Nicaragua Nicaragua nicaragua us_interventions_project 1979 nicaragua-1 false 1 ------ The corrupt, repressive, US-backed dictatorship of Anastasio Somoza Debayle is overthrown and is succeeded by the Sandinistas. The Sandinistas will implement reforms that significantly improve social conditions. For instance, the literacy rate will improve from 25% to 80%, student enrollment will more than double by 1984, the number of school teachers will more than quadruple, and the percentage of people with access to health services will dramatically increase. [[ http://www.mediamonitors.net/mosaddeq13.html | Media Monitors, 9/24/2001 ]] [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0195083768 | Woodward, 1985 ]] [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0394621433 | Rosset and Vendermeer, 1986 ]] [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0618318534 | Keen, 1992 ]] ------ An Oxfam report entitled, The Threat of a Good Example, on the Sandinistas will conclude in 1985: “In Oxfam's experience of working in seventy-six developing countries, Nicaragua was to prove exceptional in the strength of that government commitment [of meeting the basic needs of the poor majority].” This should be contrasted with Nicaragua's neighbors at the time ([[ guatemala | Guatemala ]] and [[ el_salvador | El Salvador ]]). which has “military dictatorships responsible for the sheer institutionalization of state terror, installed and propped up by the US,” the report notes. “Tens of thousands of civilians were regularly slaughtered by government death squads trained and armed by the CIA. The vast majority of the populations were impoverished.” (( Nicaragua: the threat of a good example? )) [[ http://www.mediamonitors.net/mosaddeq13.html | Media Monitors, 9/24/2001 ]] [[ http://www.understandingpower.com/Chapter2.htm | Mitchell and Schoeffel. eds. 2002. ]] ====== ((+ Anastasio Somoza Debayle )) 1983 nicaragua-2 false 1 ------ The CIA responds to the Sandinista revolution, under US President Ronald Reagan, by creating a paramilitary force to “stop the flow of military supplies from Nicaragua to [[ el_salvador | El Salvador ]],” despite little evidence of this actually occurring. During the '80s the force mounts raids on Nicaragua, attacking schools and medical clinics, raping, kidnapping, torturing, committing massacres, and mining harbors. By the late '80s, the paramilitary force grows to around 50,000. [[ http://www.cpa.org.au/garchve2/1010wars.html | The Guardian, 7/26/2000 ]] [[ http://www.mediamonitors.net/mosaddeq13.html | Media Monitors, 9/24/2001 ]] [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0394621433 | Rosset and Vendermeer, 1986 ]] [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0618318534 | Keen, 1992 ]] ====== ((- Ronald Reagan )) 1984 nicaragua-3 false 1 ------ US President Ronald Reagan publicly claims to end aid to the Contras in accordance with a congressional ban. However his administration continues the support, leading to the Iran-Contra scandal. [[ http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2001/reagan.years/whitehouse/iran.html | CNN, 2001 ]] [[ http://www.cpa.org.au/garchve2/1010wars.html | The Guardian, 7/26/2000 ]] [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0618318534 | Keen, 1992 ]] [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0394621433 | Rosset and Vendermeer, 1986 ]] ====== ((+ Ronald Reagan )) 1984 nicaragua-4 false 1 ------ Elections are held in Nicaragua and the Sandinistas win with 67% of the vote. International observer teams comment that they are the fairest elections to have been held in Latin America in many years. [[ http://www.mediamonitors.net/mosaddeq13.html | Media Monitors, 9/24/2001 ]] [[ http://www.owlnet.rice.edu/~poli354/Nicaragua/980525_Nicaragua_Ortega.html | Los Angeles Times, 5/25/1998 ]] [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0618318534 | Keen, 1992 ]] [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0394621433 | Rosset and Vendermeer, 1986 ]] ====== 1984 nicaragua-5 false 1 ------ The Associated Press discloses a 90-page CIA-produced training manual called “Psychological Operations in Guerrilla Warfare” giving advice for the contras on political assassinations, blackmailing, mob violence, kidnappings and blowing up public buildings, and calling for “implicit terror.” (( Psychological Operations in Guerilla Warfare )) [[ http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/18/documents/cia.ops/ | CNN, n.d. ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/18/documents/cia.contra/index.html | CNN, n.d. ]] [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0618318534 | Keen, 1992 ]] [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0394621433 | Rosset and Vendermeer, 1986 ]] ====== June 1986 nicaragua_world_court false 1 ------ Nicaragua appeals to the World Court in The Hague to end US efforts to destabilize its government. The court rules in its favor, ordering America to end its interventionist policy in Nicaragua and to pay massive reparations. America ignores the World Court's ruling, not paying a cent and instead escalates the war. [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0618318534 | Keen, 1992 ]] [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0394621433 | Rosset and Vendermeer, 1986, pg 289-293 ]] ====== 1987 nicaragua-7 false 1 ------ The International Court of Justice (ICJ) decides on the amount owed by the US to Nicaragua—$17 billion. The US continues to ignore the ruling. [[ http://www.counterpunch.org/jones0913.html | Counterpunch, 9/13/2002 ]] [[ http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/countryfacts/nicaragua.html | Tiscali Encyclopedia, n.d. ]] ====== 1987 nicaragua-8 false 1 ------ The UN General Assembly calls on the US to comply with the International Court of Justice's (ICJ) judgment that the US pay Nicaragua $17 billion in reparations. The US continues to ignore the ruling. The UN will repeat its demand the following year. (( UN General Assembly Resolution 43/11 )) (( UN General Assembly Resolution 42/18 )) ====== 1988 nicaragua-9 false 1 ------ US President Ronald Reagan announces that he will no longer seek military aid for the Contras. [[ http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/countryfacts/nicaragua.html | Tiscali Encyclopedia, n.d. ]] ====== ((+ Ronald Reagan )) 1990 nicaragua-10 false 1 ------ Elections are held in Nicaragua, and the Sandinistas lose to US-backed Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, after the US spends $9 million on her election campaign including bribing Nicaraguans to vote for her. [[ http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0019831.html | Tiscali Encyclopedia, n.d. ]] [[ http://www.owlnet.rice.edu/~poli354/Nicaragua/961020_Nicaragua_rebel.html | Boston Globe, 10/20/1996 ]] [[ http://www.wakeupmag.co.uk/articles/cia5.htm | Wake-Up Magazine, n.d. ]] ====== ((+ Violeta Barrios de Chamorro )) 1997 nicaragua-11 false 1 ------ Nicaragua is crippled by the highest per capita debt in the world. If the US were simply to honor the World Court ruling, the debt would be paid off three-fold. [[ http://www.oxfam.org.uk/what_we_do/issues/debt_aid/debt_nicaragua.htm | Oxfam, n.d. ]] ======