Libya Libya A look at how Libya, a member of Bush's extended 'axis of evil' was prodded into its current rogue status in part through [[ israel_libyan_airliner | terrorism ]] and [[ mossad_libya | misinformation ]] by Israel, and also the hyprocisy of the US stance in imposing sanctions in response to the Lockerbie bombing despite very shaky evidence, and after having performed a [[ us_libya_bombing | similar act ]] against Libya only two years prior to the bombing. libya us_interventions_project 1969 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@509e9f_1 false 1 ------ Colonel Qaddafi leads a successful military coup against the pro-Western monarchy and takes power. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/country_profiles/819291.stm Washington | BBC, n.d. ]] [[ http://www.washington-report.org/backissues/1099/9910022.html | Report on Middle East Affairs, 10/99 ]] ------ Qaddafi pursues a pan-Arab agenda by attempting to form mergers with several Arab countries, and introduces state socialism by nationalising most economic activity, including the oil industry. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/country_profiles/1398437.stm | BBC, n.d. ]] ====== February 1973 israel_libyan_airliner false 1 ------ 111 passengers and crewmembers are killed in the crash of a Libyan commercial airliner downed by Israeli guns as it descends, slightly off course during a dust storm, over Israeli-occupied Egyptian Sinai for a routine landing at Cairo International Airport. [[ http://www.washington-report.org/backissues/1099/9910022.html | Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, 10/1999 ]] ====== February 1986 mossad_libya false 1 ------ According to an ex-Mossad agent, the Mossad (the Israeli secret service) Israel plants a communications device called 'the Trojan' in the top floor of an apartment house in Tripoli, Libya. The device can receive messages broadcast by Mossad, Israel's foreign intelligence service, on one frequency and automatically relay them on a different frequency used by the Libyan government. [[ http://www.wrmea.com/archives/december01/0112017.html | Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, 12/01 ]] ------ The Trojan broadcasts a series of fraudulent terrorist orders to various Libyan embassies. Spanish and French intelligence pick up the broadcasts and conclude they are fake. The United States, encouraged by its 'ally' Israel - which knows the broadcasts are Mossad disinformation - concludes that they are genuine. [[ http://www.wrmea.com/archives/december01/0112017.html Washington | Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, 12/2001 ]] [[ http://www.washington-report.org/backissues/0495/9504058.htm | Report on Middle East Affairs, 4/1995 ]] ====== April 1986 us_libya_bombing false 1 ------ Only a few weeks after the Trojan broadcasts began, the La Belle Discotheque in West Berlin is bombed, killing two American soldiers and a Turkish woman. Assuming (based on the Trojan broadcasts) that Libya had bombed La Belle, a club frequented by US soldiers, President Ronald Reagan sends planes from England and from US aircraft carriers in the Mediterranean to bomb the Libyan cities of Tripoli and Benghazi. More than 100 Libyans are killed, including Qaddafi's adopted young daughter. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/country_profiles/1398437.stm Washington | BBC, n.d. ]] [[ http://www.wrmea.com/archives/december01/0112017.html Washington | Report on Middle East Affairs, 12/2001 ]] [[ http://www.washington-report.org/backissues/0495/9504058.htm | Report on Middle East Affairs, 4/1995 ]] ------ France and Germany later conclude that the bomb in La Belle had been the work of local Iranian militants. [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Lockerbie/Story/0,2763,740115,00.html | The Guardian, 4/17/1999 ]] ====== July 1988 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@509e9f_9 false 1 ------ The US frigate Vincennes shoots down an Iran Air airliner on a routine flight to Saudi Arabia, killing everyone on board. After hesitating to even apologize for the mistake, the US eventually pays compensation for the loss of life, albeit at the minimum rates required by international law, and gives the Vincennes' captian two decorations. [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Lockerbie/Story/0,2763,740115,00.html | The Guardian, 4/17/1999 ]] ====== December 21, 1988 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@509e9f_10 false 1 ------ 38 minutes after takeoff, Pan Am Airways Flight 103 explodes over Lockerbie, Scotland, killing all 269 passengers, most of them Americans, and 11 people on the ground. [[ http://www.americanradioworks.org/features/lockerbie/story/aviv_frameset.html Washington | American Radio Networks, n.d. ]] [[ http://www.wrmea.com/archives/december01/0112017.html | Report on Middle East Affairs, 12/2001 ]] ====== December 22, 1988 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@509e9f_11 false 1 ------ The US intercepts a radio message from Tripoli (where the trojan was installed) to a Libyan government office in Berlin, saying in effect, 'mission accomplished', heightening US suspicians that Libya is responsible and drawing attention away from the initial suspect - [[ iranian | Iran ]]. [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Lockerbie/Story/0,2763,740115,00.html American | The Guardian, 4/17/1999 ]] [[ http://www.americanradioworks.org/features/lockerbie/story/chap_nav5.html American | Radio Networks, n.d. ]] [[ http://www.americanradioworks.org/features/lockerbie/resources/pdf/me_report.pdf | Radio Networks, n.d. ]] ====== 1989 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@509e9f_12 false 1 ------ Pan Am's insurers, anticipating lawsuits from victims' families, carry out their own investigation, concluding that the bomb was placed in Frankfurt (from where the plane took off, and not in Valletta as the official story goes), and was done by a Palestinian resistance movement targeting the US Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA). [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Lockerbie/Story/0,2763,740115,00.html American | The Guardian, 4/17/1999 ]] [[ http://www.americanradioworks.org/features/lockerbie/resources/story_aviv.html BBC, | Radio Networks, n.d. ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/1111384.stm | 1/11/2001 ]] ------ The actual report is available here. It is written by a former Mossad agent, and tells a much more interesting tale than the official story. It notes a number of warnings given prior to the bombing, i.e. '<i>About three weeks prior to the disaster, a Mossad agent ... tipped his HQ that a major terrorist attack would take place at Frankfurt airport against a US airline. Mossad HQ warned CIA HQ and BKA (German Federal Police Agency) HQ</i>', '<i>two days before the disaster a BKA undercover agent reported to his superiors a plan to bomb a PanAm flight in the next few days. BKA passed the intelligence to the CIA</i>', and '<i>An undercover Mossad agent tipped BKA within 24 hours before takeoff as to the plan to place a bomb on that very PanAm flight</i>'. [[ http://www.americanradioworks.org/features/lockerbie/resources/pdf/interfor_report.pdf American | American Radio Networks, n.d. ]] [[ http://www.americanradioworks.org/features/lockerbie/resources/documents.html The | Radio Networks, n.d. ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Lockerbie/3_Col_Story/0,2763,206620,00.html | Guardian, 4/7/1999 ]] ------ A warning posted at the US embassy in Moscow a week prior to the attack is also available online. [[ http://www.americanradioworks.org/features/lockerbie/resources/pdf/warning_2.pdf American | American Radio Networks, n.d. ]] [[ http://www.americanradioworks.org/features/lockerbie/resources/pdf/warning_1.pdf American | Radio Networks, n.d. ]] [[ http://www.americanradioworks.org/features/lockerbie/resources/documents.html | Radio Networks, n.d. ]] ------ Also exposed in the report is a drug-smuggling operation which appears to have had something to do with the bombing. A number of US intelligence operatives were killed in the bombing. The report suggests they were planning to expose the drug-smuggling operation and thus were killed (i.e. <a href="http://www.radio4all.org/pfp/panam103.html">Time reported</a> that Charles McKee (an Army Major aboard the aircraft) had discovered that a rogue CIA team in Frankfurt, called COREA, was protecting the drug route). The report claims the DEA (Drug Enforcement Agency), CIA, and BKA were all involved in the smuggling. [[ http://www.americanradioworks.org/features/lockerbie/story/story_frame13.html American | American Radio Networks, n.d. ]] [[ http://www.americanradioworks.org/features/lockerbie/resources/documents.html BBC, | Radio Networks, n.d. ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/493242.stm | 1/11/2001, ]] ------ A NBC News report confirms this idea, reporting that Pan Am flights out of Frankfurt had been used by the DEA to fly informants and heroin into Detroit as part of a sting operation, and that it was investigating whether the terrorists might have discovered what the DEA was doing and switched one of their (drug) bags with one containing the bomb. This is in fact exactly what the Interfor report claims did happen - '<i>a BKA surveillance agent watching that PanAm flight's loading noticed that the "drug" suitcase substituted was different in make, shape, material and colour from that used for all previous drug shipments</i>'. [[ http://www.americanradioworks.org/features/lockerbie/story/story_frame13.html American | American Radio Networks, n.d. ]] [[ http://www.americanradioworks.org/features/lockerbie/resources/documents.html | Radio Networks, n.d. ]] ------ Other sources confirm the drug-smuggling aspect, including a senior source responsible for overseeing the Lockerbie investigation for the German government, and a farmer who found a suitcase full of cellophane packets containing white powder among the debris in his fields. [[ http://www.americanradioworks.org/features/lockerbie/story/story_frame13.html The | American Radio Networks, n.d. ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Lockerbie/3_Col_Story/0,2763,206620,00.html | Guardian, 4/7/1999 ]] ------ The London Times quotes an ex-DIA agent, Mr Coleman, as saying that the DEA, together with the narcotics squad of the Cypriot national police, the German BKA police and British customs, ran a 'drugs sting operation' through Cyprus and airports in Europe including Frankfurt. He was told that BKA had 'serious concerns' that a US drugs sting operation out of Cyprus had been used by terrorists to place the bomb on flight 103, by switching bags. [[ http://www.welfarestate.com/panam103/times.htm Goddard, | London Times, 7/22/1991 ]] [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/074751562X/forgottenhist-20 | Donald and Lester K. Coleman. 1993. Trail of the Octopus: From Beirut to Lockerbie - Inside the DIA. Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. ]] ------ Since the publication of the Interfor report, the US Government has gone to great lengths in failed attempts to discredit the writer. The DEA has also denied the existance of any drug-smuggling route involving the Pan Am flight. [[ http://www.americanradioworks.org/features/lockerbie/resources/story_aviv.html American | American Radio Networks, n.d. ]] [[ http://www.americanradioworks.org/features/lockerbie/resources/pdf/atty_letter.pdf | Radio Networks, n.d. ]] ====== 1992 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@509e9f_20 false 1 ------ The UN imposes sanctions on Libya in an effort to force it to hand over for trial in the UK or the US two of its citizens who are suspected of involvement in the Pan-Am bombing. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/country_profiles/1398437.stm BBC, | BBC, n.d. ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/1148057.stm | 2/1/2001 ]] ------ Libya was prepared to hand the suspects over for trial in Malta (where the alleged crime took place), but not Scotland or the UK. [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Lockerbie/Story/0,2763,740115,00.html | The Guardian, 4/17/1999 ]] ====== 1999 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@509e9f_22 false 1 ------ The suspects are finally handed over for trial and the UN lifts some of the sanctions, however the US retains its own unilateral sanctions, pending compensation for the Lockerbie victims' relatives. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/1148057.stm BBC, | BBC, 2/1/2001 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/country_profiles/1398437.stm BBC, | n.d. ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/1155521.stm | 2/6/2001 ]] ====== Jan 31, 2001 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@509e9f_23 false 1 ------ A Scottish tribunal at Camp Zeist, an old American military base near Amsterdam, the Netherlands, sentences Abdel Basset Ali Mohammad Megrahi, a Libyan, to life imprisonment for destroying Pan Am Flight 103. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/1868394.stm Washington | BBC, 3/14/2002 ]] [[ http://www.wrmea.com/archives/december01/0112017.html | Report on Middle East Affairs, 12/01 ]] ------ Robert Black, the Scottish law professor who devised the format of the Netherlands-based trial, is '<i>absolutely astounded</i>' at the guilty verdict, and believes the prosecution had '<i>a very, very weak circumstantial case</i>'. He is reluctant to believe that Scottish judges would '<i>convict anyone, even a Libyan</i>' on such evidence. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/1154649.stm BBC, | BBC, 2/5/2001 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/1152550.stm BBC, | 2/5/2001 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/1820113.stm American | 2/14/2002 ]] [[ http://www.americanradioworks.org/features/lockerbie/story/story_frame11.html | Radio Networks, n.d. ]] ------ A United Nations observer at the trial notes that the decision appeared to be politically motivated, with pressure from the US and UK. He notes '<i>The present judgment is logically inconsistent ... You cannot come out with a verdict of guilty for one and innocent for the other when they were both being tried with the same evidence ... In my opinion, there seemed to be considerable political influence on the judges and the verdict.</i>' [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/scotland/2002/lockerbie_appeal/1773868.stm American | BBC, 1/21/2002 ]] [[ http://www.americanradioworks.org/features/lockerbie/story/story_frame12.html | Radio Networks, n.d. ]] ====== August 2001 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@509e9f_26 false 1 ------ [[ bush | Bush ]] imposes a five-year extension to sanctions against Libya and Iran, accusing them of involvement in international terrorism, and demanding Libya accept responsibility for the Lockerbie bombing and pay compensation to relatives. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1473176.stm | BBC, 8/4/2001 ]] ====== May 2002 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@509e9f_28 false 1 ------ Libya, while still denying responsibility for the Pan-Am bombing, offers $2.7 billion in compensation to the victims' families if the UN and US sanctions against it are lifted. However, for the UN and US this is not enough - an admission is required. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2013816.stm BBC, | BBC, 5/29/2002 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/2179479.stm BBC, | 8/8/2002 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/2845661.stm | 3/13/2003 ]] ====== May 2002 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@509e9f_27 false 1 ------ Libya, along with Cuba and Syria, is added to Bush's 'axis of evil.' [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1975588.stm | BBC, 5/9/2002 ]] ====== September 12, 2003 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@509e9f_29 false 1 ------ The UN finally lifts sanctions against Libya after Libya accepts responsbility for the Lockerbie bombing and offers to pay compensation for the downing of a 1989 UTA flight above Niger which claimed 170 lives, something for which it has never accepted responsibility. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3102342.stm BBC, | BBC, 9/12/2003 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3104744.stm | 9/12/2003 ]] ====== October 20, 2003 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@509e9f_30 false 1 ------ Talks on the UTA case between Libya and France stall, with Libya wanting Paris to honour a deal to compensate for Libyan deaths as a result of French involvement in Chad, and France wanting Libya to pay the same amount of money it is giving relatives of the Lockerbie air bombing victims. Libya also continues to insist that six Libyans convicted by France in absentia for the attack were innocent. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3208860.stm BBC, | BBC, 10/20/2003 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3189130.stm | 10/14/2003 ]] ======