Laos Laos laos us_interventions_project 1958-1960 laos_651 false 1 ------ In Laos, the CIA and State Department rig elections and sponsor coups at least three times between the years of 1958 and 1960 in order to keep the leftist Pathet Lao party from being included in the country's government and to ensure that the government does not adopt a neutralist policy towards communism. US objectives in the country are carried out by a secret army (Armee Clandestine) created by the CIA. The army consists of Meo hill tribesmen, other Laotians, Thai, Filipinos, Taiwanese, and South Koreans. These forces are “armed, equipped, fed, paid, guided, strategically and tactically, and often transported into and out of action by the United States,” according to the New York Times. US soldiers supporting operations in Laos work for CIA-front companies like Air America. Those who die are listed as casualties of the Vietnam War. [[ | Blum, 1995 ]] ====== 1969-1973 laos_652 false 1 ------ During the administration of US President Richard Nixon, and under the counsel of his advisor for National Security Affairs Henry Kissinger, the United States drops more than two million tons of bombs on Laos during more than 500,000 bombing missions—exceeding what it had dropped on Germany and Japan during all of World War II—in an effort to defeat the left-leaning Pathet Lao and to destroy North Vietnamese supply lines. The ordnance includes some 90 million cluster bombs, 20-30 percent of which do not detonate (see [[ laos_653 ]]). A Senate report finds: “The United States has undertaken a large-scale air war over Laos to destroy the physical and social infrastructure of Pathet Lao held areas and to interdict North Vietnamese infiltration ... throughout all this there has been a policy of subterfuge and secrecy ... through such things as saturation bombing and the forced evacuation of population from enemy held or threatened areas—we have helped to create untold agony for hundreds of thousands of villagers.” And in 1970, Far Eastern Economic Review reports: “For the past two years the US has carried out one of the most sustained bombing campaigns in history against essentially civilian targets in northeastern Laos.... Operating from Thai bases and from aircraft carriers, American jets have destroyed the great majority of villages and towns in the northeast. Severe casualties have been inflicted upon the inhabitants ... Refugees from the Plain of Jars report they were bombed almost daily by American jets last year. They say they spent most of the past two years living in caves or holes.” [[ | Blum, 1995 ]] [[ | BBC, n.d. ]] [[ | BBC, 1/5/2001 ]] [[ | Stars and Stripes, 7/21/2002 ]] ------ Meo villagers who attempt neutrality or refuse to send their 13-year-olds to fight in the CIA's army, are refused American-supplied rice and “ultimately bombed by the US Air Force.” [[ | Blum, 1995 ]] ------ The CIA also drops millions of dollars in forged Pathet Lao currency in an attempt to destabilize the Lao economy. [[ | Blum, 1995 ]] ------ During this period, the existence of US operations in Laos is outright denied. [[ | Blum, 1995 ]] [[ | Stars and Stripes, 7/21/2002 ]] ====== ((+ Lyndon B. Johnson )) ((+ Richard Nixon )) {{ statement_fred_branfman_2 }} {{ statement_ural_alexis_johnson_2 }} After 1973 laos_653 false 1 ------ In Laos, unexploded ordnance, including the notorious BLU-64B cluster bombs, left by the United States' massive bombing campaign (see [[ laos_652 ]]) kills and injures thousands each year. One in every 384 people are amputees. By the end of 1998, some 38,248 people have been killed and 64,064 injured. [[ | BBC, 1/5/2001 ]] [[ | UNICEF, Spring 2002 ]] [[ | Alternet, 1/7/2002 ]] [[ | Landmine Monitor, 2003 ]] ======