Guatemala Guatemala guatemala us_interventions_project 1901-1944 guatemala-1 false 1 ------ Guatemala suffers under a succession of dictators all effectively belonging to the United Fruit Company (UFCO), which is exempt from taxes and exerts significant influence within the country. [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0195083768 | Woodward, 1999 ]] [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0691025568 | Gleijeses, 1991 ]] [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0674075900 | Schlesinger, 1999 ]] [[ http://www.unitedfruit.org | Unitedfruit.org, n.d. ]] ====== ((+ Violeta Barrios de Chamorro )) 1944-1954 guatemala-2 false 1 ------ The dictator Jorge Ubico is overthrown and Guatemala enjoys the “Ten Years of Spring” with two popularly elected and reformist presidents. The second president during this era, President Jacobo Arbenz (1951-1954), permits free expression, legalizes unions, allows diverse political parties, and initiates basic socioeconomic reforms. One key program is a moderate land reform effort aimed at alleviating the suffering of the rural poor, by which only plantations of very high acreage are affected, and only in cases where a certain percentage of such acreage is in fact lying unused. In these extreme cases, the unused portions of the land are not expropriated, but simply purchased by the Guatemalan government at the same value declared on the owner's tax forms.The property is then resold at low rates to peasant cooperatives. To set an example, President Arbenz starts with his own lands. [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0195083768 | Woodward, 1999 ]] [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0691025568 | Gleijeses, 1991 ]] [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0674075900 | Schlesinger, 1999 ]] [[ http://www.unitedfruit.org | Unitedfruit.org, n.d. ]] ====== ((+ United Fruit Company )) ((+ Jorge Ubico y Casta￱eda )) ((+ Jacobo Arbenz Guzm£n )) 1953 guatemala-4 false 1 ------ Charles R. Burrows of the Bureau of Inter-American Affairs writes: “Guatemala has become an increasing threat to the stability of Honduras and El Salvador. Its agrarian reform is a powerful propaganda weapon; its broad social program of aiding the workers and peasants in a victorious struggle against the upper classes and large foreign enterprises has a strong appeal to the populations of Central American neighbors where similar conditions prevail.” [[ http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Chomsky/ChomOdon_Example.html | Chomsky, 1993 ]] [[ http://www.mediamonitors.net/mosaddeq13.html | Media Monitors, 9/24/2001 ]] [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0691025568 | Gleijeses, 1991, p. 365 ]] [[ http://www.unitedfruit.org | Unitedfruit.org, n.d. ]] [[ http://www.info.sophia.ac.jp/amecana/Journal/11-1.htm#_edn53 | Siekmeier, n.d. ]] ====== ((+ Charles R. Burrows )) 1953 guatemala-3 false 1 ------ The land redistribution collides with the interests of the United Fruit Company (UFCO), for whom 85% of the 550,000 acres they own are uncultivated. The US government demands extra compensation for the United Fruit Company over what has already been given. [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0195083768 | Woodward, 1999 ]] [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0691025568 | Gleijeses, 1991 ]] [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0674075900 | Schlesinger, 1999 ]] [[ http://www.unitedfruit.org | Unitedfruit.org, n.d. ]] ====== ((+ United Fruit Company )) 1954 guatemala-5 false 1 ------ CIA covert Operation PB Success successfully removes Arbenz from power. (( CIA, 1994. Operation Success )) [[ http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/18/interviews/hunt/ | CNN, n.d. ]] [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0195083768 | Woodward, 1999 ]] [[ http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB4/index.html | National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 4, n.d. ]] [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0195083768 | Woodward, 1999 ]] [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0691025568 | Gleijeses, 1991 ]] [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0674075900 | Schlesinger, 1999 ]] ------ The CIA director at this time, Allen Dulles, was formerly the president of the United Fruit Fruit Company (UFCO) and the previous CIA director and under-secretary of state, General Walter Bedell Smith, is on the company's board of directors. Smith will become UFCO's president following the overthrow. [[ http://www.ied.info/books/ed/freedom.html | Smith, n.d. ]] [[ http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Blum/Guatemala_KH.html | Blum, 1995 ]] [[ http://vi.uh.edu/pages/buzzmat/lafeber.htm | LaFeber, 1993 ]] [[ http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Global_Economy/Silent_Takeover_Part2.html | Hertz, 2001 ]] ------ Allen Dulles' brother, John Dulles, who was Secretary of State at the time, had worked as a lawyer defending the United Fruit Company. [[ http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/18/script.html | CNN, n.d. ]] [[ http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/coldwar/interviews/episode-13/ginsberg1.html | Ginsberg, 1996 ]] ====== ((+ Allen Welsh Dulles )) ((+ Walter Bedell Smith )) ((+ John Foster Dulles )) 1954 guatemala-6 false 1 ------ Following the CIA coup, Guatemala plunges into a civil war and 40 years of American-trained death squads, torture, disappearances, mass executions, with an estimated toll of 100,000 victims. [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0618318534 | Keen, 1992 ]] [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0195083768 | Woodward, 1999 ]] [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=0806124598 | Carmack, 1992 ]] ====== 1963 guatemala-7 false 1 ------ Concerned about an upcoming election in which former president Juan Jos� Arevalo would be allowed to run and thus possibly be elected, US President John F. Kennedy supports another military coup. This ends any hopes for a democratic Guatemala. [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&cgi=product&isbn=080784764 | Rabe, 1999 ]] ====== ((+ Juan Jos← Arevalo )) ((+ John F. Kennedy )) 1983-1995 guatemala-8 false 1 ------ Guatemala seeks to reduce infant mortality by regulating the marketing of infant formula by multinationals in conformity with WHO guidelines and according to international codes. Infant mortality rates drop significantly. However, one company, the Gerber Corp., refuses to comply. Guatemala spends five years trying to get it to comply, but then the company in 1993 threatens a WTO complaint and US sanctions. Guatemala backs down in 1995 and Gerber Corp. is exempted from the regulation. [[ http://www.globalexchange.org/wto/CaseStudies.html | Global Exchange, 11/15/1999 ]] [[ http://www.projectcensored.org/publications/2001/15.html | Environment and Health Weekly, 11/18/1999 ]] ====== ((+ Gerber Corporation )) February 1999 guatemala-9 false 1 ------ A Historical Clarification Commission report concludes that US-supported Guatemalan security forces had been responsible for most of the human rights abuses that had occurred during that country's decade-long civil war, including torture, kidnapping and the murder of thousands of rural Mayans. These findings contradict years of US official denial. The commission estimates over 200,000 Guatemalans were killed in the civil war, the most brutal armed conflict in Latin America history. (( Guatemala: Memory of Silence )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/daily/march99/clinton11.htm | The Washington Post, 3/11/1999 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/daily/march99/guatemala11.htm | The Washington Post, 3/11/1999 ]] ====== March 1999 guatemala-10 false 1 ------ US President Bill Clinton apologizes to Guatemalans for decades of US policy in support of a murderous military that “engaged in violent and widespread repression,” costing the lives of some 100,000 civilians. That policy “was wrong,” the president declares, “and the United States must not repeat that mistake.” [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/daily/march99/clinton11.htm | The Washington Post, 3/11/1999 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/americas/9903/10/clinton.latam.02/index.html | CNN, 3/10/1999 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/americas/294590.stm | BBC, 3/11/1999 ]] [[ http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB11/docs/ | National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 11 ]] ====== ((+ William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton )) 2002 guatemala-11 false 1 ------ Guatemala is ranked 120th out of 173 countries in the UN Development Index. (( 2002 UN Human Development Report )) ======