The 2004 removal of Jean-Bertrand Aristide Haiti Coup the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide aristide_project haiti_coup_themes 1980s the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_547 1 false Jean-Bertrand Aristide, a Roman Catholic priest, preaches Liberation Theology in Haiti. US conservatives spread stories that he could be the next Castro. http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0301-10.htm Taipei Times, 3/1/2004 News Article http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0452011345/centerforcoop-20 Rogozinski, 1992 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0307-05.htm Observer, 3/2/2004 News Article fidel_castro passiveparticipant jean-bertrand_aristide activeparticipant September 1988-March 1990 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_670 1 false General Prosper Avril, a former leader of Duvaliers' Presidential Guard, seizes control of Haiti. During his rule, he suspends 27 articles of the constitution, declares a state of siege and is responsible for numerous human rights abuses. A US District Court will later award $41 million in compensation to six Haitians who were tortured under his regime including opposition politicians, union leaders, scholars and “even a doctor trying to practice community medicine.” The US will help Avril evade arrest in December 2003 (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_671 ]]). http://www.lrb.co.uk/v26/n08/farm01_.html London Review of Books, 4/15/2004 News Article http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/43a/252.html Miami Herald, 5/31/2001 News Article prosper_avril activeparticipant Early 1990s the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_548 1 false Haitian Guy Philippe is trained by US Special Forces in Ecuador. http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/02/27/haiti7677.htm Human Rights Watch, 2/27/04 News Article http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/news/world/haiti/8063565.htm Miami Herald, 2/28/04 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0307-05.htm Observer, 3/2/2004 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0302-02.htm One World, 3/2/2004 News Article guy_philippe activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment December 1990 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_549 1 false Running against 11 other candidates, Jean-Bertrand Aristide wins the presidential elections in Haiti with a two-thirds majority. The election turnout is high and is later described as being “unquestionably the most honest Haiti has known.” http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0452011345/centerforcoop-20 Rogozinski, 1992 News Article http://www.lrb.co.uk/v26/n08/farm01_.html London Review of Books, 4/15/2004 News Article jean-bertrand_aristide activeparticipant October 31, 1991-October 15, 1994 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_550 1 false In Haiti, the Front for the Advancement of Progress of the Haitian People (FRAPH) overthrows the government while Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide is on a visit to the UN in New York. The group rules as a repressive military regime until 1994 when a US-led UN intervention puts Aristide back in power (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_556 ]]) http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0307-05.htm Observer, 3/2/2004 News Article http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0452011345/centerforcoop-20 Rogozinski, 1992 News Article The junta is responsible for the massacre of hundreds—or by some estimates, thousands—of dissidents. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0307-05.htm Observer, 3/2/2004 News Article http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/html/20040307T040000-0500_56740_OBS_LOUIS_JODEL_CHAMBLAIN_.asp The Jamaica Observer, 3/7/2004 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0224-09.htm Resource Center of the Americas, 2/24/2004 News Article The leader of the group is Emmanuel “Toto” Constant, who later acknowledges he had support from the CIA. “Emmanuel Constant is widely alleged, and himself claims, to have been in the pay of, and under the orders of, the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) during the coup period,” Amnesty International will later report. The amount paid to Constant by the CIA during this period is $500/month. http://web.amnesty.org/library/print/ENGAMR360132004 Amnesty International, 2/7/1996 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0307-05.htm Observer, 3/7/2004 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/news2004/0218-08.htm Center for Constitutional Rights, 2/18/2004 News Article http://www.lrb.co.uk/v26/n08/farm01_.html London Review of Books, 4/15/2004 News Article Second in command is Louis-Jodel Chamblain, who had led death squads during the years of Jean-Claude “Baby Doc” Duvalier's dictatorship and who is later convicted and implicated in multiple crimes committed during this period. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0307-05.htm Observer, 3/7/2004 News Article http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/html/20040307T040000-0500_56740_OBS_LOUIS_JODEL_CHAMBLAIN_.asp The Jamaica Observer, 3/7/2004 News Article louis-jodel_chamblain activeparticipant emmanuel_“toto”_constant activeparticipant jean-bertrand_aristide activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment September 11, 1993 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_551 1 false Antoine Izmery, financier of Haitian President Jean-Claude Bertrand and a known pro-democracy advocate, is dragged from church during a mass, and executed. Louis-Jodel Chamblain is later convicted in absentia and sentenced to life imprisonment for the crime. http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/02/27/haiti7677.htm Human Rights Watch, 2/27/04 News Article http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/html/20040307T040000-0500_56740_OBS_LOUIS_JODEL_CHAMBLAIN_.asp The Jamaica Observer, 3/7/2004 News Article amnesty_international_letter_to_us_secretary_of_state_colin_powell source louis-jodel_chamblain activeparticipant jean-bertrand_aristide passiveparticipant antoine_izmery passiveparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment October 14, 1993 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_552 1 false Haitian Justice Minister Guy Malary and his bodyguard are killed in an ambush. According to a CIA memorandum, dated October 28, 1993, which will later be obtained by the Center for Constitutional Rights, “FRAPH members Jodel Chamblain, Emmanuel Constant, and Gabriel Douzable met with an unidentified military officer on the morning of 14 October to discuss plans to kill Malary.” According to the Center, “Constant at the time was a paid CIA informant, earning $500 a month.” http://www.commondreams.org/news2004/0218-08.htm Center for Constitutional Rights, 2/18/2004 News Article http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/02/27/haiti7677.htm Human Rights Watch, 2/27/04 News Article emmanuel_“toto”_constant activeparticipant louis-jodel_chamblain activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment April 18-22, 1994 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_614 1 false On April 18 and 22, 1994, members of the Haitian Armed Forces and the paramilitary Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti (FRAPH) enter the costal slum of Raboteau on the outskirts of the city of Gonaives. They break into “dozens of homes, beating and arresting those they found inside,” the BBC recounts several years later. Several of the victims are “tortured on site” and “forced to lie in open sewers” while others are shot as they try to escape. http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/html/20040307T040000-0500_56740_OBS_LOUIS_JODEL_CHAMBLAIN_.asp The Jamaica Observer, 3/7/2004 News Article http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/955744.stm BBC, 10/4/2004 News Article http://www.cja.org/cases/dorelien.shtml The Center for Justice and Accountability, n.d. News Article Between two dozen and one hundred deaths are attributed to the Raboteau Massacre. The number will remain undetermined, however, because the attackers kill many who are fleeing in boats and whose bodies fall into the sea. Additionally, the killers toss several bodies of people killed on the land also into the ocean. Days later, mutilated bodies wash back to shore. http://www.cja.org/cases/dorelien.shtml The Center for Justice and Accountability, n.d. News Article http://www.sptimes.com/2002/09/01/Floridian/The_path_from_power_t.shtml St. Petersburg Times, 9/1/2002 News Article amnesty_international_letter_to_us_secretary_of_state_colin_powell source Among those who will be convicted for the atrocity are Louis-Jodel Chamblain and Jean Pierre Baptiste. http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/02/27/haiti7677.htm Human Rights Watch, 2/27/04 News Article http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/html/20040307T040000-0500_56740_OBS_LOUIS_JODEL_CHAMBLAIN_.asp The Jamaica Observer, 3/7/2004 News Article http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/955744.stm BBC, 10/4/2004 News Article http://www.cja.org/cases/dorelien.shtml The Center for Justice and Accountability, n.d. News Article amnesty_international_letter_to_us_secretary_of_state_colin_powell source louis-jodel_chamblain activeparticipant jean_pierre_baptiste,_“jean_tatoune” passiveparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment August 1994 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_554 1 false Former Haitian president Jean-Bertrand Aristide promises donors that he will implement neoliberal reforms if he is returned to power. He agrees to a plan calling for the privatization of some state-owned enterprises, including the country's flour mill, cement factory and electric company. The plan also requires the removal of import controls, reforming of customs and the elimination of limits on interest rates. But due to strong domestic opposition, Aristide will not completely follow through with the Structural Adjustment Program once in office. http://www.williambowles.info/haiti-news/archives/structural_adj_280995.html Interpress Service, 9/28/1995 News Article jean-bertrand_aristide activeparticipant haiti_economy (September 1994) the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_555 1 false Louis-Jodel Chamblain escapes to the Dominican Republic in 1994 when the US military intervenes in Haiti to return Jean-Bertrand Aristide to power. http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/02/27/haiti7677.htm Human Rights Watch, 2/27/04 News Article louis-jodel_chamblain activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment September 19, 1994-October 15, 1994 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_556 1 false US and UN military forces enter Haiti and restore Jean-Bertrand Aristide to the presidency. http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0224-09.htm Resource Center of the Americas, 2/24/2004 News Article US conservatives, such as Senator Jesse Helms, are against the intervention and criticize President Bill Clinton for engaging in unnecessary “nation building” in Haiti. Helms falsely makes the claim on the Senate floor that Aristide is “Psychotic,” based on a CIA document later revealed to be a forgery. http://www.nynewsday.com/news/nationworld/world/ny-wopol013691845mar01,0,4730210.story?coll=ny-worldnews-headlines Newsday, 3/1/2004 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0301-10.htm Taipei Times, 3/1/2004 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0307-05.htm Observer, 3/7/2004 News Article jesse_helms activeparticipant william_jefferson_"bill"_clinton activeparticipant jean-bertrand_aristide activeparticipant October 24, 1994 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_686 1 false Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide informs parliament that he will appoint Smarck Michel as the country's new prime minister. Michel—who served briefly as Aristide's commerce minister in 1991—owns a rice-importing business and retails gasoline. According to sources interviewed by The Washington Post, his selection “was aimed at appeasing the nation's powerful business elite” and is viewed as a prerequisite for “winning support from foreign investors and attaining international development funds.” The Post reports, “At least two US-trained economic experts—former World Bank economist Leslie Delatour and former education minister Leslie Voltaire—had threatened not to participate in key government posts if Michel were not named prime minister.” http://www-tech.mit.edu/V114/N51/aristide.51w.html The Washington Post, 10/25/1995 News Article smarck_michel activeparticipant jean-bertrand_aristide activeparticipant leslie_delatour activeparticipant leslie_voltaire activeparticipant haiti_economy (Late October 1994) the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_557 1 false The United States-led Multinational Force (MNF) searches the FRAPH office in Port-au-Prince and removes 60,000 pages of documents, mostly in French, which are given to the US. http://web.amnesty.org/library/print/ENGAMR360132004 Amnesty International, 2/7/1996 News Article http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/ops/uphold_democracy.htm FAS, n.d. News Article haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment (December 1994) the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_558 1 false Haitian authorities put warrants out for the arrest of FRAPH leaders Emmanuel “Toto” Constant and his deputy, Louis Jodel Chamblain who are wanted for their involvement in human rights violations that occurred during the previous three-year period of military rule. Emmanuel Constant flees to the United States. http://web.amnesty.org/library/print/ENGAMR360132004 Amnesty International, 2/7/1996 News Article emmanuel_“toto”_constant activeparticipant louis-jodel_chamblain activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment Late 1994-1995 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_690 1 false In Haiti, International development agencies implement short-term, labor-intensive job programs, focused primarily on road construction. According to agronomists interviewed in late summer of 1995, the programs are undermining local agricultural production and long-term sustainable development programs. “In the middle of planting season, a large number of peasant farmers in the northeastern town of Vallieres abandoned their land to begin working in the areas with one of these projects,” agronomist Harry Noel explains. And in Artibonite Valley, revenues from levies on the irrigation pumps dramatically decrease when the job programs siphon off its labor supply. “Efforts over the years to create communally-managed irrigation systems have failed in just one season because of the job programs,” explains Volny Paultre, agronomist and consultant to the UN's Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). http://www.williambowles.info/haiti-news/archives/dev_040995.html Inter Press Service, 9/4/1995 News Article volny_paultre activeparticipant harry_noel passiveparticipant haiti_economy Mid-October 1995 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_687 1 false Haitian Prime Minister Smarck Michel resigns after President Jean-Bertrand Aristide's cabinet refuses to accept the privatization package that the US, IMF, and other international donors have been pushing. He is replaced by Foreign Minister Claudette Werleigh. Michel will return to the Haitian political arena in 2004 when he is appointed as planning minister (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_679 ]]) following the February ouster of Aristide. http://www.williambowles.info/haiti-news/archives/gore_161095.html Inter-Press Service, 10/16/1995 News Article http://multinationalmonitor.org/hyper/mm1195.03.html Multinational Monitor, 11/2004 News Article jean-bertrand_aristide passiveparticipant smarck_michel activeparticipant international_monetary_fund_(imf) passiveparticipant haiti_economy 1995 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_559 1 false Guy Philippe joins the new Haitian National Police and is posted at Ouanamithe near Haiti's northern border with the Dominican Republic. http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/02/27/haiti7677.htm Human Rights Watch, 2/27/04 News Article http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/news/world/haiti/8063565.htm Miami Herald, 2/28/04 News Article guy_philippe activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment May 4, 1995 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_698 1 false Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide announces a doubling of the minimum wage effective June 1, 1995 from 18 gourdes to 36 gourdes per day. Articles 1 and 2 of his decree read, “Beginning June 1, 1995, the minimum wage paid in industrial, commercial and agricultural businesses is fixed at 36 gourdes per 8-hour day... Where the employee works per piece or per task, the price paid for a unit of production (per piece, per dozen, per gross, per meter, etc.) must allow the employee who works 8 hours to earn at least the minimum salary.” http://www.nlcnet.org/campaigns/archive/Haiti/0196/index.shtml National Labor Committee, 1/1996 News Article jean-bertrand_aristide activeparticipant haiti_economy August 1995 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_684 1 false The Haitian government solicits bids from investors for the sale of Haiti's cement factory, flour mill, and its air and seaports. http://www.williambowles.info/haiti-news/archives/pm_080995.html Inter-Press Service, 9/8/1995 News Article http://multinationalmonitor.org/hyper/mm1195.03.html Multinational Monitor, 11/2004 News Article haiti_economy September 8, 1995 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_683 1 false Haitian Prime Minister Smarck Michel announces that Haiti will continue with plans to privatize nine state-owned companies, though he acknowledges that most Haitians are “against the idea of privatization” and that for many, “the word is a demon.” In an effort to sell the plan to the public the government has been euphemistically describing it as the “democratization of assets.” The privatization scheme—to include Haiti's flour mill, a cement factory, its air and seaports, telephone exchanges and electricity—must be implemented in order for Haiti to receive $170 million in structural adjustment loans from the World Bank, the IMF, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and the European Union. The loans are part of a five-year, $1.2-billion aid program (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_563 ]]) which Aristide had tacitly agreed to in August 1994 (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_554 ]]). http://www.williambowles.info/haiti-news/archives/pm_080995.html Inter-Press Service, 9/8/1995 News Article international_monetary_fund_(imf) activeparticipant smarck_michel activeparticipant inter-american_development_bank_(idb) activeparticipant haiti_economy September 9, 1995 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_685 1 false Haitian Prime Minister Smarck Michel begins a 10-day trip aimed at “unlocking about [$1 billion] in foreign aid stalled after a political row in Haiti about planned privatization.” He begins in New York where he meets with commercial bankers. Afterwards, in a two-hour press conference with the Haitian press, he explains to his Haitian viewers that the World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) are holding back $150 million until Haiti can “fulfill the conditions which structural adjustment demands,” and warns that there will be “dire consequences” if the Haitian people continue to resist privatization and other neoliberal reforms. http://www.williambowles.info/haiti-news/archives/hp_130995.html Haiti Progress, 9/13/1995 News Article inter-american_development_bank_(idb) activeparticipant world_bank activeparticipant international_monetary_fund_(imf) activeparticipant smarck_michel activeparticipant haiti_economy September 19, 1995 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_560 1 false Demonstrations are held in Haiti, protesting against privatization and the foreign occupation of Haiti. http://www.williambowles.info/haiti-news/archives/structural_adj_280995.html Interpress Service, 9/28/1995 News Article haiti_economy Early October 1995-October 1996 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_561 1 false Haiti's government and lawyers for Alerte Belance, a Haitian woman who was assaulted by FRAPH forces during the coup period (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_550 ]]), seek the FRAPH documents (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_557 ]]) from the United States. But the US Defense Department refuses to provide them, saying the papers are classified and must first be reviewed before being released. The Haitian government wants to use the documents as evidence in the prosecution of FRAPH members and Belance's attorneys have subpoenaed them for use as evidence in a lawsuit against FRAPH member Emmanuel Constant who is living openly in the USA, and who has admitted being a paid CIA asset during the FRAPH's period of military rule in Haiti (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_552 ]]). Belance's lawyers say the documents could contain important information about FRAPH's financing, their weapons, and the crimes they are accused of having committed. In October 1996, the US sends documents to Port-au-Prince, but the Haitian government refuses them on grounds that they are incomplete. http://web.amnesty.org/library/print/ENGAMR360132004 Amnesty International, 2/7/1996 News Article http://www.amnesty.ca/amnestynews/upload/AMR3601304.pdf Amnesty International, 3/2004 News Article http://www.williambowles.info/haiti-news/archives/fraph_101095.html UPS, 10/10/1995 News Article emmanuel_“toto”_constant activeparticipant alerte_belance activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment Early October 1995 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_689 1 false During the World Bank's annual meeting, the Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) pressure Haiti to sign a letter of intent assuring the US, IMF, and other donors that Haiti would proceed with the Structural Adjustment Program that President Aristide had agreed to in August 1994 (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_554 ]]) before he was restored to power by a US-led multinational force. Haiti, whose parliament and population are strongly opposed to the neoliberal reforms, refuses to sign the letter. http://multinationalmonitor.org/hyper/mm1195.03.html Multinational Monitor, 11/2004 News Article international_monetary_fund_(imf) activeparticipant smarck_michel activeparticipant world_bank activeparticipant jean-bertrand_aristide passiveparticipant haiti_economy October 15, 1995 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_1178 1 false US Vice President Al Gore visits Haiti on the one-year anniversary of Jean-Bertrand Aristide's return to power. During his visit, he meets with President Jean-Bertrand Aristide and stresses the need for his government to comply with the structural reforms which he had agreed to implement in August 1994 (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_554 ]]). “We discussed the need for continuing international assistance to meet the developmental requirements of Haiti and the steps the government of Haiti and its people need to take in order to ensure the continued flow of these funds,” Gore recounts during a brief press conference. Earlier in the month, Aristide's government refused to sign a letter of intent assuring the US, IMF and other donors that the country would follow though with the mandated reforms (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_689 ]]). http://www.williambowles.info/haiti-news/archives/gore_161095.html Inter-Press Service, 10/16/1995 News Article http://multinationalmonitor.org/hyper/mm1195.03.html Multinational Monitor, 11/2004 News Article international_monetary_fund_(imf) passiveparticipant al_gore activeparticipant jean-bertrand_aristide activeparticipant haiti_economy December 17, 1995 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_562 1 false Presidential elections are held and Rene Preval wins in a landslide victory. He succeeds the popular Jean-Bertrand Aristide who is barred from running again because of the Haitian constitution's prohibition on consecutive presidential terms. http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/9512/haiti_elections/ CNN, 12/16/1995 News Article http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/9512/haiti_elections/12-17/ CNN, 12/17/1995 News Article http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0019787.html Tiscali Encyclopedia, n.d. News Article jean-bertrand_aristide activeparticipant rene_preval_ activeparticipant (October 18, 1996) the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_563 1 false Haiti agrees to implement a wide array of neoliberal reforms outlined in the IMF's $1.2 billion Emergency Economic Recovery Plan (EERP) put together by the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), and the Organization of American States (OAS). The recovery package, to be funded and executed over a five-year period, aims to create a capital-friendly macroeconomic environment for the export-manufacturing sector. It calls for suppressing wages, reducing tariffs, and selling off state-owned enterprises. Notably, there is little in the package for the country's rural sector, which represents the activities of about 65 percent of the Haitian population. The small amount that does go to the countryside is designated for improving roads and irrigation systems and promoting export crops such as coffee and mangoes. The Haitian government also agrees to abolish tariffs on US imports, which results in the dumping of cheap US foodstuffs on the Haitian market undermining the country's livestock and agricultural production. The disruption of economic life in the already depressed country further deteriorates the living conditions of the poor. http://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/pr/1996/pr9653.htm International Monetary Fund, October 18, 1996 News Article http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/43a/050.html International Report, 4/3/1995 News Article http://www.ligi.ubc.ca/_conferences/121102demo-charter/_media/shamise1.htm#_ftn5 Shamsie, 2002 News Article http://www.dollarsandsense.org/0903reeves.html Dollars and Sense, 9/2003 News Article http://www.counterpunch.org/williams03012004.html CounterPunch, 3/1/2004 News Article organization_of_american_states_(oas) activeparticipant inter-american_development_bank_(idb) activeparticipant usaid activeparticipant haiti_economy 1997-1999 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_564 1 false Guy Philippe serves as police chief in the Port-au-Prince suburb of Delmas. According to Human Rights Watch, “dozens of suspected gang members ... [are] summarily executed, mainly by police under the command of Inspector Berthony Bazile, Philippe's deputy.” Philippe will later deny the allegation in an interview with the Miami Herald. http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/02/27/haiti7677.htm Human Rights Watch, 2/27/04 News Article http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/news/world/haiti/8063565.htm Miami Herald, 2/28/04 News Article berthony_bazile activeparticipant guy_philippe activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment January 1999 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_565 1 false Haitian President Rene Preval suspends congress and two-thirds of the senate after a dispute with the opposition party. As a result, more than 7,000 government jobs at the federal and local level become vacant. From this point on, Preval rules by decree. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/737270.stm BBC, 5/9/2003 News Article rene_preval_ activeparticipant After May 21, 2000 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_568 1 false Political groups opposed to the party of Jean-Bertrand Aristide form the Democratic Convergence, a coalition made up of roughly 200 groups, which is headed by former Port-au-Prince mayor Evans Paul, a previous Aristide supporter and leader of the Convention for Democratic Unity. http://www.boston.com/news/world/articles/2004/02/15/disparate_forces_behind_the_violent_opposition_in_haiti/ Boston Globe, 2/14/2004 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0224-09.htm Resource Center of the Americas, 2/24/2004 News Article The Convergence is a product of the USAID program, “Democracy Enhancement,” the purpose of which is to “fund those sectors of the Haitian political spectrum where opposition to the Aristide government could be encouraged.” Financial support for the Convergence comes from the International Republican Institute (IRI), which is associated with the US government-funded National Endowment for Democracy. The IRI receives about $3 million annually from Congress, as well as millions more from private Haitian and US interests. The organization's board includes a number of “current or former Republican Party officials, Republican officeholders, or members of Republican administrations.” The IRI's activities in Haiti are not completely understood and Roger Noriega, the US permanent representative to the Organization of American States, has always refused to elaborate on the organization's work in Haiti. http://www.boston.com/news/world/articles/2004/02/15/disparate_forces_behind_the_violent_opposition_in_haiti/ Boston Globe, 2/14/2004 News Article http://www.americaspolicy.org/articles/2004/0403haiti-int_body.html Interhemispheric Resource Center (IRC), 2/27/2004 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0224-09.htm Resource Center of the Americas, 2/24/2004 News Article http://www.counterpunch.org/williams03012004.html CounterPunch, 3/1/2004 News Article http://www.zmag.org/zmag/articles/chom3.htm Chomsky, n.d. News Article usaid activeparticipant international_republican_institute_(iri) activeparticipant roger_francisco_noriega activeparticipant national_endowment_for_democracy activeparticipant evans_paul activeparticipant jean-bertrand_aristide passiveparticipant democratic_convergence activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment May 21, 2000 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_566 1 false After being postponed three times during the last seven months, Haitian parliamentary and local elections are finally held with a turnout of about 60 percent. Voters must fill some 7,625 posts in the legislature, mayoral commissions, and local and rural councils that were made vacant in January 1999, when the congress and local offices were disbanded by President Rene Preval (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_565 ]]). The Lavalas party of Jean-Bertrand Aristide wins the elections by a landslide, winning 15 of the 19 contested Senate seats and some 80 percent of the seats in the House of Assembly. However the results are challenged by the opposition, the US, and the Organization of American States, which say that Haiti's electoral council did not use the proper formula to calculate the votes. As a result of the controversy, the opposition will boycott the June 9 run-off elections (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_569 ]]) as well as the presidential elections in November (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_571 ]]). More significantly, aid donors threaten that they will continue to withhold $500 million in aid if the government does not come to an agreement with the opposition. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2000/11/27/world/printable252506.shtml CBS News, 11/29/2000 News Article http://www.cnn.com/2000/WORLD/americas/12/07/haiti.clinton.ap/ Associated Press, 12/7/2000 News Article http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/824274.stm BBC, 7/8/2000 News Article http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2000/wha/795.htm US Department of State, 2/23/2001 News Article http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/769112.stm BBC, 5/30/2000 News Article http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/758000.stm BBC, 5/22/2000 News Article http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/757330.stm BBC, 5/22/2000 News Article http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/833068.stm BBC, 7/14/2000 News Article http://www.dollarsandsense.org/0903reeves.html Dollars and Sense, 9/2003 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0224-09.htm Resource Center of the Americas, 2/24/2004 News Article http://www.counterpunch.org/williams03012004.html CounterPunch, 3/1/2004 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0301-10.htm Taipei Times, 3/1/2004 News Article jean-bertrand_aristide passiveparticipant rene_preval_ passiveparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment July 9, 2000 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_569 1 false Haiti holds run-off elections for candidates who failed to win a majority of the votes in the May 21 elections (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_566 ]]). However 10 senators from the party of Jean-Bertrand Aristide who won only by plurality, and not by majority, are not required to run, prompting immediate criticism from the US, UN, the OAS, and the opposition parties. Donor nations and organizations threaten to continue withholding $400 million in aid. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/1156540.stm BBC, 2/7/2001 News Article http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/833068.stm BBC, 7/14/2000 News Article http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/828134.stm BBC, 7/11/2000 News Article http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/news/world/haiti/8063565.htm Miami Herald, 2/28/04 News Article organization_of_american_states_(oas) passiveparticipant jean-bertrand_aristide passiveparticipant haiti_economy October 18, 2000 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_570 1 false The prime minister of Haiti says that Guy Philippe and others are planning to overthrow the Aristide government. Philippe and the other plotters flee across the Dominican border before they can be arrested. http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/02/27/haiti7677.htm Human Rights Watch, 2/27/04 News Article http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/news/world/haiti/8063565.htm Miami Herald, 2/28/04 News Article guy_philippe activeparticipant jean-bertrand_aristide passiveparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment November 2000 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_571 1 false Jean-Bertrand Aristide runs unopposed in Haiti's presidential elections and wins with 91.5 percent of the vote. The opposition Democratic Convergence party does not participate in the elections in protest of the May 21, 2000 congressional and municipal elections (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_566 ]]) which its members claim were rigged. The election turnout is disputed. Though some news agencies report a low turnout of between 5 percent and 10 percent, Aristide's party, as well as five US-based NGOs—Global Exchange, the Quixote Center, Witness for Peace and Pax Christi—estimate the figure at 61 percent, or 3 million of Haiti's voters. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2000/11/27/world/printable252506.shtml CBS News, 11/29/2000 News Article http://www.globalexchange.org/update/haitiWin2000NL.html Global Exchange, 2001 News Article http://www.cnn.com/2000/WORLD/americas/12/07/haiti.clinton.ap/ Associated Press, 12/7/2000 News Article http://www.dollarsandsense.org/0903reeves.html Dollars and Sense, 9/2003 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0224-09.htm Resource Center of the Americas, 2/24/2004 News Article http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/822840.stm BBC, 7/7/2000 News Article http://www.counterpunch.org/williams03012004.html CounterPunch, 3/1/2004 News Article http://www.zmag.org/content/showarticle.cfm?SectionID=55&ItemID=5467 Zmag, 5/5/2004 News Article These figures are also supported by USAID-commissioned Gallup polls taken both before and after the elections, but which are suppressed by the US. http://www.zmag.org/content/showarticle.cfm?SectionID=55&ItemID=5467 Zmag, 5/5/2004 News Article democratic_convergence activeparticipant jean-bertrand_aristide activeparticipant usaid activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment (2001-2003) the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_572 1 false Observers note a remarkable anti-Aristide bias in the US mainstream media during this period. http://www.dollarsandsense.org/0903reeves.html Dollars and Sense, 9/2003 News Article jean-bertrand_aristide activeparticipant 2001 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_575 1 false Clinton holdover US Ambassador to Haiti Brian Dean Curran complains that Stanley Lucas of the Republican-dominated International Republican Institute (IRI) is “undermining” international efforts to help Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide and the Democratic Convergence come to a compromise over Haiti's contested 2000 congressional elections (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_566 ]]). http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/newsday031704/ Newsday, 3/16/2004 News Article international_republican_institute_(iri) activeparticipant brian_dean_curran activeparticipant stanley_lucas activeparticipant democratic_convergence passiveparticipant jean-bertrand_aristide passiveparticipant haiti_foreignInvolvement 2001-2003 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_574 1 false According to Haiti expert Robert Maguire of Trinity College, the permanent US representative to the Organization of American States Roger Noriega and US Special Envoy to Latin America Otto Reich lead a “relatively small group of people” who develop strategies toward Haiti. http://www.dollarsandsense.org/0903reeves.html Dollars and Sense, 9/2003 News Article roger_francisco_noriega activeparticipant otto_juan_reich activeparticipant haiti_foreignInvolvement (Mid-2001) the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_567 1 false The US convinces several European countries to suspend hundreds of millions of dollars in credit and aid and provide the IMF, World Bank and European Union with “vague instructions” to deny other lines of credit to the impoverished Caribbean country. The resumption of aid and credit is made contingent on Aristide coming to an agreement with the opposition party, the Democratic Convergence, which is controlled and financed by Haitian and US right-wing interests. http://www.transafricaforum.org/reports/Haiti_may1final_bin.pdf TransAfrica Forum, 5/16/2003 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0301-10.htm Taipei Times, 3/1/2004 News Article http://www.dollarsandsense.org/0903reeves.html Dollars and Sense, 9/2003 News Article http://www.counterpunch.org/williams03012004.html CounterPunch, 3/1/2004 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0307-05.htm Observer, 3/7/2004 News Article “... by saying that aid would be frozen until Aristide and the political opposition reached an agreement, the Bush administration provided Haiti's un-elected opposition with an open-ended veto. Aristide's foes merely had to refuse to bargain in order to plunge Haiti into chaos.? That chaos has now come. It is sad to hear rampaging students on BBC and CNN saying that Aristide ‘lied’ because he didn't improve the country's social conditions. Yes, Haiti's economic collapse is fueling rioting and deaths, but the lies were not Aristide's. The lies came from Washington.” http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0301-10.htm Taipei Times, 3/1/2004 News Article commentary george_w._bush passiveparticipant democratic_convergence activeparticipant haiti_economy (2001) the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_692 1 false The Organization of American States (OAS) blocks $400 million in aid to Haiti from the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), citing the unresolved status of the contested 2000 Haitian elections (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_566 ]]). The aid package was to consist of four separate loans for health, education, drinking water and road improvements. Though it is claimed that this decision has been reached by a consensus, critical observers raise questions about the influence of an April 6 letter (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_567 ]]) from a US official asking the IDB to suspend the release of these funds. http://www.lrb.co.uk/v26/n08/farm01_.html London Review of Books, 4/15/2004 News Article inter-american_development_bank_(idb) passiveparticipant organization_of_american_states_(oas) activeparticipant haiti_economy (2001-2003) the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_573 1 false Under the leadership of Jean-Bertrand Aristide, the Haitian government engages in cooperative projects with Cuba and Venezuela. The Chavez government offers to provide oil at significantly reduced prices, and treaties between Haiti and Cuba result in a presence of more than 800 Cuban medical workers in Haiti. In an explicit challenge to US domination of the regional trade patterns, Haiti works with other island nations to create a regional trading bloc that “may be a bulwark against the FTAA and other [US-led] initiatives.” Haiti and other Latin American countries regularly discuss regional strategies to reduce US hegemony in the region. http://www.dollarsandsense.org/0903reeves.html Dollars and Sense, 9/2003 News Article jean-bertrand_aristide activeparticipant (2001-2004) the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_672 1 false The United States Government funds and trains a 600-member paramilitary army of anti-Aristide Haitians in the Dominican Republic with the authorization of the country's president, Hipolito Mejia. The funds—totaling $1.2 milllion—are directed through the International Republican Institute (IRI) on the pretext of encouraging democracy in Haiti. In order to evade attention, the paramilitary soldiers appear at their training sessions dressed in the uniforms of the Dominican Republic national police. The training—provided by some 200 members of the US Special Forces—takes place in the Dominican villages of Neiba, San Cristobal, San Isidro, Hatillo and Haina, and others. Most of the training takes place on property owned by the Dominican Republic Government. Technical training, conducted once a month, takes place in a Santo Domingo hotel through the IRI. Among the Hatians that take part in the program are known human rights violators including Guy Philippe and Louis-Jodel Chamblain. http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=04/04/07/1527256 Democracy Now!, 4/7/2004 News Article http://www.realworldradio.fm/print.php?sid=1451 Radio Mundo, 4/2/2004 News Article http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2004-03/30/content_1390551.htm Xinhuanet, 3/29/2004 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/newsday031704/ Newsday, 3/16/2004 News Article louis-jodel_chamblain activeparticipant guy_philippe activeparticipant international_republican_institute_(iri) activeparticipant haiti_foreignInvolvement February 7, 2001 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_577 1 false Jean-Bertrand Aristide takes office amid criticisms that his party won the previous year's congressional elections unfairly. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/1156540.stm BBC, 2/7/2001 News Article jean-bertrand_aristide passiveparticipant April 6, 2001 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_576 1 false Lawrence Harrington, the US representative to the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) sends a letter to Enrique Iglesias, the IDB's president, recommending that the bank block already approved loans to Haiti. “At this point disbursements could normally begin, assuming all loans conditions had been met,” Harrington writes. “However, we do not believe that these loans can or should be treated in a routine manner and strongly urge you to not authorize any disbursements at this time.” http://www.lrb.co.uk/v26/n08/farm01_.html London Review of Books, 4/15/2004 News Article april_4,_2001_letter_from_executive_director_for_the_us_lawrence_harrington_to_idb_president_enrique_iglesias source The loans are for health, education, drinking water and road improvements. The OAS will block these loans 14 days later (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_692 ]]). http://www.lrb.co.uk/v26/n08/farm01_.html London Review of Books, 4/15/2004 News Article lawrence_harrington passiveparticipant enrique_iglesias activeparticipant inter-american_development_bank_(idb) activeparticipant organization_of_american_states_(oas) activeparticipant haiti_economy April 20-22, 2001 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_1109 1 false With the exception of Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez, 34 heads of state attending the OAS summit, pledge to direct their “Ministers to ensure that negotiations of the FTAA [Free Trade Area of Americas] Agreement are concluded no later than January 2005 and to seek its entry into force as soon as possible thereafter, but in any case, no later than December 2005.” http://www.grassrootsonline.org/GOL_hai220501.html Haitian Times, 4/18/2001 News Article http://www.quixote.org/haiti/haitinews/2001/haiti_news_5_02_2001.html Haiti Weekly News, 5/2/2001 News Article declaration_of_quebec_city source According to an unnamed senior offical at the US State Department, the declaration also lays the groundwork for creating a legal pretext for blocking aid to countries. http://foreign.senate.gov/testimony/2003/FarmerTestimony030715.pdf US Congress, 7/15/2003 News Article http://www.lrb.co.uk/v26/n08/farm01_.html London Review of Books, 4/15/2004 News Article The section of the declaration discussing the OAS's commitment to democracy reads: “... any unconstitutional alteration or interruption of the democratic order in a state of the Hemisphere constitutes an insurmountable obstacle to the participation of that state's government in the Summit of the Americas process....To enhance our ability to respond to these threats, we instruct our Foreign Ministers to prepare, in the framework of the next General Assembly of the OAS, an Inter-American Democratic Charter to reinforce OAS instruments for the active defense of representative democracy.” http://www.haiti-progres.com/2001/sm010425/xeng0425.htm Haiti Progres, 4/25/2001 News Article declaration_of_quebec_city source During the summit, before the final declaration is made, Haiti is singled out as the region's problem democracy. “Democracy in certain countries is still fragile,” Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chr�tien says, “We are particularly concerned about the case of Haiti. We note the problems which continue to limit the democratic, political, economic and social development of this country.” http://www.haiti-progres.com/2001/sm010425/xeng0425.htm Haiti Progres, 4/25/2001 News Article Press reports note the ant-Aristide atmosphere. The BBC reports, “Correspondents say the presence of Mr. Aristide at the summit has been an embarrassment to some of the leaders, who agreed that only democratic countries would be included in the Free Trade Zone of the Americas.” http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/1291640.stm BBC, 4/22/2001 News Article The New York Post similarly reccounts, “Diplomats said the expressions of concern about Haiti were to make sure that Aristide can't use his presence at the summit... to claim he has international support.” http://www.cubanet.org/CNews/y01/apr01/23e5.htm New York Post, 4/23/2001 News Article And according to Reuters, “the Summit decided to comment on Haiti because leaders did not want Aristide to return home in triumph.” http://www.cubanet.org/CNews/y01/apr01/23e5.htm New York Post, 4/23/2001 News Article http://www.haiti-progres.com/2001/sm010425/xeng0425.htm Haiti Progres, 4/25/2001 News Article “Eight million people will be dominated by a project that favors US and European interests. We must have a critical reflection process that includes the reality of the people....This will not be good for Haiti's already fragile economy. What's bad will become worse....This will have great consequences, yet the people—those who it will impact most—aren't being consulted in Haiti or the US....We must articulate society's needs in the context of commerce and industry. To not do so would be to betray our own people and our chance to lift ourselves up and out of poverty.” http://www.grassrootsonline.org/GOL_hai220501.html Haitian Times, 4/18/2001 News Article http://www.quixote.org/haiti/haitinews/2001/haiti_news_5_02_2001.html Haiti Weekly News, 5/2/2001 News Article commentary jean_chretien activeparticipant hugo_chavez_frias activeparticipant jean-bertrand_aristide activeparticipant organization_of_american_states_(oas) activeparticipant haiti_economy June 8, 2001 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_578 1 false Seven of the eight Haitian senators, whose elections are still being disputed by the Democratic Convergence (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_566 ]]), resign after President Jean-Bertrand Aristide tells the General Assembly of the Organization of American States that he will hold new elections for the contested Senate seats within six months. But the Democratic Convergence is not satisfied with the concession and maintains its insistence that he resign and that it be put in charge of a non-elected “transition” government. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/1370355.stm BBC, 6/8/2001 News Article http://www.dollarsandsense.org/0903reeves.html Dollars and Sense, 9/2003 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0224-09.htm Resource Center of the Americas, 2/24/2004 News Article democratic_convergence activeparticipant jean-bertrand_aristide activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment August 6, 2001 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_579 1 false Roger Noriega, a Kansas native of Mexican descent and fervent critic of Fidel Castro, Hugo Chavez and Jean-Bertrand Aristide, is appointed US Permanent Representative to the Organization of American States. http://www.nynewsday.com/news/nationworld/world/ny-wopol013691845mar01,0,4730210.story?coll=ny-worldnews-headlines Newsday, 3/1/2004 News Article http://www.iadb.org/sds/doc/sgc-noriega-E.pdf Inter-American Development Bank, n.d. News Article fidel_castro passiveparticipant hugo_chavez_frias passiveparticipant jean-bertrand_aristide passiveparticipant roger_francisco_noriega activeparticipant January 11, 2002 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_580 1 false The White House appoints Otto Juan Reich as Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2002/7210.htm US Department of State, 1/11/2002 News Article His nomination will never be approved by the Senate. http://www.state.gov/p/wha/rls/prsrl/16511.htm Knight Ridder, 1/9/2003 News Article otto_juan_reich activeparticipant (Late January 2002) the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_1184 1 false Lavalas Family (LF) deputy Nahoum Marcellus exposes a scandal involving the duty-free import of 70,000 metric tons of rice by Lavalas senators and representatives. They used the cover of a fake cooperative reportedly founded by FL Senator Mirlande Lib�rus (an Aristide Foundation director), Paul Preslet (a former Aristide Foundation director, current head of the National Bank of Credit), and Jonas Petit, the FL's official spokesman. Charles Souffrant, head of the peasant organization Kozepe, denounces the scheme which undermines the production of local rice and hurts Haiti's rice growers. The Haitian treasury lost some 117 million gourdes in customs duties and tax revenues as a result of the ploy. http://www.haiti-progres.com/2002/sm020206/ENG02-06.htm Haiti-Progres, 2/6/2002 News Article paul_preslet activeparticipant mirlande_lib←rus activeparticipant charles_souffrant activeparticipant nahoum_marcellus activeparticipant jonas_petit activeparticipant February 6, 2002 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_1185 1 false Haiti-Progres, a Haitian newspaper published in the United States, reports that President Aristide's Lavalas party is engulfed in financial scandals which are wreaking havoc on the economy. The most serious scandal so far is the duty-free import of 70,000 metric tons of rice by Lavalas senators and representatives, who used the cover of a fake cooperative (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_1184 ]]). http://www.haiti-progres.com/2002/sm020206/ENG02-06.htm Haiti-Progres, 2/6/2002 News Article March 2002 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_1110 1 false A USAID-commissioned Gallup poll indicates that 61.6 percent of the survey's participants sympathize or are members of Aristide's Fanmi Lavalas party, while only 13 percent say they support the Democratic Convergence or any of its associated parties. Sixty percent of the respondents indicate that the Haitian leader they trust most is Aristide, though several say they trust no one. Democratic Convergence leader Gerard Gourgue, with only 3.7 percent, is the next most trusted politician. http://www.zmag.org/content/showarticle.cfm?SectionID=55&ItemID=5467 Zmag, 5/5/2004 News Article gerard_gourgue passiveparticipant usaid activeparticipant jean-bertrand_aristide passiveparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment October 2002 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_583 1 false The US ships 20,000 M-16s to the Dominican Republic. Though some US officials will later claim that the weapons transfer had only been agreed to at this time—not completed—there will be much evidence to the contrary. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/newsday031704/ Newsday, 3/16/2004 News Article http://www.washtimes.com/national/20040303-100457-5920r.htm Washington Times, 3/4/2004 News Article http://www.fuerzasmildom.com/english/armor13.php Web Ready Corporation, 3/26/04 News Article http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,113058,00.html Fox News, 3/2/2004 News Article According to the Florida-based website, fuerzasmildom.com, which provides a detailed history and description of the Dominican military forces, the Dominican military receives a “donation of 20,000 surplus M16 rifles from the US Military Assistance Program” in October 2002. http://www.fuerzasmildom.com/english/armor13.php Web Ready Corporation, 3/26/04 News Article Additionally, according to one of the staff aides of US Senator Christopher Dodd, several Defense Department letters written in 2002 and 2003 appear to show that the weapons transfer had been completed. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/newsday031704/ Newsday, 3/16/2004 News Article After Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide is ousted a year and a half later, his attorney, Ira Kurzman, will tell Fox News that the guns had been provided to the Dominican by the US “in an operation called Jade Project where they [sic] secretly trained Dominican army people.” http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,113058,00.html Fox News, 3/2/2004 News Article christopher_dodd activeparticipant jean-bertrand_aristide passiveparticipant ira_kurzman activeparticipant haiti_foreignInvolvement November 19, 2002 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_582 1 false The Haiti Democracy Project (HDP) is formally established. At its official launching, which takes place at the Brookings Institution in Washington, D.C., speakers warn that the current “crisis” in democracy in Haiti is worsening at an ever increasing pace. “... Luigi Einaudi opened the talks with dire predictions that Haiti was fast approaching a point where diplomatic means would no longer contribute to solve the crisis. According to Einaudi, those concerned about Haiti should at this time be gathering for a ‘wake.’ The rapidly deteriorating economic situation, the inability of the main protagonists to advance the negotiating process and the increasing protest demonstrations throughout the country made for a very bleak future.” US ambassador to the OAS, Roger Noriega also speaks at the ceremony. At one point, Noriega says, referring to the contested 2000 Haitian elections (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_566 ]]), “We have to get them [The Haitian people] that opportunity as they will not participate in a farce.” http://www.haitipolicy.org/content/359.htm Haiti Democracy Project, 11/20/2004 News Article Attending the event are some questionable figures including Stanley Lucas and Olivier Nadal. Lucas is said to be the point man in Haiti for the USAID-financed International Republican Institute, which is providing training and funds to anti-Aristide Haitian rebels in the Dominican Republic (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_672 ]]). Nadal is a Miami-based Haitian businessman and the former president of the Haitian Chamber of Commerce. http://www.haitipolicy.org/content/359.htm Haiti Democracy Project, 11/20/2004 News Article Nadal is implicated in a peasant massacre that occurred in the Haitian town of Piatre. In 1990, a group of peasants were killed by Nadal's security after they squatted on unused land that he owned. http://www.nchrhaiti.org/article.php3?id_article=142 National Coalition for Haitian Rights, 4/24/2004 News Article http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti-archive/msg00250.html Haitis Progres, 7/21/1999 News Article The prominent businessman Antoine Izmery said shortly before he was murdered that Nadal had been one of the financiers of the 1991 coup d'etat (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_550 ]]) that ousted Aristide from office. And in 1994, the United States government froze Nadal's assets because of his suspected involvement in the coup. http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti-archive/msg00250.html Haitis Progres, 7/21/1999 News Article The Haiti Democracy Project is funded by the wealthy, right-wing Haitian Boulos family, which owns several companies including Pharval Pharmaceuticals, the USAID-funded Radio Vision 2000, the Delimart supermarket, and Le Matin. In February 2002, Rudolph Boulos was under investigation for his possible involvement in the assassination of Haitian journalist Jean Dominique who had been very critical of Pharval after contamination of the company's “Afrebril and Valodon” syrups with diethyl alcohol had resulted in the deaths of 60 children. http://www.quixote.org/haiti/haitinews/haiti_news_03_11_2002.html#3 Haiti Weekly News, 2/28/02 News Article http://www.haitipolicy.org/content/359.htm Haiti Democracy Project, 11/20/2004 News Article http://www.ohio.com/mld/ohio/news/world/8163732.htm?template=contentModules/printstory.jsp Knight Ridder, 3/11/2004 News Article http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti-archive/msg00250.html Haiti Progres, 7/21/1999 News Article The project's board of directors includes Rudolph Boulos, CEO of Pharval Laboratories; Vicki Carney of CRInternational; Prof. Henry F. Carey of Georgia State University; Timothy Carney, US ambassador to Haiti (1998-1999); Clotilde Charlot, former vice-president of the Haitian Association of Voluntary Agencies; Lionel Delatour of the Center for Free Enterprise and Democracy (CLED); Ira Lowenthal, an “Anthropologist”; Charles Manus; Orlando Marville, Chief of the OAS electoral mission to Haiti in 2000; James Morrell, the Haiti Democracy Project's executive director; Lawrence Pezzullo, US special envoy for Haiti (1993-1994); and Ernest H. Preeg, US ambassador to Haiti (1981-1983). http://www.haitipolicy.org/main/directors.htm Haiti Democracy Project, 3/26/2004 News Article jean_dominique activeparticipant roger_francisco_noriega activeparticipant rudolph_boulos activeparticipant olivier_nadal activeparticipant charles_manus activeparticipant ira_lowenthal activeparticipant orlando_marville activeparticipant james_morrell activeparticipant lawrence_pezzullo activeparticipant lionel_delatour activeparticipant clotilde_charlot activeparticipant timothy_carney activeparticipant henry_f._carey activeparticipant vicki_carney activeparticipant haiti_democracy_project activeparticipant ernest_h._preeg activeparticipant luigi_einaudi activeparticipant stanley_lucas activeparticipant jean-bertrand_aristide passiveparticipant antoine_izmery passiveparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment haiti_foreignInvolvement November 25, 2002 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_584 1 false Otto Juan Reich is named US Special Envoy to the Western Hemisphere for the Secretary of State. He had previously served as Acting Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_580 ]]), but never received a confirmation from the Senate. http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/terror/03010906.htm US Department of State, 1/9/2003 News Article http://www.usembassy-israel.org.il/publish/peace/archives/2002/november/112602.html US Embassy in Israel, 11/25/2002 News Article otto_juan_reich activeparticipant December 2002 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_585 1 false The Haiti Democracy Project creates the “Coalition of 184 Civic Institutions,” which is comprised of Haitian NGOs funded by USAID and/or the International Republican Institute (IRI ), the Haitian-American Chamber of Commerce, as well as several other groups. http://www.dollarsandsense.org/0903reeves.html Dollars and Sense, 9/7/2003 News Article The coalition's leader is Andre Apaid, a US citizen born to Haitian parents who is the head of Alpha Industries,“one of the oldest and largest assembly factories in Haiti.” His factories—located in Haiti's free trade zones—produce textiles and assemble electronic products for several US companies, including Sperry/Unisys, IBM, Remington and Honeywell, some of which are used in US Government computers and US Defense Department sonar and radar equipment. According to a report by the National Labor Committee, Apaid's businesses are known to have forced their employees to work 78-hour work-weeks at wages below the minimum rate. http://www.haiti-progres.com/eng11-12.html Haiti Progres, 11/12/2003 News Article http://www.nlcnet.org/campaigns/archive/haiti/Haiticoup.shtml National Labor Committee for Worker and Human Rights, 1/1996 News Article http://www.lrb.co.uk/v26/n08/farm01_.html London Review of Books, 4/15/2004 News Article usaid passiveparticipant international_republican_institute_(iri) passiveparticipant andre_apaid activeparticipant haiti_democracy_project activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment haiti_foreignInvolvement January 9, 2003 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_586 1 false The White House announces the nomination of Roger F. Noriega, the current US Permanent Representative to the Organization of American States, to the position of Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs. http://www.state.gov/p/wha/rls/prsrl/16512.htm US Department of State, 1/09/03 News Article http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/01/20030109-1.html The White House, 1/09/03 News Article Otto Reich, who was originally named to the position, but whose nomination was never confirmed by the Senate, is instead appointed by Bush to the White House position of Special Envoy for Western Hemisphere Initiatives, which does not have to be approved by the Senate (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_580 ]]) (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_584 ]]). http://www.state.gov/p/wha/rls/prsrl/16511.htm US Department of State, 1/09/03 News Article http://www.state.gov/p/wha/rls/prsrl/16511.htm Knight Ridder, 1/9/2003 News Article otto_juan_reich activeparticipant roger_francisco_noriega activeparticipant February 2003 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_587 1 false Stanley Lucas, who is the point man in Haiti for the Republican-dominated International Republican Institute (IRI) based in the Dominican Republic, meets with Haitian rebel Guy Philippe and his men. Three months later the group will cross into Haiti and attack a hydroelectric power plant. Lucas has long ties to the Haitian military (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_590 ]]). After the toppling of Aristide's government 12 months later, it will be learned that the group had been funded and trained through the IRI (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_672 ]]). http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/newsday031704/ The Black Commentator, 5/15/2003 News Article http://www.americaspolicy.org/articles/2004/0403haiti-int_body.html Interhemispheric Resource Center (IRC), 2/27/2004 News Article international_republican_institute_(iri) activeparticipant stanley_lucas activeparticipant guy_philippe activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment haiti_foreignInvolvement February 7, 2003 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_697 1 false During a rally celebrating the anniversary of his first inauguration in 1990, Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide announces that his government is doubling the minimum wage from 36 to 70 gourdes (or about $1.60) a day, despite the strong disapproval of Haiti's business elites. http://uscis.gov/graphics/services/asylum/ric/documentation/HTI03002.htm US Immigration, 7/30/2003 News Article http://www.house.gov/waters/pr040218.htm Waters, 2/18/2004 News Article This marks the second time since his return to office in 1994 that he has doubled the minimum wage (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_698 ]]). jean-bertrand_aristide activeparticipant haiti_economy April 23, 2003 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_588 1 false John Ashcroft states that US authorities have “noticed an increase in third country nations (Pakistanis, Palestinians, etc.) using Haiti as a staging point for attempted migration to the United States. This increases the national security interest in curing use of this migration route.” Commenting on the remarks, State Department spokesman Stuart Patt says, “'We all are scratching our heads. We are asking each other, ‘Where did they get that?’ ” No evidence is ever offered by Ashcroft or anyone else in the Justice Department to support the accusation. Miami Immigration attorney Ira Kurzban, who will later represent Jean-Bertrand Aristide after his removal, says the statements are “part of a concerted plan involving the destruction of the Haitian people by creating the chaotic economic conditions in Haiti while forcing people to go back there.” Kurzban adds: “There is no basis of fact for the attorney general's claims. No information of this nature has been presented to the Haitian government. It's a false claim. It's used to perpetuate a discriminatory policy against Haitians.” http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/5711187.htm?template=contentModules/printstory.jsp Miami Herald, 4/25/2003 News Article john_ashcroft activeparticipant ira_kurzman activeparticipant stuart_patt activeparticipant haiti_foreignInvolvement April 28, 2003 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_589 1 false The Haitian Press Agency (AHP) reports that diplomats at the Organization of American States are openly circulating demands for the removal of Haitian president Jean-Bertrand Aristide. “One document's author suggested that it would be best if the situation kept deteriorating, saying that any aid should be blocked until 2005 in order to eliminate the party in power, Fanmi Lavalas [Lavalas Family], which will be of no help to the population, according to him.” http://www.blackcommentator.com/42/42_issues.html The Black Commentator, 5/15/2003 News Article Though the news report does not provide any names, one possible source for the remarks is Roger Noriega, the US permanent representative to the Organization of American States. Noriega is a known critic of Aristide. jean-bertrand_aristide activeparticipant roger_francisco_noriega activeparticipant haiti_foreignInvolvement Early May 2003 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_590 1 false A group of at least 20 paramilitary soldiers—trained and funded by the US (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_672 ]]) —cross into Haiti from the neighboring Dominican Republic and attack a hydroelectric power plant on Haiti's central plateau. Shortly after the attack, Dominican authorities, at the behest of the Haitian government, arrest five men, including Guy Philippe, in connection with the paramilitary operation. But they are quickly released by the Dominicans who say there is no evidence of their involvement in the attack. Philippe is interviewed by the Associated Press afterwards and asked what he is doing in the Dominican. Philippe, who mentions to the reporter that he would support a coup against Aristide, refuses to “say how he makes a living or what he does to spend his time in the Dominican Republic.” Less than one year later, Philippe will participate in the overthrow of the Aristide government. http://www.blackcommentator.com/42/42_issues.html The Black Commentator, 5/15/2003 News Article On the same day the five men are detained, Haitian authorities raid the Port-au-Prince residence of mayoral candidate Judith Roy of the Democratic Convergence opposition. The Haitians claim to find “assault weapons, ammunitions, and plans to attack the National Palace and Aristide's suburban residence.” The Haitian government contends that Roy is close to Philippe. http://www.blackcommentator.com/42/42_issues.html The Black Commentator, 5/15/2003 News Article guy_philippe activeparticipant democratic_convergence activeparticipant judith_roy activeparticipant haiti_foreignInvolvement haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment May 6, 2003 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_591 1 false Dominican police arrest five Haitians, including Arcelin Paul, the official Democratic Convergence representative in the Dominican Republic, who they believe are plotting the overthrow of Jean-Bertrand Aristide's government. Also at this time, there is a US build-up along the Dominican border, where “900 US soldiers patrol jointly with the Dominican army, whom they have armed with 20,000 M16s.” Ben Dupuy, general secretary of the left-wing party PPN, tells the left-wing Haiti Progres, “There is no doubt these guys are true terrorists working with the CIA under Dominican protection.” Documentary filmmaker Kevin Pina, who has been covering Haiti for over a decade, calls this the “US funding of the Haitian ‘Contras.’ ” A September 2003 article in the magazine, Dollars and Sense, will comment: “Whatever we call them, there is an organized and well-funded armed group with ties to the Convergence, based in the Dominican Republic, which aims to overthrow the Aristide government. The Bush administration's support for the Convergence and its refusal to denounce this violence, as well as the US military presence along the border, through which the ‘Manman’ army easily travels, clearly implicates the United States in this aim.” http://www.dollarsandsense.org/0903reeves.html Dollars and Sense, 9/2003 News Article democratic_convergence activeparticipant arcelin_paul activeparticipant ben_dupuy activeparticipant jean-bertrand_aristide passiveparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment May 15, 2003 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_592 1 false The Black Commentator magazine publishes an essay predicting a US-sponsored overthrow of Jean-Bertrand Aristide. An unnamed source in Haiti tells the magazine that Bush administration officials “want a subservient client in power when the bicentennial [festivities celebrating Haiti's 200 years of independence] comes down. ” The source adds, “They cannot control Aristide, therefore they must do as they always have in these situations, destroy him and his government by any means necessary.” http://www.blackcommentator.com/42/42_issues.html The Black Commentator, 5/15/2003 News Article haiti_foreignInvolvement May 16, 2003 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_593 1 false The TransAfrica Forum publishes the report, “Withheld International Aid: The US Weapon of Mass Disruption,” which describes the deteriorating social and economic conditions in Haiti that have been accelerated as a result of the US-instigated suspension of aid and credit to Haiti. The report concludes: “the United States and the international community must immediately end its economic sanctions and release the $500 million in approved foreign aid. With this assistance the people of Haiti can move toward breaking the cycle of poverty.” http://www.transafricaforum.org/reports/Haiti_may1final_bin.pdf TransAfrica Forum, 5/16/2003 News Article haiti_economy July 2003 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_594 1 false Haiti uses more than 90 percent of its foreign reserves to pay $32 million in debt service to its international creditors, requiring Aristide's government to end fuel subsidies and slash spending on health and education programs. Haiti's debt is of dubious legality, however, as the London-based Haiti Support Group explains: “Haiti's debt to international financial institutions and foreign governments has grown from $302 million in 1980 to $1.134 billion today. About 40 per cent of this debt stems from loans to the brutal Duvalier dictators, who invested precious little of it in the country. This is known as ‘odious debt’ because it was used to oppress the people, and, according to international law, this debt need not be repaid.” The debt payment increases public dissatisfaction with Aristide's administration. http://www.dollarsandsense.org/0903reeves.html Dollars and Sense, 9/2003 News Article http://www.counterpunch.org/williams03012004.html CounterPunch, 3/1/2004 News Article http://www.lrb.co.uk/v26/n08/farm01_.html London Review of Books, 4/15/2004 News Article jean-bertrand_aristide passiveparticipant haiti_economy July 29, 2003 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_595 1 false Roger F. Noriega's nomination for Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs is unanimously confirmed by the US Senate. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2003/22901.htm US Department of State, 7/30/03 News Article John F. Maisto takes over Noriega's previous post as US Permanent Representative to the Organization of American States.(see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_86 ]]) http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/biog/23066.htm US Department of State, 7/31/03 News Article john_f._maisto passiveparticipant roger_francisco_noriega activeparticipant July 31, 2003 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_610 1 false US Ambassador to Haiti Brian Dean Curran, a Clinton holdover, says in a farewell address to the Haitian-American Chamber of Commerce (HAMCHAM), “The United States accepts President Aristide as the constitutional president of Haiti for his term of office ending in 2006.” http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/023004A.shtml New York Times, 2/29/2004 News Article http://www.trinitydc.edu/academics/depts/Interdisc/International/PDF%20files/hbp8.pdf Haiti Papers, 11/2003 News Article Curran is sent to Naples, Italy and succeeded by career diplomat James Foley. http://www.haiti-info.com/imprimer.php3?id_article=400 Associated Press, 8/1/2003 News Article http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/023004A.shtml New York Times, 2/29/2004 News Article brian_dean_curran activeparticipant james_foley activeparticipant haiti_foreignInvolvement November 2003 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_596 1 false Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide demands that France return the money Haiti had paid to its former colonizer in service of a dubious debt agreement the country had been forced to accept—under threat of recolonization—in 1825 (see [[ haiti_536 ]]). The exact amount, with interest added and adjusted for inflation, is $21,685,135,571.48. http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/7518665.htm Miami Herald, 12/18/2003 News Article http://www.boston.com/news/world/articles/2003/12/03/haiti_making_217_billion_restitution_demand/ Boston Globe, 12/3/2003 News Article http://www.haitiaction.net/News/Rest.html Haiti Action website, n.d. News Article http://www.lrb.co.uk/v26/n08/farm01_.html London Review of Books, 4/15/2004 News Article France will later back the removal of Aristide in February 2004 (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_611 ]]). http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/haiti/2004/0226france.htm New York Times, 2/26/2004 News Article jean-bertrand_aristide activeparticipant December 2003 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_671 1 false Former dictator Prosper Avril (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_670 ]]) evades arrest by Haitian police after US troops intervene. When the police enter his residence, they find military uniforms, illegal police radios and a cache of weapons. http://www.lrb.co.uk/v26/n08/farm01_.html London Review of Books, 4/15/2004 News Article prosper_avril activeparticipant January 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_597 1 false The terms of all Haitian legislators elected in 2000 expire. The Democratic Convergence refuses to allow new congressional elections, so Haiti at this time no longer has a legislature. http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0224-09.htm Resource Center of the Americas, 2/24/2004 News Article democratic_convergence activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment Mid-March 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_679 1 false “Following a US-backed plan,” Haitian Prime Minister Gerard Latortue meets with political leaders to begin the process of selecting thirteen ministers for a new interim government. People who had worked in the government since 2000 are automatically disqualified. Additionally, no representatives from any political parties—the Lavalas Family Party or the opposition—are supposed to be included in the interim cabinet. Notably, several of those chosen have held posts in international development organizations, which as the Haiti Support Group notes, “have been very active in Haiti for many decades without making any discernible progress with the country's social or economic development.” Among those chosen are Yvon Simeon as foreign minister; Bernard Gousse, an anti-Aristide lawyer, as justice minister; Henri Bazan, president of the Haitian Association of Economists, UN consultant, as finance minister; former Gen. Herard Abraham as interior minister; Josette Bijoux, World Health Organization, as public health minister; Daniel Saint-Lot, Director of Training for the controversial USAID-funded, community radio development program, RAMAK, as commerce, industry and tourism minister, Pierre Buteau, as education and culture minister; Roland Pierre, agronomist, as planning and environment minister, Smarck Michel, former primer minister, as planning minister. http://edition.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/americas/03/16/haiti.ap/ CNN, 3/16/2004 News Article http://www.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf/0/f5896ddca0d8dc6049256e5c0025cd57?OpenDocument Haiti Support Group, 3/17/2004 News Article Despite Latortue's assurances, several of these people do have ties to political parties. Yvon Simeon, was the Democratic Convergence's representative in Europe and Bernard Gousse is said to be an active member of the Group of 184. http://www.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf/0/f5896ddca0d8dc6049256e5c0025cd57?OpenDocument Haiti Support Group, 3/17/2004 News Article Interestingly, many of the new cabinet members, lilke Mr. LaTortue himself, are from Boca Raton, Florida, leading some observers to refer to the new government as the “Boca Regime.” http://www.zmag.org/content/showarticle.cfm?SectionID=55&ItemID=5467 Zmag, 5/5/2004 News Article herard_abraham activeparticipant yvon_simeon activeparticipant gerard_latortue activeparticipant christian_rousseau activeparticipant danielle_magliore activeparticipant paul_emile_simon activeparticipant bernard_gousse activeparticipant mac_donald_jean activeparticipant henri_bazan activeparticipant daniel_saint-lot activeparticipant smarck_michel activeparticipant roland_pierreas activeparticipant pierre_buteau activeparticipant josette_bijoux activeparticipant anne-marie_issa activeparticipant ariel_henry activeparticipant lamartine_clermont activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment haiti_foreignInvolvement haiti_economy January 1, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_463 1 false Seventy wealthy Haitians and Haitian-Americans officially launch Haiti's first investment bank, PromoCapital. The bank, a 50/50 joint-venture between Haitian and US shareholders, consists of two institutions: PromoCapital Haiti, SA—incorporated in Haiti as a “Soci�t� Financi�re de D�veloppement” —and PromoCapital USA, Inc,—a corporation registered in the state of Delaware. http://www.prweb.com/releases/2004/4/prwebxml115614.php PromoCapital Press Release, 4/2/2004 News Article http://www.usatoday.com/money/world/2004-04-29-haiti_x.htm USA Today, 4/29/2004 News Article The bank's headquarters are in Petionville, Haiti with representative offices in Washington DC and Aventura, Florida. http://www.prweb.com/releases/2004/4/prwebxml115614.php PromoCapital Press Release, 4/2/2004 News Article http://www.usatoday.com/money/world/2004-04-29-haiti_x.htm USA Today, 4/29/2004 News Article Its founder, Dumarsais Sim�us, who owns a large food-processing business in Texas, says the bank's investors hope to see annual returns on their investment in the mid- or high teens. He is also the chair of PromoCapital USA. Henri Deschamps, a prominent Port-au-Prince printing and media executive, is the chairman of PromoCapital Haiti. http://www.prweb.com/releases/2004/4/prwebxml115614.php PromoCapital Press Release, 4/2/2004 News Article http://www.usatoday.com/money/world/2004-04-29-haiti_x.htm USA Today, 4/29/2004 News Article Of the 70 names included on the list of PromoCapital shareholders, nine—Frederic Madsen, Gilbert Bigio, Gregory Brandt, Marc-Antoine Acra, Monique Bigio, Olivier Acra, Ronald Georges, Reuven Bigi, and Sebastien Acra—appear on a US Treasury Department list of people and organizations whose assets had been blocked by the US Department of Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control under the Clinton Administration, until 1994. office_of_foreign_assets_control_listing_of_specially_designated_nationals_and_blocked_entities_since_december_7,_1993 source And one of them, Hans Tippenhauer, had told The Washington Post on February 23 that the Haitians had enthusiastically greeted the paramilitary rebel forces as “freedom fighters.” http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A657-2004Feb23.html The Washington Post, 2/24/2004 News Article “The Haitian business class has not been highly regarded for its ethos of enlightened self-interest. It wanted very much to protect its privileged position [rather than] use its investments for the well-being of society.” http://www.usatoday.com/money/world/2004-04-29-haiti_x.htm USA Today, 4/29/2004 News Article commentary laurent_pierre-philippe activeparticipant magdalah_silva activeparticipant marc-antoine_acra activeparticipant may_parisien activeparticipant michael_gay_sr. activeparticipant monique_bigio activeparticipant laurence_bigio activeparticipant kimberly_simeus activeparticipant josseline_colimon-f←thi│re activeparticipant nadege_tippenhauer activeparticipant jean-marie_wolff activeparticipant jean-pierre_saint-victor activeparticipant jean-robert_vertus activeparticipant jerry_tardieu activeparticipant joelle_coupaud activeparticipant julio_bateau activeparticipant joseph_baptiste activeparticipant jon_robertson activeparticipant olivier_acra activeparticipant patrice_backer activeparticipant patrick_delatour activeparticipant steeve_handal activeparticipant the_simeus_foundation activeparticipant serge_pinard activeparticipant vanessa_dickey activeparticipant yves_joseph activeparticipant yael_bigio-garoute activeparticipant serge_parisien activeparticipant sebastien_acra activeparticipant reuven_bigio activeparticipant patrick_moynihan activeparticipant patrick_tardieu activeparticipant reginald_villard activeparticipant r←gynald_heurtelou activeparticipant ronald_georges activeparticipant jean-henry_c←ant activeparticipant rudolph_moise activeparticipant rudolph_berrou→t activeparticipant jacques_deschamps_fils activeparticipant herve_francois activeparticipant henry_paul activeparticipant albert_levy activeparticipant axan_abellard activeparticipant promocapital activeparticipant carlet_auguste activeparticipant daniel_rouzier activeparticipant daniel_silva activeparticipant caroline_racine activeparticipant daniele_jean-pierre,_esq. activeparticipant dimy_doresca activeparticipant elda_james,_esq. activeparticipant gerd_pasquet activeparticipant gilbert_bigio activeparticipant georges_j._casimir activeparticipant hans_tippenhauer activeparticipant hendrik_verwaay activeparticipant henri_deschamps activeparticipant harriet_michel activeparticipant gary_jean-baptiste activeparticipant gabrielle_alexis,_esq. activeparticipant fritz_fougy activeparticipant elisabeth_delatour activeparticipant emile_corneille activeparticipant emmanuel_francois activeparticipant florence_bellande_robertson activeparticipant frantz_bourget activeparticipant dumarsais_m._sim←us activeparticipant fred_tony activeparticipant frederic_madsen activeparticipant gregory_brandt activeparticipant haiti_economy haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment January 30, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_581 1 false In Washington, there is an anti-Aristide demonstration sponsored by the Haiti Democracy Project. Several hundred protesters, including many Haitian Americans and recent exiles, attend the event. Many of the demonstrators arrive in buses from New York and Boston. http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/7840480.htm Miami Herald, 1/30/04 News Article democratic_convergence activeparticipant jean-bertrand_aristide passiveparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment haiti_overthrow February 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_738 1 false Comite des Avocats pour le Respect des Libertes Individuelles (CARLI), a Haitian “human rights” organization, compiles a list with the names of about 85 alleged human rights violators, all of which belong to either the Lavalas party or to the Haitian National Police. The names come from phone calls made to their “hotline” and possibly from other leads as well. CARLI issues leaflets containing the names to the public, calling for their arrest. The leaflets—published only in French, not Creole—are also given to the US embassy and USAID, which sponsors the hotline program. It is unclear whether or not CARLI—whose staff consists of only two volunteer lawyers—investigates and confirms the allegations before it publicizes the names of the condemned (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_739 ]]). The accused are never contacted to respond to the charges. People named on the list flee their homes and go into hiding, fearing that the rebel paramilitary groups will come after them. They later tell a National Lawyers Guild human rights delegation that they were not guilty of the charges and that the list had been used as a political ploy by the opposition to instill fear. The delegation also interviews CARLI's two lawyers and uncovers strong evidence suggesting that the organization is a tool of the opposition (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_739 ]]). http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article tom_griffin activeparticipant national_committee_for_haitian_rights_(nchr) activeparticipant usaid activeparticipant judy_dacruz activeparticipant march_2004_national_lawyers_guild_human_rights_delegation_to_haiti activeparticipant edward_carlson activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment February 4, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_599 1 false Rebels take over cities in northern Haiti and move towards Haiti's capital, Port-au-Prince, overrunning Aristide's local police forces and vowing to overthrow President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/023004A.shtml New York Times, 2/29/2004 News Article The rebels include various factions. The leading groups are led by Louis-Jodel Chamblain, a convicted murderer and former death squad leader under “Baby Doc” Duvalier, and Guy Philippe, also a known human rights violator (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_550 ]]) (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_564 ]]). http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR360142004?open&of=ENG-HTI Amnesty International, 3/3/2004 News Article http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=6014&fcategory_desc=Haiti Associated Press, 3/3/2004 News Article http://www.counterpunch.org/williams03012004.html Counter Punch, 3/1/2004 News Article louis-jodel_chamblain activeparticipant jean-bertrand_aristide activeparticipant roger_francisco_noriega activeparticipant jean-claude_duvalier passiveparticipant haiti_overthrow February 11, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_696 1 false US Representative Barbara Lee (D-CA) writes in a letter to US Secretary of State Colin Powell: “Our failure to support the democratic process and help restore order looks like a covert effort to overthrow a government. There is a violent coup d'etat in the making, and it appears that the United States is aiding and abetting the attempt to violently topple the Aristide Government. With all due respect, this looks like ‘regime change.’ How can we call for democracy in Iraq and not say very clearly that we support democratic elections as the only option in Haiti?” http://www.house.gov/lee/releases/04Feb11.htm Lee, 2/11/2004 News Article http://www.alternet.org/story.html?StoryID=17995 Alternet, 3/1/2004 News Article february_11,_2004_letter_from_us_rep._barbara_lee_to_colin_powell source “Our failure to support the democratic process and help restore order looks like a covert effort to overthrow a government. There is a violent coup d'etat in the making, and it appears that the United States is aiding and abetting the attempt to violently topple the Aristide Government. With all due respect, this looks like ‘regime change.’ How can we call for democracy in Iraq and not say very clearly that we support democratic elections as the only option in Haiti?” http://www.house.gov/lee/releases/04Feb11.htm Lee, 2/11/2004 News Article http://www.alternet.org/story.html?StoryID=17995 Alternet, 3/1/2004 News Article duplicate colin_powell activeparticipant barbara_lee activeparticipant haiti_foreignInvolvement February 13, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_699 1 false US Representative Barbara Lee (D-CA) writes a letter to US Secretary of State Colin Powell accusing the State of intentionally subverting democracy in Haiti. “It has been clear to me for some time that the state department has been trying to undermine President Aristide... I am convinced that this effort to force President Aristide out of office by any means is a power-grab by the same forces that staged a coup d'etat and forced him out of office in 1991. The opposition that claims to be peaceful is not peaceful and they are responsible for the violence in Gonaives and other parts of Haiti. Should these actions by Andre Apaid and his Committee of 184, thugs and violent protestors receive support or encouragement from the United States, thereby increasing the risk of a coup d'etat, there may well be a bloodbath on the streets of Haiti.” http://www.house.gov/lee/releases/04Feb11.htm Lee, 2/11/2004 News Article http://www.alternet.org/story.html?StoryID=17995 Alternet, 3/1/2004 News Article february_14,_2004_letter_from_us_rep._barbara_lee_to_colin_powell source “It has been clear to me for some time that the State Department has been trying to undermine President Aristide... I am convinced that this effort to force President Aristide out of office by any means is a power-grab by the same forces that staged a coup d'etat and forced him out of office in 1991. The opposition that claims to be peaceful is not peaceful and they are responsible for the violence in Gonaives and other parts of Haiti. Should these actions by Andre Apaid and his Committee of 184, thugs and violent protestors receive support or encouragement from the United States, thereby increasing the risk of a coup d'etat, there may well be a bloodbath on the streets of Haiti.” http://www.alternet.org/story.html?StoryID=17995 Alternet, 3/1/2004 News Article http://www.house.gov/lee/releases/04Feb11.htm Lee, 2/11/2004 News Article duplicate colin_powell activeparticipant barbara_lee activeparticipant haiti_foreignInvolvement February 18, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_600 1 false US Secretary of State Colin Powell states the US has “no enthusiasm” for sending troops to protect Haiti's government from the approaching rebel forces. hhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/3498443.stm BBC, 2/18/04 News Article colin_powell activeparticipant haiti_overthrow haiti_foreignInvolvement February 25, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_611 1 false French Foreign Minister Dominique de Villepin outlines a proposal he will submit to the UN on February 26, which calls for Aristide's resignation and recommends that an international security force be dispatched to Haiti to help stabilize the country. According to the minister, President Aristide “bears heavy responsibility for the current situation” and it is his responsibility “to accept the consequences while respecting the rule of law.” Villepin adds: “Everyone sees quite well that a new page must be opened in Haiti's history.” http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/haiti/2004/0226france.htm New York Times, 2/26/04 News Article Notably, a few months before, Aristide's government had called on France to pay some $21 billion in reparations to Haiti (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_596 ]]). http://www.lrb.co.uk/v26/n08/farm01_.html London Review of Books, 4/15/2004 News Article dominique_de_villepin activeparticipant haiti_overthrow haiti_foreignInvolvement February 28, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_693 1 false Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide informs Jamaican Prime Minister P J Patterson and Foreign Minister K D Knight that he does not plan to resign, despite demands from armed rebels who are quickly closing in on the capital. http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=5975&fcategory_desc=Haiti Associated Press 3/2/2004 News Article k_d_knight activeparticipant p_j_patterson activeparticipant haiti_overthrow February 28, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_694 1 false US Secretary of State Colin Powell calls former US Congressman Ron Dellums, who is working for Aristide as a Washington lobbyist, and warns him that the United States will not protect Aristide from the rebels. http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=5975&fcategory_desc=Haiti Associated Press 3/2/2004 News Article colin_powell activeparticipant ron_dellums activeparticipant haiti_overthrow haiti_foreignInvolvement February 28, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_604 1 false In the evening, Aristide family friend Randal Robinson calls Aristide's residence in Port-au-Prince. An unfamiliar voice answers the phone and says that both the president and his wife are busy and cannot take the call. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0301-05.htm Democracy Now! 3/1/2004 News Article mildred_aristide activeparticipant randal_robinson activeparticipant jean-bertrand_aristide activeparticipant haiti_overthrow Late February 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_601 1 false Guy Philippe tells the Miami Herald during an interview conducted in Cap Haitein, Haiti, that the man he admires most is former Chilean dictator Gen. Augusto Pinochet. “Pinochet made Chile what it is,” the 35-year-old rebel says. Philippe adds that US President Ronald Reagan is his next favorite. http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/news/world/haiti/8063565.htm Miami Herald, 2/28/04 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0302-02.htm One World, 3/2/2004 News Article http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/html/20040307T040000-0500_56739_OBS_GUY_PHILIPPE.asp Jamaican Observer, 3/7/2004 News Article ronald_reagan passiveparticipant augusto_pinochet passiveparticipant roger_francisco_noriega activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment haiti_overthrow February 28, 2004-March 1, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_605 1 false Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide is escorted on a US-charted jet to the Central African Republic. The details of this event are disputed. Aristide contacts US ambassador James Foley on the night of January 28 and asks him three questions: “What did he think would be best for Haiti? Would the United States guarantee his protection? And could he choose his destination for exile?” At 11pm, Ambassador Foley informs Aristide that the United States can ensure his safe departure if he decides to resign and adds that this is what the Bush administration feels he should do. http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=5985&fcategory_desc=Haiti Independent, 3/2/2004 News Article http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=5975&fcategory_desc=Haiti Associated Press 3/2/2004 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A24346-2004Mar2?language=printer Washington Post, 3/3/2004 News Article Aristide and his American wife decide that they will accept the American offer. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A24346-2004Mar2?language=printer Washington Post, 3/3/2004 News Article Later in the night, Foley attempts to email the president but Aristide's computer has already been packed. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A24346-2004Mar2?language=printer Washington Post, 3/3/2004 News Article Some time after midnight, Ambassador Foley telephones the US Embassy's second-ranking officer in Port-au-Prince, Luis Moreno, and asks that he escort Aristide and his wife to the airport. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A24346-2004Mar2?language=printer Washington Post, 3/3/2004 News Article Shortly after 4 am, US Diplomat Luis Moreno arrives at the gates of Aristide's residence in the suburb of Tabarre with a fellow US diplomat and six State Department security officers. Inside Aristide's house the lights are on. Aristide meets Moreno at the door with his suitcases packed. “You know why I'm here,” Moreno says in Spanish. “Yes, of course,” Aristide is quoted as saying in response. Moreno asks Aristide for a resignation letter and Aristide promises to give one to him before he leaves the island. “You have my word and you know my word is good,” Aristide is quoted as saying. They then travel to the airport in separate vehicles, without any further conversation. They arrive at the airport and about 20 minutes before the plane arrives, Moreno again asks for the letter. Aristide provides the letter and then the two converse for the next few minutes. “I expressed sadness that I was here to watch him leave,” Moreno later tells The Washington Post. “Sometimes life is like that,” Aristide responds. “Then I shook his hand and he went away.” http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A24346-2004Mar2?language=printer Washington Post, 3/3/2004 News Article http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml;jsessionid=CP1UVDJKI31LQCRBAEKSFFA?type=topNews&storyID=4474166&pageNumber=1 Reuters, 3/1/2004 News Article aristide_s_alleged_letter_of_resignation source A US-charted commercial plane arrives in Port-au-Prince at approximately 4:30am. http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=5975&fcategory_desc=Haiti Associated Press 3/2/2004 News Article aristide_s_alleged_letter_of_resignation source US authorities do not force Aristide onto the leased plane. He goes willingly. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3524273.stm BBC, 3/1/2004 News Article http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=5975&fcategory_desc=Under%20Reported Associated Press, 3/1/2004 News Article At 6:15am, the plane departs. http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/news/world/americas/8071818.htm Miami Herald, 2/29/2004 News Article “He was not kidnapped. We did not force him on to the airplane. He went onto the airplane willingly, and that's the truth,” Secretary of State Colin Powell claims. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3524273.stm BBC, 3/1/2004 News Article http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=5975&fcategory_desc=Under%20Reported Associated Press, 3/1/2004 News Article “The allegations that somehow we kidnapped former President Aristide are absolutely baseless, absurd.” http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/03/02/1078191302784.html?from=storyrhs Reuters, 3/2/2004 News Article US soldiers arrive at Aristide's residence and order the president not to use any phones and to come with them immediately. Aristide, his wife Mildred and his brother-in-law are taken at gunpoint to the airport. Aristide is warned by US diplomat Luis Moreno that if he does not leave Haiti, thousands of Haitians would likely die and rebel leader Guy Philippe would probably attack the palace and kill him. Moreover, the US warns Aristide that they are withdrawing his US-provided security. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0301-05.htm Democracy Now! 3/1/2004 News Article http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3524273.stm BBC, 3/1/2004 News Article http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=5975&fcategory_desc=Under%20Reported Associated Press, 3/1/2004 News Article Aristide composes and signs a letter explaining his departure. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0301-05.htm Democracy Now! 3/1/2004 News Article http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=5975&fcategory_desc=Under%20Reported Associated Press, 3/1/2004 News Article The president, his wife and his brother-in-law board a commercial jet charted by the US government. His own security forces are also taken and directed to a separate section of the plane. During the flight, Aristide and his wife remain in the company of soldiers. The shades on the windows of the plane are kept down. Soldiers tell him they are under orders not to tell him where he is going. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0301-05.htm Democracy Now! 3/1/2004 News Article The plane stops first in Antigua, where it stays on the ground for two hours, and then flies for six hours across the Atlantic to the Central African Republic. Aristide is unable to communicate with anyone on the ground during the entire 20-hour period he is on the plane because it is presumably not equipped with a telephone. Shortly before touchdown, Aristide is informed that the destination is the Central African Republic. Upon arrival, Aristide is escorted to the “Palace of the Renaissance,” where he makes one phone call to his mother in Florida and her brother. He is provided a room with a balcony, but is not permitted to move around, and he remains in the company of soldiers. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0301-05.htm Democracy Now! 3/1/2004 News Article http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=5975&fcategory_desc=Haiti Associated Press 3/2/2004 News Article His phone is taken away by African authorities and http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=6042&fcategory_desc=Haiti Miami Herald, 3/3/2004 News Article he is not provided a replacement or a landline. On the morning of March 1, he contacts US Congresswomen Maxine Waters and family friend Randall Robinson with a cell phone that is smuggled to him.(see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_607 ]]) http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0301-05.htm Democracy Now! 3/1/2004 News Article In an interview with CNN, he says he considers the events a “coup d'etat” and a “modern” version of kidnapping. http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=6007&fcategory_desc=Haiti Interpress Service, 3/2/2004 News Article According to Joseph Pierre, a concierge at Aristide's residence, whose account is reported in the French newspaper Lib�ration, Aristide is taken away early Sunday morning by US soldiers. “White Americans came by helicopter to get him. They also took his bodyguards. It was around two o'clock in the morning. He didn't want to leave. The American soldiers forced him to. Because they were pointing guns at him, he had to follow them. The Americans are second only to God in terms of strength.” http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=5985&fcategory_desc=Under%20Reported Independent, 3/2/2004 News Article “It is clear that the United States and France violated the UN charter as well as the 1973 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes Against Internationally Protected Persons, with respect to their criminal treatment of President Aristide.” http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0413-08.htm Inter Press Service, 4/13/2004 News Article commentary jean-bertrand_aristide activeparticipant randal_robinson activeparticipant mildred_aristide activeparticipant maxine_waters activeparticipant luis_moreno activeparticipant joseph_pierre activeparticipant roger_francisco_noriega activeparticipant colin_powell activeparticipant james_foley activeparticipant haiti_overthrow February 28, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_602 1 false Shortly before his ouster, Aristide contacts the US firm that provides his security, the San Francisco-based Steele Foundation, and asks for additional guards. The company—made up of former US Special Forces soldiers, intelligence officers and other security experts—has been providing Haiti with its security services since 1998. Haiti's contract with the firm is approved by the US State Department. But Aristide's last minute attempt to increase his security is blocked by the White House. According to news reports, the Steele Foundation asks the US embassy in Port-au-Prince if it can rely on American protection in the event that the rebels arrive at the presidential palace. The Steele Foundation is told that no such protection would be provided. The company had earlier helped repel attacks against the presidential palace from paramilitary groups in December 2001. http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=6072&fcategory_desc=Haiti Democracy Now! 3/2/2004 News Article http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=5975&fcategory_desc=Haiti Associated Press 3/2/2004 News Article http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/news/world/haiti/8074989.htm Miami Herald, 3/1/2004 News Article haiti_overthrow February 28, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_603 1 false US officials delay a small group of additional bodyguards from the Steele Foundation on their way to Haiti. http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=6072&fcategory_desc=Haiti Democracy Now! 3/2/2004 News Article haiti_overthrow February 29, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_612 1 false With the removal of Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Boniface Alexandre, chief justice of the Supreme Court, is sworn in as president at the home of Prime Minister Yvon Neptune, in conformance with Haiti's constitutional rite of succession. The ceremony is attended by US Ambassador James Foley. However without a parliament (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_597 ]]), his appointment cannot be approved as required by Haiti's 1987 Constitution. http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?sf=3&click_id=3&art_id=qw1078068780457B236&set_id=1 Reuters, 2/29/2004 News Article http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/news/world/americas/8074988.htm Associated Press, 3/1/2004 News Article http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/023004A.shtml New York Times, 3/1/2004 News Article boniface_alexandre activeparticipant james_foley activeparticipant jean-bertrand_aristide activeparticipant haiti_foreignInvolvement haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment February 29, 2004-April 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_736 1 false In the Haitian town of Petit Goave, “Ti Kenley” and his followers burn the homes of Aristide supporters, including the homes of the national congress deputy, local elected political and civic leaders, student leaders, and family members of Aristide supporters. The burned homes are later photographed by a National Lawyers Guild human rights delegation (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_729 ]]). http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article unnamed_witnesses_interviewed_by_a_national_lawyers_guild_human_rights_delegation source march_2004_national_lawyers_guild_human_rights_delegation_to_haiti activeparticipant ti_kenley activeparticipant edward_carlson activeparticipant judy_dacruz activeparticipant tom_griffin activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment February 29, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_739 1 false Haitian police abandon their posts in Le Cayes, Haiti, and flee approaching paramilitary rebel forces. 30-year-old “Ti Gary” steps in to fill the power vacuum, making himself the town's law enforcer. He will order at least 5 public extra-judiciary executions. http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article ti_gary activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment March 1, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_606 1 false US President George Bush announces that the US is sending US forces to Haiti to help stabilize the country. http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=5967&fcategory_desc=Haiti Reuters, 3/1/2004 News Article george_w._bush activeparticipant haiti_overthrow haiti_foreignInvolvement March 2004-May 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_727 1 false Throughout Haiti, supporters of former president Jean-Bertrand Aristide and leaders of popular organizations (“OPs”) are hunted down, arrested, and sometimes beaten and killed by the new government's police and by remnants of the paramilitary rebel forces. In order to avoid this persecution, many Aristide supporters go into hiding, either in Port-au-Prince, or in the mountains, taking their spouses and children with them. In many cases, their homes, left vacant, are burned to the ground by opposition forces. Leaders of popular organizations who seek asylum at the embassies of the United States, Mexico, Canada, France and Venezuela, are turned away. The multinational coalition's forces—consisting of some 3,600 US, Canadian, French and Chilean troops—reportedly limit their patrolling to Haiti's capital, Port-au-Prince, thus providing no security in other cities or the outlying areas. http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/html/20040328T020000-0500_57765_OBS_ARISTIDE_SUPPORTERS_TARGETED_BY_REPRISAL_KILLERS.asp The Jamaica Observer, 3/28/2004 News Article http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=04/04/12/1424200 Democracy Now! 4/12/2004 News Article http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article http://www.reformer.com/Stories/0,1413,102~8860~2118053,00.html Battleboro Reformer, 4/30/2004 News Article http://www.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/americas/04/09/brazil.haiti.ap/ CNN, 4/9/2004 News Article haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment March 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_1171 1 false The new Haitian government halts funding and other support to Haiti's popular organizations (“OPs”) which oversee literacy programs, food and shelter programs and orphanages. http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment haiti_economy March 1, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_607 1 false In the Central African Republic, Haitian President-in-exile Jean-Bertrand Aristide, uses a smuggled phone to contact US Congresswoman Maxine Waters and family friend Randall Robinson and “emphatically” denies that he had resigned (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_605 ]]). Robinson tells Democracy Now that he had an early morning phone conversation with Aristide. “He did not resign. He was abducted by the United States in the commission of a coup,” Randall tells Amy Goodman of Democracy Now. Maxine Waters speaks with the president at about 9am. “He's surrounded by military.” Waters will explain to Goodman. “It's like he is in jail, he said. He says he was kidnapped.” She provides an account of Aristide's exit that differs dramatically from the description of events that had been provided by the Bush administration the day before. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0301-05.htm Democracy Now! 3/1/2004 News Article Later in the day, Aristide is permitted access to the press. When read a copy of his resignation letter, Aristide claims it's a fraud.“That's not right. They took out the sentence where I said, ‘If I am obliged to leave in order to avoid bloodshed.’ They took that off the document. That's why they are lying to you by giving to you a false document,” Aristide says. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/storydisplay.cfm?storyID=3552451&thesection=news&thesubsection=world&thesecondsubsection= Reuters, 3/1/2004 News Article http://eri24.com/p_news4587.htm Reuters, 3/1/2004 News Article “He did not resign. He did not resign. He was kidnapped and all of the circumstances seem to support his assertion. Had he resigned, we wouldn't need blacked out windows and blocked communications and military taking him away at gunpoint. Had he resigned, he would have been happy to leave the country. He was not. He resisted. Emphatically not. He did not resign. He was abducted by the United States, a democratic, a democratically elected president, abducted by the United States in the commission of an American induced coup. This is a frightening thing to contemplate.” http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0301-05.htm Democracy Now! 3/1/2004 News Article statement jean-bertrand_aristide activeparticipant randal_robinson activeparticipant maxine_waters activeparticipant haiti_overthrow March 3, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_609 1 false Amnesty International releases a statement calling on the US-led force in Haiti to prevent the paramilitary leaders from taking power. The organization makes the following demands: http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR360142004?open&of=ENG-HTI Amnesty International, 3/3/2004 News Article “The MIF must take urgent steps to guarantee that notorious human rights offenders with pending sentences for human rights convictions, and those facing indictments on human rights grounds, are taken into custody and brought before the Haitian justice system. Escapees must be returned to prison; those perpetrators convicted in absentia have the opportunity for a retrial, under Haitian law, and should be held in custody until the retrial occurs.” http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR360142004?open&of=ENG-HTI Amnesty International, 3/3/2004 News Article “The MIF must take immediate steps to disarm the rebel groups, and armed pro-government gangs, to minimize the risks of ongoing human rights abuses.” http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR360142004?open&of=ENG-HTI Amnesty International, 3/3/2004 News Article “The international community must as a matter of priority ensure that under no circumstances are those convicted of or implicated in serious human rights abuses given any position of authority, whether in a transitional government or among the security forces, where they might commit further violations.” http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR360142004?open&of=ENG-HTI Amnesty International, 3/3/2004 News Article “The Multinational Interim Force (MIF) must take urgent steps to ensure that the safety of all police and justice officials, witnesses and human rights defenders involved in bringing the individuals named in this report to justice is guaranteed.” http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR360142004?open&of=ENG-HTI Amnesty International, 3/3/2004 News Article “The MIF must take steps to protect police and judicial records relating to past human rights abuses.” http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR360142004?open&of=ENG-HTI Amnesty International, 3/3/2004 News Article “No amnesty for past or recent human rights abuses can be permitted.” http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR360142004?open&of=ENG-HTI Amnesty International, 3/3/2004 News Article “In the longer term, the international community must assist the Haitian justice system so that it can bring to justice all of those accused of involvement in human rights violations.” http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR360142004?open&of=ENG-HTI Amnesty International, 3/3/2004 News Article haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment March 4, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_680 1 false A Tripartite Council is formed in accordance with Organization of American States resolutions CP/Res. 861 (February 19, 2004), CP/Res. 862 (February 26, 2004) and UN resolution S/1529 (February 29, 2004). Selected to serve on the council are Leslie Voltaire, Minister of Haitians Living Abroad; Paul Denis, Democratic Convergence spokesman; and Adamo Guino, UN Resident Coordinator in Haiti. The council is charged with the task of selecting a seven-member Council of Sages (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_680 ]]). http://www.haiti-info.com/imprimer.php3?id_article=1660 Haiti Info, 4/6/2004 News Article http://www.iidh.ed.cr/comunidades/ombudsnet/english/noticias_actualidad.aspx?Codigo=35 Inter-American Institute of Human Rights, 3/4/2004 News Article paul_denis activeparticipant adamo_guino activeparticipant leslie_voltaire activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment March 4, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_1170 1 false Haitian President Boniface Alexandre appoints Leon Charles, former commander of the Haitian Coast Guard, as Director General of the Haitian National Police. http://www.state.gov/p/wha/rls/30486.htm US State Department, 3/19/2004 News Article boniface_alexandre activeparticipant leon_charles activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment March 5, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_681 1 false A Tripartite Council (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_680 ]]) meets and selects a seven-member Council of Sages. It chooses Lamartine Clermont, Catholic Church; Ariel Henry, Democratic Convergence; Anne-Marie Issa, director-general of Signal FM Radio; Mac Donald Jean, Anglican Church; Danielle Magliore, director of ENFOFANM; Christian Rousseau, University administrator (previously involved in opposition student protests); and Paul Emile Simon, Fanmil Lavalas (party of Aristide government). http://www.haiti-info.com/imprimer.php3?id_article=1660 Haiti Info, 3/6/2004 News Article http://www.iidh.ed.cr/comunidades/ombudsnet/english/noticias_actualidad.aspx?Codigo=35 Inter-American Institute of Human Rights, 3/4/2003 News Article http://www.state.gov/p/wha/rls/30486.htm US State Department, 3/19/2004 News Article http://www.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf/0/ec651a1723dfa8b949256e1500187ad5?OpenDocument Agence-France Presse, 1/7/2004 News Article http://www.fire.or.cr/etaeng.htm Fire, 1999 News Article paul_emile_simon activeparticipant danielle_magliore activeparticipant ariel_henry activeparticipant mac_donald_jean activeparticipant anne-marie_issa activeparticipant christian_rousseau activeparticipant adamo_guino activeparticipant lamartine_clermont activeparticipant paul_denis activeparticipant leslie_voltaire activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment March 7, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_731 1 false The bodies of 800 Haitians are “dumped and buried” by the State Morgue in Port-au-Prince, which typically buries only about 100 bodies per month. The corpses are buried in a mass grave 200 miles north of the capital in Titanye. On March 28, the morgue buries another 200 bodies (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_732 ]]). Many of the “bodies ... had their hands tied behind their backs and had black bags over their heads, and had been shot.” This continues in April (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_733 ]]). http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=04/04/12/1424200 Democracy Now! 4/12/2004 News Article director_of_the_state_morgue_in_port-au-prince source haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment March 9, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_677 1 false Haitian Gerard Latortue is appointed Prime Minister by the seven-member Council of Sages formed under a plan approved by the United States, France and the Organization of American States (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_681 ]]). Latortue, whose current place of residence is Boca Raton, Florida, has been living outside of Haiti for decades. http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/afp_world/view/74884/1/.html Agence-France Presse, 3/11/2004 News Article http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_13-3-2004_pg4_11 Reuters, 3/13/2004 News Article http://www.nbc6.net/news/2914719/detail.html NBC News, 3/11/2004 News Article The 69-year-old former foreign minister has worked for the UN Industrial Development Organization in Africa (1972-1994) and most recently has been working as an international business consultant in Miami. http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/8145480.htm Associated Press, 3/10/2004 News Article http://www.nbc6.net/news/2914719/detail.html NBC News, 3/11/2004 News Article http://www.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf/0/f5896ddca0d8dc6049256e5c0025cd57?OpenDocument Haiti Support Group, 3/17/2004 News Article Hours after the appointment, US members of the international security force are fired upon by gunmen in three separate incidents while on patrol near the prime minister's official residence. http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/afp_world/view/74884/1/.html Agence-France Presse, 3/11/2004 News Article http://www.boston.com/news/world/articles/2004/03/11/new_leader_arrives_in_haiti/ Associated Press, 3/11/2004 News Article ariel_henry activeparticipant christian_rousseau activeparticipant danielle_magliore activeparticipant anne-marie_issa activeparticipant mac_donald_jean activeparticipant lamartine_clermont activeparticipant gerard_latortue activeparticipant paul_emile_simon activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment haiti_foreignInvolvement March 9, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_728 1 false Congresswoman Barbara Lee of the Congressional Black Caucus Haiti Task Force Co-Chair introduces the TRUTH (The Responsibility to Uncover the Truth about Haiti) Act, calling for an independent bipartisan commission to investigate the circumstances of the toppling of Jean-Bertrand Aristide's government. The bill, H.R. 3919, is co-sponsored by CBC Haiti Task Force Co-Chair John Conyers and 23 other members of the House. “The Bush administration's efforts in the overthrow of a democratically-elected government must be investigated,” says Lee. “All of the evidence brought forward thus far suggests that the Administration has, in essence, carried out a form of ‘regime change,’ a different variation than it took in Iraq, but still regime change. The American people and the international community deserve to know the truth, and this bill will offer the opportunity to investigate the long-term origins of the overthrow of the Haitian government and the impact of our failure to protect democracy.” The bill seeks to answer 6 specific questions. http://www.house.gov/lee/releases/04Mar09.htm Office of Barbara Lee, 3/9/2004 News Article h.r._3919 source “Did the US Government impede democracy and contribute to the overthrow of the Aristide government?” http://www.house.gov/lee/releases/04Mar09.htm Office of Barbara Lee, 3/9/2004 News Article “Under what circumstances did President Jean-Bertrand Aristide resign, and what was the role of the United States Government in bringing about his departure?” http://www.house.gov/lee/releases/04Mar09.htm Office of Barbara Lee, 3/9/2004 News Article “To what extent did the US impede efforts by the international community, particularly the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) countries, to prevent the overthrow of the democratically-elected Government of Haiti?” http://www.house.gov/lee/releases/04Mar09.htm Office of Barbara Lee, 3/9/2004 News Article “What was the role of the United States in influencing decisions regarding Haiti at the United Nations Security Council and in discussions between Haiti and other countries that were willing to assist in the preservation of the democratically-elected Government of Haiti by sending security forces to Haiti?” http://www.house.gov/lee/releases/04Mar09.htm Office of Barbara Lee, 3/9/2004 News Article “Was US assistance provided or were US personnel involved in supporting, directly or indirectly, the forces opposed to the government of President Aristide?” http://www.house.gov/lee/releases/04Mar09.htm Office of Barbara Lee, 3/9/2004 News Article “Was US bilateral assistance channeled through nongovernmental organizations that were directly or indirectly associated with political groups actively involved in fomenting hostilities or violence toward the government of President Aristide?” http://www.house.gov/lee/releases/04Mar09.htm Office of Barbara Lee, 3/9/2004 News Article “[T]he delegation found overwhelming evidence that the victims of the threats and violence have been supporters of the elected government of President Aristide and the Fanmi Lavalas party, elected and appointed officials in that government or party, or employees of the government, including police. Many are in hiding in the mountains or in Port-au-Prince, others have been beaten and or killed. Many of their homes have been selectively destroyed, mostly by arson.” http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article statement “Leaders of almost every popular organization (‘OPs’) [dozens of grassroots groups throughout the country that formed to work with the elected government to address basic community needs] have been threatened or killed.” http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article statement “The people that are in power say they are not involved in a witch-hunt, but it seems to me that is what they are participating in.” http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/html/20040328T020000-0500_57765_OBS_ARISTIDE_SUPPORTERS_TARGETED_BY_REPRISAL_KILLERS.asp The Jamaica Observer, 3/28/2004 News Article statement john_conyers activeparticipant barbara_lee activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment March 10, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_678 1 false Gerard Latortue is flown from Florida to Haiti after being appointed the day before as the country's new prime minister (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_677 ]]). He is sworn in on March 12 (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_682 ]]). http://www.boston.com/news/world/articles/2004/03/11/new_leader_arrives_in_haiti/ Associated Press, 3/11/2004 News Article http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/03/12/world/main606014.shtml CBS News, 3/11/2004 News Article gerard_latortue activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment March 12, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_682 1 false Gerard Latortue is sworn in as prime minister of Haiti “before a crowd of 200 people under heavy security,” two days after arriving in Haiti from Florida. http://www.news-leader.com/today/0313-Haitisnewl-38027.html Associated Press, 3/13/2004 News Article gerard_latortue activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment March 15, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_608 1 false Ousted Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide flies from the Central African Republic to Jamaica despite objections from the United States and the new government of Haiti. Haiti's new leadership then announces that it is temporarily suspending Haiti's membership in the Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM) and that Haiti's ambassador to Jamaica will be recalled. http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=6276&fcategory_desc=Haiti Guardian, 3/15/2004 News Article http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=6289&fcategory_desc=Haiti Xinhuanet, 3/15/2004 News Article caribbean_community_and_common_market_(caricom) passiveparticipant jean-bertrand_aristide activeparticipant haiti_overthrow (March 15, 2004) the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_737 1 false Guy Philippe orders 30-year-old anti-Aristide paramilitary leader, “Ti Gary,” to “go into the La Savanne neighborhood and kill Lavalas supporters.” When Ti Gary refuses, Philippe's deputy shoots him with a shotgun in the leg. http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article ti_gary source ti_gary activeparticipant guy_philippe activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment March 22, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_734 1 false Forty to sixty bodies are transported in trucks to a field near the Piste D'Aviation, bordering the Delmas 2 neighborhood of Port-au-Prince along a road to the airport. The following day the bodies will be relocated and burned (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_734 ]]). http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article unnamed_witnesses_interviewed_by_a_national_lawyers_guild_human_rights_delegation source haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment March 23, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_735 1 false Forty to sixty bodies are moved from the roadside near the Piste D'Aviation (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_734 ]]) to a remote field a quarter-mile away and burned. http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=04/04/12/1424200 Democracy Now! 4/12/2004 News Article unnamed_witnesses_interviewed_by_a_national_lawyers_guild_human_rights_delegation source A National Lawyers Guild human rights delegation (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_729 ]]) investigating the incident observes a “massive ash pile, and pigs eating flesh of human bones that had not burned at Piste D'Aviation.” The delegation photographs “fresh skulls and other human bones, some still tangled in clothes or with shoes and sneakers nearby.” The fuel for the fire had been transported in containers marked “Haitian currency.” http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article The photographs are later shown on the April 12 program of Democracy Now!. http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=04/04/12/1424200 Democracy Now! 4/12/2004 News Article “We found a massive pile of ashes?pigs eating human flesh off human bones that didn?t burn?the fuel for the fire was misprinted Haitian currency? We can only surmise?because of the timing of events?when Lavalas people are all in hiding?that it?s people [perpetrating these acts] that can move with impunity? We?re assuming that the victims were Lavalas supporters” http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=04/04/12/1424200 Democracy Now! 4/12/2004 News Article statement edward_carlson activeparticipant judy_dacruz activeparticipant march_2004_national_lawyers_guild_human_rights_delegation_to_haiti activeparticipant tom_griffin activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment March 25-26, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_675 1 false CARICOM members meet in Basseterre, St. Kitts and Nevis and call for a UN investigation into the February 29 ouster (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_605 ]]) of Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide's. “In the light of contradictory reports still in circulation concerning the departure of President Aristide from office, heads of government (of CARICOM) believed that it is in the compelling interest of the international community that the preceding events and all the circumstances surrounding the transfer of power from a constitutionally elected head of state, be fully investigated,” the statement reads. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0413-08.htm Inter Press Service, 4/13/2004 News Article http://www.caricom.org/archives/15inthgc-haitistatement.htm CARICOM, 3/26/2004 News Article US Secretary of State Colin Powell will dismiss CARICOM's call for a probe on April 5. “I don't think any purpose would be served by an inquiry. We were on the verge of a bloodbath and President Aristide found himself in great danger.” http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/31186.htm US Department of State, 4/5/2004 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0413-08.htm Inter Press Service, 4/13/2004 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0405-06.htm Agence-France Presse, 4/5/2004 News Article http://washingtontimes.com/world/20040406-124703-4585r.htm Washington Times, 4/6/2004 News Article And according to diplomatic sources interviewed by Inter Press Service, the US and France intimidate CARICOM into delaying its official request for a UN inquiry. Both countries warn that they will veto any resolution calling for a probe. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0413-08.htm Inter Press Service, 4/13/2004 News Article unnamed_sources source jean-bertrand_aristide passiveparticipant colin_powell activeparticipant caribbean_community_and_common_market_(caricom) passiveparticipant haiti_overthrow haiti_foreignInvolvement Late March 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_674 1 false US National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice demands that Jamaica expel Jean-Bertrand Aristide from the region, claiming that his presence in the Caribbean will increase tension in Haiti. She also threatens Jamaica, saying that if anything happens to US soldiers in Haiti, that Jamaica would be blamed and subjected to the full force of the US. http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=04/03/25/1537236 Democracy Now!, 4/25/2004 News Article jean-bertrand_aristide passiveparticipant condoleezza_rice activeparticipant haiti_overthrow haiti_foreignInvolvement March 28, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_732 1 false The bodies of 200 Haitians are dumped by the State Morgue in Port-au-Prince, which typically buries only about 100 bodies per month. On March 7, the morgue had buried some 800 bodies (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_731 ]]). Many of the “bodies ... had their hands tied behind their backs and had black bags over their heads, and had been shot.” This continues in April (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_733 ]]). http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=04/04/12/1424200 Democracy Now! 4/12/2004 News Article director_of_the_state_morgue_in_port-au-prince source haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment March 29, 2004-April 5, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_729 1 false A National Lawyers Guild Human Rights delegation, consisting of two lawyers and a journalist, travels to Haiti to investigate the various aspects of the human rights and security conditions in Port-au-Prince, Petit Goave, Gran Goave, Les Cayes, and Fond des Blancs, a remote village in the Southwest Department. After concluding its work, the delegation issues a preliminary report on April 11 which states: “[T]he delegation found overwhelming evidence that the victims of the threats and violence have been supporters of the elected government of President Aristide and the Fanmi Lavalas party, elected and appointed officials in that government or party, or employees of the government, including police. Many are in hiding in the mountains or in Port-au-Prince, others have been beaten and or killed. Many of their homes have been selectively destroyed, mostly by arson.” http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article “[T]he delegation found overwhelming evidence that the victims of the threats and violence have been supporters of the elected government of President Aristide and the Fanmi Lavalas party, elected and appointed officials in that government or party, or employees of the government, including police. Many are in hiding in the mountains or in Port-au-Prince, others have been beaten and or killed. Many of their homes have been selectively destroyed, mostly by arson.” http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article duplicate “Leaders of almost every popular organization (‘OPs’) [dozens of grassroots groups throughout the country that formed to work with the elected government to address basic community needs] have been threatened or killed.” http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article duplicate judy_dacruz activeparticipant march_2004_national_lawyers_guild_human_rights_delegation_to_haiti activeparticipant tom_griffin activeparticipant edward_carlson activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment April 1, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_673 1 false Haiti's new justice minister, Bernard Gousse, announces that Haiti will seek the extradition of former president Jean-Bertrand Aristide for alleged corruption and human rights abuses. Gousse also suggests that convicted murderer and known human rights violator, Louis-Jodel Chamblain, could be pardoned. Chamblain was convicted in 2000 in absentia and sentenced to life imprisonment for his involvement in the Raboteau Massacre (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_614 ]]). “We have to take into consideration that [Chamblain] helped get rid of two dictators in Haiti—[Jean-Claude] Duvalier and Aristide,” Gousse claims. http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/news/world/haiti/8335423.htm?1c Miami Herald, 4/2/2004 News Article http://www.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/americas/04/08/haiti.human.rights.ap/ CNN, 4/8/2004 News Article http://www.hrw.org/english/docs/2004/04/06/haiti8397.htm Human Rights Watch, 4/5/2004 News Article Human Rights Watch quickly condemns the suggestion. “The contrast between the Haitian government's eagerness to prosecute former Aristide officials and its indifference to the abusive record of certain rebel leaders could not be more stark,” says Joanne Mariner, deputy director of Americas Division for Human Rights Watch. http://www.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/americas/04/08/haiti.human.rights.ap/ CNN, 4/8/2004 News Article http://www.hrw.org/english/docs/2004/04/06/haiti8397.htm Human Rights Watch, 4/5/2004 News Article bernard_gousse activeparticipant joanne_mariner activeparticipant louis-jodel_chamblain activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment Early April 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_733 1 false Bodies of dead Haitians continue (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_731 ]]) (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_732 ]]) to arrive at the State Morgue in Port-au-Prince with their “hands tied behind their backs and bags over their heads.” http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article unnamed_employees_at_the_state_morgue_in_port-au-prince source haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment Early April 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_740 1 false A National Lawyers Guild human rights delegation visits the offices of two Haitian “human rights” organizations, Comite des Avocats pour le Respect des Libertes Individuelles (CARLI) and National Committee for Haitian Rights (NCHR). During the visits, the delegation's members become convinced that the two organizations are working with the opposition. http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article In the case of CARLI—which publishes lists of alleged human rights organizations, which it disperses to the public, the police, other government agencies, USAID, and the US Embassy—there are several factors which cause suspicion among the delegation's members: http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article Though the group insists that it thoroughly investigates “each of the 60 to 100 monthly calls and verifies all information beyond a reasonable doubt before publicly condemning a person by naming him/her,” CARLI “has no full time staff” —only two volunteer lawyers. http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article “Hotline” forms completed by the group include terms like “a supporter of the dictator Aristide.” http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article The delegation finds “no evidence that CARLI conducts any investigation before condemning the named person.” http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article “The person ‘condemned’ to the list is never contacted to answer to the allegations.” http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article The lists have contained only Lavalas supporters. http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article The leaflets dispersed to the public are written only in French, which is spoken and understood mainly by the educated elite. Most Haitians speak Creole. http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article CARLI has never investigated cases involving Lavalas victims. http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article “CARLI was asked if it would consider ceasing the publication of the ‘list’ because it was forcing innocent people into hiding and to fear for their lives, preventing people from returning to their jobs and schools,and, as a non-judicial forum, was creating the possibility of a extra-judicial execution squads, and non-judicial arrest warrants. CARLI refused.” http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article The well-funded NCHR claims to represent victims of human rights abuses, regardless of their political affiliation. But the organization demonstrates an obvious bias in favor of the opposition. http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article The NCHR cannot name even one incident where a Lavalas supporter was a victim of a human rights abuse. http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article “NCHR took the delegation into a large meeting room where the wall was adorned with a large ‘wanted’ poster featuring Aristide and his cabinet, in small photos, across the top. It named Aristide a ‘dictator’ guilty of human rights abuses. Among a long list of other charges, it condemned him for the murder of John Dominique and included a large photo of Dominique's dead body. The poster calls for the arrest and imprisonment of Aristide and his associates.” http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article “The Delegation suggested that NCHR's neutrality and inclusiveness might be better expressed with additional posters condemning, for example, FRAPH, Jodel Chamblain, Jean ‘Tatoune’ Baptiste, Ti Kenley, etc. While the Director and the staff acknowledged the existence of all of those named, they laughed at the suggestion of adding other wanted posters to the office.” http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article Many of the newsletters, “open letters,” and advisories that were in the NCHR waiting room refer to Aristide as a “dictator.” None of the literature addresses abuses against supporters of Aristide. http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article “NCHR was asked if they would investigate the 1000 bodies dumped and buried by the morgue during the last few weeks at Titanye (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_731 ]]) (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_732 ]]), and the alleged malfunctioning of the refrigeration at the morgue. The director and his staff denied ever knowing about these events, laughed, and said none of it was true.” http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article “NCHR was asked if it would investigate the dumped bodies at Piste D'Aviation (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_734 ]]) (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_735 ]]). The director and his staff laughed and denied that it was true. The Delegation then showed NCHR the photographs we had taken of the ashes and fresh human skeletons. In response, the NCHR director told us that the General Hospital routinely dumps bodies at the Piste D'Aviation.” http://www.nlg.org/programs/international/Haiti_delegation_report1.pdf National Lawyers Guild, 4/11/2004 News Article tom_griffin activeparticipant march_2004_national_lawyers_guild_human_rights_delegation_to_haiti activeparticipant edward_carlson activeparticipant comite_des_avocats_pour_le_respect_des_libertes_individuelles_(carli) activeparticipant national_committee_for_haitian_rights_(nchr) activeparticipant usaid activeparticipant judy_dacruz activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment April 5, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_676 1 false The United States announces that it will send a seven-member advisory group to Haiti. One member of the team will assist Haiti's new minister of interior with planning as well as coordination with the United Nations, the Organization of American States (OAS) and Haiti's donors. Two advisors will work with the local police to vet its personnel and assist with “strategic planning, management, and command and control issues.” Two more advisors will help Haiti work on other issues related to internal security, one helping the new government restart its police academy, while the other will contribute in the area of local prison administration. The sixth member of the team will work with the courts and ministry of justice. The role of the last advisor will be to coordinate the activities of all the team's members. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2004/31148.htm US Department of State, 4/5/2004 News Article http://washingtontimes.com/upi-breaking/20040405-061619-6848r.htm United Press International, 4/6/2004 News Article haiti_foreignInvolvement haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment April 14, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_1172 1 false In a speech to the American Enterprise Institute, Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs Roger F. Noriega speaks about Haiti. On the issue of democracy, he says that under Aristide the people of Haiti had “lost their democracy,” explaining, “Leaders can undermine a republic and their own legitimacy by their actions and that is how a people can lose their democracy.” He contends that Aristide had willfully refused to “give any quarter to or compromise with political adversaries.” http://www.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf/0/7ed7186e73a70acec1256e77004a302a?OpenDocument US State Department, 4/14/2004 News Article In the section of his speech titled, “Principles of US Engagement in Haiti,” Noriega says the US will help Haiti adopt neoliberal reforms: “We will provide technical and legal aid to update Haiti's Commercial Code, which dates from the 19th century, in order to help create the right environment for growth and wealth creation. We will also encourage the Government of Haiti to move forward, at the appropriate time, with restructuring and privatization of some public sector enterprises through a transparent process.” http://www.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf/0/7ed7186e73a70acec1256e77004a302a?OpenDocument US State Department, 4/14/2004 News Article american_enterprise_institute passiveparticipant roger_francisco_noriega activeparticipant haiti_economy haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment haiti_foreignInvolvement April 18, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_691 1 false Haitian Prime Minister Gerard Latortue drops a demand that former president Jean-Bertrand Aristide had made to France—that the country's former colonizer pay reparations to Haiti in the amount of $21 billion (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_596 ]]). “This claim was illegal, ridiculous and was made only for political reasons,” Prime Minister Gerard Latortue claims, adding that Haiti wants to have good relations with France. “This matter is closed. What we need now is increased cooperation with France that could help us build roads, hospitals, schools and other infrastructure.” France, significantly, had called for Aristide's resignation before his ouster (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_611 ]]), leading many to speculate that its involvement in the intervention had been motivated by its interest in ending the reparations demand. During a visit earlier in the month, Defense Minister Michele Alliot-Marie denied this allegation, saying that French involvement had been motivated solely by a desire to help Haiti. http://news.findlaw.com/international/s/20040419/haitifrancedc.html Reuters, 4/18/2004 News Article michele_alliot-marie activeparticipant gerard_latortue activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment haiti_foreignInvolvement April 18-24, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_730 1 false The Ecumenical Program on Central America and the Caribbean (EPICA) sponsors a fact-finding trip to Haiti to investigate human rights conditions under the new government. Palmer Legare, a member of a Vermont citizens' lobby group who participates in the investigation, tells a local newspaper upon returning from Haiti: “It's very clear that members and supporters of Aristide's party are being targeted. They're being arrested, they're being beaten, they're being killed.” Legar recounts one particularly violent incident during which a boy was shot in the back by troops after running away from them out of fear. “He almost died because [the troops] closed the streets and he couldn't get to a hospital,” Legare explains. http://www.reformer.com/Stories/0,1413,102~8860~2118053,00.html Brattleboro Reformer, 4/30/2004 News Article haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment April 24, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_695 1 false Convicted murderer and rebel leader Louis-Jodel Chamblain (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_551 ]]) (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_614 ]]) surrenders to Haitian authorities. Chamberlain—in tears—says before his surrender, “The Haitian people will see if justice is for real, if we are on a new route for Haitian justice.” Since he had been convicted in abstentia, he will be retried for his crimes as allowed under the Haitian constitution. http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/news/8495340.htm Miami Herald, 4/24/2004 News Article “...under the current circumstances, any case against [Chamblain] will be a travesty. First, the victims are in hiding because his allies have been terrorizing them. Second, the de facto Justice Minister publicly said earlier this week that Chamblain has nothing to hide, which makes it clear that the Justice Minister intends to do a whitewash. Third, the judge in the Raboto case was beaten up by Chamblain's people on March 30, so obviously you're not going to have a judge that will follow the case seriously. And finally, the house of the Raboto trial's lead prosecutor was burned down in February. So it's unlikely that you're going to have a zealous prosecutor take this case.” http://www.zmag.org/content/showarticle.cfm?SectionID=55&ItemID=5467 Zmag, 5/5/2004 News Article commentary louis-jodel_chamblain activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment Late April 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_1173 1 false In Haiti, the Lavalas party holds a conference and agrees not to select a member for the provisional electoral council, citing widespread human rights violations against its members. The party agrees that it will not select a representative until interim Prime Minister Gerard Latortue signs an agreement stating that his government will protect Lavalas members, halt illegal arrests and disarm paramilitary rebels and thugs. “After the brutal interruption of the democratic process in Haiti, the Lavalas Family party cannot name a representative under such conditions,” Jonas Petit, a spokesman for Lavalas explains. “We won't do so until the government puts an end to the killing, persecutions, illegal arrests, and destruction of personal property of our members and supporters.” Latortue, though saying he agrees in principle to the request, says he will not sign any agreement until Lavalas has selected a representative for the council. http://www.zmag.org/content/showarticle.cfm?SectionID=55&ItemID=5467 Zmag, 5/5/2004 News Article http://edition.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/americas/05/04/haiti.electoral.ap/ CNN, 5/4/2004 News Article http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/N03641715.htm Reuters, 5/3/2004 News Article jonas_petit activeparticipant gerard_latortue activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment April 29, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_726 1 false In an interview with the Miami Herald, Haitian rebel Guy Philippe says that his paramilitary group, the Front de Resistance, would soon be laying down its arms and founding a new political party, the Front de Reconstrucion Nationale. He adds that he will consider running as the party's candidate for president. “We have to do a poll and see who has the advantage,” he explains. “If the poll says I am the person, I will be the person.” If elected president, Philippe says his first priority would be reestablishing the Haitian national army. “This would be a professional army, not the one we had,” he says, reasoning that “[y]ou can't have foreigners invest without security.” Next on his agenda, Philippe continues, would be “education, education, education.” And unlike Aristide, whose policies often conflicted with the interests of Haiti's wealthy elite— “who have maintained a stark class system in Haiti for 200 years” —Philippe's policies would avoid antagonizing them. “They have a key role in this country,” he explains. Philippe claims that he and other rebels, whom human rights groups have demanded be excluded from politics in post-Aristide Haiti (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_609 ]]), are being misrepresented. For example, he contends that Louis-Jodel Chamblain, who was convicted in absentia for his involvement in the Raboteau Massacre (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_614 ]]), is in fact a hero. “I'm sorry, but Chamblain is a hero. A lot of people love him here. He offered his life for his countrymen.” An unnamed US official tells the Miami Herald, “It's a very scary thought. It's all the same guys. Talk about taking one step forward and two steps back.” http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/news/8555916.htm Miami Herald, 4/30/2004 News Article louis-jodel_chamblain passiveparticipant guy_philippe activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment May 4, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_1175 1 false In Haiti, a panel of judges swears in the new eight-member provisional electoral council. A ninth seat, meant for the Lavalas party, is left vacant because the party has so far refused to appoint a representative, citing widespread violence against its members (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_1173 ]]). http://edition.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/americas/05/04/haiti.electoral.ap/ CNN, 5/4/2004 News Article haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment May 4, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_1174 1 false In Haiti, a panel of judges swears in the new eight-member provisional electoral council. A ninth seat, meant for the Lavalas party, is left vacant because the party has so far refused to appoint a representative, citing widespread violence against its members (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_1173 ]]). http://edition.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/americas/05/04/haiti.electoral.ap/ CNN, 5/4/2004 News Article haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment May 6, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_1177 1 false At an OAS meeting in Washington, Haitian interim Prime Minister Gerard LaTortue appeals for reconciliation with the governments of other Caribbean states. “Haiti is a member of CARICOM and proposes to continue being a member,” LaTortue says. “In this key moment of its history, my country needs all of you. May the misunderstandings be left behind.” http://newsobserver.com/24hour/world/story/1350506p-8546580c.html Associated Press, 5/6/2004 News Article http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/World/2004/05/06/449710-ap.html Associated Press, 5/6/2004 News Article The new government of Haiti had previously announced its temporary withdrawal from CARICOM because of the organization's refusal to recognize the new interim government (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_608 ]]). caribbean_community_and_common_market_(caricom) passiveparticipant organization_of_american_states_(oas) activeparticipant gerard_latortue activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment May 6, 2004 the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_1176 1 false Trinidad Foreign Affairs Minister Knowlson Gift announces that the Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM) has requested that the Organization of American States (OAS) investigate the February 29 removal (see [[ the_2004_removal_of_jean-bertrand_aristide_605 ]]) of Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. http://newsobserver.com/24hour/world/story/1350506p-8546580c.html Associated Press, 5/6/2004 News Article http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/World/2004/05/06/449710-ap.html Associated Press, 5/6/2004 News Article caribbean_community_and_common_market_(caricom) activeparticipant knowlson_gift activeparticipant organization_of_american_states_(oas) activeparticipant haiti_oppositionThruNewGovernment