisplay.cfm?storyID=3566058 &amp;thesection=news&amp;thesubsection=world&amp;thesecondsubsection=&amp;reportID=61564 The New Zealand Herald, 5/13/2004 News Article hr_rendition hr_torture hr_highlevel (October 2001) torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_932 1 false The US negotiates &#8220;status of force&#8221; agreements with several foreign governments allowing the US to set up CIA-run interrogation facilities and granting immunity to US personnel and private contractors. The facilities were authorized by a secret presidential directive that had been issued shortly after September 11 (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_990 ]]). http://msnbc.msn.com/id/4989422/site/newsweek/ Newsweek, 5/24/2004 News Article The CIA-run centers are kept completely under wraps. Prisoners are secretly held in custody and hidden from International Human rights organizations. In these facilities, there are numerous incidents of abuse, torture and murder. http://www.infowars.com/saved%20pages/Police_state/torture_wapost.htm Washington Post, 3/11/2002 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0513-03.htm New York Times, 5/13/2004 News Article report_of_the_icrc_on_the_treatment_by_coalition_forces_of_pows source Human rights organizations have identified several places where they secret detentions centers are located, including: Asadabad, Kabul, Jalalabad, Gardez, Khost, Bagram, Kabul (known as ?the Pit?) http://www.humanrightsfirst.org/us_law/PDF/EndingSecretDetentions_web.pdf Human Rights First, 6/2004 News Article http://www.humanrightsfirst.org/media/2004_alerts/0617.htm Human Rights First, 6/17/2004 News Article Kohat (near the border of Afghanistan), Alizai. http://www.humanrightsfirst.org/us_law/PDF/EndingSecretDetentions_web.pdf Human Rights First, 6/2004 News Article http://www.humanrightsfirst.org/media/2004_alerts/0617.htm Human Rights First, 6/17/2004 News Article Diego Garcia (British Possession). http://www.humanrightsfirst.org/us_law/PDF/EndingSecretDetentions_web.pdf Human Rights First, 6/2004 News Article http://www.humanrightsfirst.org/media/2004_alerts/0617.htm Human Rights First, 6/17/2004 News Article Al Jafr Prison. http://www.humanrightsfirst.org/us_law/PDF/EndingSecretDetentions_web.pdf Human Rights First, 6/2004 News Article http://www.humanrightsfirst.org/media/2004_alerts/0617.htm Human Rights First, 6/17/2004 News Article USS Bataan, USS Peleliu. http://www.humanrightsfirst.org/us_law/PDF/EndingSecretDetentions_web.pdf Human Rights First, 6/2004 News Article http://www.humanrightsfirst.org/media/2004_alerts/0617.htm Human Rights First, 6/17/2004 News Article hr_highlevel October 25, 2001 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_861 1 false Masked agents of Pakistan's intelligence agency arrest Jamil Qasim Saeed Mohammed, a Yemeni microbiology student, at the request of US authorities. Jamil, wanted for his suspected involvement in the bombing of the USS Cole<ref key="a101200cole"/>, is then flown from Pakistan to Jordan on a US-registered Gulfstream jet. &#8220;The hand-over of the shackled and blindfolded student ... occurred in the middle of the night at a remote corner of the airport without extradition or deportation procedures,&#8221; The Washington Post will later report. http://www.intellnet.org/news/2001/10/28/7905-1.html Associated Press, 10/28/2001 News Article http://www.sptimes.com/News/102801/Worldandnation/Pakistan_turns_over__.shtml St. Petersburg Times, 10/28/2001 News Article http://www.infowars.com/saved%20pages/Police_state/torture_wapost.htm The Washington Post, 3/11/2002 News Article http://www.web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGASA330142002?open&amp;of=ENG-AFG Amnesty International, 6/20/2002 News Article In September 2003, Amnesty International will report that US authorities have still provided no information about the Yemeni student. http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR511142003 Amnesty International, 8/19/03 News Article &#8220;Such a practice of vicarious torture is imbued with an obvious hypocrisy that prevents the sending state&#8212;such as the United States&#8212;from having clean hands.&#8221; http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/02summer/smith.htm Parameter, Summer 2002, pgs. 33-46 News Article http://www.petermaass.com/core.cfm?p=1&amp;mag=99&amp;magtype=1 New York Times, 3/8/2002 News Article commentary jamil_qasim_saeed_mohammed activeparticipant hr_rendition November 2001 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_862 1 false Mohammed Haydar Zammar, a Syrian-born German national, is arrested in Morocco and interrogated by Moroccan and US authorities. He is then secretly sent to Syria, where according to a former prisoner interviewed by The Washington Post, he is tortured in the Far'Falastin detention center in Damascus, &#8220;a facility run by military intelligence where many prisoners remain held incommunicado.&#8221; http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR511142003 Amnesty International, 8/19/03 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A3684-2003Jan30.html Washington Post, 1/31/2003 News Article mohammed_haydar_zammar activeparticipant hr_rendition November 5, 2001 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_983 1 false Newsweek columnist Jonathan Alter writes: &#8220;We can't legalize physical torture; it's contrary to American values. But even as we continue to speak out against human-rights abuses around the world, we need to keep an open mind about certain measures to fight terrorism, like court-sanctioned psychological interrogation. And we'll have to think about transferring some suspects to our less squeamish allies, even if that's hypocritical. Nobody said this was going to be pretty.&#8221; http://conversations.tamu.edu/topics/2001fall/torture.html Newsweek, 11/5/2001 News Article jonathan_alter activeparticipant hr_torture hr_rendition (Late 2001) torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_971 1 false US Secretary of State Donald Rumsfeld authorizes the creation of a &#8220;special-access program,&#8221; or SAP, with &#8220;blanket advance approval to kill or capture and, if possible, interrogate &#8216;high value&#8217; targets in the Bush administration's war on terror.&#8221; The operation, known as &#8220;Copper Green,&#8221; is approved by Condoleezza Rice and known to President Bush. http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040524fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/24/2004 News Article unnamed_former_us_intelligence_official source Less than two hundred operatives and officials, including Donald Rumsfeld and General Richard Myers, are &#8220;completely read into the program.&#8221; The operatives are given advanced approval to carry out &#8220;instant interrogations&#8212;using force if necessary&#8212;at secret CIA detention centers scattered around the world.&#8221; Information obtained through the program is sent to the Pentagon in real-time. &#8220;The rules are &#8216;Grab whom you must. Do what you want,&#8217; &#8221; one former intelligence official will explain to journalist Seymour Hersh. http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040524fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/24/2004 News Article george_w._bush activeparticipant richard_b._myers activeparticipant donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant condoleezza_rice activeparticipant hr_coverup Early January 2002 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_864 1 false The Central Intelligence Agency sends a request to Indonesia to arrest suspected 24-year-old al-Qaeda Operative Muhammad Saad Iqbal Madni and extradite him to Egypt. The CIA had found his name in al-Qaeda documents obtained in Afghanistan. The agency believes that Iqbal, a Pakistani, has worked with Richard C. Reid<ref key="a122201shoebomb"/>, the Briton charged with attempting to blow up an American Airlines flight from Paris to Miami on December 22 with explosives in his shoes. http://www.infowars.com/saved%20pages/Police_state/torture_wapost.htm The Washington Post, 3/11/2002 News Article unnamed_indonesian_officials_and_foreign_diplomats source richard_c._reid passiveparticipant muhammad_saad_iqbal_madni activeparticipant hr_rendition (2002-March 2003) torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_975 1 false Neoconservatives in Washington discuss in their internal memos how Arabs are particularly vulnerable to sexual humiliation. They often cite a book by anthropologist Raphael Patai, titled, The Arab Mind, which notes Arab culture's conservative views about sex. In one section of the book, Patai wrote, &#8220;The segregation of the sexes, the veiling of the women ... and all the other minute rules that govern and restrict contact between men and women, have the effect of making sex a prime mental preoccupation in the Arab world.&#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040524fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/24/2004 News Article unnamed_us_government_consultant source According to one academic source interviewed by Seymour Hersh, the book is &#8220;the bible of the neocons on Arab behavior.&#8221; Neoconservatives are convinced that &#8220;one, ... Arabs only understand force and, two, that the biggest weakness of Arabs is shame and humiliation.&#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040524fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/24/2004 News Article unnamed_academic source hr_torture hr_highlevel January 9, 2002 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_866 1 false Muhammad Saad Iqbal Madni (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_864 ]]) is detained by Indonesian authorities at the request of the CIA. http://www.infowars.com/saved%20pages/Police_state/torture_wapost.htm The Washington Post, 3/11/2002 News Article muhammad_saad_iqbal_madni activeparticipant hr_rendition January 9, 2002 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_978 1 false John Yoo of the Department of Justice's Office of Legal Counsel coauthors a 42-page memo with another DOJ lawyer, Robert J. Delahunty, concluding that neither the Geneva Conventions nor any other set of laws regarding the conduct of war should be applied to the war in Afghanistan. The memo, entitled, &#8220;Application of treaties and laws to Al Qaeda and Taliban detainees,&#8221; is sent to William Haynes, the Pentagon's general counsel. Lawyers from the Army Judge Advocate General's office and the State Department are not consulted. When the State Department's lawyers read the memo, they are &#8220;horrified.&#8221; http://msnbc.msn.com/id/4989422/site/newsweek/ Newsweek, 5/24/2004 News Article http://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/21/politics/21MEMO.html New York Times, 5/21/2004 News Article doj_memo,_application_of_treaties_and_laws_to_al_qaeda_and_taliban_detainees,_june_9,_2002 source robert_j._delahunty activeparticipant william_a._haynes activeparticipant john_yoo activeparticipant hr_highlevel January 11, 2002 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_867 1 false &#8220;[W]ithout a court hearing or a lawyer,&#8221; Muhammad Saad Iqbal Madni (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_866 ]]) is &#8220;hustled aboard an unmarked, US-registered Gulfstream V jet parked at a military airport in Jakarta and flown to Egypt.&#8221; Indonesian authorities tell the local media that he has been sent to Egypt because of visa violations. http://www.infowars.com/saved%20pages/Police_state/torture_wapost.htm The Washington Post, 3/11/2002 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4372442,00.html The Guardian, 3/12/2002 News Article http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0726/p01s03-usju.html Christian Science Monitor, 7/26/2002 News Article unnamed_indonesian_officials source muhammad_saad_iqbal_madni activeparticipant hr_rendition January 15, 2002 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_987 1 false William Howard Taft IV, the State Department's chief legal adviser, responds to John Yoo's January 13 memo (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_978 ]]) saying that Yoo's analysis is &#8220;seriously flawed.&#8221; He writes: &#8220;In previous conflicts, the United States has dealt with tens of thousands of detainees without repudiating its obligations under the Conventions. I have no doubt we can do so here, where a relative handful of persons is involved.&#8221; http://msnbc.msn.com/id/4989422/site/newsweek/ Newsweek, 5/24/2004 News Article william_howard_taft_iv activeparticipant hr_highlevel January 17, 2002 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_865 1 false Bosnian police turn five Algerians and a Yemeni over to US authorities, hours before they are to be released. The men were acquitted by Bosnia's Human Rights Chamber after the United States had refused to provide evidence in court that the men were tied to al-Qaeda. The US flies the suspects to Guantanamo. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A15981-2004May10?language=printer Washington Post, 5/11/2004 News Article http://www.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/europe/01/18/inv.bosnia.cuba/ CNN, 1/18/2004 News Article hr_rendition January 25, 2002 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_986 1 false White House lawyer Alberto Gonzales completes a draft memorandum to the President advising George Bush to declare Taliban and al-Qaeda fighters ineligible for prisoner of war status under the Geneva Conventions (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_987 ]]) (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_978 ]]). He explains that the Office of Legal Counsel has determined that the President has the authority to make this declaration on the premise that &#8220;the war against terrorism is a new kind of war&#8221; and &#8220;not the traditional clash between nations adhering to the laws of war that formed the backdrop for GPW [Geneva Convention on the treatment of prisoners of war].&#8221; Gonzales thus states: &#8220;In my judgment, this new paradigm renders obsolete Geneva's strict limitations on questioning of enemy prisoners and renders quaint some of its provisions.&#8221; Gonzales also says that by declaring the war in Afghanistan exempt from the Geneva Conventions, the President would &#8220;[s]ubstantially [reduce] the threat of domestic criminal prosecution under the War Crimes Act [of 1996](see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_983 ]]).&#8221; The President and other officials in the administration would then be protected from any future &#8220;prosecutors and independent counsels who may in the future decide to pursue unwarranted charges....&#8221; http://msnbc.msn.com/id/4989422/site/newsweek/ Newsweek, 5/24/2004 News Article http://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/21/politics/21MEMO.html New York Times, 5/21/2004 News Article draft_memo_to_the_president_from_alberto_gonzales,_january_25,_2004 activeparticipant When Powell reads the memo, he reportedly &#8220;hit[s] the roof&#8221; and immediately arranges for a meeting with the President. http://msnbc.msn.com/id/4989422/site/newsweek/ Newsweek, 5/24/2004 News Article alberto_gonzales activeparticipant george_w._bush passiveparticipant colin_powell activeparticipant hr_highlevel January 26, 2002 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_985 1 false US Secretary of State Colin Powell responds to Alberto Gonzales' January 25 draft memo to the President (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_986 ]]). He argues that it does not provide the President with a balanced view on the issue of whether or not to apply the Geneva Conventions to the conflict in Afghanistan. Powell lists several problems that could potentially result from exempting the conflict from the Conventions as Gonzales recommends. For example, he notes that it would &#8220;reverse over a century of US policy and practice in supporting the Geneva conventions and undermine the protections of the law of war for our troops, both in this specific conflict and in general.&#8221; He also warns that it &#8220;may provoke some individual foreign prosecutors to investigate and prosecute our officials and troops.&#8221; Powell's note then summarizes the advantages of applying the Conventions to Afghanistan. The end of the memo consists of several rebuttals to points that Gonzales made in his memo. http://msnbc.msn.com/id/4989422/site/newsweek/ Newsweek, 5/24/2004 News Article http://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/21/politics/21MEMO.html New York Times, 5/21/2004 News Article memo_to_condoleezza_rice_from_colin_powell,_january_26,_2004 source colin_powell activeparticipant alberto_gonzales activeparticipant hr_highlevel February 7, 2002 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_988 1 false The White House declares that the United States will apply the Geneva Conventions to the conflict in Afghanistan, but will not grant prisoner-of-war status to captured Taliban and al-Qaeda fighters. http://msnbc.msn.com/id/4989422/site/newsweek/ Newsweek, 5/24/2004 News Article http://www.cnn.com/2002/US/02/07/ret.bush.detainees/ CNN, 2/7/2002 News Article hr_highlevel February 8, 2002 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_868 1 false Donald Rumsfeld says during a Pentagon press briefing that the US will &#8220;continue&#8221; to treat Taliban and al-Qaeda prisoners humanely. &#8220;In short, we will continue to treat them consistent with the principles of fairness, freedom and justice that our nation was founded on, the principles that they obviously abhor and which they sought to attack and destroy. Notwithstanding the isolated pockets of international hyperventilation, we do not treat detainees in any manner other than a manner that is humane.&#8221; http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Feb2002/t02082002_t0208sd.html US Department of State, 2/08/2002 News Article &#8220;In short, we will continue to treat [Afghan and al-Qaeda detainees] consistent with the principles of fairness, freedom and justice that our nation was founded on, the principles that they obviously abhor and which they sought to attack and destroy. Notwithstanding the isolated pockets of international hyperventilation, we do not treat detainees in any manner other than a manner that is humane.&#8221; http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Feb2002/t02082002_t0208sd.html US Department of State, 2/08/2002 News Article duplicate donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant hr_highlevel March 2002 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_965 1 false Retired Lieutenant-General Brent Scowcroft leads a presidential panel which proposes that control of the National Security Agency, the National Reconnaissance Office, and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency be transferred from the Department of Defense to the director of central intelligence (DCI). The plan is favored by the Congressional 911 commission but opposed by Donald Rumsfeld and Richard Cheney. For years experts have argued that the US intelligence community's 13 disparate agencies&#8212; &#8220;85 percent of whose assets reside in the Defense Department&#8221; &#8212;should be consolidated under the DCI. http://www.vcsun.org/~battias/911/20021010/20020812.rumsfeldcoup.txt US News and World Report, 8/12/2002 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A33525-2002Aug18.html The Washington Post, 8/19/2004 News Article brent_scowcroft activeparticipant donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant dick_cheney activeparticipant hr_highlevel March 11, 2002 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_869 1 false The Washington Post reveals that US intelligence is sending suspected terrorists abroad for interrogation by foreign governments with poor human rights records. The program is known as &#8220;rendition&#8221; (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_854 ]]) (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_859 ]]). http://www.infowars.com/saved%20pages/Police_state/torture_wapost.htm Washington Post, 3/11/2002 News Article hr_rendition March 11, 2002 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_870 1 false Human Rights Watch writes to President Bush about allegations of renditions and torture reported in The Washington Post (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_869 ]]), asking that the allegations be investigated immediately. http://www.infowars.com/saved%20pages/Police_state/torture_wapost.htm Washington Post, 3/11/2002 News Article http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/05/07/usint8556_txt.htm Human Rights Watch, 5/7/2004 News Article human_rights_watch activeparticipant hr_rendition April 2002-April 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_871 1 false Sayed Abassin, a 28-year-old Afghan taxi driver, is detained and sent to Bagram Air Base after his vehicle is stopped by authorities and one of his passengers is identified as a wanted suspect. At Bagram Air Base, he is &#8220;held in handcuffs and shackles, kept in 24-hour lighting, deprived of sleep, not given enough food, not allowed to talk or look at other detainees, and forced to stand or kneel for hours.&#8221; He is then sent to Guantanamo where he stays until April 2003. He is never given &#8220;access to a lawyer, court of law or other legal process.&#8221; http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR511142003 Amnesty International, 8/19/2003 News Article mullah_habibullah activeparticipant hr_torture June 2002 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_886 1 false Omar al-Faruq, a top al-Qaeda senior operative in Southeast Asia, is captured by Indonesian agents after receiving a tip from the CIA. He is flown to the CIA interrogation center at Bagram Air Base in Afghanistan where is subjected to months of intense interrogations . &#8220;It is likely, experts say, that ... Mr. Faruq [was] left naked most of the time, his hands and feet bound. [He] may also have been hooked up to sensors, then asked questions to which interrogators knew the answers, so they could gauge his truthfulness,&#8221; the New York Times will later report. One Western intelligence official will tell the newspaper that Mr. Faruq's interrogation was &#8220;not quite torture, but about as close as you can get.&#8221; For three months he is provided with very little food, subjected to sleep and light deprivation, prolonged isolation and temperatures ranging from 100 degrees to 10 degrees. After being softened up, Faruq provides information about &#8220;plans to drive explosives-laden trucks into American diplomatic centers [and] detailed information about people involved in those operations and other plots, writing out lengthy descriptions.&#8221; www.nytimes.com/2003/03/09/international/09DETA.html The New York Times, 3/9/2003 News Article omar_al-faruq activeparticipant hr_torture June 5, 2002 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_901 1 false At the Camp Whitehorse detention center near Nassiriya, Iraq, US marines beat and choke Najem Sa'doun Hattab, a former Ba'ath Party official, and then drag him by the neck to his cell. Hattab dies from his injuries. http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/military/20040203-9999_1m3marine.html San Diego Union Tribune, 2/3/2004 News Article http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGMDE140062004?open&amp;of=ENG-IRQ Human Rights Watch, 3/18/2004 News Article najem_sa_doun_hattab activeparticipant hr_deaths June 21, 2002 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_966 1 false Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld sends his special assistant, Stephen A. Cambone, to the Armed Services Committee to deliver and explain a request that Congress create a new top-level Pentagon position&#8212;the undersecretary of defense for intelligence. The proposal is quietly slipped into the fiscal 2003 defense authorization bill as an amendment and approved by the Senate on August 1, by the Conference Committee on November 12 and signed by the President on December 2 (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_967 ]]). The move is seen by some as an attempt to preempt the Scowcroft Plan (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_965 ]]). http://www.vcsun.org/~battias/911/20021010/20020812.rumsfeldcoup.txt US News and World Report, 8/12/2002 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A33525-2002Aug18.html The Washington Post, 8/19/2004 News Article http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/2002-10-24-oped-bamford_x.htm USA Today, 10/24/2004 News Article US News and World Report calls it a &#8220;bureaucratic coup&#8221; that &#8220;accomplishes many Pentagon goals in one fell swoop&#8221; and notes that &#8220;members of Congress aren't even aware it is happening, let alone what it means.&#8221; http://www.vcsun.org/~battias/911/20021010/20020812.rumsfeldcoup.txt US News and World Report, 8/12/2002 News Article Intelligence expert James Bamford warns about the implications of creating this new post in an October 24 op-ed piece: &#8220;Creating a powerful new intelligence czar under Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld could shift [the] delicate balance [between CIA and the DoD] away from the more independent-minded Tenet and increase the chances that intelligence estimates might be &#8216;cooked&#8217; in favor of the Pentagon.... [I]f the Pentagon runs the spy world, the public and Congress will be reduced to a modern-day Diogenes, forever searching for that one honest report.&#8221; http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/2002-10-24-oped-bamford_x.htm USA Today, 10/24/2004 News Article In 1998, then-Deputy Defense Secretary John J. Hamre had proposed a similar idea, but Congress opposed the suggested reform &#8220;in part from concern at the CIA that the new Pentagon official would have too much power.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A33525-2002Aug18.html The Washington Post, 8/19/2004 News Article james_bamford activeparticipant john_j._hamre activeparticipant donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant stephen_cambone activeparticipant hr_highlevel August 1, 2002 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_1100 1 false The Justice Department's Office of Legal Counsel, sends a non-classified memo to White House Counsel Alberto Gonzales, offering the opinion that a policy allowing suspected al-Qaeda members to be tortured abroad &#8220;may be justified.&#8221; The memo explains that as &#8220;Commander-in-Chief, the President has the constitutional authority to order interrogations of enemy combatants to gain intelligence information concerning the military plans of the enemy.&#8221; This judgment&#8212;which will be echoed in a March 2003 draft Pentagon report (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_1101 ]]) &#8212;ignores important past rulings such as the 1952 Supreme Court decision in Youngstown Steel and Tube Co v. Sawyer, which determined that the president, even in wartime, is subject to US laws. The DOJ memo asserts that international laws against torture &#8220;may be unconstitutional if applied to interrogation&#8221; conducted against alleged terrorists. The memo also attempts to provide a precise legal definition of torture. It says that physical torture &#8220;must be equivalent in intensity to the pain accompanying serious physical injury, such as organ failure, impairment of bodily function, or even death&#8221; and psychological interrogation methods must result in harm lasting &#8220;months or even years&#8221; to rise to the level of torture. The memo responds to a CIA request for legal guidance on the interrogation of al-Qaeda leaders. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A26401-2004Jun8?language=printer The Washington Post, 6/9/2004 News Article After the memo's existence is revealed, Attorney General John D. Ashcroft denies senators' requests to release it and refuses to say if or how the president was involved in the discussion. &#8220;The president has a right to hear advice from his attorney general, in confidence,&#8221; he says. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A26401-2004Jun8?language=printer The Washington Post, 6/9/2004 News Article http://www.nytimes.com/2004/06/08/politics/08CND-TORT.html New York Times, 6/8/2004 News Article http://quote.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=10000103&amp;sid=a7STpDlieNrY&amp;refer=us Bloomberg, 6/8/2004 News Article Responding to questions about the memo, White House press secretary Scott McClellan will reason that the memo &#8220;was not prepared to provide advice on specific methods or techniques,&#8221; but was &#8220;analytical.&#8221; But the 50-page memo seems to have been considered immensely important, given its length and the fact that it was signed by Jay S. Bybee, head of the Office Legal Counsel. &#8220;Given the topic and length of opinion, it had to get pretty high-level attention,&#8221; Beth Nolan, a former White House Counsel (1999-2001), will tell The Washington Post. This view is confirmed by another former Office of Legal Counsel lawyer who tells the newspaper that unlike documents signed by deputies in the Office of Legal Counsel, memorandums signed by the Office's head are considered legally binding. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A26401-2004Jun8?language=printer The Washington Post, 6/9/2004 News Article beth_nolan activeparticipant scott_mcclellan activeparticipant jay_s._bybee activeparticipant alberto_gonzales activeparticipant john_ashcroft activeparticipant hr_highlevel September 26, 2002-October 6, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_872 1 false Maher Arar, a Syrian-born Canadian citizen, is detained by US immigration officials when he makes a stopover at JFK International Airport in New York on his way back home to Canada. Chained and shackled, he is flown in a small private plane to Washington and then on to Jordan were he is interrogated and beaten. He is then transferred to Syria in late October where he is &#8220;beaten with sticks and cables on the soles of his feet, ... forced into a car tire for hours, ... subjected to electric shocks and sleep deprivation&#8221; and kept in a shallow grave. The US government fails &#8220;to provide information on his whereabouts and of the date and circumstances of his removal from the USA.&#8221; Nor do the Americans notify Canada of his deportation. After ten months, he returns to Canada after much pressure is exerted on the US by human rights organizations and the Canadian government. http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR511142003 Amnesty International, 8/19/03 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A15981-2004May10?language=printer Washington Post, 5/11/2004 News Article http://www.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/europe/01/18/inv.bosnia.cuba/ CNN, 1/18/2004 News Article http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/arar/ CBC News, 3/10/2004 News Article http://www.counterpunch.org/arar11062003.html Counterpunch, 11/6/2003 News Article http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/01/21/60II/main594974.shtml CBS, 1/22/2004 News Article maher_arar activeparticipant hr_rendition Late 2002-April 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_863 1 false Undersecretary of Defense for Policy Douglas Feith and Department of Defense general counsel William Haynes press &#8220;for looser interrogation rules and [win] approval for them from the administration's civilian lawyers....&#8221; Lawyers with the Army Judge Advocate General's office are opposed to the new rules. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2004-05-13-warnings_x.htm USA Today, 5/13/2004 News Article http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/politics/la-na-jag14may14,1,7108046.story?coll=la-news-politics-national Los Angeles Times, 5/13/2004 News Article http://msnbc.msn.com/id/4989422/site/newsweek/ Newsweek, 5/24/2004 News Article unnamed_indonesian_officials_and_foreign_diplomats source william_a._haynes activeparticipant douglas_feith activeparticipant hr_highlevel December 2, 2002 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_967 1 false US President George Bush signs the 2003 Defense Authorization Act. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/12/20021202-8.html White House, 12/2/2002 News Article One of the act's provisions creates the new Pentagon post of undersecretary of defense for intelligence (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_966 ]]). 2003_defense_authorization_act,_sec._901 activeparticipant george_w._bush activeparticipant hr_highlevel December 3, 2002 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_873 1 false Mullah Habibullah, a 30-year-old Afghan from the Oruzgan province, dies while being held at Bagram Air Base. Officially, he dies of pulmonary embolism, a blood clot in the lung. http://www.intellnet.org/news/2003/03/04/17509-1.html New York Times, 3/4/03 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/afghanistan/story/0,1284,909294,00.html Guardian, 3/7/03 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A42373-2003Mar4.html Washington Post, 3/5/03 News Article http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/2825575.stm BBC, 3/6/03 News Article His death certificate specifies homicide as the cause of death and rules that he died, in part, from blunt force injuries. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A42373-2003Mar4.html Washington Post, 3/5/03 News Article mullah_habibullah activeparticipant hr_deaths December 5, 2002 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_874 1 false Dilawar, a 22-year-old Afghan farmer and part-time taxi driver from the small village of Yakubi in eastern Afghanistan, is picked up by local authorities and turned over to US soldiers on suspicions that he was involved in a missile attack on the American base at Khost. He is then sent to Bagram Air Base. Witnesses will later tell the New York Times that Dilawar appeared weak and unhealthy upon his arrival. Five days later, Dilawar will be found dead in his cell (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_875 ]]). http://www.intellnet.org/news/2003/03/04/17509-1.html New York Times, 3/4/03 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/afghanistan/story/0,1284,909294,00.html Guardian, 3/7/03 News Article http://www.thehillpolitics.com/modules.php?op=modload&amp;name=News&amp;file=article&amp;sid=80 Independent 3/7/03 News Article unnamed_witnesses_who_are_later_interviewed_by_the_new_york_times source dilawar activeparticipant hr_deaths December 10, 2002 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_875 1 false Dilawar, the Afghan farmer that was detained by US troops on December 5 (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_874 ]]), is found dead in his cell. The pathologist who records his death, Maj. Elizabeth A. Rouse, writes on Dilawar's death certificate that he died from &#8220;blunt force injuries to lower extremities complicating coronary artery disease.&#8221; She marks &#8220;homicide&#8221; as the cause of death. Months later, New York Times reporter, Carlotta Gall, learns of and investigates Dilawar's death and confirms the death certificate's authenticity with the US military. She also interviews Dilawar's family and friends who describe the 22-year-old farmer as being young and inexperienced. &#8220;He had never spent a night away from his father and mother,&#8221; his brother says. Dilawar was married and the father of a 2-year-old girl. http://www.intellnet.org/news/2003/03/04/17509-1.html New York Times, 3/4/03 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A42373-2003Mar4.html Washington Post, 3/5/03 News Article http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/2825575.stm BBC, 3/6/03 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/afghanistan/story/0,1284,909294,00.html Guardian, 3/7/03 News Article http://www.thehillpolitics.com/modules.php?op=modload&amp;name=News&amp;file=article&amp;sid=80 Independent 3/7/03 News Article carlotta_gall activeparticipant dilawar activeparticipant hr_deaths December 26, 2002 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_876 1 false The Washington Post reports on the US intelligence program of rendition (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_854 ]]) and reveals that US agents are using &#8220;stress and duress&#8221; techniques to interrogate captives detained in Afghanistan. Persons being held in the CIA interrogation center at Bagram Air Base who refuse to cooperate &#8220;are sometimes kept standing or kneeling for hours in black hoods or spray-painted goggles, .... held in awkward, painful positions and deprived of sleep with a 24-hour bombardment of lights' subject to what are known as &#8216;stress and duress&#8217; techniques,&#8221; the report says. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37943-2002Dec25.html Washington Post, 12/26/2002 News Article http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/05/07/usint8556_txt.htm Human Rights Watch, 5/7/2004 News Article Each of the ten current national security officials who were interviewed for the article &#8220;defended the use of violence against captives as just and necessary.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37943-2002Dec25.html Washington Post, 12/26/2002 News Article The report quotes one official who reasons, &#8220;If you don't violate someone's human rights some of the time, you probably aren't doing your job.... I don't think we want to be promoting a view of zero tolerance on this.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37943-2002Dec25.html Washington Post, 12/26/2002 News Article http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/05/07/usint8556_txt.htm Human Rights Watch, 5/7/2004 News Article Likewise, another official acknowledged that &#8220;our guys may kick them around a little bit in the adrenaline of the immediate aftermath.&#8221; A different source commented, with reference to the medical services provided for captives, that &#8220;pain control [in wounded patients] is a very subjective thing.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37943-2002Dec25.html Washington Post, 12/26/2002 News Article Finally, in a very explicit remark, one of the officials interviewed by the Post, who is described as being directly involved in the rendition of captives, explained the program's logic: &#8220;We don't kick the shit out of them. We send them to other countries so they can kick the shit out of them.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37943-2002Dec25.html Washington Post, 12/26/2002 News Article http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/05/07/usint8556_txt.htm Human Rights Watch, 5/7/2004 News Article After the report is published, Maj. Stephen Clutter, the deputy spokesman at Bagram, denies the allegations, claiming that The Washington Post article was &#8220;false on several points, the first being that there is no CIA detention facility on Bagram.&#8221; He says, &#8220;The accusation of inhumane treatment is something that I can clearly refute. The things that they talked about, the inhumane conditions ... are things that do not go on here.&#8221; http://www.why-war.com/news/2002/12/29/usdenies.html Agence France Presse, 12/29/2002 News Article &#8220;There is a facility run by the US Army, however, there is absolutely no evidence to suggest that persons under control of the US Army have been mistreated,&#8221; he explains. &#8220;A doctor examines them daily. They have access to medical care 24 hours a day, seven days a week. They have dental care. They sleep in a warm facility and have three meals a day that are prepared according to Islamic cultural and religious norms. When they arrive, they go through an interview process to determine whether they are enemy combatants or have information that can help us prevent terrorist attacks against Americans or attacks against US forces. During this interview process, they are treated as humanely as possible. We routinely allow visits, about once a week, from the International Committee of the Red Cross to ensure their treatment is humane. If they are deemed to be enemy combatants or pose a danger, they become detainees. If they are not, they are ultimately released.&#8221; http://www.e-ariana.com/ariana/eariana.nsf/0/83665FE87BBF6F6B87256C9E005872A8?OpenDocument Reuters, 12/28/2002 News Article &#8220;We don't kick the shit out of them. We send them to other countries so they can kick the shit out of them.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37943-2002Dec25.html Washington Post, 12/26/2002 News Article duplicate stephen_clutter activeparticipant hr_rendition hr_torture hr_indications December 27, 2002 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_877 1 false Human Rights Watch writes to President Bush about the allegations of torture reported in The Washington Post (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_876 ]]), asking that the allegations be investigated immediately. http://www.hrw.org/press/2002/12/us1227.htm Human Rights Watch 12/26/02 News Article http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/2607629.stm BBC 12/26/02 News Article http://www.cbc.ca/stories/2002/12/27/hukmanrights021226 The News 12/27/02 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/1228-02.htm Washington Post 12/28/02 News Article http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/05/07/usint8556_txt.htm Human Rights Watch, 5/7/2004 News Article White House spokesman Scott McClellan denies that US interrogation practices violate international law and indicates no interest on the part of the administration to investigate the allegations. &#8220;We are not aware we have received the letter. ... [W]e believe we are in full compliance with domestic and international law, including domestic and international law dealing with torture.&#8221; He adds that combatants detained by the US are always treated &#8220;humanely, in a manner consistent with the third Geneva Convention.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/1228-02.htm Washington Post 12/28/02 News Article &#8220;Human Rights Watch urges you to take immediate steps to clarify that the use of torture is not U.S policy, investigate the Washington Post?s allegations, adopt all necessary measures to end any ongoing violations of international law, stop the rendition of detainees to countries where they are likely to be tortured, and prosecute those implicated in such abuse.&#8221; http://www.hrw.org/press/2002/12/us1227.htm Human Rights Watch 12/26/02 News Article excerpt &#8220;Should senior US officials become aware of acts of torture by their subordinates and fail to take immediate and effective steps to end such practices, they too could be found criminally liable under international law.&#8221; http://www.hrw.org/press/2002/12/us1227.htm Human Rights Watch 12/26/02 News Article excerpt &#8220;It is a violation of international law not only to use torture directly, but also to be complicit in torture committed by other governments.&#8221; http://www.hrw.org/press/2002/12/us1227.htm Human Rights Watch 12/26/02 News Article excerpt &#8220;The allegations, if true, would place the United States in violation of some of the most fundamental prohibitions of international human rights law. Any US government official who is directly involved or complicit in the torture or mistreatment of detainees, including any official who knowingly acquiesces in the commission of such acts, would be subject to prosecution worldwide.&#8221; http://www.hrw.org/press/2002/12/us1227.htm Human Rights Watch 12/26/02 News Article excerpt human_rights_watch activeparticipant scott_mcclellan activeparticipant hr_indications January 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_998 1 false US forces arrest and detain an Iraqi for possession of explosive devices. The man is held at FOB Rifles Base in Asad, Iraq, and eventually placed in an isolation cell for questioning by members of the US Special Forces' Operational Detachment Alpha (ODA) who shackle him to a pipe that runs along the ceiling. When the Iraqi lunges toward a US soldier, grabbing his shirt, &#8220;[t]he three ODA members [punch] and [kick] [him] in the stomach and ribs for approximately one to two minutes.&#8221; Three days later, the man escapes but is recaptured on January 9. The prisoner is then subjected to another round of questioning, but does not cooperate. When he refuses to be quiet, the soldiers tie his hands to the top of his cell door and then gag him. Five minutes later, a soldier notices that the Iraqi is &#8220;slumped down and hanging from his shackles&#8221; dead. http://www.denverpost.com/cda/article/print/0,1674,36%257E11676%257E2157003,00.html Denver Post, 5/18/2004 News Article hr_torture hr_deaths (Early 2003) torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_879 1 false Abdul Qayyum, an Afghan, is captured by US forces and detained for two months and five days. He is held in a large hall with about 100 other prisoners. The hall is divided into cubicles cordoned off with sheets of wire mesh. Each cubicle contains 10 people. Rahman later complains to the Associated Press that he was subjected to sleep deprivation, was forced to stand for long periods of time, and endured humiliating verbal abuse from female soldiers who screamed at him from outside his cell. http://www.resonant.org/newsarticles/2003.03.15-afghanistan_prisoner_conditions-story.news.yahoo.com-ap.html Associated Press, 3/14/03 News Article When the Associated Press asks the US military about Qayyum's detention and that of another detainee (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_883 ]]), spokesman Roger King denies that the two Afghans were tortured, saying that for the most part, their accounts are &#8220;completely bogus.&#8221; abdul_qayyum activeparticipant roger_king activeparticipant hr_torture (Mid-September 2003-October 2003) torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_974 1 false The interrogations at Abu Ghraib are taken over by the special-access program, &#8220;Copper Green&#8221; (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_971 ]]). &#8220;Hard-core special operatives, some of them with aliases,&#8221; are sent to the prison. SAP operatives, CIA operatives, civilian contractors, and officers from the 205th Military Brigade are now in charge. At their request, MPs of the 372nd Military Police Brigade &#8220;soften up&#8221; prisoners by subjecting them to intense physical, mental and sexual abuse. Brigadier General Janis Karpinski, the commander of the 800th Military Police Brigade, who is presumably in charge of Iraq's prisons and detention camps, does not understand what is going on at Abu Ghraib. &#8220;I thought most of the civilians there were interpreters, but there were some civilians that I didn't know,&#8221; Karpinski will later explain to Seymour Hersh. &#8220;I called them the disappearing ghosts. I'd seen them once in a while at Abu Ghraib and then I'd see them months later. They were nice&#8212;they'd always call out to me and say, &#8216;Hey, remember me? How are you doing?&#8217; [They were] always bringing in somebody for interrogation or waiting to collect somebody going out.&#8221; But the CIA quickly grows weary of the program. A former intelligence official will later explain to Hersh: &#8220;They said, &#8216;No way. We signed up for the core program in Afghanistan&#8212;pre-approved for operations against high-value terrorist targets&#8212;and now you want to use it for cabdrivers, brothers-in-law, and people pulled off the streets.&#8217; ... The CIA's legal people objected&#8221; and ended the SAP program at Abu Ghraib. http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040524fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/24/2004 News Article &#8220;This was stupidity. You?re taking a program that was operating in the chaos of Afghanistan against Al Qaeda, a stateless terror group, and bringing it into a structured, traditional war zone. Sooner or later, the commandos would bump into the legal and moral procedures of a conventional war with an Army of a hundred and thirty-five thousand soldiers.&#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040524fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/24/2004 News Article commentary janis_karpinski activeparticipant hr_highlevel January 14, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_878 1 false Executive directors of leading human rights organizations write to Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz urging that the Bush administration publicly denounce the use of torture in any form and pledge not to seek intelligence obtained through torture in a third country. The letters also ask the US to provide clear guidelines to US forces. http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/05/07/usint8556_txt.htm Human Rights Watch, 5/7/2004 News Article paul_wolfowitz activeparticipant hr_indications January 28, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_1136 1 false George Bush says in his State of the Union address: &#8220;[M]ore than 3,000 suspected terrorists have been arrested in many countries. Many others have met a different fate. Put it this way, they're no longer a problem to the United States and our friends and allies.&#8221; http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/01/20030128-19.html The White House, 1/28/2003 News Article &#8220;[M]ore than 3,000 suspected terrorists have been arrested in many countries. Many others have met a different fate. Put it this way, they?re no longer a problem to the United States and our friends and allies.&#8221; http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/01/20030128-19.html The White House, 1/28/2003 News Article duplicate george_w._bush activeparticipant hr_highlevel January 31, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_880 1 false Executive directors of human rights organizations write to President George Bush demanding clear statements from administration officials against torture in any form and statements ensuring that any US official found to have used or approved of torture would be held accountable. The organizations also demand that the administration take steps to inform US interrogators of international laws and treaties which define the limits of lawful interrogation methods. http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/05/07/usint8556_txt.htm Human Rights Watch, 5/7/2004 News Article george_w._bush activeparticipant hr_indications (February 2003) torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_883 1 false Saif-ur Rahman, an Afghan who has been fighting against the Taliban, is taken prisoner by US troops in Kunar. He is first taken to Jalalabad, where two US soldiers throw a bucket of ice-cold water on him as he stands naked in his cell on a sheet of ice. Later, he is forced to lie naked spread-eagle on a sheet of ice with chairs placed on his hands and feet. For 20 straight days, Rahman is handcuffed, except for at mealtime when his constraints are relaxed. Rahman later complains to the Associated Press that he was subjected to sleep deprivation, was forced to stand for long periods of time, and endured humiliating verbal abuse from female soldiers who screamed at him from outside his cell. http://www.resonant.org/newsarticles/2003.03.15-afghanistan_prisoner_conditions-story.news.yahoo.com-ap.html Associated Press, 3/14/03 News Article When the Associated Press asks the US military about Rahman's detention and that of another detainee (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_879 ]]), spokesman Roger King denies that the two Afghans were tortured, saying that for the most part, their accounts are &#8220;completely bogus.&#8221; roger_king activeparticipant saif-ur_rahman activeparticipant hr_torture February 4, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_968 1 false US President George Bush announces his intention to nominate Stephen Cambone to the new Pentagon position of undersecretary of defense for intelligence (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_966 ]]). http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030204-5.html White House, 2/4/2003 News Article george_w._bush activeparticipant stephen_cambone activeparticipant hr_highlevel February 5, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_881 1 false Representatives of major human rights organizations meet with Department of Defense General Counsel William Haynes asking that the US government develop clear standards to prevent the mistreatment of prisoners of war. http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/05/07/usint8556_txt.htm Human Rights Watch, 5/7/2004 News Article william_a._haynes activeparticipant hr_indications February 6, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_882 1 false Newsday reports that Vincent Cannistraro, a former intelligence official, told reporters, &#8220;Better intelligence has come from a senior al-Qaeda detainee who had been held in the US base at Guantanamo, Cuba, and was &#8216;rendered&#8217; to Egypt after refusing to cooperate. &#8216;They promptly tore his fingernails out and he started to tell things.&#8217; &#8221; http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/05/07/usint8556_txt.htm Human Rights Watch, 5/7/2004 News Article vince_cannistraro activeparticipant hr_rendition (March 3, 2003) torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_884 1 false An unnamed US law enforcement official tells the Wall Street Journal, &#8220;[B]ecause the [Convention Against Torture] has no enforcement mechanism, as a practical matter, &#8216;you're only limited by your imagination.&#8217; &#8221; A detainee &#8220;isn't going to be near a place where he has Miranda rights or the equivalent of them,&#8221; the official says. &#8220;God only knows what they're going to do to him. You go to some other country that'll let us pistol whip this guy.&#8221; http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/05/07/usint8556_txt.htm Human Rights Watch, 5/7/2004 News Article http://www.teamdelta.net/WSJ-Interrogation.htm The Wall Street Journal, 3/4/2003 News Article hr_torture March 6, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_1101 1 false A working group appointed by the Defense Department's general counsel, William J. Haynes II, completes a 100-page-plus classified report justifying the use of torture on national security grounds. The group&#8212;headed by Air Force General Counsel Mary Walker and including top civilian and uniformed lawyers from each military branch&#8212;consulted representatives of the Justice Department, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Defense Intelligence Agency and other intelligence agencies in drafting the report. It was prepared for Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and meant to respond to complaints from commanders working at the Guantanamo Bay base in Cuba who claimed that conventional interrogation tactics were inadequate. The conclusions in the report are similar to those of an August 1, 2003 Department of Justice memo (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_1100 ]]). http://www.commondreams.org/cgi-bin/print.cgi?file=/headlines04/0607-01.htm Wall Street Journal, 6/7/2004 News Article march_16_draft_working_group_report_on_detainee_intertogations_in_the_global_war_on_terorrism source One of the main conclusions of the report is that the President's authority as commander-in-chief permits him during times of war to approve almost any physical or psychological interrogation method&#8212;including torture&#8212;irrespective of any domestic or international law. The draft report clearly states that neither Congress, the courts nor international law has jurisdiction over the President's actions when the country is waging war. The report asserts that &#8220;without a clear statement otherwise, criminal statutes are not read as infringing on the president's ultimate authority&#8221; to wage war. Furthermore, &#8220;any effort by Congress to regulate the interrogation of unlawful combatants would violate the Constitution's sole vesting of the commander-in-chief authority in the president.&#8221; According to the document, the federal Torture Statute simply does not apply. &#8220;In order to respect the president's inherent constitutional authority to manage a military campaign ... (the prohibition against torture) must be construed as inapplicable to interrogations undertaken pursuant to his commander-in chief authority,&#8221; the report states (The parenthetical comment is in the original document). A career military lawyer will later tell the Wall Street Journal that many lawyers disagreed with these conclusions, but that their concerns were overridden by the political appointees heading the drafting of the report. The lawyer explains that instead, military lawyers focused their efforts on limiting the report's list of acceptable interrogation methods. http://www.commondreams.org/cgi-bin/print.cgi?file=/headlines04/0607-01.htm Wall Street Journal, 6/7/2004 News Article The draft report lists several possible arguments that US civilian or military personnel might use to defend themselves against charges of torture or other war crimes. According to the administration's lawyers, one argument would be that such actions were &#8220;necessary&#8221; in order to prevent an attack. This rational however seems to ignore very clear statements in The Convention Against Torture&#8212;ratified by the US in 1994&#8212;which states that &#8220;no exceptional circumstances whatsoever, whether a state of war or a threat of war, internal political instability or any other public emergency, may be invoked as a justification of torture.&#8221; Another line of defense, the report says, would be to claim that the accused had been acting under &#8220;superior orders&#8221; and that therefore no &#8220;moral choice was in fact possible.&#8221; Likewise, the report cites a Justice Department opinion, which the draft report says &#8220;concluded that it could not bring a criminal prosecution against a defendant who had acted pursuant to an exercise of the president's constitutional power.&#8221; However, as The Wall Street Journal notes, this contradicts the Convention against Torture which states that orders from superiors &#8220;may not be invoked as a justification of torture.&#8221; The authors of the report also suggest in the draft report that accused officials could argue that they had &#8220;mistakenly relied in good faith on the advice of lawyers or experts,&#8221; adding, &#8220;Good faith may be a complete defense.&#8221; Lastly, the authors conclude that &#8220;constitutional principles&#8221; precluded the possibility that officials could be punished &#8220;for aiding the president in exercising his exclusive constitutional authorities&#8221; and neither Congress nor the courts had the authority to &#8220;require or implement the prosecution of such an individual.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/cgi-bin/print.cgi?file=/headlines04/0607-01.htm Wall Street Journal, 6/7/2004 News Article The document attempts to define the parameters of lawful interrogation methods in terms of the degree of pain or psychological manipulation they cause. The report states that the infliction of physical or mental suffering does not constitute torture. Suffering must be &#8220;severe,&#8221; the lawyers advise, noting that according to a dictionary definition, this would mean that the pain &#8220;must be of such a high level of intensity that ... [it] is difficult for the subject to endure.&#8221; But under certain circumstances, the lawyers explain, the US would be justified in resorting to illegal measures like torture or homicide. They argue that such measures should be considered &#8220;self-defense&#8221; in cases where officials &#8220;honestly believe&#8221; that such actions would prevent an imminent attack against the US. &#8220;Sometimes the greater good for society will be accomplished by violating the literal language of the criminal law,&#8221; the draft document says. http://www.commondreams.org/cgi-bin/print.cgi?file=/headlines04/0607-01.htm Wall Street Journal, 6/7/2004 News Article &#8220;Senior administration officials tried to drape a thin veneer of legality over abuse that has been unconditionally prohibited, even during war, throughout modern times. If this legal advice were accepted, dictators worldwide would be handed a ready-made excuse to ignore one of the most basic prohibitions of international human rights law.&#8221; http://www.hrw.org/english/docs/2004/06/07/usdom8778.htm Human Rights Watch, 6/7/2004 News Article commentary &#8220;If anyone still thinks the abuses at Abu Ghraib were only dreamed up by a handful of privates and sergeants, this memo should put that myth to rest.&#8221; http://www.hrw.org/english/docs/2004/06/07/usdom8778.htm Human Rights Watch, 6/7/2004 News Article commentary mary_walker activeparticipant william_a._haynes activeparticipant donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant hr_highlevel March 7, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_1106 1 false The US Senate confirms the nomination of Stephen A. Cambone as undersecretary of defense for intelligence, a new Pentagon position that was created by the 2002 Defense Authorization Act (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_967 ]]). http://www.defenselink.mil/bios/cambone_bio.html Department of Defense, 4/15/2004 News Article Cambone now oversees &#8220;assets that used to belong elsewhere, most notably a secret intelligence organization [code-named &#8216;Gray Fox&#8217;] that specializes in large-scale &#8216;deep penetration&#8217; missions in foreign countries, especially tapping communications and laying the groundwork for overt military operations.&#8221; Asked by the Washington Post about the transfer of Gray Fox a few months later, Cambone responds, &#8220;We won't talk about those things.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A58343-2003Apr19?language=printer The Washington Post, 4/20/2003 News Article Cambone is not well-liked among the military and civilian intelligence bureaucrats in the Pentagon, &#8220;essentially because he [has] little experience in running intelligence programs,&#8221; The New Yorker will later report. http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040524fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/24/2004 News Article stephen_cambone activeparticipant hr_highlevel March 9, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_885 1 false A New York Times article reports that the US government is rendering suspects abroad (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_854 ]]) and that &#8220;stress and duress&#8221; techniques are being used at the secret CIA interrogation center located in a hangar at Bagram Air Base in Afghanistan (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_860 ]]). &#8220;Intelligence officials ... acknowledged that some suspects had been turned over to security services in countries known to employ torture. There have been isolated, if persistent, reports of beatings in some American-operated centers,&#8221; the report explains. www.nytimes.com/2003/03/09/international/09DETA.html The New York Times, 3/9/2003 News Article http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/05/07/usint8556_txt.htm Human Rights Watch, 5/7/2004 News Article hr_rendition hr_torture hr_indications March 14, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_887 1 false When an Associated Press reporter asks the US military to comment on the accounts of two former Afghan detainees (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_879 ]]) (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_883 ]]), spokesman Roger King claims their accounts are mostly untrue. &#8220;Some of the stuff they are saying sounds like partial truths, some of it's completely bogus,&#8221; he says. &#8220;They were stripped naked probably to prevent them from sneaking weapons into the facility. That's why someone may be stripped.? We do force people to stand for an extended period of time.... Disruption of sleep has been reported as an effective way of reducing people's inhibition about talking or their resistance to questioning.?They are not allowed to speak to one another. If they do, they can plan together or rely on the comfort of one another. If they're caught speaking out of turn, they can be forced to do things&#8212;like stand for a period of time&#8212;as payment for speaking out.&#8221; http://www.resonant.org/newsarticles/2003.03.15-afghanistan_prisoner_conditions-story.news.yahoo.com-ap.html Associated Press, 3/14/03 News Article &#8220;We do force people to stand for an extended period of time.... Disruption of sleep has been reported as an effective way of reducing people's inhibition about talking or their resistance to questioning.?They are not allowed to speak to one another. If they do, they can plan together or rely on the comfort of one another. If they're caught speaking out of turn, they can be forced to do things&#8212;like stand for a period of time&#8212;as payment for speaking out.&#8221; http://www.resonant.org/newsarticles/2003.03.15-afghanistan_prisoner_conditions-story.news.yahoo.com-ap.html Associated Press, 3/14/03 News Article duplicate roger_king activeparticipant hr_torture (late March 2003) torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_969 1 false Stephen Cambone, the new undersecretary of defense for intelligence, acquires control of all of the Pentagon's special-access programs (SAPs) related to the war on terrorism. SAPs, also known as &#8220;black&#8221; programs, are so secret that &#8220;some special-access programs are never fully briefed to Congress.&#8221; SAPs were previously monitored by Kenneth deGraffenreid, who unlike Cambone (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_968 ]]), had experience in counter-intelligence programs. http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040524fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/24/2004 News Article unnamed_former_intelligence_officials source stephen_cambone activeparticipant kenneth_degraffenreid activeparticipant hr_highlevel April 2003-2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_888 1 false The US establishes a loose network of prisons and detention centers in Iraq where Iraqi prisoners of war are held and interrogated. Iraqis detained by Coalition Forces are usually first brought to facilities at US military compounds where they are subjected to initial and secondary interrogations, ranging from a period of one week for initial interrogations and up to one month for secondary interrogations. During this period the detainees are not permitted to contact relatives or seek legal counsel. The prisoners are then sent to one of ten major Coalition prison facilities, at which point their names and information are supposed to be entered into the Coalition's central database. The major facilities include: Abu Ghraib Prison (Baghdad Central Correctional Facility or BCCF), the largest; Camp Bucca, in Umm Qasr; Talil Air force Base (Whitford Camp), located south of Baghdad; Al-Rusafa (formerly the Deportations' Prison or Tasfirat), in Baghdad; Al-Kadhimiyya, in Baghdad, for women only; Al-Karkh, in Baghdad, for juveniles only; Al-Diwaniyya Security Detainee Holding Area; the Tikrit detention facility; the Mosul detention facility; and MEK (Ashraf Camp), near al-Ramadi. http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/05/07/iraq8560.htm Human Rights Watch, 5/7/2004 News Article hr_torture Early April 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_891 1 false Abdallah Khudhran al-Shamran, a Saudi Arabian national, is arrested and detained with six others of different nationalities in al-Rutba by US and allied Iraqi forces as he is traveling from Syria to Baghdad. The captives are relieved of their possessions and blindfolded. Their hands are bound behind their backs and they are forced to walk for three hours to an unknown location. Shamran is accused of being a terrorist and subjected to various means of torture, including beatings, electric shocks, &#8220;being suspended from his legs and having his penis tied, and &#8221;sleep deprivation through constant loud music. Four days after arriving at this site, he is again blindfolded and then moved to a camp hospital in Um Qasr for three days, where he is treated, interrogated and released. But without his passport and money, he is forced to sleep on the streets until he finally decides to seek help from a British soldier eight days later. He is then detained a second time, taken to a military field hospital with two other detainees, and again interrogated and tortured. He later explains to two Amnesty International investigators: &#8220;He stuck the pen he was holding into my right shoulder. The scar is still fresh and visible.... They tied my hands behind my back and put me exposed in the sun from noon to early evening. Then they transferred me to a container and locked me in. The next morning they put me in the sun until about 10 am.&#8221; He is subsequently sent to a hospital where he receives treatment and is finally permitted to speak with representatives of the ICRC to help him recover his passport. He is then interrogated by a British officer who accuses him of being a member of Saddam Hussein's Fedayeen and threatens to execute him. http://www.ipsnews.net/interna.asp?idnews=18230 Inter Press Service, 5/16/2003 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0517-05.htm The Observer, 3/17/2003 News Article http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/3034031.stm BBC, 3/16/2003 News Article http://www.wlox.com/Global/story.asp?S=1281497 Associated Press, 3/16/2003 News Article iraq:_memorandum_on_concerns_relating_to_law_and_order source This incident is described in a memorandum to the Coalition Provisional Authority on July 23.(see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_916 ]]) abdallah_khudhran_al-shamran activeparticipant hr_torture April 2003-2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_1103 1 false Captured Iraqi &#8220;insurgents&#8221; and suspected terrorists are brought to the ultra-secret Battlefield Interrogation Facilities (BIF) in Baghdad run by Delta Force. NBC will report that &#8220;it is the scene of the most egregious violations of the Geneva Conventions in all of Iraq's prisons.&#8221; BIF is described as a &#8220;place where the normal rules of interrogation don't apply.&#8221; Prisoners &#8220;are kept in tiny dark cells. And in the BIF's six interrogation rooms, Delta Force soldiers routinely drug prisoners, hold a prisoner under water until he thinks he's drowning, or smother them almost to suffocation.&#8221; Pentagon officials will deny that prisoners held at the facility are subjected to illegal interrogation tactics. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5024068/ NBC News, 5/20/2004 News Article http://www.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/meast/05/21/iraq.main/index.html CNN, 5/21/2004 News Article two_unnamed_top_us_government_sources source hr_torture April 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_999 1 false An Iraqi prisoner of war is beaten while being interrogated by members of the Naval Special Warfare Team at the LSA Diamondback facility in Mosul, Iraq. He is later found dead in his sleep. The death report will conclude that the man died from &#8220;blunt-force trauma to the torso and positional asphyxia.&#8221; http://www.denverpost.com/cda/article/print/0,1674,36%257E11676%257E2157003,00.html Denver Post, 5/18/2004 News Article hr_torture hr_deaths (April 2003) torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_970 1 false An unnamed intelligence source tells reporter Thomas Ricks of The Washington Post, &#8220;Rumsfeld is in a death fight with DCI (the director of Central Intelligence) to get control&#8221; of intelligence assets. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A58343-2003Apr19?language=printer The Washington Post, 4/20/2003 News Article donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant hr_highlevel (April 2003) torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_907 1 false The Justice Department advises in a set of legal memorandums that if &#8220;government officials ... are contemplating procedures that may put them in violation of American statutes that prohibit torture, degrading treatment or the Geneva Conventions, they will not be responsible if it can be argued that the detainees are formally in the custody of another country.&#8221; That is because, according to one official, &#8220;It would be the responsibility of the other country.&#8221; The memos seem to suggest that top government officials may be concerned that they are in violation of international laws. One administration figure involved in discussions about the memos tells the New York Times in May 2004: &#8220;The criminal statutes only apply to American officials. The question is how involved are the American officials.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0513-03.htm New York Times, 5/13/2004 News Article &#8220;The United States is committed to the worldwide elimination of torture and we are leading this fight by example.&#8221; http://news.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR510782004 Amnesty International, 5/7/2004 News Article duplicate hr_highlevel hr_rendition April 16, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_889 1 false The finalized version of a March 6 Pentagon draft report (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_1101 ]]) on acceptable interrogation tactics is completed and approved by Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld. The report approves a list of interrogation methods, called the 72-point matrix, for use against prisoners being held in Iraq. The list sets the boundaries for using so-called &#8220;stress and duress&#8221; techniques. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A15981-2004May10?language=printer Washington Post, 5/11/2004 News Article http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2004/05/12/1084289748000.html The Age, 5/13/2004 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A22623-2004May12.html Washington Post, 5/13/2004 News Article http://msnbc.msn.com/id/4989422/site/newsweek/ Newsweek, 5/24/2004 News Article http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/05/21/1085120120943.html Los Angeles Times, 5/22/2004 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/cgi-bin/print.cgi?file=/headlines04/0607-01.htm Wall Street Journal, 6/7/2004 News Article human_rights_letter_to_national_security_advisor,_may_3,_2004 source unnamed_us_intelligence_officials_and_other_us_officials source According to US officials, though the tactics simulate torture, they stop short of causing serious injury. Several of the techniques listed are ones that the US military trains Special Forces to prepare for in the event that they are captured by enemy forces. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0513-03.htm New York Times, 5/13/2004 News Article unnamed_us_intelligence_officials_and_other_us_officials source The list is divided into two classes: tactics which are authorized for use on all prisoners and special &#8220;enhanced measures&#8221; which require the approval of Lt. Gen. Ricardo S. Sanchez. The latter category of methods includes tactics which &#8220;could cause temporary physical or mental pain&#8221; like &#8220;sensory deprivation,&#8221; &#8220;stress positions,&#8221; &#8220;dietary manipulation,&#8221; forced changes in sleep patterns, isolated confinement and the use of dogs. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A15981-2004May10?language=printer Washington Post, 5/11/2004 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A22623-2004May12.html Washington Post, 5/13/2004 News Article unnamed_us_intelligence_officials_and_other_us_officials source The 72-point matrix is purportedly &#8220;vetted by the Pentagon's lawyers, the Justice Department and approved by the National Security Council's general counsel.&#8221; One US official explains, &#8220;There are very specific guidelines that are thoroughly vetted. Everyone is on board. It's legal.&#8221; However in May 2004, it will be learned that there had in fact been opposition to the new guidelines. Pentagon lawyers from the Army Judge Advocate General's office had objected (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_894 ]]) (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_925 ]]) and many officials quietly expressed concerns that they might have to answer for the policy at a later date (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_907 ]]). http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A15981-2004May10?language=printer Washington Post, 5/11/2004 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A22472-2004May12.html Washington Post, 5/13/2004 News Article unnamed_us_intelligence_officials_and_other_us_officials source After the prison photos scandal, CIA officers involved in the interrogations will become increasingly nervous about the potential fallout of the policy. &#8220;Some people involved in this have been concerned for quite a while that eventually there would be a new president, or the mood in the country would change, and they would be held accountable,&#8221; one intelligence source will tell the New York Times. &#8220;Now that's happening faster than anybody expected.&#8221; &#8220;Coercive interrogation methods endorsed by members of the US government amount to torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment and violate international law and the USA's treaty obligations&#8221; http://www.amnestyusa.org/news/document.do?id=3077B722627C0C8385256E93006D8F41 Amnesty International, 5/13/2004. News Article commentary &#8220;The Abu Ghraib outrages are not simply the product of a small group of sick and misguided soldiers. They are the predictable result of the Bush administration's policy of permitting &#8216;stress and duress&#8217; interrogation techniques. The sexual abuse of prisoners, despicable as it is, is a logical consequence of a system put in place after Sept. 11, 2001, to ratchet up the pain, discomfort and humiliation of prisoners under interrogation.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A22623-2004May12.html The Washington Post, 5/13/2004 News Article commentary &#8220;In other words, just as US courts repeatedly have found it unconstitutional for interrogators in American police stations to use these third-degree methods, it is illegal under international law for US interrogators in Iraq, Afghanistan, Guantanamo Bay or elsewhere to employ them. US military manuals ban these &#8216;stress and duress&#8217; techniques, and federal law condemns them as war crimes.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A22623-2004May12.html The Washington Post, 5/13/2004 News Article commentary &#8220;None of these techniques is legal. Treaties ratified by the United States, including the Geneva Conventions and the UN Convention Against Torture, prohibit not only torture but also &#8216;cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.&#8217; &#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A22623-2004May12.html The Washington Post, 5/13/2004 News Article commentary donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant ricardo_s._sanchez passiveparticipant hr_torture hr_highlevel April 30, 2003-May 9, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_890 1 false Khreisan Khalis Aballey, a 39-year-old Iraqi man, is arrested at his home with his 80-year-old father by US soldiers who are looking for 'Izzat al-Duri, a senior member of the Ba'ath Party. His brother is shot during the operation and never seen again. On July 23 (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_916 ]]), Amnesty international will include an account of his detention in a memo to the Coalition Provisional Authority, which reads: &#8220;During his interrogation, he was made to stand or kneel facing a wall for seven-and-a-half days, hooded, and handcuffed tightly with plastic strips. At the same time a bright light was placed next to his hood and distorted music was playing the whole time. During all this period he was deprived of sleep (though he may have been unconscious for some periods). He reported that at one time a US soldier stamped on his foot and as a result one of his toenails was torn off. The prolonged kneeling made his knees bloody, so he mostly stood; when, after seven-and-a-half days he was told he was to be released and told he could sit, he said that his leg was the size of a football. He continued to be held for two more days, apparently to allow his health to improve, and was released on 9 May. His father, who was released at the same time, was held in the cell beside his son, where he could hear his son's voice and his screams.&#8221; iraq:_memorandum_on_concerns_relating_to_law_and_order source khreisan_khalis_aballey activeparticipant hr_torture (May 2003) torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_893 1 false Soldiers of the 372nd Military Police Company arrive in Iraq and are assigned to routine traffic and police duties. http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040510fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/7/2004 News Article (May 2003) torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_892 1 false In a homemade video journal, an unidentified female US soldier at Camp Bucca prison in Iraq candidly speaks of how she and her colleagues have shot and killed prisoners. &#8220;If we shoot any more of the Iraqis, or attack any of them, they're gonna supposedly come in and attack the camp.... But we'll believe that when it actually happens, because we've already killed another Iraqi just last night when I was working. So I don't know what's going on...&#8221; She does not describe under what circumstances the shootings had taken place. In another part of the video she admits to antagonizing the captives. &#8220;I actually got in trouble the other day because I was throwing rocks at them.&#8221; http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/05/11/60II/main616849.shtml CBS News, 3/12/2004 News Article hr_deaths (May 2003-July 2003) torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_896 1 false An unnamed Iraqi is taken into custody by Coalition Forces and then subjected to severe abuse in the Military Intelligence section of Camp Cropper. The International Committee of the Red Cross will later interview the person and report the prisoner's allegations to Coalition Forces once in early July and then again in February 2004 (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_950 ]]). The latter report will explain: &#8220;In one illustrative case, a person deprived of his liberty arrested at home by the CF [Coalition Forces] on suspicion of involvement in an attack against the CF, was allegedly beaten during interrogation in a location in the vicinity of Camp Cropper. He alleged that he had been hooded and cuffed with flexi-cuffs, threatened to be tortured and killed, urinated on, kicked in the head, lower back and groin, force-fed a baseball which was tied into the mouth using a scarf and deprived of sleep for four consecutive days. Interrogators would allegedly take turns ill-treating him. When he said he would complain to the IRC he was allegedly beaten more. An ICRC medical examination revealed haematoma in the lower back, blood in the urine, sensory loss in the right hand due to tight handcuffing with flexi-cuffs, and a broken rib.&#8221; http://www.occupationwatch.org/article.php?id=4726 New York Times, 5/11/2004 News Article report_of_the_icrc_on_the_treatment_by_coalition_forces_of_pows source hr_torture (May 2003-May 2004) torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_962 1 false At &#8220;various times throughout this period,&#8221; Colin Powell, National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice and Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld relay the Red Cross' concerns about the Coalition's treatment of prisoners directly to President George Bush. http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/nationworld/bal-te.powell12may12,0,2804533.story?coll=bal-news-nation Baltimore Sun, 5/12/2004 News Article unnamed_aid_to_colin_powell source colin_powell activeparticipant condoleezza_rice activeparticipant george_w._bush activeparticipant donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant hr_indications May 1, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_1104 1 false President Bush, donning a custom-made flight suit, is ferried in a Navy S-3B Viking jet to the deck of the USS Abraham Lincoln anchored off the coast of San Diego where he declares the cessation of major combat operations in Iraq. A banner unfurled behind the President reads, &#8220;Mission Accomplished.&#8221; http://www.cnn.com/2003/ALLPOLITICS/05/01/bush.carrier.landing/ CNN, 5/2/2003 News Article US military officials will subsequently say that the event meant that captives being held in Iraq would no longer be treated as prisoners of war under the third article of the Geneva Conventions, but instead as civilians being held by an occupying power under the fourth article of the Geneva Conventions&#8212;which allows long-term detentions for prisoners deemed a threat to governing authorities. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A43708-2004May20.html The Washington Post, 5/21/2004 News Article george_w._bush activeparticipant hr_highlevel May 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_956 1 false Infantry units from the Florida National Guard arrive at the Assad airbase located northwest of Baghdad. They are assigned the task of overseeing a detention center that has been set up in an aircraft hangar. The cells of this makeshift prison are separated with concertina wire. The US soldiers are &#8220;instructed to use sleep deprivation on prisoners, and taught to perform mock executions.&#8221; The interrogators are &#8220;not in regular army uniform, and the soldiers never [learn] their real names.&#8221; Camilo Mejia, a member of the Florida National Guard, will later tell The Guardian: &#8220;We had a sledgehammer that we would bang against the wall, and that would create an echo that sounds like an explosion that scared the hell out of them. If that didn't work we would load a 9mm pistol, and pretend to be charging it near their head, and make them think we were going to shoot them. Once you did that, they did whatever you wanted them to do basically.&#8221; Mejia, the son of a famous Nicaraguan political songwriter and folksinger who later applies for status as a conscientious objector, will say that many soldiers were uncomfortable with these tactics. &#8220;The way we treated these men was hard even for the soldiers, especially after realizing that many of these &#8216;combatants&#8217; were no more than shepherds.&#8221; Mejia will also say that when his platoon leader objected to using these techniques, he was told that his refusal to do so could end his military career. http://www.mg.co.za/Content/l3.asp?ao=66283 The Guardian, 5/15/2004 News Article hr_torture May 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_894 1 false Eight high-ranking military lawyers from the Army Judge Advocate General's office&#8212;which historically has ensured that interrogators do not violate prisoners' rights&#8212;visit Scott Horton, head of the New York State Bar Association's committee on international law, and ask him to persuade the Pentagon to reverse its policy on using &#8220;stress and duress&#8221; interrogation techniques (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_863 ]]) (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_889 ]]). &#8220;They were quite blunt,&#8221; Horton will recall. &#8220;They were extremely concerned about how the political appointees were dealing with interrogation issues. They said this was a disaster waiting to happen and that they felt shut out&#8221; from the rules-drafting process. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A22472-2004May12.html Washington Post, 5/13/2004 News Article http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/politics/la-na-jag14may14,1,7108046.story?coll=la-news-politics-national Los Angeles Times, 5/14/2004 News Article http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040524fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/24/2004 News Article http://www.newsday.com/news/nationworld/ny-gen0516,0,3707944.story?coll=ny-top-headlines Newsday, 5/15/2004 News Article The lawyers describe the new interrogation rules as &#8220;frightening,&#8221; with the potential to &#8220;reverse 50 years of a proud tradition of compliance with the Geneva Conventions.&#8221; http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2004-05-13-warnings_x.htm USA Today, 5/13/2004 News Article The military lawyers will make another visit to Horton's office in October (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_895 ]]). scott_horton activeparticipant hr_torture hr_highlevel May 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_895 1 false The International Committee of the Red Cross sends a memorandum to Coalition Forces reporting that it has recorded roughly 200 allegations of mistreatment and abuse from prisoners of war being held at various detention facilities in Iraq. The report notes that the allegations are supported by medical examinations of the prisoners. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0513-03.htm New York Times, 5/13/2004 News Article iraq:_memorandum_on_concerns_relating_to_law_and_order source hr_torture hr_indications May 12, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_897 1 false Four soldiers from the 320th Military Police Battalion severely beat prisoners after transporting them to Camp Bucca in southern Iraq. Soldiers spread the legs of some prisoners while others kick them in the groin. The incident is reported by MPs of another unit. After the soldiers are charged, one of the soldiers being investigated writes to his relatives to explain the charges: &#8220;A few of my MPs were assaulted by the enemy prisoners, and we had to use force to regain control, all justifiable.&#8221; http://www.charleston.net/stories/072703/ter_27charged.shtml Associated Press, 7/27/2003 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A11413-2004May8.html/?nav=msn-1 Washington Post, 5/9/2004 News Article hr_torture May 25, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_898 1 false The Mail on Sunday reports that according to Major-General Geoffrey Miller, the US is considering plans to build an execution chamber at Camp Delta in Guantanamo Bay where suspected terrorists, convicted by a secret military tribunal for capital crimes, would be put to death. &#8220;Prisoners would be tried, convicted and executed without leaving its boundaries, without a jury and without right of appeal.&#8221; http://www.truthout.org/docs_03/052703B.shtml The Mail on Sunday, 5/25/2003 cited in Courrier Mail, 5/26/2003 News Article Britain claims that it is unaware of the US plans. http://www.truthout.org/docs_03/052703B.shtml Courrier Mail, 5/26/2003 News Article &#8220;It is not surprising the authorities are building a death row because they have said they plan to try capital cases before these tribunals. This camp was created to execute people. The administration has no interest in long-term prison sentences for people it regards as hard-core terrorists.&#8221; http://www.truthout.org/docs_03/052703B.shtml Courrier Mail, 5/26/2003 News Article commentary &#8220;The US is kicking and screaming against any pressure to conform with British or any other kind of international justice.&#8221; http://www.truthout.org/docs_03/052703B.shtml Courrier Mail, 5/26/2003 News Article commentary geoffrey_miller activeparticipant hr_deaths hr_highlevel June 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_1000 1 false An Iraqi prisoner is bound to a chair and interrogated by soldiers at a &#8220;classified interrogation facility&#8221; in Baghdad. He later dies. The autopsy will report that the man was &#8220;subjected to both physical and psychological stress&#8221; and died from a &#8220;hard, fast blow&#8221; to the head. http://www.denverpost.com/cda/article/print/0,1674,36%257E11676%257E2157003,00.html Denver Post, 5/18/2004 News Article hr_deaths hr_torture June 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_899 1 false Army Brigadier General Janis Karpinski&#8212;a reservist with no experience managing prisons&#8212;is made commander of the 800th Military Police Brigade and put in charge of three large jails, eight battalions, and thirty-four hundred Army reservists. Her office is located at Baghdad Airport. http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040510fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/7/2004 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A11413-2004May8_2.html Washington Post, 5/8/2004 News Article janis_karpinski activeparticipant hr_torture hr_highlevel June 2003-August 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_948 1 false Abd al-Rahman, a minor official at the agriculture ministry in Baghdad, is taken into custody by Coalition Forces and held for three months during which time he is &#8220;beaten frequently, given shocks with an electric cattle-prod and [has] one of his toenails prised off.&#8221; Rations are often laced with pork, which is forbidden to Muslims, and the area around his tent is infested with scorpions. http://www.arabmediawatch.com/modules.php?name=News&amp;file=print&amp;sid=1250 The Sunday Times, 1/18/2004 News Article http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/05/07/usint8556_txt.htm Human Rights Watch, 5/7/2004 News Article abd_al-rahman activeparticipant hr_torture June 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_900 1 false Senator Patrick Leahy, a Democrat from Vermont, sends letters to the White House, the CIA and the Pentagon with complaints about the treatment of detainees in Afghanistan and &#8220;other locations outside the United States.&#8221; He writes that according to unnamed officials, the prisoners are being subjected to beatings, lengthy sleep- and food-deprivation and other &#8220;stress and duress&#8221; techniques (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_889 ]]). He asks if these techniques are indeed being employed and urges the administration to issue a clear statement that cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment of detainees will not be tolerated. The Pentagon and CIA deny that the United States is torturing its prisoners. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2004-05-13-warnings_x.htm USA Today, 5/13/2004 News Article http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/05/07/usint8556_txt.htm Human Rights Watch, 5/7/2004 News Article patrick_leahy activeparticipant hr_torture hr_indications (June 8, 2003) torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_902 1 false Detainees at Camp Cropper in southern Iraq riot after one of the prisoners hits an MP. When things calm down, a US soldier removes his shirt and flexes his muscles in front of the prisoners, provoking another riot. After a soldier is struck in the head by a rock and another is hit by a tent pole, the MPs open fire, wounding five or six prisoners. The incident is later investigated by US authorities who conclude that the soldiers' actions were justified. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A11413-2004May8_2.html Washington Post, 5/8/2004 News Article report_of_the_icrc_on_the_treatment_by_coalition_forces_of_pows source hr_torture June 12, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_903 1 false Prisoners being held at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq hold demonstrations protesting their living conditions. In response to the protest, prison authorities promise to inform each of the prisoners about the status and expected length of their detention the following day. http://news.amnesty.org/mav/Index/ENGMDE141422003?open&amp;of=ENG-IRQ Amnesty International, 6/30/2003 News Article Additionally, two people attempting to escape the facility are shot. One dies of his wounds after being taken to a hospital. report_of_the_icrc_on_the_treatment_by_coalition_forces_of_pows source hr_torture hr_deaths June 13, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_904 1 false Prisoners being held at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq hold another demonstration after prison authorities fail to follow through on a promise (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_903 ]]) to provide the detainees with information about their status. Some of the demonstrators throw bricks and poles at the soldiers, but remain within the razor wire fence surrounding the tents and are not a threat to the soldiers. In response, the prison guards fire into the detention area, killing 22-year-old Ala' Jassem Sa'ad, who is in one of the tents. Seven others who are sharing the tent are injured. http://news.amnesty.org/mav/Index/ENGMDE141422003?open&amp;of=ENG-IRQ Amnesty International, 6/30/2003 News Article ala__jassem_sa_ad activeparticipant hr_deaths June 24, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_905 1 false US government agents secretly render five men out of Malawi in complete violation of that country's laws. Amnesty International later reports that according to its sources, the arrests were carried out by Malawi's National Intelligence Bureau working together with the Central Intelligence Agency. http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR511142003 Amnesty International, 8/19/03 News Article hr_rendition June 24, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_906 1 false Executive directors of human rights groups write to National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice asking that the US provide human rights monitors access to US prisoners and detention facilities in Iraq to verify conditions of detention. http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/05/07/usint8556_txt.htm Human Rights Watch, 5/7/2004 News Article condoleezza_rice acquaintance hr_indications June 25, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_909 1 false US Senator Arlen Specter writes to Condoleezza Rice asking for &#8220;clarification about numerous stories concerning alleged mistreatment of enemy combatants in US custody&#8221; and requesting that she explain how the administration ensures that detainees rendered to other countries are not tortured. http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/05/07/usint8556_txt.htm Human Rights Watch, 5/7/2004 News Article arlen_specter activeparticipant condoleezza_rice activeparticipant hr_indications June 25, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_908 1 false Department of Defense General Counsel William Haynes responds to a letter from Senator Patrick Leahy which asked for clarification on the administration's interrogation policy (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_900 ]]). Haynes replies that &#8220;it is the policy of the United States to comply with all its legal obligations in its treatment of detainees [and] ... to treat all detainees and conduct all interrogations, wherever they may occur&#8221; in a manner consistent with US obligations under the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, and Degrading Treatment. He adds that the US &#8220;does not permit, tolerate or condone any such torture by its employees under any circumstances.&#8221; He also says that the Fifth, Eighth, and/or Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution require the US &#8220;to prevent other acts of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment which do not amount to torture.&#8221; Notably, he does not provide information about the specific interrogation tactics that US forces are permitted to use. &#8220;It would not be appropriate to catalogue the interrogation techniques used by US personnel thus we cannot comment on specific cases or practices,&#8221; Haynes says. http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/05/07/usint8556_txt.htm Human Rights Watch, 5/7/2004 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/cgi-bin/print.cgi?file=/headlines04/0607-01.htm Wall Street Journal, 6/7/2004 News Article william_a._haynes activeparticipant patrick_leahy activeparticipant hr_highlevel hr_indications June 26, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_912 1 false Amnesty International sends a letter to Paul Bremer, head of the Office of the Coalition Provisional Authority (OCPA). The letter specifically mentions the poor conditions at Abu Ghraib prison and calls attention to a June 13 incident (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_904 ]]) where one Iraq detainee, Ala' Jassem Sa'ad, was shot dead and seven others were wounded when US soldiers fired into the air during a prisoners' demonstration protesting conditions and broken promises. http://news.amnesty.org/mav/Index/ENGMDE141422003?open&amp;of=ENG-IRQ Amnesty International, 6/30/2003 News Article ala__jassem_sa_ad passiveparticipant paul_bremer activeparticipant hr_indications June 26, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_910 1 false An official of the Malawian government writes to Amnesty International about the transfer of five men in US custody (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_905 ]]), explaining: &#8220;From the time the arrests were made, the welfare of the detainees, their abode and itinerary for departure were no longer in the hands of the Malawian authorities. Thus as a country we did not have the means to stop or delay the operation. The issue of terrorism has regrettably spurred worldwide erosion of fundamental principles of human rights not only in the world but also in the USA itself.... Malawi has had to cooperate with the USA on this request as we are under obligations internationally to assist. In Malawi we do not know where these people are but they are in hands of the Americans who took them out of the country using a chartered aircraft. They should now be going through investigations at a location only known by the USA.&#8221; It is later learned that the five men were sent to Zimbabwe and then to Sudan, where they were finally released in late July 2003 after investigators could find no evidence linking the men to terrorism. http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR511142003 Amnesty International, 8/19/03 News Article hr_rendition June 26, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_911 1 false In honor of United Nations International Day in Support of Victims of Torture, President Bush releases a statement saying that the US is &#8220;committed to the world-wide elimination of torture and [is] leading this fight by example.&#8221; Bush calls on all nations to join the US in &#8220;prohibiting, investigating, and prosecuting all acts of torture and in undertaking to prevent cruel and unusual punishment.&#8221; In his speech he also condemns countries who have refused to admit international human rights monitors into their facilities. &#8220;Notorious human rights abusers, including, among others, Burma, Cuba, North Korea, Iran, and Zimbabwe, have long sought to shield their abuses from the eyes of the world by staging elaborate deceptions and denying access to international human rights monitors.&#8221; http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/06/20030626-3.html Whites House, 6/26/2003 News Article http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/05/07/usint8556_txt.htm Human Rights Watch, 5/7/2004 News Article george_w._bush activeparticipant hr_highlevel hr_torture Early July 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_914 1 false The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) sends the Coalition Forces a working paper reporting 50 allegations of mistreatment in the military intelligence section of Camp Cropper. Among the allegations reported in the memo are: &#8220;threats (to intern individuals indefinitely, to arrest other family members, to transfer individuals to Guantanamo) against persons deprived of their liberty or against members of their families (in particular wives and daughters); hooding; tight handcuffing; use of stress positions (kneeling, squatting, standing with arms raised over the head) for three or four hours; taking aim at individuals with rifles, striking them with rifle butts, slaps, punches, prolonged exposure to the sun, and isolation in dark cells.&#8221; The report says that medical examinations of the prisoners supported their allegations. http://www.occupationwatch.org/article.php?id=4726 New York Times, 5/11/2004 News Article report_of_the_icrc_on_the_treatment_by_coalition_forces_of_pows source hr_torture hr_indications July 1, 2003-November 3, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_913 1 false Two Iranian journalists, Saeed Abou Taleb and Sohail Karimi, who are filming a documentary video in Iraq, are arrested and detained. Upon being released 126 days later, they say that they were subjected to &#8220;severe torture.&#8221; &#8220;The detention was unimaginable,&#8221; Taleb says to Iranian state television after the two make it back into Iran. &#8220;The first 10 days were like a nightmare. We were subjected to severe torture.&#8221; http://www.prisonplanet.com/031103freediranianstorture.html Agence France Presse, 11/4/2003 News Article When a US spokesman is asked about the allegations, he responds, &#8220;The coalition does not mistreat anyone in its custody&#8212;full stop.&#8221; http://www.prisonplanet.com/031103freediranianstorture.html Agence France Presse, 11/4/2003 News Article sohail_karimi activeparticipant saeed_abou_taleb passiveparticipant hr_torture hr_indications July 13, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_915 1 false Al-Qaeda suspect Adil Al-Jazeeri is transferred over to US authorities from Pakistan after being subjected to &#8220;tough questioning&#8221; by Pakistani agents. The Americans then fly Al-Jazeeri &#8220;blindfolded and bound to an unknown location for interrogation in US custody.&#8221; http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR511142003 Amnesty International, 8/19/03 News Article http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/07/14/attack/main563079.shtml CBS, 7/14/2003 News Article adil_al-jazeeri activeparticipant hr_rendition July 23, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_916 1 false Amnesty International sends a memorandum to the US government and Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) titled, &#8220;Memorandum on concerns relating to law and order,&#8221; which states that the organization &#8220;has received a number of reports of torture or ill-treatment by Coalition Forces not confined to criminal suspects.&#8221; The memo explains that Coalition troops are using a number of methods, including &#8220;prolonged sleep deprivation; prolonged restraint in painful positions, sometimes combined with exposure to loud music; prolonged hooding; and exposure to bright lights.&#8221; Amnesty makes it very clear that these actions constitute &#8220;torture or inhuman treatment&#8221; and are prohibited by the Fourth Geneva Convention and by international human rights law. iraq:_memorandum_on_concerns_relating_to_law_and_order source The memorandum also informs the CPA that there are reports that prisoners have been killed by Coalition Forces. &#8220;Amnesty International has received a number of reports of cases of detainees who have died in custody, mostly as a result of shooting by members of the Coalition Forces. Other cases of deaths in custody where ill-treatment may have caused or contributed to death have been reported.&#8221; iraq:_memorandum_on_concerns_relating_to_law_and_order source The Coalition Provisional Authority does not provide any response to Amnesty International's memo or provide any indication that the allegations will be investigated. http://news.amnesty.org/mav/index/ENGAMR510772004 Amnesty International, 5/7/2004 News Article amnesty_international activeparticipant hr_torture hr_deaths hr_indications July 27, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_917 1 false The Pentagon announces that four US soldiers from a Pennsylvania-based Army Reserve have been charged with punching, kicking and breaking the bones of Iraqi captives at Camp Bucca near Umm Qasr in connection with the May 12 incident (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_897 ]]). This is the first known case where US soldiers are charged for alleged illegal treatment toward prisoners of war. http://www.charleston.net/stories/072703/ter_27charged.shtml Associated Press, 7/27/2003 News Article By January 2004, the soldiers will have all been discharged after Brig. Gen. Ennis Whitehead III determines that they had kicked prisoners or encouraged others to do so. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2003-11-25-iraq-soldier_x.htm Associated Press, 11/25/2003 News Article http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3980001/ Associated Press, 1/16/2004 News Article ennis_whitehead_iii activeparticipant hr_torture August 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_964 1 false An unnamed US soldier witnesses two interrogators pull an Iraqi man, gasping for air, from the trunk of a black Mercedes after having driven around with him in the back for some time. &#8220;They kind of had to prop him up to carry him in. He looked like he had been there for a while,&#8221; the soldier later tells The Guardian. The soldier also notes that it had been extremely hot that day. According to the soldier, the torture tactic is referred to as the &#8220;bitch in a box.&#8221; http://www.mg.co.za/Content/l3.asp?ao=66283 The Guardian, 5/14/2004 News Article hr_torture (August 2003) torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_972 1 false There is a growing realization within the Department of Defense that the militant resistance in Iraq against the US and British occupation has been underestimated. An internal Pentagon document notes: &#8220;Their ability to attack convoys, other vulnerable targets and particular individuals has been the result of painstaking surveillance and reconnaissance. Inside information has been passed on to insurgent cells about convoy/troop movements and daily habits of Iraqis working with coalition from within the Iraqi security services, primarily the Iraqi Police force which is rife with sympathy for the insurgents, Iraqi ministries and from within pro-insurgent individuals working with the CPA's so-called Green Zone.... Politically, the US has failed to date. Insurgencies can be fixed or ameliorated by dealing with what caused them in the first place. The disaster that is the reconstruction of Iraq has been the key cause of the insurgency. There is no legitimate government, and it behooves the Coalition Provisional Authority to absorb the sad but unvarnished fact that most Iraqis do not see the Governing Council as the legitimate authority. Indeed, they know that the true power is the CPA.&#8221; The report emphasizes that intelligence on the people involved in Iraq's domestic uprising is insufficient. &#8220;Human intelligence is poor or lacking ... due to the dearth of competence and expertise.... The intelligence effort is not coordinated since either too many groups are involved in gathering intelligence or the final product does not get to the troops in the field in a timely manner.&#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040524fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/24/2004 News Article The study is a contributing factor in the decision by the civilian leadership of the Pentagon to seek &#8220;actionable intelligence&#8221; from detainees being held in Iraq's detention facilities (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_919 ]]). http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040524fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/24/2004 News Article hr_highlevel August 4, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_918 1 false The US military reopens the Abu Ghraib prison facility in Baghdad. Lt. Col. Jerry L. Phillabaum, a reservist who commands the 320th Military Police Battalion, is put in charge of the prison. He reports directly to Army Brigadier General Janis Karpinski. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A11413-2004May8?language=printer Washington Post, 5/8/2004 News Article jerry_l._phillabaum activeparticipant janis_karpinski passiveparticipant August 18, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_1107 1 false Donald Rumsfeld directs his undersecretary of defense for intelligence, Stephen Cambone, to send Major General Geoffrey Miller to Iraq to review the US military prison system in Iraq and make suggestions on how the prisons can be used to obtain &#8220;actionable intelligence&#8221; from detainees. Cambone passes the order on to his deputy Lieutenant-General William Boykin who meets with Miller to plan the trip. http://msnbc.msn.com/id/4989422/site/newsweek/ Newsweek, 5/24/2004 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A43708-2004May20.html The Washington Post, 5/21/2004 News Article &#8220;There's no &#8216;automaticity&#8217; and this is a two-stage process, and in that regard we have met the principal concerns that have been expressed for the resolution ... Whatever violation there is, or is judged to exist, will be dealt with in the [Security] Council, and the Council will have an opportunity to consider the matter before any other action is taken.&#8221; http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-fg-uniraq8nov08.story Los Angeles Times, News Article duplicate donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant william_boykin activeparticipant stephen_cambone activeparticipant geoffrey_miller activeparticipant hr_highlevel August 31, 2003-September 9, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_919 1 false Major General Geoffrey Miller, who oversees the prison at Guantanamo, is sent to Iraq with a team &#8220;experienced in strategic interrogation&#8221;&nbsp;&#8220;to review current Iraqi theater ability to rapidly exploit internees for actionable intelligence&#8221; and to review the arrangements at the US military prisons in Iraq. http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040517fa_fact2 The New Yorker, 5/17/2004 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A11413-2004May8_2.html Washington Post, 5/8/2004 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A37331-2003Aug23?language=printer Washington Post, 5/9/2004 News Article During his trip, he informs military commanders of Defense's plan to glean intelligence from the prisoners and briefs them on the Pentagon's current interrogation policies (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_889 ]]). http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040517fa_fact2 The New Yorker, 5/17/2004 News Article &#8220;He came up there and told me he was going to &#8216;Gitmoize&#8217; the detention operation,&#8221; turning it into a hub of interrogation, Brig. Gen. Janis L. Karpinski, later recalls. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A11413-2004May8_2.html The Washington Post, 5/8/2004 News Article The Pentagon's decision to dispatch Miller on this mission had been influenced by the military's growing concern that the failure of Coalition Forces to quell resistance against the occupation was linked to a dearth in &#8220;actionable intelligence&#8221; (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_972 ]]). http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040524fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/24/2004 News Article Shortly after the visit, there is a noticeable increase in the frequency of interrogations at Abu Ghraib. &#8220;The operation was snowballing,&#8221; Samuel Provance, a US military intelligence officer will recall. &#8220;There were more and more interrogations. The chain of command was putting a lot of resources into the facility.&#8221; And Karpinski will later say that she was being shut out of the process at about this time. &#8220;They continued to move me farther and farther away from it.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A41035-2004May19.html The Washington Post, 5/20/2004 News Article samuel_provance activeparticipant janis_karpinski activeparticipant geoffrey_miller activeparticipant hr_highlevel September 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_1134 1 false Army Col. Thomas Pappas tells Army Lt. Col. Steven Jordan, a soldier overseeing interrogations at Abu Ghraib, that the White House wants interrogators to &#8220;pull the intelligence out&#8221; of the detainees. Pappas tells him at least twice &#8220;that some of the [intelligence] reporting was getting read by (Secretary of Defense Donald) Rumsfeld, folks out at Langley, some very senior folks.&#8221; http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2004-06-17-prison-cover_x.htm USA Today, 6/17/2004 News Article steven_jordan activeparticipant thomas_m._pappas activeparticipant hr_highlevel (September 2003) torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_973 1 false US Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and Undersecretary of Defense for Intelligence Stephen Cambone decide that they will extend the scope of &#8220;Copper Green&#8221; (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_971 ]]) to Abu Ghraib. According to Seymour Hersh, &#8220;The male prisoners could [now] be treated roughly, and exposed to sexual humiliation.&#8221; A former intelligence official will tell Hersh: &#8220;They weren't getting anything substantive from the detainees in Iraq. No names. Nothing that they could hang their hat on. Cambone says, I've got to crack this thing and I'm tired of working through the normal chain of command. I've got this apparatus set up&#8212;the black special-access program&#8212;and I'm going in hot. So he pulls the switch, and the electricity begins flowing last summer. And it's working. We're getting a picture of the insurgency in Iraq and the intelligence is flowing into the white world. We're getting good stuff. But we've got more targets [prisoners in Iraqi jails] than people who can handle them.... So here are fundamentally good soldiers&#8212;military-intelligence guys&#8212;being told that no rules apply. And, as far as they're concerned, this is a covert operation, and it's to be kept within Defense Department channels.&#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040524fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/24/2004 News Article &#8220;Rumsfeld?s decision embittered the American intelligence community, damaged the effectiveness of elite combat units, and hurt America?s prospects in the war on terror.&#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040524fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/24/2004 News Article commentary stephen_cambone activeparticipant donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant hr_highlevel September 9, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_980 1 false Major General Geoffrey Miller files a classified report at the end of his 10-day visit (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_919 ]]) to Iraq, demanding that Iraq's detention camps be used to collect &#8220;actionable intelligence&#8221; and that the military police at Abu Ghraib be trained to set &#8220;the conditions for the successful interrogation and exploitation of internees/detainees.&#8221; &#8220;Detention operations must act as an enabler for interrogation ... to provide a safe, secure and humane environment that supports the expeditious collection of intelligence,&#8221; he writes. http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040524fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/24/2004 News Article http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040517fa_fact2 The New Yorker, 5/17/2004 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A29988-2004May15?language=printer Washington Post, 5/15/2004 News Article He leaves a list of acceptable interrogation techniques&#8212;based on what has been used in Guatanamo&#8212;posted on a wall in Abu Ghraib which says that long-term isolation, &#8220;working dogs,&#8221; sleep disruption, &#8220;environmental manipulation&#8221; and &#8220;stress positions&#8221; can be used to facilitate interrogations, but only with the approval of Lieutenant-General Ricardo Sanchez on a case-by-case basis. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A43708-2004May20.html The Washington Post, 5/21/2004 News Article He also suggests that the military close Camp Cropper in southern Iraq. Miller's recommendations are included in a memo that is sent for review to Lieutenant-General William Boykin, the deputy undersecretary of defense for intelligence (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_1104 ]]). http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A29988-2004May15?language=printer Washington Post, 5/16/2004 News Article http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040524fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/24/2004 News Article william_boykin activeparticipant geoffrey_miller activeparticipant ricardo_s._sanchez passiveparticipant hr_highlevel September 9, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_920 1 false Senator Patrick Leahy responds to William Haynes' letter of June 25, 2003 (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_908 ]]). He asks him to explain how the standards he outlined are implemented and communicated to US soldiers and asks for assurances that other agencies, including the CIA, abide by the same standards as the US military. http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/05/07/usint8556_txt.htm Human Rights Watch, 5/7/2004 News Article patrick_leahy activeparticipant william_a._haynes activeparticipant hr_highlevel September 11, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_1108 1 false A US military guard at the FOB Packhorse detention facility in Iraq fatally shoots a detainee who is throwing rocks. http://www.denverpost.com/cda/article/print/0,1674,36%257E11676%257E2157003,00.html Denver Post, 5/18/2004 News Article hr_deaths September 22, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_921 1 false A delegation from the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) interviews a 61-year-old Iraqi who has been imprisoned in Camp Bucca. The elderly man tells the ICRC that at the time of his arrest, he was &#8220;tied, hooded and forced to sit on the hot surface of what he surmised to be the engine of a vehicle....&#8221; The ICRC verifies his account noting that the presence of &#8220;large crusted lesions&#8221; on his buttocks were consistent with his allegation. report_of_the_icrc_on_the_treatment_by_coalition_forces_of_pows source hr_torture September 22, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_922 1 false At Camp Bucca in Iraq, a Coalition soldier shoots a prisoner who is throwing stones. A February 2004 International Committee of the Red Cross report will recount: &#8220;Following unrest in a section of the camp one person deprived of his liberty, allegedly throwing stones, was fired upon by a guard in a watchtower. He suffered a gunshot wound to the upper part of the chest, the bullet passed through the chest and exited form [sic] the back.... An ICRC delegate and interpreter witnessed most of the events. At no point did the persons deprived of their liberty, and the victim shot at, appear to pose a serious threat to the life or security of the guards who could have responded to the situation with less brutal measures. The shooting showed a clear disregard for human life and security of the persons deprived of their liberty.&#8221; report_of_the_icrc_on_the_treatment_by_coalition_forces_of_pows source hr_deaths (September 30, 2003) torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_923 1 false Camp Cropper is closed, following the advice of Major General Geoffrey Miller (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_980 ]]). http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A11413-2004May8_2.html Washington Post, 5/8/2004 News Article geoffrey_miller passiveparticipant hr_torture October 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_928 1 false A delegation from the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) visits Abu Ghraib prison in Baghdad and is appalled by the condition and treatment of the prisoners. The ICRC breaks &#8220;off [its] visit and [demands] an immediate explanation from the military prison authorities.&#8221; The delegation witnesses prisoners who are &#8220;completely naked in totally empty concrete cells and in total darkness.&#8221; According to its February 2004 report to Coalition Forces, &#8220;The military intelligence officer in charge of the interrogation explained that this practice was &#8216;part of the process.&#8217; &#8221; The ICRC subsequently complains to Coalition Forces. http://www.occupationwatch.org/article.php?id=4726 New York Times, 5/11/2004 News Article us_army_report_on_iraqi_prisoner_abuse source hr_torture October 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_925 1 false Several military lawyers make a second visit (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_894 ]]) to Scott Horton, head of the New York State Bar Association's committee on international law, and ask him to persuade the Pentagon to reverse its policy on using &#8220;stress and duress&#8221; interrogation techniques (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_889 ]]). &#8220;They were quite blunt,&#8221; Horton will say, recalling the two visits. &#8220;They were extremely concerned about how the political appointees were dealing with interrogation issues. They said this was a disaster waiting to happen and that they felt shut out&#8221; of the rules-drafting process. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A22472-2004May12.html Washington Post, 5/13/2004 News Article http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040524fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/24/2004 News Article http://www.newsday.com/news/nationworld/ny-gen0516,0,3707944.story?coll=ny-top-headlines Newsday, 5/15/2004 News Article scott_horton activeparticipant hr_highlevel October 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_924 1 false The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) interviews a prisoner of war who has suffered severe burns as a result of being forced to lie face down on a hot surface. A February 2004 ICRC report (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_950 ]]) recounts: &#8220;He had been hooded, handcuffed in the back, and made to lie face down on a hot surface during transportation. This had caused severe skin burns that required three months hospitalization. At the time of the interview he had been recently discharged from hospital. He had to undergo several skin grafts, the amputation of his right index finger, and suffered the permanent loss of the use of his left fifth finger secondary to burn-induced skin retraction. He also suffered extensive burns over the abdomen, anterior aspects of the lower extremities, the palm of his right hand and the sole of his left foot.&#8221; report_of_the_icrc_on_the_treatment_by_coalition_forces_of_pows source hr_torture October 2003-December 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_927 1 false At the Abu Ghraib prison in Baghdad, US soldiers, intelligence operatives, and at least two civilian contractors participate in &#8220;sadistic, blatant, and wanton criminal abuses&#8221; &#8212;including rape and murder&#8212;against Iraqi prisoners as part of a program to soften them up prior to interrogation. The worst of these atrocities are committed against prisoners being held in cell blocks 1A and 1B. Members of the 372nd Military Police Company, the 205th Military Intelligence Brigade (MI), the covert &#8220;Copper Green&#8221; special-access program, and the CIA are involved in the program. http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040510fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/10/2004 News Article http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040517fa_fact2 The New Yorker, 5/17/2004 News Article http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040524fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/24/2004 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,1214698,00.html The Guardian, 5/12/2004 News Article http://msnbc.msn.com/id/4989422/site/newsweek/ Newsweek, 5/24/2004 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A11413-2004May8_2.html Washington Post, 5/8/2004 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A43783-2004May20.html Washington Post, 5/21/2004 News Article us_army_report_on_iraqi_prisoner_abuse source photos_of_tortured_prisoners source The evidence for these crimes includes statements from witnesses, admissions, court documents, testimonies from detainees and thousands of photographs and videos later leaked to the military's Criminal Investigative Division (CID) in January (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_977 ]]) and to the media in April (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_993 ]]). http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040510fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/10/2004 News Article http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040517fa_fact2 The New Yorker, 5/17/2004 News Article photos_of_tortured_prisoners source testimonies_of_detainees_held_in_cell_blocks_1a_and_1b source Prisoners held in cell bocks 1A and 1B are subjected to the following abuses: detainees are hooded, shackled and deprived of sleep; male detainees are forced to engage in simulated homosexual activities and made to masturbate in front of one another and female MPs; detainees are kicked and punched; at least one male detainee is raped by an Army translator; at least one male detainee is sodomized with a chemical light and a nightstick; detainees are forced to crawl on the ground with MPs riding on their backs; at least one detainee is made to crawl on broken glass, female detainees are forced to strip; some female detainees are raped multiple times by multiple MPs; detainees are intimidated by unmuzzled dogs and at least one man is bitten; male detainees are forced to walk around naked with women's underwear on their heads; male detainees are forced to wear women's underwear; detainees are deprived of medical attention; detainees are forced to retrieve their meals from toilets tossed there by MPs; male detainees are fondled by female soldiers and one male detainee is forced to have sex with a female soldier; detainees are dragged by MPs on a leash and forced to bark like a dog; detainees are hooded and forced to stand on a box with their arms spread and wires dangling from their fingers, toes and penis and told that if they fall of the box they would be electrocuted and at least one is shocked three times; at least one male detainee is made fun of because of his deformed hand; and at least one detainee is forced to denounce Islam and &#8220;Thank Jesus that I'm alive.&#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040510fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/10/2004 News Article http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040517fa_fact2 The New Yorker, 5/17/2004 News Article http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040524fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/24/2004 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,1214698,00.html The Guardian, 5/12/2004 News Article http://msnbc.msn.com/id/4989422/site/newsweek/ Newsweek, 5/24/2004 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A11413-2004May8_2.html Washington Post, 5/8/2004 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A43783-2004May20.html Washington Post, 5/21/2004 News Article http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2004/05/20/1085028463470.html The Guardian, 5/20/2004 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/g2/story/0,3604,1220509,00.html The Age, 5/21/2004 News Article http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1101040628-655389,00.html Time, 6/20/2004 News Article One prisoner, Manadel al-Jamadi, dies from injuries inflicted by prison personnel or by the CIA officers who brought him there (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_943 ]]). These tactics reportedly have a severe psychological effect on some of the detainees. The International Committee of the Red Cross will report in February 2004: &#8220;The ICRC medical delegate examined persons deprived of their liberty presenting signs of concentration difficulties, memory problems, verbal expression difficulties, incoherent speech, acute anxiety reactions, abnormal behavior and suicidal tendencies. These symptoms appeared to have been caused by the methods and duration of interrogation. One person held in isolation that the ICRC examined was unresponsive to verbal and painful stimuli. His heart rate was 120 beats per minute and his respiratory rate 18 per minute. He was diagnosed as suffering from somatoform (mental) disorder, specifically a conversion disorder, most likely due to the ill-treatment he was subjected to during interrogation.&#8221; After the torture scandal is reported in the press, the Bush administration will claim the abuses had been the work of only a few rogue MPs&#8212;without the knowledge or approval of intelligence. But evidence will clearly indicate otherwise. A few of the pictures will show that non-uniformed military intelligence officers and civilian contractors were present during some of the abuses. http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040517fa_fact2 The New Yorker, 5/17/2004 News Article http://www.nzherald.co.nz/storydisplay.cfm?storyID=3566058 &amp;thesection=news&amp;thesubsection=world&amp;thesecondsubsection=&amp;reportID=61564 The New Zealand Herald, 5/13/2004 News Article us_army_report_on_iraqi_prisoner_abuse source report_of_the_icrc_on_the_treatment_by_coalition_forces_of_pows source Additionally, MPs will say that the orders were coming directly from military intelligence. Sergeant Javal Davis, one of the MPs, later explains: &#8220;I witnessed prisoners in the MI hold section ... being made to do various things that I would question morally ... In Wing 1A we were told that they had different rules.&#8221; Military Intelligence reportedly told the MPs &#8220; &#8216;Loosen this guy up for us.&#8217; &#8216;Make sure he has a bad night.&#8217; &#8216;Make sure he gets the treatment.&#8217; &#8221; When the MPs did as they were told, MI would say things like, &#8220;Good job, they're breaking down real fast. They answer every question. They're giving out good information.&#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040510fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/10/2004 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A11413-2004May8_2.html Washington Post, 5/8/2004 News Article us_army_report_on_iraqi_prisoner_abuse source A prisoner's account will also indicate that the orders were coming from above (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_939 ]]). The interrogations take place at two facilities within Abu Ghraib known as the Wood Building and the Steel Building. But it is unclear precisely who is in charge. In addition to the known involvement of the 205th Military Intelligence Brigade, there is evidence suggesting that CIA and SAP operatives (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_974 ]]) are also involved. Two civilian contractors&#8212;Steven Stephanowicz, an interrogator working for Virginia-based CACI International, and John B. Israel who works for SOS Interpreting Ltd.&#8212;also play a leading part in the interrogations. Unlike their counterparts in MI, they are not bound by the Uniform Code of Military Justice, though they are required to obey civilian law (it is not clear whether they are bound by US or Iraq law). Little is known about the two civilians. http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040510fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/10/2004 News Article http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040517fa_fact2 The New Yorker, 5/17/2004 News Article http://www.the-signal.com/News/ViewStory.asp?storyID=4769 The Signal, 6/2/2004 News Article After the torture scandal is revealed in the press, Stephanowicz is rumored to be CIA http://dsdsdemo2.ap.org/knight-ridder/Stories/539_ds_3945760.html Knight Ridder, 5/8/2004 News Article steven_stephanowicz source john_b._israel source hr_torture hr_deaths hr_highlevel (October 2003) torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_943 1 false The CIA brings a hooded detainee, later identified as Manadel al-Jamadi, to Abu Ghraib. The man is brought directly to the showers where he is shackled and left alone to await interrogation. About an hour later, he dies from untreated headwounds that had been concealed by the sandbag on his head. Prison personnel will claim they were unaware of the man's head injuries and that he had not yet been interrogated. Staff Sergeant Ivan L. Frederick II will write to his family in the United States in November 2003 that the CIA had &#8220;stressed him out so bad that the man passed away. [Prison personnel] put his body in a body bag and packed him in ice for approximately twenty-four hours in the shower.... The next day the medics came and put his body on a stretcher, placed a fake IV in his arm and took him away.&#8221; The prisoner is never entered into the prison's inmate-control system and therefore there is no record of him being admitted to the facility. http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040510fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/7/2004 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/g2/story/0,3604,1220509,00.html The Age, 5/21/2004 News Article manadel_al-jamadi activeparticipant ivan_l._frederick_ii activeparticipant hr_deaths hr_torture Early October 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_926 1 false Soldiers of the 372nd Military Police Company, who since May (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_893 ]]) have been performing routine traffic and police duties, are reassigned to prison-guard duty at Abu Ghraib prison in Baghdad. They are provided with no training or guidelines on prison management, though two members of the 372nd previously worked as civilian prison guards back in the United States. They are not given copies of the Geneva Conventions. http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040510fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/7/2004 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A11413-2004May8_2.html Washington Post, 5/8/2004 News Article hr_torture (Early October 2003) torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_929 1 false Lieutenant-General Ricardo Sanchez orders Major General Marshal Donald Ryder to conduct a review of the prison system in Iraq and provide him with recommendations to improve it. http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040510fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/7/2004 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A11413-2004May8_2.html Washington Post, 5/8/2004 News Article ricardo_s._sanchez activeparticipant marshal_donald_ryder activeparticipant hr_coverup October 12, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_981 1 false Lieutenant-General Ricardo Sanchez writes a classified memo calling for a &#8220;harmonization&#8221; of policing and intelligence tasks at Abu Ghraib in order to ensure &#8220;consistency with the interrogation policies ... and maximize the efficiency of the interrogation.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A29988-2004May15?language=printer Washington Post, 5/15/2004 News Article The memo instructs intelligence is to work more closely with the military police in order to &#8220;manipulate an internee's emotions and weaknesses&#8221; by controlling the detainee's access to &#8220;lighting, heating ... food, clothing, and shelter.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A43708-2004May20.html The Washington Post, 5/21/2004 News Article It says that &#8220;it is imperative that interrogators be provided reasonable latitude to vary their approach&#8221; according to the prisoner's background, strengths, resistance and other factors. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A29988-2004May15?language=printer Washington Post, 5/15/2004 News Article The memo is a revision of General Geoffrey Miller's September 9 memo (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_980 ]]), which included a list of acceptable interrogation techniques. Sanchez's memo, however, drops the list replacing it with a general statement that &#8220;anything not approved, you have to ask for,&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A43708-2004May20.html The Washington Post, 5/21/2004 News Article and adding that the detainees must be treated humanely and that any dogs used during the interrogations must be muzzled. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A29988-2004May15?language=printer Washington Post, 5/15/2004 News Article ricardo_s._sanchez activeparticipant hr_highlevel October 18, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_930 1 false The Associated Press submits a list of questions to US command about specific accounts from former detainees regarding torture, execution and poor living conditions at Coalition detention centers in Iraq. US command does not respond. http://www.thestar.com/NASApp/cs/ContentServer?pagename=thestar/Layout/Article_Type1&amp;c=Article&amp;cid=1067425356615&amp;call_pageid=968332188854&amp;col=968705899037 The Associated Press, 10/29/2004 News Article hr_torture hr_deaths hr_coverup hr_indications October 18, 2003-October 31, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_931 1 false Soon after the 372nd Military Police Company arrives at Abu Ghraib prison in Baghdad, Army Brigadier General Janis Karpinski sends Lieutenant Colonel Jerry Phillabaum, who is in charge of the prison, to Kuwait for two weeks so that he can have &#8220;some relief from the pressure he was experiencing.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A11413-2004May8_2.html Washington Post, 5/8/2004 News Article us_army_report_on_iraqi_prisoner_abuse source janis_karpinski activeparticipant jerry_l._phillabaum activeparticipant hr_torture October 29, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_934 1 false The Associated Press reports that detainees in Iraq are being subjected to torture and inhumane living conditions and tells of an instance where a prisoner was shot and killed. It recounts the story of one prisoner, Saaed Naif, who said he saw another prisoner &#8220;shot dead at Abu Ghraib when he approached the razor wire.&#8221; The report also describes a type of punishment where the victim is confined to a razor-wire enclosed area&#8212;known as &#8220;The Gardens&#8221; &#8212;and forced to lie face down, hands tied behind the back, on the burning sand for two or three hours. In one incident, when a woman was sent to the &#8220;The Gardens,&#8221; her infuriated brother attempted to leave the razor wire enclosure around his tent but prison personnel &#8220;shot him in the shoulder.&#8221; Many former prisoners of the detainment centers agreed that some of the worst atrocities at the prisons were the guards' treatment of the women, sick, and disabled. http://www.thestar.com/NASApp/cs/ContentServer?pagename=thestar/Layout/Article_Type1&amp;c=Article&amp;cid=1067425356615&amp;call_pageid=968332188854&amp;col=968705899037 The Associated Press, 10/29/2004 News Article saaed_naif activeparticipant hr_indications November 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_997 1 false Iraqi Major General Abed Hamed Mowhoush, who previously headed Saddam Hussein's air force, turns himself in for questioning. He is sent to the Al Qaim detention facility northwest of Baghdad. Two weeks into his detention, on November 27, he is interrogated by two soldiers with the 66th Military Intelligence Company. They force him head-first into a sleeping bag and question him as they roll him back and forth. One of the soldiers then sits on the Iraqi general's chest and covers his mouth. The prisoner dies of affixation. An internal government document later recounts: &#8220;During this interrogation, the [general] became non-responsive, medics were called and he was later pronounced dead. The preliminary report lists the cause of death as asphyxia due to smothering and chest compressions.&#8221; Later that day, US military officials issue a statement saying that a prisoner has died of natural causes during questioning. &#8220;Mowhoush said he didn't feel well and subsequently lost consciousness,&#8221; the statement reads. &#8220;The soldier questioning him found no pulse, then conducted CPR and called for medical authorities. According to the on-site surgeon, it appeared Mowhouse died of natural causes.&#8221; http://www.cjtf7.army.mil/media-information/november2003/031127a.htm Combined Joint Task Force, 11/27/2003 News Article http://www.denverpost.com/cda/article/print/0,1674,36%257E11676%257E2157003,00.html Denver Post, 5/18/2004 News Article abed_hamed_mowhoush activeparticipant hr_deaths hr_torture November 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_1135 1 false Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld, at the request of George J. Tenet, orders military officials in Iraq to keep a high-value detainee being held at Camp Cropper off the records. The order is passed down to Gen. Richard B. Myers, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, then to Gen. John P. Abizaid, the commander of American forces in the Middle East, and finally to Lt. Gen. Ricardo S. Sanchez, the ground commander in Iraq. &#8220;At each stage, lawyers reviewed the request and their bosses approved it,&#8221; the New York Times will report. &#8220;This prisoner and other &#8216;ghost detainees&#8217; were hidden largely to prevent the International Committee of the Red Cross from monitoring their treatment, and to avoid disclosing their location to an enemy,&#8221; the newspaper will report citing top officials. The prisoner&#8212;in custody since July 2003&#8212;is suspected of being a senior officer of Ansar al-Islam, an Islamic group with ties to al-Qaeda. Shortly after being captured by US forces, he was judged to be an &#8220;enemy combatant&#8221; and thus denied protection under the Geneva conventions. Up until this point, the prisoner has only been interrogated once. As a result of being kept off the books, the prison system looses track of the detainee who will spend the next seven months in custody. &#8220;Once he was placed in military custody, people lost track of him,&#8221; a senior intelligence official will tell the New York Times. &#8220;The normal review processes that would keep track of him didn't.&#8221; http://www.occupationwatch.org/article.php?id=5419 New York Times, 6/17/2004 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0617-04.htm Reuters, 6/17/2004 News Article http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,122898,00.html Fox News, 6/17/2004 News Article richard_b._myers activeparticipant george_tenet activeparticipant donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant ricardo_s._sanchez activeparticipant john_p._abizaid activeparticipant hr_highlevel November 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_1133 1 false Fran Townsend, deputy national security adviser for combating terrorism, visits Abu Ghraib for approximately two hours. She is given a tour of the prison by Army Lt. Col. Steven Jordan. Townsend will later say that the purpose of her visit was to learn more about resistance against the US occupation and to ensure that information coming from the facility would be shared effectively among the various intelligence agencies. She will also say that she did not discuss interrogation methods, pressure military prison personnel to produce more intelligence, or witness any incidents of abuse. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2004-06-17-prison-cover_x.htm USA Today, 6/17/2004 News Article steven_jordan activeparticipant fran_townsend activeparticipant hr_highlevel November 5, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_935 1 false Major General Marshal Donald Ryder files a report on the prison system in Iraq as had been requested by General Sanchez earlier in the fall (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_929 ]]). According to The New Yorker, his report concludes that &#8220;there were potential human-rights, training, and manpower issues, system-wide, that needed immediate attention.&#8221; Ryder suggests that the problem may stem from methods used in Afghanistan where MPs had worked with intelligence operatives to &#8220;set favorable conditions for subsequent interviews.&#8221; Ryder recommends drawing up guidelines to &#8220;define the role of military police soldiers ... clearly separating the actions of the guards from those of the military intelligence personnel.&#8221; However Rider downplays the gravity of the situation, saying it has not yet reached a crisis point. Despite the problems, he says that he found &#8220;no military police units purposely applying inappropriate confinement practices.&#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040510fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/7/2004 News Article marshal_donald_ryder activeparticipant ricardo_s._sanchez passiveparticipant hr_indications hr_coverup November 6, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_979 1 false The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) complains in writing to Coalition Forces about the treatment of prisoners being held at Abu Ghraib prison (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_928 ]]). http://www.occupationwatch.org/article.php?id=4726 New York Times, 5/11/2004 News Article http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,120072,00.html Associated Press, 5/16/2004 News Article http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/national/173959_prisoners19.html New York Times, 5/19/2004 News Article us_army_report_on_iraqi_prisoner_abuse source The ICRC's complaints are then discussed at high levels inside the Bush administration. &#8220;We knew that the ICRC had concerns, and in accordance with the matter in which the ICRC does its work, it presented those concerns directly to the command in Baghdad,&#8221; Powell will later recall on &#8220;Fox News Sunday.&#8221; &#8220;And I know that some corrective action was taken with respect to those concerns,&#8221; he adds. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,120072,00.html Associated Press, 5/16/2004 News Article colin_powell activeparticipant hr_indications November 18, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_937 1 false In an interview with the St. Petersburg Times, Army Brig. Gen. Janis Karpinski says that for many of the prisoners &#8220;living conditions now are better in prison than at home. At one point we were concerned they wouldn't want to leave.&#8221; But when asked for details on the detention of top Baath Party officials, she would only say that they were being detained under &#8220;appropriate arrangements.&#8221; http://www.sptimes.com/2003/12/14/Worldandnation/Her_job__Lock_up_Iraq.shtml St. Petersburg Times, 12/14/2003 News Article janis_karpinski activeparticipant hr_torture November 18, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_936 1 false Department of Defense Principal Deputy General Counsel Daniel Dell'Orto writes to Senator Patrick Leahy and confirms that earlier Pentagon statements (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_908 ]]) about the treatment of detainees bind the entire executive branch. But he fails to answer specific questions about interrogation guidelines and adds that articles reporting improper treatment of detainees &#8220;often contain allegations that are untrue.&#8221; http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/05/07/usint8556_txt.htm Human Rights Watch, 5/7/2004 News Article patrick_leahy activeparticipant daniel_dell_orto activeparticipant hr_coverup November 19, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_938 1 false The office of General Sanchez formally puts Colonel Thomas M. Pappas of 205th Military Intelligence Brigade in charge of cell blocks 1A and 1B in the Abu Ghraib prison. As General Taguba will note in his February 26, 2004 (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_953 ]]) report, the order &#8220;effectively made an MI Officer, rather than an MP officer, responsible for the MP units conducting detainee operations at that facility. This is not doctrinally sound due to the different missions and agenda assigned to each of these respective specialties.&#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040517fa_fact2 The New Yorker, 5/17/2004 News Article http://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/12/politics/12ABUS.html New York Times, 5/12/2004 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A29988-2004May15?language=printer Washington Post, 5/15/2004 News Article http://msnbc.msn.com/id/4989422/site/newsweek/ Newsweek, 5/24/2004 News Article Major General Antonio M. Taguba will also note: &#8220;[T]he intelligence value of detainees held at ... Guantanamo is different than that of the detainees/internees held at Abu Ghraib and other detention facilities in Iraq.... There are a large number of Iraqi criminals held at Abu Ghraib. These are not believed to be international terrorists or members of al-Qaeda.&#8221; The report will say also that the order was in conflict with existing military regulations and suggests that Sanchez's recommendation had influenced the conditions at Abu Ghraib. ricardo_s._sanchez activeparticipant antonio_m._taguba passiveparticipant thomas_m._pappas activeparticipant hr_highlevel November 29, 2003-March 28, 2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_939 1 false In downtown Baghdad, Saddam Saleh Aboud, a 29-year-old Iraqi Sunni Muslim, reports to an Iraqi police officer that he believes a car on Saddoun Street is wired with explosives. The Iraqi officer immediately hands the man over to US soldiers and after brief stays at two small detention centers, Aboud ends up in cell block 1A of Abu Ghraib in cell No.42 on December 1. During his stay in the prison he is subjected to beatings and torture. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/14/international/middleeast/14PRIS.html?pagewanted=2 New York Times, 5/14/2004 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,1215344,00.html The Guardian, 5/13/2004 News Article http://news.independent.co.uk/world/middle_east/story.jsp?story=521077 Independent, 5/14/2004 News Article On the first night of his stay in Abu Ghraib&#8212;hooded and with his hands tied behind his back&#8212;he is instructed to stand on a box. &#8220;I stood like this for an hour, or an hour and a quarter. Then some American soldiers came and they were laughing and some were beating me. They were beating me on my back and my legs. They were beating and laughing. I couldn't bear it and then I fell from the box against the wall and then on to the ground.&#8221; The soldiers then removed his hood. &#8220;They were talking and then one of them started to urinate on me. Then they started to drop cold water on me.&#8221; http://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/14/international/middleeast/14PRIS.html?pagewanted=2 New York Times, 5/14/2004 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,1215344,00.html The Guardian, 5/13/2004 News Article According to Aboud, the orders seem to be coming from above. In fact at one point during his detention he asks a soldier, &#8220;Why do you torture us?&#8221; The soldier responds, &#8220;It's not in our control.&#8221; http://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/14/international/middleeast/14PRIS.html?pagewanted=2 New York Times, 5/14/2004 News Article After 18 days, the torture ends and the interrogation begins. A man named Steve&#8212;probably a reference to Steven Stephanowicz, the civilian employee of a private contractor who works in the prison as a professional interrogator&#8212;says to him, &#8220;If you do not confess, I will have my soldiers rape you.&#8221; Aboud subsequently answers all of his interrogators' questions, but provides them with bogus information. &#8220;Whatever they asked me, I said yes. They told me I was from Ansar al-Islam [a militant Iraqi group] and I said yes. I told them the leader of Jaish-e-Mohammad [another Iraqi militant group] was my cousin. They asked me about Zarqawi [a Jordanian militant thought to be in Iraq] and al-Qaeda and I said yes even though I don't know who they are.&#8221; http://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/14/international/middleeast/14PRIS.html?pagewanted=2 New York Times, 5/14/2004 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,1215344,00.html The Guardian, 5/13/2004 News Article Some time later, prisoners in Aboud's cell block are told that the Red Cross will be coming by to inspect the facility. They are told by the translator not to reveal how they had been abused. &#8220;Look all of you. The Red Cross will come to you today and if you say anything more than what is allowed then you will see a very, very dark day today and tomorrow will be darker and so on and so on,&#8221; Aboud will later recall the translator saying. Prior to the expected visit, several prisoners are relocated elsewhere in the prison. When the Red Cross arrives, Aboud says nothing. &#8220;I couldn't say anything to her [the Red Cross human rights monitor] because there was a translator and an American soldier standing behind her.&#8221; http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,1215344,00.html The Guardian, 5/13/2004 News Article When Aboud finally leaves the prison, he is warned: &#8220;One of the soldiers told me: &#8216;You were inside the prison and you saw some good things and some bad things. Forget the bad things and remember only the good.&#8217; &#8221; steven_stephanowicz activeparticipant saddam_saleh_aboud activeparticipant hr_torture hr_coverup November 30, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_982 1 false Col. Thomas M. Pappas sends a classified cable to Lieutenant-General Ricardo Sanchez requesting permission to use more intense interrogation methods on a 31-year-old Syrian suspected of having knowledge about the illegal flow of money, arms and foreign fighters into Iraq. Pappas says in the cable that the interrogators at Abu Ghraib would like to use the &#8220;fear up harsh&#8221; method, which according to military documents means &#8220;significantly increasing the fear level in a security detainee.&#8221; The Washington Post will later report that the plan's details were as follows: &#8220;First, the interrogators were to throw chairs and tables in the man's presence at the prison and &#8216;invade his personal space.&#8217; Then the police were to put a hood on his head and take him to an isolated cell through a gantlet of barking guard dogs; there, the police were to strip-search him and interrupt his sleep for three days with interrogations, barking and loud music....&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A29988-2004May15?language=printer Washington Post, 5/15/2004 News Article thomas_m._pappas activeparticipant ricardo_s._sanchez activeparticipant hr_highlevel Late 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_942 1 false At Abu Ghraib prison in Baghdad, MPs hide prisoners from a Red Cross delegation by shifting them around the complex. These prisoners, or &#8220;ghost detainees,&#8221; are a group of detainees that have been imprisoned without names, charges or other documentation. According to Major General Antonio M. Taguba's February 26 report (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_953 ]]), a number of jails operated by the 800th Military Police Brigade &#8220;routinely held&#8221; such prisoners &#8220;without accounting for them, knowing their identities, or even the reason for their detention.&#8221; Taguba will note that the practice is a &#8220;violation of international law.&#8221; http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fg-intel5may05,1,422335.story?coll=la-headlines-world Los Angeles Times, 5/5/2004 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A11413-2004May8_2.html Washington Post, 5/8/2004 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A15981-2004May10?language=printer Washington Post, 5/11/2004 News Article us_army_report_on_iraqi_prisoner_abuse source &#8220;This is another way of saying a disappearance. A ghost detainee is someone for whom there is no public accountability. That is by far the most dangerous condition to be in because there is no external restraint on the detainee's torture or murder.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A11413-2004May8_2.html Washington Post, 5/8/2004 News Article commentary antonio_m._taguba activeparticipant hr_coverup December 12, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_940 1 false A battalion commander in Iraq is fined $5,000 for firing his pistol near the head of an Iraqi prisoner after his soldiers had punched the detainee. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2001814025_iraqdig13.html Seattle Times, 12/13/2003 News Article http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/05/07/usint8556_txt.htm Human Rights Watch, 5/7/2004 News Article hr_torture December 24, 2003 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_995 1 false The US military replies to the Red Cross' November 6 letter (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_979 ]]), claiming that the prisoners being held in cell bocks 1A and 2A of Abu Ghraib are &#8220;security detainees&#8221; who are not entitled to &#8220;full GC protection as recognized in GCIV/5 [Article 5 of the Fourth Geneva Convention].&#8221; The 3-page letter adds that &#8220;such protection will be afforded as soon as the security situation in Iraq allows it.&#8221; Article 5 allows an occupying power to exempt captives from the protection of the Conventions if they can be shown to be a continuing threat to the occupying force. However according to critics of the administration's judgment, the provision is supposed to be applied on a case-by-case basis and is not meant to include people who have valuable intelligence. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/23/international/middleeast/23IRAQ.html New York Times, 5/22/2004 News Article december_24_letter_from_gen._karpinski_to_the_international_comnmittee_on_the_red_cross source The letter also says that the Red Cross should schedule its visits to the cell bocks 1A and 2A ahead of time instead of showing up unannounced. The response letter&#8212;written by Army lawyers in Washington but signed by Army Brigadier General Janis Karpinski in Baghdad&#8212;claims that such visits could interrupt interrogations. http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/national/173959_prisoners19.html New York Times, 5/19/2004 News Article janis_karpinski activeparticipant hr_coverup Mid-April 2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_993 1 false The Abu Graib prison photos are leaked to CBS. But the network delays broadcasting a &#8220;60 Minutes&#8221; program on the abuses at the request of General Richard Myers. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/04/27/60II/main614063.shtml CBS, 5/6/2004 News Article http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/05/05/1083635200922.html Sydney Morning Herald, 5/6/2004 News Article http://www.townhall.com/news/politics/200405/POL20040507b.shtml CNS, 5/7/2004 News Article http://www.hipakistan.com/en/detail.php?newsId=en63942&amp;F_catID=&amp;f_type=source Agence France Presse, 5/7/2004 News Article richard_b._myers activeparticipant hr_coverup (Mid-January 2004) torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_944 1 false Staff Sergeant Ivan L. Frederick II, a member of the 372nd Military Police Company who will be a central figure in the prison photos scandal, sends a letter to relatives back home. In his letter he says: &#8220;I questioned some of the things that I saw ... such things as leaving inmates in their cell with no clothes or in female underpants, handcuffing them to the door of their cell-and the answer I got was, &#8216;This is how military intelligence (MI) wants it done.&#8217; ... MI has also instructed us to place a prisoner in an isolation cell with little or no clothes, no toilet or running water, no ventilation or window, for as much as three days.&#8221; Frederick goes on to say that the military-intelligence officers have &#8220;encouraged and told us, &#8216;Great job,&#8217; they were now getting positive results and information. CID has been present when the military working dogs were used to intimidate prisoners at MI's request.&#8221; When Frederick asked his superior officer, Lieutenant Colonel Jerry Phillabaum, the commander of the 320th M.P. Battalion, about the abuse of the prisoners, &#8220;His reply was &#8216;Don't worry about it.&#8217; &#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040510fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/7/2004 News Article ivan_l._frederick_ii activeparticipant jerry_l._phillabaum activeparticipant hr_torture hr_highlevel January 12, 2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_945 1 false Human Rights Watch writes to Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld &#8220;to express concern about incidents in which US forces stationed in Iraq detained innocent, close relatives of wanted suspects in order to compel the suspects to surrender, which amounts to hostage-taking, classified as a war crime under the Geneva Conventions.&#8221; http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/05/07/usint8556_txt.htm Human Rights Watch, 5/7/2004 News Article donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant hr_torture hr_indications January 13, 2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_946 1 false The Asian Wall Street Journal reports that a suspect detained by US forces in Iraq claimed that &#8220;he was ordered to stand upright until he collapsed after 13 hours&#8221; and that interrogators &#8220;burned his arm with a cigarette.&#8221; http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/05/07/usint8556_txt.htm Human Rights Watch, 5/7/2004 News Article hr_indications January 13, 2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_977 1 false Joseph Darby, a 24-year-old MP assigned to Abu Ghraib, slips an anonymous note under the door of the Army's Criminal Investigations Division and later turns over a CD with roughly one thousand photographs relating to the abuses that had taken place at the prison, mostly between October and December of the previous year. Within three days, a report on the photos makes its way to Donald Rumsfeld, who informs President Bush. http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040524fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/24/2004 News Article http://www.kansascity.com/mld/kansascity/news/nation/8631565.htm Knight Ridder News, 5/10/2004 News Article According to one former intelligence official, the Defense Secretary's attitude is: &#8220;We've got a glitch in the program. We'll prosecute it.&#8221; The former official explains to Seymour Hersh, &#8220;The cover story was that some kids got out of control.&#8221; The Taguba report creates a problem for &#8220;Copper Green,&#8221; (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_971 ]]) as it could potentially blow the special-access program's cover. The former official observes: &#8220;You can't cover it up. You have to prosecute these guys for being off the reservation. But how do you prosecute them when they were covered by the special-access program? So you hope that maybe it'll go away.&#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040524fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/24/2004 News Article george_w._bush activeparticipant donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant george_w._bush activeparticipant hr_indications January 15, 2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_961 1 false Jakob Kellenberger, president of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), meets with US Secretary of State Colin Powell and says that the ICRC has &#8220;serious concerns about detainees in Iraq.&#8221; though according to a senior State Department official, he does not detail them. During his visit, Kellenberger also meets with Condoleezza Rice and, reportedly, with Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz, though it is unclear what precisely is discussed. A White House spokesman, Sean McCormack, will later say that &#8220;Iraq was not mentioned&#8221; during the meeting with Rice. Rather the main topic of discussion was Guantanamo, he says. http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/nationworld/bal-te.powell12may12,0,2804533.story?coll=bal-news-nation Baltimore Sun, 5/12/2004 News Article condoleezza_rice activeparticipant paul_wolfowitz activeparticipant jakob_kellenberger activeparticipant sean_mccormack activeparticipant colin_powell activeparticipant hr_indications January 16, 2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_947 1 false The US military releases a statement announcing that Lieutenant-General Ricardo Sanchez has ordered a criminal investigation &#8220;into reported incidents of detainee abuse at a coalition forces detention facility.&#8221; It is later learned that the facility in question is Abu Ghraib prison. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3980001/ Associated Press, 1/16/2004 News Article ricardo_s._sanchez activeparticipant hr_torture January 19, 2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_991 1 false Lieutenant-General Ricardo Sanchez orders a high level administrative investigation into the 800th Military Police Brigade apart from the criminal investigation that was announced three days earlier (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_947 ]]). He appoints Major General Antonio M. Taguba to conduct the inquiry and limits the scope of the investigation to the conduct of the military police brigade. Taguba's report will be filed on February 26 (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_953 ]]) and presented on March 3 (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_992 ]]). http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/05/04/1083635124966.html Sydney Morning Herald, 5/4/2004 News Article http://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/11/politics/11TAGU.html New York Times, 5/10/2004 News Article ricardo_s._sanchez activeparticipant antonio_m._taguba activeparticipant hr_torture Late January 2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_949 1 false A 52-year-old Iraqi farmer and his 26-year-old son are detained and beaten by US soldiers after an explosion near their home. http://electroniciraq.net/news/1367.shtml Electronic Iraq, 2/19/2004 News Article hr_torture February 2, 2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_951 1 false During a hearing on the June 2003 death of Najem Sa'doun Hattab at Camp Whitehorse detention center near Nassiriya, Iraq, a former US marine, granted immunity for testifying, says that it was common for Coalition forces &#8220;to kick and punch prisoners who did not cooperate&#8212;and even some who did.&#8221; http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/military/20040203-9999_1m3marine.html San Diego Union Tribune, 2/3/2004 News Article http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGMDE140062004?open&amp;of=ENG-IRQ Human Rights Watch, 3/18/2004 News Article najem_sa_doun_hattab passiveparticipant hr_torture February 10, 2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_952 1 false &#8220;Human Rights Watch writes to US Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld expressing concern about the treatment of detainees in Iraq and urges the administration to publicly clarify the status of the detainees and to make public the numbers of detainees being held.&#8221; http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/05/07/usint8556_txt.htm Human Rights Watch, 5/7/2004 News Article donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant hr_indications February 12, 2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_989 1 false Colonel Thomas M. Pappas, commander of the 205th Military Intelligence Brigade, is interviewed by investigator, Major General Antonio M. Taguba, and admits that intelligence officers had instructed the military police at Abu Ghraib to shackle and strip naked detainees prior to interrogation. He also says that the Military Intelligence Brigade had no formal mechanisms in place to prevent abuses. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/18/international/middleeast/18ABUS.html New York Times, 5/18/2004 News Article thomas_m._pappas activeparticipant antonio_m._taguba activeparticipant hr_torture hr_highlevel February 24, 2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_950 1 false The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) files a report with Coalition Authorities complaining that its soldiers and intelligence officers have been arresting and detaining Iraqis without cause, routinely using excessive force during the initial stages of detention, and subjecting prisoners to extreme physical and emotional abuse. The report is based on 29 visits to 14 detention centers in Iraq between March 31 and October 24, 2003, during which time ICRC workers privately interviewed thousands of prisoners. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A14011-2004May10?language=printer Washington Post, 5/10/2004 News Article http://www.occupationwatch.org/article.php?id=4726 New York Times, 5/11/2004 News Article report_of_the_icrc_on_the_treatment_by_coalition_forces_of_pows source Among its findings: According to &#8220;certain CF (Coalition Forces) military intelligence officers,&#8221; 70 to 90 percent of the detainees being held in captivity had been &#8220;arrested by mistake.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A14011-2004May10?language=printer Washington Post, 5/10/2004 News Article report_of_the_icrc_on_the_treatment_by_coalition_forces_of_pows source Captives were not informed of the reason for their arrest or provided with access to legal counsel. &#8220;They were often questioned without knowing what they were accused of. They were not allowed to ask questions and were not provided with an opportunity to seek clarification about the reason for their arrest.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A14011-2004May10?language=printer Washington Post, 5/10/2004 News Article report_of_the_icrc_on_the_treatment_by_coalition_forces_of_pows source There were eight instances in which American guards shot at their captives resulting in seven prisoner deaths and 18 injuries. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A14011-2004May10?language=printer Washington Post, 5/10/2004 News Article report_of_the_icrc_on_the_treatment_by_coalition_forces_of_pows source During the initial stages of captivity, prisoners were subjected to brutality which sometimes caused serious injury or death. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A14011-2004May10?language=printer Washington Post, 5/10/2004 News Article report_of_the_icrc_on_the_treatment_by_coalition_forces_of_pows source Prisoners were subjected to physical and psychological coercion, which in &#8220;some cases was tantamount to torture.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A14011-2004May10?language=printer Washington Post, 5/10/2004 News Article report_of_the_icrc_on_the_treatment_by_coalition_forces_of_pows source Prisoners were kept in prolonged solitary confinement in cells in complete darkness. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A14011-2004May10?language=printer Washington Post, 5/10/2004 News Article report_of_the_icrc_on_the_treatment_by_coalition_forces_of_pows source Prison guards and soldiers used excessive and disproportionate use of force. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A14011-2004May10?language=printer Washington Post, 5/10/2004 News Article report_of_the_icrc_on_the_treatment_by_coalition_forces_of_pows source Prisoners being held in Unit 1A of Abu Ghraib were kept &#8220;completely naked in totally empty concrete cells and in total darkness.&#8221; Some of the prisoners were forced into &#8220;acts of humiliation such as being made to stand naked against the wall of the cell with arms raised or with women's underwear over the [sic] heads for prolonged periods&#8212;while being laughed at by guards, including female guards, and sometimes photographed in this position.&#8221; http://www.occupationwatch.org/article.php?id=4726 New York Times, 5/11/2004 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A14011-2004May10?language=printer Washington Post, 5/10/2004 News Article report_of_the_icrc_on_the_treatment_by_coalition_forces_of_pows source Prisoners' hands were often bound with flexi-cuffs so tightly that the captive incurred skin wounds and nerve damage. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A14011-2004May10?language=printer Washington Post, 5/10/2004 News Article report_of_the_icrc_on_the_treatment_by_coalition_forces_of_pows source Soldiers pressed prisoners' faces into the ground with their combat boots. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A14011-2004May10?language=printer Washington Post, 5/10/2004 News Article report_of_the_icrc_on_the_treatment_by_coalition_forces_of_pows source Prisoners were beaten with pistols and rifles and were slapped, punched or kicked with knees or boots. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A14011-2004May10?language=printer Washington Post, 5/10/2004 News Article report_of_the_icrc_on_the_treatment_by_coalition_forces_of_pows source Prisoners were threatened with execution and transferred to Guantanamo. Some captives were told that their family members would be harmed. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A14011-2004May10?language=printer Washington Post, 5/10/2004 News Article report_of_the_icrc_on_the_treatment_by_coalition_forces_of_pows source Prisoners were deprived of adequate sleep, food, water and access to open air. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A14011-2004May10?language=printer Washington Post, 5/10/2004 News Article report_of_the_icrc_on_the_treatment_by_coalition_forces_of_pows source Prisoners were subjected to forced and prolonged exposure to hot sun on days when the temperature exceed 120 degrees. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A14011-2004May10?language=printer Washington Post, 5/10/2004 News Article report_of_the_icrc_on_the_treatment_by_coalition_forces_of_pows source Interviews with military intelligence officers confirmed that &#8220;methods of physical and psychological coercion used by the interrogators appeared to be part of the standard operating procedures by military intelligence personnel to obtain confessions and extract information.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A14011-2004May10?language=printer Washington Post, 5/10/2004 News Article report_of_the_icrc_on_the_treatment_by_coalition_forces_of_pows source hr_torture hr_deaths hr_coverup February 26, 2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_953 1 false Major General Antonio M. Taguba files a fifty-three-page classified report which finds that between October and December of 2003 (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_927 ]]), members of the 372nd Military Police Company and US intelligence community engaged in numerous incidents of &#8220;sadistic, blatant, and wanton criminal abuses&#8221; against prisoners at the Abu Ghraib prison in Baghdad. As evidence, he cites &#8220;detailed witness statements and the discovery of extremely graphic photographic evidence.&#8221; The photographs&#8212;which are later leaked to the press (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_993 ]]), causing an enormous international public outcry&#8212;are not included in the report. http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040510fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/10/2004 News Article http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040517fa_fact2 The New Yorker, 5/17/2004 News Article us_army_report_on_iraqi_prisoner_abuse source Taguba also takes issue with the November 5 (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_935 ]]) Ryder report which concluded that the military police units had not intentionally used inappropriate confinement practices. &#8220;Contrary to the findings of MG Ryder's report, I find that personnel assigned to the 372nd MP Company, 800th MP Brigade were directed to change facility procedures to &#8216;set the conditions&#8217; for MI interrogations.&#8221; Army intelligence officers, CIA agents, and private contractors &#8220;actively requested that MP guards set physical and mental conditions for favorable interrogation of witnesses.&#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040510fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/10/2004 News Article us_army_report_on_iraqi_prisoner_abuse source He presents his report to his commander on March 3 (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_992 ]]). &#8220;several detainees also described the following acts of abuse, which under the circumstances, I find credible based on the clarity of their statements and supporting evidence provided by other witnesses: Breaking chemical lights and pouring the phosphoric liquid on detainees; pouring cold water on naked detainees; beating detainees with a broom handle and a chair; threatening male detainees with rape; allowing a military police guard to stitch the wound of a detainee who was injured after being slammed against the wall in his cell; sodomizing a detainee with a chemical light and perhaps a broom stick, and using military working dogs to frighten and intimidate detainees with threats of attack, and in one instance actually biting a detainee. &#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040510fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/10/2004 News Article excerpt &#8220;Taguba?s report, however, amounts to an unsparing study of collective wrongdoing and the failure of Army leadership at the highest levels. The picture he draws of Abu Ghraib is one in which Army regulations and the Geneva conventions were routinely violated, and in which much of the day-to-day management of the prisoners was abdicated to Army military-intelligence units and civilian contract employees. Interrogating prisoners and getting intelligence, including by intimidation and torture, was the priority.&#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040510fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/10/2004 News Article commentary antonio_m._taguba source hr_torture hr_deaths March 3, 2004-March 9, 2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_992 1 false Major General Antonio M. Taguba presents his February 26 report to General McKiernan. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/11/politics/11TAGU.html New York Times, 5/10/2004 News Article The report is &#8220;very closely held&#8221; among the Army's senior leadership and the report is only accessible to top officials on a secure computer network. Congress is not informed of the report or its findings. http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/printedition/bal-te.pentagon06may06,0,5351320.story?coll=bal-pe-asection Baltimore Sun, 5/6/2004 News Article antonio_m._taguba activeparticipant david_d._mckiernan activeparticipant hr_torture hr_coverup March 8, 2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_954 1 false Human Rights Watch publishes a report on the human rights violations being committed by US forces in Afghanistan. The report, &#8220;Enduring Freedom: Abuses by US Forces in Afghanistan,&#8221; is based on research conducted by the organization in southeastern and eastern Afghanistan from 2003 to early 2004. It &#8220;details numerous abuses by US personnel, including cases of excessive force during arrests; arbitrary and indefinite detention; and mistreatment of detainees&#8221; depicting a system that &#8220;operates almost entirely outside of the rule of law.&#8221; For example, the report finds that prisoners in the custody of US Forces are &#8220;continuously shackled, intentionally kept awake for extended periods of time, ... forced to kneel or stand in painful positions for extended periods,&#8221; kicked and beaten, and drenched with freezing water in the winter. http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/05/07/usint8556_txt.htm Human Rights Watch, 5/7/2004 News Article enduring_freedom:_abuses_by_u.s._forces_in_afghanistan,_hrw,_3/8/2004 source human_rights_watch activeparticipant hr_indications April 2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_955 1 false The Denver Post reports that three US Army soldiers from a military-intelligence battalion have been fined &#8220;at least five hundred dollars and demoted in rank&#8221; after an investigation into an incident involving the assault of a female Iraqi prisoner at Abu Ghraib prison in Baghdad. http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040517fa_fact2 The New Yorker, 5/17/2004 News Article hr_torture April 28, 2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_994 1 false CBS &#8220;60 Minutes II&#8221; airs the Abu Ghraib prison photos (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_927 ]]). Bush reportedly first learns about these photos from the television report. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/04/27/60II/main614063.shtml CBS, 5/6/2004 News Article http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/05/05/1083635200922.html Sydney Morning Herald, 5/6/2004 News Article http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/printedition/bal-te.pentagon06may06,0,5351320.story?coll=bal-pe-asection Baltimore Sun, 5/6/2004 News Article http://www.sptimes.com/2004/05/09/Worldandnation/Prison_photos_a_devas.shtml St. Petersburg Times, 5/9/2004 News Article Most of the photos show prisoners being forced to engage in humiliating sexual acts. For example in one photo a hooded naked man is forced to masturbate as a grinning female MP, Lynndie England, looks on, giving a thumbs-up. Another photo shows two naked hooded men, one standing, while the other is kneeling in front of him, simulating oral sex. The Bush administration will portray these forced acts of humiliation as the immature pranks of low ranking soldiers. But others will argue that the acts were ordered from above with the intent to exploit Arab culture's conservative views with regard to sex and homosexuality (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_975 ]]). http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040510fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/10/2004 News Article http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040517fa_fact2 The New Yorker, 5/17/2004 News Article A different picture shows a hooded-man with his arms spread and wires dangling from his fingers, toes and penis. He was apparently told that if he fell of the box he would be electricuted. The tactic is known as the &#8220;The Vietnam,&#8221; an &#8220;arcane torture method known only to veterans of the interrogation trade&#8221; that had been first used by Brazilians in the 1970s. http://msnbc.msn.com/id/4989422/site/newsweek/ Newsweek, 5/24/2004 News Article http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/opinion/2001928172_torture14.html Seattle Times, 5/14/2004 News Article darius_rejali source Another picture is of a dead man who was killed after being &#8220;stressed&#8221; too much. http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040510fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/10/2004 News Article http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040517fa_fact2 The New Yorker, 5/17/2004 News Article george_w._bush activeparticipant hr_highlevel hr_torture May 2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_976 1 false An unnamed government consultant tells New Yorker Magazine that the pictures of Iraqi prisoners of war being subjected to sexual humiliation may have been part of an effort to create an &#8220;army of informants&#8221; made up of people who&#8212; &#8220;motivated by fear of exposure&#8221; &#8212;would provide the US with intelligence on Iraq's domestic militant resistance. &#8220;I was told that the purpose of the photographs was to create an army of informants, people you could insert back in the population.&#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040524fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/24/2004 News Article hr_highlevel May 3, 2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_941 1 false Human Rights Watch sends a letter to US National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice informing her that the ill treatment and torture of prisoners by the US military in Iraq is not limited to isolated incidents. The organization emphasizes that it is a systemic and widespread problem and urges the US to take immediate action to ensure that imprisonment and interrogation practices comply with international law. http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/05/07/usint8556_txt.htm Human Rights Watch, 5/7/2004 News Article human_rights_letter_to_national_security_advisor,_may_3,_2004 source human_rights_watch activeparticipant condoleezza_rice activeparticipant hr_indications May 4, 2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_958 1 false Major General Geoffrey Miller says during a Coalition Provisional Authority Briefing that while physical contact between the interrogator and detainees is prohibited, &#8220;sleep deprivation and stress positions and all that could be used&#8212;but they must be authorized.&#8221; (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_889 ]]) But as Amnesty International later notes in a letter to George Bush, &#8220;The United Nations Committee against Torture, the expert body established by the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment has expressly held that restraining detainees in very painful positions, hooding, threats, and prolonged sleep deprivation are methods of interrogation which violate the prohibition on torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment.&#8221; http://news.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR510782004 Amnesty International, 5/7/2004 News Article george_w._bush activeparticipant amnesty_international activeparticipant geoffrey_miller activeparticipant hr_torture May 7, 2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_957 1 false US Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld says in a testimony before the Senate Armed Services Committee, &#8220;Any suggestion that there is not a full, deep awareness of what has happened, and the damage it has done, I think, would be a misunderstanding.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A8575-2004May7.html The Washington Post, 5/7/2004 News Article &#8220;Some people think you can bullshit anyone.&#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040524fa_fact The New Yorker, 5/24/2004 News Article commentary donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant hr_coverup May 11, 2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_963 1 false US Secretary of State Colin Powell says, &#8220;We kept the president informed of the concerns that were raised by the ICRC and other international organizations as part of my regular briefings of the president, and advised him that we had to follow these issues, and when we got notes sent to us or reports sent to us ... we had to respond to them, and the president certainly made it clear that that's what he expected us to do.&#8221; (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_962 ]]) http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/nationworld/bal-te.powell12may12,0,2804533.story?coll=bal-news-nation Baltimore Sun, 5/12/2004 News Article george_w._bush passiveparticipant colin_powell activeparticipant hr_highlevel May 12, 2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_959 1 false Nouri Badranm, a former interior minister of Iraq's Governing Council, tells Reuters that US soldiers running detention camps in Baghdad concealed the conditions of the prison from Iraqi officials who came to inspect the facility. &#8220;Every time they had pressure on them and there was a visit, they arranged things in advance,&#8221; he explains. &#8220;They cleaned up the prison and fixed the situation of the prisoners. So when a council member or another official went there they saw nothing.&#8221; The former council member also says that occupation officials were aware that abuses were going on. &#8220;The abuses have been happening for a long time and the occupation forces knew about them. We heard about them from prisoners who were released. The occupation officials said nothing when we asked them.&#8221; http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=worldNews&amp;storyID=5119919 Reuters, 5/12/2004 News Article http://www.cctv.com/english/20040513/100162.shtml China Central Television, 5/13/2004 News Article http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/allnews/tm_objectid=14235658&amp;method=full&amp;siteid=50143&amp;headline=abuse-soldier--i-only-obeyed-orders-name_page.html London Mirror, 5/13/2004 News Article nouri_badranm activeparticipant hr_coverup May 14, 2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_960 1 false Amnesty International publishes a report titled, &#8220;Iraq: One year on the human rights situation remains dire,&#8221; which documents a pattern of human rights violations being committed by US forces in Iraq. &#8220;Many detainees have alleged they were tortured and ill-treated by US and UK troops during interrogation,&#8221; the report says. &#8220;Methods often reported include prolonged sleep deprivation; beatings; prolonged restraint in painful positions, sometimes combined with exposure to loud music; prolonged hooding; and exposure to bright lights. Virtually none of the allegations of torture or ill-treatment has been adequately investigated.&#8221; iraq:_one_year_on_the_human_rights_situation_remains_dire source amnesty_international activeparticipant hr_torture May 18, 2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_996 1 false Sgt. Samuel Provance of the 302nd Military Intelligence Battalion tells ABC News that the US military is engaged in a cover-up of the Abu Ghraib abuses. &#8220;There's definitely a cover-up,&#8221; he says. &#8220;People are either telling themselves or being told to be quiet.&#8221; He also says the MPs seen in the photos with naked Iraqi prisoners at the prison were acting under orders from Military Intelligence. &#8220;Anything [the MPs] were to do legally or otherwise, they were to take those commands from the interrogators.... One interrogator told me about how commonly the detainees were stripped naked, and in some occasions, wearing women's underwear. If it's your job to strip people naked, yell at them, scream at them, humiliate them, it's not going to be too hard to move from that to another level.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0518-14.htm ABC News, 5/18/2004 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A41035-2004May19.html The Washington Post, 5/20/2004 News Article After his interview, Provance is stripped of his security clearance, transferred to a different platoon, and informed that he may be prosecuted for speaking out because his comments were &#8220;not in the national interest.&#8221; Additionally, his record is officially &#8220;flagged,&#8221; making him ineligible for promotion or receiving any awards or honors. http://abcnews.go.com/sections/WNT/Investigation/abu_ghraib_cover_up_040521-1.html ABC News, 5/21/2004 News Article samuel_provance activeparticipant hr_highlevel May 19, 2004 torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_1102 1 false Lieutenant-Colonel Tucker Mansager tells reporters that the media will not be permitted access to secret detention facilities in Afghanistan, claiming that doing so would violate the prisoners' rights under the Geneva Conventions. However in February 2002, the administration had denied &#8220;prisoner of war&#8221; status to all Taliban and al-Qaeda fighters captured in Afghanistan (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_988 ]]) on grounds they were &#8220;illegal combatants.&#8221; Since then, the US has maintained that these prisoners are not protected by the Conventions. Nonetheless, Mansager explains: &#8220;Part of ... spirit [of the Geneva Conventions] is to ensure that the persons under confinement are not subject to any kind of exploitation. It is the coalition's position that allowing media into the facilities would compromise that protection.&#8221; http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=topNews&amp;storyID=5191242 Reuters, 5/19/2004 News Article tucker_mansager activeparticipant hr_coverup