Environmental Impact of 9/11 911 Environmental Impact enviromental_impact_911_attacks enviromental_impact_911_attacks env_imp_general_topic_areas env_imp_specific_issues_and_cases 1970 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1484 false 1 ------ A Senate report on Section 303 of the Clean Air Act states: &#8220;The levels of concentration of air pollution agents or combination of agents which substantially endanger health are levels which should never be reached in any community. When the prediction can reasonably be made that such elevated levels could be reached even for a short period of time&#8212;that is that they are imminent&#8212;an emergency action plan should be implemented.&#8221; (( Guidance on Use of Section 303 of the Clean Air Act, September 15, 1983 )) [[ http://www.house.gov/nadler/wtc/docs/EPAWhitePaper.pdf | Nadler, 3/11/2003 ]] ====== << env_imp_EPAresponsibilities >> << env_imp_indoors >> 1972 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1477 false 1 ------ With the passage of the Clean Water Act of 1972, the scope of the National Contingency Plan (NCP) is extended to cover hazardous substance releases in addition to oil spills. [[ http://www.epa.gov/oilspill/ncpover.htm | EPA, n.d. ]] ------ The NCP is a component of the US government's National Response System, &#8220;a multi-layered system of individuals and teams from local, state, and federal agencies, industry, and other organizations that share expertise and resources to ensure that oil spill control and cleanup activities are timely and efficient&#8221; and that threats to human health and the environment are minimized. [[ http://www.epa.gov/superfund/programs/er/nrs/index.htm | EPA website, 4/19/2004 ]] ------ When in effect, the plan is administered by the EPA, which is required by law to follow specific procedures and guidelines, including designating an &#8220;On-Scene Coordinator&#8221; (OSC), who is responsible for directing response efforts and coordinating all other efforts at the scene of a discharge or release. In the event that the EPA delegates any tasks to state or local authorities, the EPA is responsible for ensuring that the response is in accordance with EPA standards. [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] [[ http://www.epa.gov/epahome/cfr40.htm | US Law, Title 40, Part 300 ]] ====== << env_imp_EPAresponsibilities >> << env_imp_indoors >> << keyEvents >> April 1980 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1358 false 1 ------ The Asbestos Work Group, a joint effort between the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), concludes that &#8220;[e]xcessive cancer risks ... have been demonstrated at all [asbestos] fiber concentrations studied to date. Evaluation of all available human data provides no evidence for a threshold or for a &#8216;safe&#8217; level of asbestos exposure.&#8221; In very clear terms, the study adds that &#8220;there is no level of exposure below which clinical effects do not occur.&#8221; (( Workplace Exposure to Asbestos, 4/1980 )) ====== << env_imp_benchmarks >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) )) ((+ National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) )) November 24, 1984 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1413 false 1 ------ The EPA establishes the National Office of the Ombudsman under the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The amendment says the function of the new office is &#8220;to receive individual complaints, grievances, and problems submitted by any person with respect to any program or requirement under the RCRA.&#8221; The Ombudsman has the authority to decide which complaints to investigate, conduct an independent investigation of a complaint, assist the person or group that makes the complaint, and make non-binding recommendations to the EPA based on the ombudsman's findings. (( Robert J. Martin )) [[ http://epw.senate.gov/107th/Martin_062502.htm | US Senate, 6/25/2002 ]] [[ http://www.stormingmedia.us/82/8224/A822493.html | GAO, 2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_ombudsman >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) April 25, 1986 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1406 false 1 ------ The Toxic Substances Control Act is amended to include asbestos as a toxic substance. One section of the amendment notes that even at low concentrations, asbestos is not safe: &#8220;Available evidence supports the conclusion that there is no safe level of exposure to asbestos.... This conclusion is consistent with present theory of cancer etiology and is further supported by the many documented cases where low or short-term exposure has been shown to cause asbestos-related disease.... Most occupational studies have been conducted on populations exposed to high airborne concentrations of asbestos for long periods of time. However, short-term exposures have also been shown to increase the risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma. In addition, there are many documented cases of mesothelioma linked to extremely brief exposures to high concentrations....&#8221; (( Amendment to Toxic Substances Control Act )) [[ http://911digitalarchive.org/objects/109.pdf | Jenkins, 6/9/2002 ]] [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Kupferman-Chapter-in-LOST-LIBERTIES.pdf | Kupferman, 2003 ]] ====== << env_imp_benchmarks >> << keyEvents >> February 16, 1988 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1468 false 1 ------ A final rule is issued on the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA). The rule states a &#8220;community right-to-know&#8221; public notification must be issued whenever there is a spill of any carcinogen in concentrations over 0.1 percent. (( US Law, Title 40 Section 372.38 )) ====== << env_imp_EPAresponsibilities >> September 30, 1988 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1517 false 1 ------ Congressional authorization of the EPA National Ombudsman office expires with the sunset of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1413 ]]). [[ http://www.ncseonline.org/nle/crsreports/briefingbooks/laws/h.cfm#1 | National Council for Science and the Environment, n.d. ]] ====== << env_imp_ombudsman >> September 1989 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1440 false 1 ------ The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issues its Interim Asbestos NESHAP Enforcement Guidance on &#8220;Friable Asbestos,&#8221; which clarifies the definition and acceptable use of &#8220;asbestos-containing&#8221; materials. The National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), issued in 1973, defined &#8220;asbestos-containing materials,&#8221; or ACMs, as products that contain more than 1 percent asbestos by weight. Citing the original document, the guidance explains that NESHAP's purpose was to &#8220;ban the use of materials which contain significant quantities of asbestos, but to allow the use of materials which would (1) contain trace amounts of asbestos that occur in numerous natural substances, and (2) include very small quantities of asbestos (less than 1 percent) added to enhance the material's effectiveness.&#8221; However, the guidance stresses, the &#8220;EPA NESHAP definition of 1 percent by weight was not established to be a health-based standard.&#8221; (( EPA 560/5-88-011, 9/1989 )) ====== << env_imp_benchmarks >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) November 20, 1990 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1444 false 1 ------ NESHAP regulations require use of the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) method to determine whether asbestos-derived wastes are asbestos free: &#8220;Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shall be used to analyze the output material for the presence of asbestos.&#8221; In order to be considered &#8220;asbestos-free,&#8221; TEM results must indicate that the waste contains no asbestos. [[ http://www.nycosh.org/WTCcatastrophe/asbestos-status-3-11-02.pdf | US Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, sec. 61.155 cited in Jenkins, 3/11/2002 ]] ------ The TEM method is far superior to polarized light microscopy (PLM) testing, a less expensive method that is often used to test for the presence of asbestos in bulk building material. The PLM method is limited by relatively weak magnification (100-400x) and it is sometimes unable to distinguish asbestos material from other materials like tar and petroleum binding components that may also be present in the building material. As a result of these deficiencies, the PLM method cannot reliably detect asbestos at concentrations of less than 1 percent and it is incapable of detecting asbestos fibers that are less than .25 micrometers in width. [[ http://www.nycosh.org/WTCcatastrophe/asbestos-status-3-11-02.pdf | Jenkins, 3/11/2002 ]] ------ TEM uses 20,000X or greater magnifications as well as powerful chemical (EDXA) and mineralogical (SAEDP) tools. Not only can TEM differentiate asbestos from non-asbestos fibers, but it can also distinguish one species of asbestos from another. [[ http://www.environmental-expert.com/consulting/iatl/iatl.htm | International Asbestos Testing Lab, n.d. ]] ====== << env_imp_benchmarks >> << env_imp_EPAresponsibilities >> << keyEvents >> December 1990 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1443 false 1 ------ The EPA issues a pamphlet answering common questions on the Asbestos NESHAP regulations (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1440 ]]). One question asks: &#8220;Is there a numeric emission limit for the release of asbestos fibers during renovations or demolitions in the asbestos NESHAP regulation?&#8221; The EPA answers that although there is no numeric emission limit, NESHAP &#8220;does specify zero visible emissions to the outside air from activity relating to the transport and disposal of asbestos waste.&#8221; In other words, if any emissions are visible during transport or disposal, the level of asbestos is unsafe. (( EPA, questions and answers on Neshap, 12/1990 )) ====== << env_imp_benchmarks >> << env_imp_EPAresponsibilities >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) 1991 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1518 false 1 ------ Following the expiration of Congressional authorization (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1517 ]]) for the ombudsman office, the EPA decides to continue the program and expand the office's jurisdiction to include similar functions within the Superfund division. [[ http://epw.senate.gov/107th/Martin_062502.htm | US Senate, 6/25/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_ombudsman >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) 1992 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1476 false 1 ------ The Federal Response Plan (FRP) is developed and becomes Public Law 93-288. The FRP provides &#8220;a process and structure for the systematic, coordinated, and effective delivery of Federal assistance to address the consequences of any major disaster or emergency declared under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act.&#8221; The plan can be called into action by the president of the United States in times of emergency. Once invoked, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) coordinates the efforts of any Emergency Support Functions (ESF) involved. In the event of a hazardous materials release, the EPA is charged with overseeing the federal government's response. The Federal Response Team (FRT) and Regional Response Teams (RRTs) are charged with &#8220;carry[ing] out their duties and responsibilities as put forth in the NCP [National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan] (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1477 ]]) and agency implementing procedures.&#8221; (( Emergency Support Function #10 Hazardous Materials Annex )) (( Federal Response Plan )) ====== << env_imp_EPAresponsibilities >> October 18, 1992 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1519 false 1 ------ The EPA hires Robert J. Martin as the agency's National Ombudsman (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1413 ]]). [[ http://epw.senate.gov/107th/Martin_062502.htm | US Senate, 6/25/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_ombudsman >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) ((+ Robert J. Martin )) 1993 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1473 false 1 ------ A study commissioned by the EPA, &#8220;Asbestos Fiber Reentrainment During Dry Vacuuming and Wet Cleaning of Asbestos-Contaminated Carpet,&#8221; finds that using HEPA vacuums and carpet shampooing in an effort to remove asbestos from carpets is ineffective and actually increases the air concentrations of asbestos. [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] [[ http://www.epa.gov/clariton/clhtml/pubtitle.html | Kominsky, J. R., and Freyberg, R. W., 1993 ]] ====== << env_imp_EPAresponsibilities >> << keyEvents >> 1993 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1474 false 1 ------ A study commissioned by the EPA, &#8220;Evaluation of Three Cleaning Methods for Removing Asbestos from Carpet,&#8221; finds that available methods of asbestos removal from carpets and upholstery are incapable of effectively removing the fibers. &#8220;The wet cleaning method reduced the level of asbestos contamination in the carpet by approximately 60 percent, whereas neither dry cleaning method had any notable effect on the asbestos level,&#8221; the report says. [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] [[ http://www.epa.gov/clariton/clhtml/pubtitle.html | Kominsky, J. R., et al., 1993 ]] ====== << env_imp_EPAresponsibilities >> << keyEvents >> 1994 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1442 false 1 ------ The EPA explains in a document setting guidelines for the decontamination of demolition sites that the &#8220;site must be cleaned up to background levels of asbestos contamination.&#8221; (The term, &#8220;background level&#8221; refers to the typical asbestos level of non-contaminated soil in that area.) The EPA adds that in order to &#8220;clean up the site to background levels, it will probably be necessary to remove all the asbestos contaminated soil. The contaminated soil should be treated and disposed of as asbestos-containing waste material.&#8221; [[ http://www.nycosh.org/WTCcatastrophe/asbestos-status-3-11-02.pdf | EPA, 1994 cited in Jenkins, 3/11/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_benchmarks >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) August 1, 1994 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1439 false 1 ------ The EPA issues an advisory specifying the methodology that should be used to test for asbestos in air samples under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA). The guidance recommends that transmission electron microscopy (TEM) be used rather than the older, less sensitive polarized light microscopy (PLM) method, which cannot detect ultrafine fibers below .25 micrometers. The advisory also states that when a PLM test is negative for asbestos, the sample should be retested using the TEM method. (( Federal Register, 59 FR 38970, 8/1/1994 )) ====== << env_imp_benchmarks >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) 1995 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1441 false 1 ------ A study of the health effects of vermiculite mining, a mineral which is sometimes found with asbestos (as in the case of the vermiculite mine in Libby, Montana (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1546 ]])), finds that soils with an asbestos level of only 0.001 percent can result in air concentrations of 0.01 fibers per milliliter (f/mL), if disturbed. This exceeds the EPA cancer risk level of 0.000004 f/mL, the typical background levels of asbestos in outdoor air of 0.000002 f/mL, and the typical background levels in indoor air of 0.000003 f/mL (PCM). [[ http://www.nycosh.org/WTCcatastrophe/asbestos-status-3-11-02.pdf | Addison, 1995 cited in Jenkins, 3/11/2002 ]] [[ http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/asbestos/vermiculite_overview.html | Agency for Toxic Substances And Disease Registry, 10/9/2003 ]] ====== << env_imp_benchmarks >> January 1995 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1514 false 1 ------ The EPA designates 232 homes and businesses in Lorain County, Ohio as Superfund sites. The buildings had been illegally sprayed with the pesticide methyl parathion by an exterminator. [[ http://www.tdh.state.tx.us/ideas/dpn/issues/dpn58n11.pdf | Disease Prevention News, 5/28/1998 ]] ------ The cleanup is performed by the EPA in collaboration with other federal agencies. &#8220;Many of the homes had to have wallboard, carpeting, and baseboards removed when repeated surface cleaning failed to remove trace amounts of methyl parathion,&#8221; a report in Environmental Health Perspectives explains. &#8220;Residents had to be temporarily relocated, personal items replaced, and transportation to schools and workplaces provided.&#8221; [[ http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/members/2002/suppl-6/1037-1040rubin/rubin-full.html | Environmental Health Perspectives, 12/2002 ]] ------ The cleanup cost taxpayers more than $20 million. [[ http://www.tdh.state.tx.us/ideas/dpn/issues/dpn58n11.pdf | Disease Prevention News, 5/28/1998 ]] ====== << env_imp_indoors >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) August 23, 1996 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1345 false 1 ------ The current version of OSHA Regulation 1910.1001, &#8220;Polarized Light Microscopy of Asbestos&#8212;Non-Mandatory,&#8221; recommends the use of &#8220;transmission electron microscopy&#8221; (TEM) to test for the presence of asbestos instead of the older, less sensitive method, known as &#8220;polarized light microscopy&#8221; (PLM). The regulation notes that &#8220;TEM is a powerful tool to identify fibers too small to be resolved by light microscopy and should be used in conjunction with this method when necessary&#8221; and suggests that &#8220;when optical techniques [PLM] are inadequate, there is ample indication that alternative techniques [TEM and SEM] should be used for complete identification of the sample.&#8221; SEM, or &#8220;Scanning Electron Microscopy,&#8221; is another method that provides less analytical information about the asbestos fiber than TEM. [[ http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=STANDARDS&amp;_id=10005 | OSHA 1910.1001 App J, 8/23/1996 ]] ====== << env_imp_EPAresponsibilities >> << keyEvents >> November 1996 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1516 false 1 ------ The EPA and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) discover more than 1,100 homes in Jackson County, Mississippi that were sprayed with methyl parathion illegally by Reuben Brown, an unlicensed exterminator. The EPA designates the homes as Superfund sites and oversees a $50 million cleanup. More than 1,600 people will be relocated during the cleanup. [[ http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/members/2002/suppl-6/1037-1040rubin/rubin-full.html | Environmental Health Perspectives, 12/2002 ]] [[ http://www.tdh.state.tx.us/ideas/dpn/issues/dpn58n11.pdf | Disease Prevention News, 5/28/1998 ]] [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] ====== << env_imp_indoors >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) ((+ Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) )) ((+ Reuben Brown )) April 1997 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1515 false 1 ------ The EPA designates more than 98 homes in the Chicago area as a Superfund site. The homes had been illegally sprayed with the pesticide methyl parathion by Reuben Brown, an unlicensed exterminator. The homes are decontaminated at a cost of around $7.5 million. [[ http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/members/2002/suppl-6/1037-1040rubin/rubin-full.html | Environmental Health Perspectives, 12/2002 ]] [[ http://www.tdh.state.tx.us/ideas/dpn/issues/dpn58n11.pdf | Disease Prevention News, 5/28/1998 ]] [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] ====== << env_imp_indoors >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Reuben Brown )) ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) November 18, 1999 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1546 false 1 ------ The Seattle Post-Intelligencer reports that at least 192 deaths and 375 incidents of fatal lung disease in Libby, Montana were caused by exposure to tremolite asbestos from a nearby vermiculite mine. The mine was operated by the company W.R. Grace Co. for 30 years until it was sold in 1990 to Kootenai Development Co. [[ http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/uncivilaction/lib18.shtml | Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 11/18/1999 ]] ====== << env_imp_libby >> ((- Kootenai Development Co. )) ((+ W.R. Grace Co. )) November 21, 1999 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1469 false 1 ------ Three days after the Seattle Post-Intelligencer reported on asbestos contamination of homes in Libby, Montana (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1546 ]]), the EPA dispatches an emergency response team to conduct tests to determine the level of asbestos contamination. For decades, local, state and federal agencies had ignored the known hazards at the Libby mine. [[ http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/uncivilaction/lib02.shtml | Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 2/2/2000 ]] [[ http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/uncivilaction/libb15.shtml | Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 9/15/2000 ]] ------ Twenty-three of the 73 outdoor air samples the EPA team will take at various locations in Libby are found to contain elevated levels of tremolite&#8212;a type of asbestos that is extremely carcinogenic due to its needle-like and sharply pointed fibers which easily penetrate the lining of the lungs. [[ http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/uncivilaction/lib02.shtml | Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 2/2/2000 ]] ------ Random air sampling inside the homes of Libby residents reveals that 11 to 23 percent of the selected homes have detectable levels of asbestos. The average level of asbestos inside Libby homes is found to be 0.0024 fibers per milliliter (f/mL), which exceeds many times the EPA cancer risk level of 0.000004 f/mL. [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] ====== << env_imp_libby >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) May 2000 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1478 false 1 ------ The EPA issues a publication which states that in the event of a terrorist attack causing the release of hazardous substances, the EPA would respond under the authority of the NCP (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1477 ]]). &#8220;The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has statutory authorities and responsibilities to prepare for and respond to emergencies involving oil and hazardous substances, pollutants or contaminants, which include chemical, biological and radiological materials that could also be components of a weapon of mass destruction (WMD).... EPA carries out its preparedness and response efforts primarily under the mandate of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) and the Radiological Response Program.&#8221; (( EPA publication, May 2000 )) ====== ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) January 3, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1520 false 1 ------ The EPA publishes a &#8220;Draft Guidance for the National Hazardous Waste Ombudsman and the Regional Superfund Ombudsmen Program,&#8221; which attempts to &#8220;clarify&#8221; the National Ombudsman's function. (( Federal Register, Vol 66, No. 2, 1/3/2001 )) [[ http://epw.senate.gov/107th/Martin_062502.htm | US Senate, 6/25/2002 ]] ------ The current ombudsman, Robert Martin, argues that the guidelines are actually designed to limit the scope of the ombudsman's authority, by placing the office under the authority of the head of Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER), an EPA division the ombudsman may investigate. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&amp;contentId=A31578-2001Nov28&amp;notFound=true | The Washington Post, 11/29/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_ombudsman >> ((+ Robert J. Martin )) ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) June 18, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1492 false 1 ------ The EPA posts a &#8220;questions and answers&#8221; page about asbestos and the EPA's Libby investigation (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1469 ]]) on its website. It includes only one question: &#8220;I recently read that EPA found less than 1 percent (or trace levels) asbestos at Fireman's Park and other locations that were sampled. Is that a safe level?&#8221; The EPA responds that levels of &#8220;1 percent or less may be safe&#8221; under certain circumstances, but notes that it &#8220;could present a risk where there is enough activity to stir up soil and cause asbestos fibers to become airborne&#8221; (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1441 ]]). [[ http://www.epa.gov/region8/superfund/libby/qsafe.html | EPA FAQ, 6/18/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_libby >> << env_imp_benchmarks >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) Mid-October, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1365 false 1 ------ Rich Regis, a Wall Street Journal editor, undergoes treatment for &#8220;kidney failure, a perforated colon and sepsis, a generalized infection of the body.&#8221; His doctors say that his ailments may have been caused by something he &#8220;inhaled or ingested&#8221; when he was caught in the debris storm caused by the collapse of the WTC. [[ http://www.732-2m2m.com/tt/October_Articles.htm | NY Daily News, 10/25/01 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_illnessDocumented >> ((+ Rich Regis )) July 27, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1522 false 1 ------ The General Accounting Office (GAO) issues a report on the National Ombudsman's office at the request of the Chairman of the House Sub-Committee on Environment and Hazardous Materials. [[ http://epw.senate.gov/107th/Martin_062502.htm | US Senate, 6/25/2002 ]] [[ http://energycommerce.house.gov/107/hearings/07162002Hearing642/The_Honorable_Billy_Tauzinprint.htm | House Sub-Committee on Environment and Hazardous Materials, 7/16/2002 ]] ------ The report criticizes the EPA's January guidance (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1520 ]]) and concludes that the EPA's national and regional ombudsmen do not have sufficient autonomy. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&amp;contentId=A31578-2001Nov28&amp;notFound=true | The Washington Post, 11/29/2001 ]] ------ The GAO report recommends the following: --- * --- Strengthen the ombudsman's independence by moving the office outside of the solid waste program; --- * --- Provide the ombudsman with a separate budget and staff; --- * --- Increase the ombudsman's accountability by requiring the office to develop specific criteria for its investigations. (( GAO, 7/27/2001 )) ====== << env_imp_ombudsman >> ((+ General Accounting Office )) August 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1534 false 1 ------ The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) issues its &#8220;Annual Report to Congress on Combating Terrorism&#8221; which reaffirms the EPA's responsibility to respond to any hazardous materials emergencies caused by terrorist attack and provide the affected public with all information relevant to their health and safety. The report observes that the EPA has &#8220;expertise in performing off-site monitoring, extent of contamination surveys, working with health officials to establish safe cleanup levels, conducting protective cleanup actions, and communicating technical information/data to impacted citizens...&#8221; Moreover, the OMB notes that &#8220;EPA's first responders (On-Scene Coordinators or OSCs) from all 10 regions have been actively involved with local, State, and Federal authorities in responding to threats of terrorism,&#8221; and that &#8220;EPA's response to such threats is an extension of its existing hazardous materials response capability developed over more than 30 years as a leader of the National Response System (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1477 ]]).&#8221; (( Office of Management and Budget, 8/2001 )) [[ http://landofpuregold.com/truth42.htm | Martin, 3/27/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_EPAresponsibilities >> << keyEvents >> ((+ US Congress )) August 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1471 false 1 ------ An environmental health study, the largest in US history, finds that as many as 30 percent of the 5,590 adult residents tested in Libby, Montana have lung abnormalities (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1469 ]]). This figure is as much as 150 times greater than what is normal for people with no known asbestos exposure. All of the tested adults had at one time worked or lived in Libby before the W.R. Grace Co. vermiculite mine closed in 1990. [[ http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/national/36409_libby24.shtml | Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 8/24/2000 ]] ====== << env_imp_libby >> ((+ W.R. Grace Co. )) (August 2001) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1398 false 1 ------ The EPA begins removing asbestos from private homes in Libby, Montana where a nearby mining operation contaminated the surrounding area (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1469 ]]). The EPA conducts the cleanup operation under the authority of the National Contingency Plan (NCP) (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1477 ]]). [[ http://911digitalarchive.org/objects/106.pdf | Jenkins, 12/3/2001 ]] [[ http://911digitalarchive.org/objects/104.pdf | Jenkins, 1/11/2002 ]] [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Kupferman-Chapter-in-LOST-LIBERTIES.pdf | Kupferman, 2003 ]] [[ www.epa.gov/region8/superfund/libby/lbbyfaq.html | EPA, n.d. ]] ------ In some cases, it will be necessary for the EPA to take extreme measures to ensure that asbestos levels in certain homes meet EPA standards. For example, the agency will have to completely demolish one home and rebuild it after the standard procedures of replacing carpets, upholstered furniture, and professional abatement fail to reduce the presence of asbestos to an acceptable level. [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] ====== << env_imp_libby >> << env_imp_indoors >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) (9:59 a.m.-11:00 a.m.) September 11, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_2948 false 1 ------ Scientists who work for the US Geological Survey watch the World Trade Center towers collapse on their television sets. &#8220;We sat at home, watched that gray-white cloud roll over Lower Manhattan, and knew damned well that the dust was going to hurt a lot of people,&#8221; Gregg Swayze, a USGS geophysicist, will later tell the St. Louis Post-Dispatch. &#8220;I knew we had the best technology in the world to determine precisely what was in that dust.&#8221; [[ http://www.stltoday.com/stltoday/news/special/asbestos.nsf/0/8DC49C62C3BDFD2186256CAD0076A1ED?OpenDocument | St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 2/10/02 ]] ------ Swayze and other USGS scientists quickly get to work making arrangements to use USGS and NASA equipment to determine the composition of the dust clouds (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1421 ]]). ====== << env_imp_AVIRIS >> ((+ Gregg Swayze )) September 7, 2001) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1447 false 1 ------ EPA Administrator Christine Todd Whitman tells residents at a town hall meeting in Libby, Montana, a designated Superfund Site where the EPA is remediating asbestos contamination (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1398 ]]), &#8220;It has never been our plan to look to you to pay for any part of this cleanup, including the cleanup of residential properties.&#8221; [[ http://yosemite.epa.gov/administrator/speeches.nsf/0/b8e1be6961a41e1885256ad20050a5ff?OpenDocument | EPA, 9/7/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_libby >> << env_imp_indoors >> ((+ Christine Todd Whitman )) (Afternoon September 11, 2001-October 6, 2001) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1490 false 1 ------ During the first 25 days of the rescue/recovery effort at the World Trade Center site, 800 policemen are provided with only paper masks. Printed on each of the masks is a disclaimer stating: &#8220;Warning, this mask does not protect your lungs.&#8221; [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0%2C4273%2C4427040%2C00.html | The Guardian, 6/5/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_WTCworkers >> (Afternoon September 11, 2001)-July 18, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1349 false 1 ------ The EPA sets up more than 30 fixed air-quality monitors in and around Ground Zero as well as regional monitors in the Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens and Staten Island to test for the presence of certain contaminants. [[ http://www.epa.gov/wtc/monstations.htm#regional | Environmental Protection Agency, n.d. ]] [[ http://www.epa.gov/wtc/monstations.htm#lm | Environmental Protection Agency, n.d. ]] ------ More than 30 such air monitors are also positioned at various locations in the Staten Island Landfill, where the WTC debris will be taken. [[ http://www.epa.gov/wtc/monstations.htm#landfil | Environmental Protection Agency, n.d. ]] ------ Additionally, both the EPA and OSHA operate portable sampling equipment to collect data from a variety of other surrounding locations. [[ http://www.epa.gov/wtc/trendcharts/index.html | Environmental Protection Agency, n.d. ]] [[ http://www.epa.gov/wtc/summaries/datasummaries.pdf | Environmental Protection Agency, n.d. ]] [[ http://www.epa.gov/wtc/data_summary.htm | Environmental Protection Agency, 7/18/2002 ]] ------ The equipment, however, does not test the air for fiberglass, a common building material and a known carcinogen [[ http://www.occupationalhazards.com/articles/3850 | Occupational Hazards, 1/25/02 ]] ------ , or mercury in airborne dusts (although they do test for mercury in its vapor state). [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] ------ Critics will argue that monitoring outdoor air is insufficient since it will ultimately be diluted because of wind and diffusion&#8212;unlike indoor air, which clings to fabrics and is trapped within walls. [[ http://www.btinternet.com/~ibas/lka_asb_fallout_wtc_jan02.htm | International Ban Asbestos Secretariat, 1/21/02 ]] ------ Aside from a few exceptions (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1401 ]]), the EPA will use the outdated polarized light microscopy (PLM) testing method for counting asbestos fibers instead of electron microscope technology (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1446 ]]) which provides far more accurate results. [[ http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/uncivilaction/talc28.shtml | Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 2/28/01 ]] [[ http://www.asbestos-attorney.com/news6.htm | St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 1/14/2004 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentTests >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) )) ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) {{ commentary_mark_maddaloni_2 }} {{ commentary_cate_jenkins,_phd._2 }} {{ commentary_cate_jenkins,_phd._3 }} {{ commentary_cate_jenkins,_phd._4 }} {{ commentary_hugh_granger_2 }} (Afternoon) September 11, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1315 false 1 ------ The New York City Department of Health issues an alert titled, &#8220;Terrorist Attack at the World Trade Center in New York City: Medical and Public Health Issues of Urgent Concern.&#8221; The notice contains various instructions for the medical community including a &#8220;Smoke and Dust Advisory&#8221; urging &#8220;individuals who have a history of heart and lung conditions or are in areas where smoke or dust is visible ... to remain indoors with the windows shut and air conditioners on recirculate or turned off.&#8221; [[ www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5038a1.htm | Centers for Disease Control, 9/11/01 ]] [[ http://www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/pubhealth/p8475/readings/nyc-doh-alert.pdf | New York City Department of Health, 9/11/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentStatements >> ((+ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention )) ((+ New York City Department of Health )) After September 11, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1399 false 1 ------ The EPA assigns the NYC Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) with the task of ensuring that Lower Manhattan homes and businesses are safe for re-occupation. The EPA is bound by the National Contingency Plan (NCP) to see that the City of New York adheres to, and enforces, all EPA standards (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1477 ]]). [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] [[ http://www.epa.gov/epahome/cfr40.htm | US Law, Title 40, Part 300 ]] ------ The city, in turn, will leave the job of testing and cleanup to the building owners and residents themselves. Neither the city nor the EPA will inform them of the federal regulations that govern asbestos testing and abatement. Instead, the City's health department will provide residents, landlords, and building owners with a tip sheet consisting of instructions &#8220;for people reoccupying commercial buildings and residences&#8221; that is completely wrong (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1330 ]]) (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1395 ]]). [[ http://www.djnewswires.com/pdfs/rws_051502.pdf | The Wall Street Journal, 5/9/2002 ]] [[ http://www.house.gov/nadler/wtc/docs/EPAWhitePaper.pdf | Nadler, 3/18/02 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_indoors >> ((+ Hugh Granger )) (8:50 a.m. EST) September 11, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1301 false 1 ------ The Environmental Protection Agency's Region 2 office in Edison, NJ, dispatches three On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs) within minutes of the first plane crashing into the WTC Tower. [[ http://www.epa.gov/superfund/wtcstory.htm | EPA, 10/21/2001 ]] ------ The OSCs are job functions specific to the National Contingency Plan (NCP) and therefore indicate that the NCP is in effect and that the EPA is acting under its authority. The OSCs will be involved in the agency's response to the disaster at least until October 2002. [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] [[ http://landofpuregold.com/truth42.htm | Martin, 3/27/2002 ]] ------ But the EPA will imply in later statements and documents that the NCP had not been put into effect after the attacks (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1503 ]]) . ====== 9:17 a.m. EST, September 11, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1302 false 1 ------ The Federal Aviation Administration closes down New York Metro area airports. [[ http://www.cnn.com/2001/US/09/11/chronology.attack/index.html | CNN, 9/11/01 ]] ====== ((+ Federal Aviation Administration )) 9:21 a.m. EST enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1303 false 1 ------ The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey orders all bridges and tunnels in the area of New York City closed. [[ http://www.cnn.com/2001/US/09/11/chronology.attack/index.html | CNN, 9/11/01 ]] ====== 9:59 a.m. September 11, 2001 and 10:28 a.m. September 11, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1304 false 1 ------ The World Trade Center twin towers collapse&#8212;the south tower at 9:59 a.m. and the north tower half an hour later at 10:28 a.m. [[ timeline/2001/nyt091201.html | New York Times, 9/12/01 ]] [[ http://www.gomemphis.com/mca/america_at_war/article/0,1426,MCA_945_1340414,00.html | AP, 8/19/02 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2001/US/09/11/chronology.attack/ | CNN, 9/12/01 ]] [[ timeline/2001/msnbc092201.html | MSNBC, 9/22/01 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2001/09/12/nyregion/12QUAK.html | New York Times, 9/12/01 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/nation/articles/timeline.html | Washington Post, 9/12/01 ]] ------ The collapses create huge dust clouds that roll through the streets of Lower Manhattan, breaking windows and forcing dust and debris into the interior of surrounding buildings. --- Composition of dust --- Chemicals and materials present in the billowing clouds include pulverized plaster, paint, foam, glass fibers and fragments, fiberglass, cement, vermiculite (used as a fire retardant instead of asbestos), chrysotile asbestos, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, pesticides, phthalate esters, brominated diphenyl ethers, cotton fibers and lint, tarry and charred wood, soot, rubber, paper and plastic. [[ http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/members/2002/110p703-714lioy/lioy-full.html | Environmental Perspectives, 7/2002 ]] [[ http://www.sis.nlm.nih.gov/Tox/airbornehazards.html | Chemical and Engineering News, 10/20/2003 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2001/US/11/04/rec.environmental.concerns/ | CNN, 11/4/2001 ]] [[ http://allergy.mcg.edu/news/wtc915.html | Allergy, Asthma &amp; Immunology Online, 9/15/2001 ]] ------ The dust has an extremely high pH. [[ http://www.stltoday.com/stltoday/news/special/asbestos.nsf/0/8DC49C62C3BDFD2186256CAD0076A1ED?OpenDocument | St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 2/10/02 ]] --- Distribution of dust and debris --- The debris will be distributed very unevenly throughout the city because of their varying weights. Dusts containing relatively heavy components, such as pulverized concrete and glass, will settle near the World Trade Center, whereas dust containing lighter components, like asbestos, will fall to the ground in greater relative concentrations at a further distance. Heavy metals&#8212;including zinc, strontium, lead and aluminum&#8212;will also be deposited a relatively large distance away from the disaster site. [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] [[ http://landofpuregold.com/truth62.htm | Environmental Health Perspectives, 7/2002 ]] --- Composition of smoke/debris plume --- Combustible materials buried in the rubble of the towers will provide fuel for a fire that will burn until December. Many of the materials are made of substances that when burned release highly toxic fumes. According to Thomas Cahill, a professor of physics and engineering, &#8220;The debris pile acted like a chemical factory. It cooked together the components and the buildings and their contents, including enormous numbers of computers, and gave off gases of toxic metals, acids, and organics for at least six weeks.&#8221; [[ http://www.enn.com/news/2003-09-11/s_8326.asp | Reuters, 9/11/2003 ]] --- * --- The two towers contained as many as 50,000 personal computers, each containing small amounts of mercury and about 4 lbs of lead. The towers also contained roughly 300 mainframe computers. [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Kupferman-Chapter-in-LOST-LIBERTIES.pdf | Kupferman, 2003 ]] [[ http://www.nrdc.org/air/pollution/wtc/wtc.pdf | Natural Resources Defense Council, February 2002 ]] --- * --- Thousands of fluorescent lamps in the buildings contained mercury. [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Kupferman-Chapter-in-LOST-LIBERTIES.pdf | Kupferman, 2003 ]] [[ http://www.nrdc.org/air/pollution/wtc/wtc.pdf | Natural Resources Defense Council, February 2002 ]] --- * --- Thousands of chairs and other office furniture contained chemicals like polybrominated diphenyl ethers, which pose dangers similar to PCBs. [[ http://www.nrdc.org/air/pollution/wtc/wtc.pdf | Natural Resources Defense Council, February 2002 ]] --- * --- Several of the WTC's tenants are known to have had toxic materials on site. For example, there was a Secret Service shooting range that kept millions of rounds of lead ammunition on hand. And a US Customs lab had in its inventory thousands of pounds of arsenic, lead, mercury, chromium, and other toxic substances. [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Kupferman-Chapter-in-LOST-LIBERTIES.pdf | Kupferman, 2003 ]] --- * --- Other products in the buildings included synthetic fabrics, plastics, laminates, the di-electric fluids that encase electrical cables, capacitors, electrical cable insulation and transformers. The toxins resulting from the combustion of these materials include toxic lead, volatile organic compounds, dioxins (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_2947 ]]), mercury, nickel, vandium, sulphur, PAHs, PCBs and furans. [[ http://www.nrdc.org/air/pollution/wtc/wtc.pdf | Natural Resources Defense Council, February 2002 ]] --- Distribution of smoke/debris plume --- The aerosol plume will move from the WTC site in Lower Manhattan directly over Brooklyn where it will drop much of its toxic debris, contaminating the neighborhoods of Brooklyn Heights, DUMBO (Down Under the Manhattan Bridge Overpass), Cobble Hill, Boerum Hill, Park Slope and beyond. New York City Council member David Yassky, who is in Brooklyn campaigning on this day, will later recount in an interview with Newsday, &#8220; There was a film of dust on everything&#8212;on cars, stores, everywhere in Brooklyn Heights. If you were there, as I was, you saw several hours of debris rain down on your neighborhood.&#8221; [[ http://www-apps.niehs.nih.gov/centers/Public/news/nws166.htm | Newsday, 9/30/2002 ]] [[ http://landofpuregold.com/truth77.htm | Newsday, 8/23/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_indoors >> << env_imp_WTCworkers >> << keyEvents >> << env_imp_benchmarks >> << env_imp_EPAresponsibilities >> (Between 10:00 a.m. and 11:00 a.m. September 11, 2001) 10:00 a.m. September 11, 2001-11:00 a.m. September 11, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1321 false 1 ------ A dust sample is taken by EPA employees as they flee the collapsing buildings. The samples are later tested and found to contain an asbestos level of 4.5 percent. [[ http://startribune.com/stories/1576/690045.html | Minnesota Start Tribune, 9/14/2001 ]] [[ http://tombotte.com/news/wtc/damage_asbestos.htm | Newsweek, 9/14/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentTests >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) 10:53 a.m. September 11, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1308 false 1 ------ New York's primary elections, which are in progress, are postponed. [[ http://www.cnn.com/2001/US/09/11/chronology.attack/ | CNN, 9/12/2001 ]] ====== ((+ George E. Pataki )) 10:57 a.m. September 11, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1307 false 1 ------ Governor of New York George Pataki closes all state government offices. [[ http://www.cnn.com/2001/US/09/11/chronology.attack/index.html | CNN, 9/12/2001 ]] ====== ((+ George E. Pataki )) 11:02 a.m. September 11, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1309 false 1 ------ New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani urges New Yorkers to stay at home and orders the evacuation of the area south of Canal Street. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpsrv/nation/articles/timeline.html | The Washington Post, 9/12/01 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2001/US/09/11/chronology.attack/ | CNN, 9/12/2001 ]] ====== ((+ Rudolph ("Rudy") Giuliani )) 11:16 a.m. September 11, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1310 false 1 ------ CNN reports that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is preparing emergency-response teams as a precaution. [[ http://www.cnn.com/2001/US/09/11/chronology.attack/index.html | CNN, 9/11/01 ]] ====== ((+ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention )) 2:49 p.m. September 11, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1311 false 1 ------ Mayor Giuliani announces that the New York City subway and bus service has been partially restored. [[ http://www.crtv.cm/actualite_det.php?code=433 | CRTV, 11/09/2001 ]] ====== ((+ Rudolph ("Rudy") Giuliani )) 5:20 p.m. September 11, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1312 false 1 ------ The 47-story WTC Building 7 collapses. It housed New York City's emergency command center, offices of the FBI, CIA, and various commercial offices. The collapse of the building buries an electrical substation containing more than 130,000 gallons of oil from transformers and high-voltage lines&#8212;most of which contain low levels of hazardous PCBs&#8212;that will provide fuel for a fire that will burn for more than three months contaminating the city's air with a number of toxins including dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and other polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. (( letter, 11/26/01 )) [[ http://www.gasandoil.com/goc/news/ntn20242.htm | Alexander's Gas &amp; Oil Connections, 1/9/02 ]] [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Kupferman-Chapter-in-LOST-LIBERTIES.pdf | Kupferman, 2003 ]] [[ http://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2001/december5/wtc-125.html | Stanford Report, 12/5/01 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/nation/articles/timeline.html | The Washington Post, 9/12/01 ]] [[ http://www.nycosh.org/gerrardarticle.html | Environmental Law, 12/26/2001 ]] [[ http://www.732-2m2m.com/tt/November_Articles.htm#More%20Ground%20Zero%20Air%20Studies%20Urged | New York Daily News, 11/27/2001 ]] [[ http://www.732-2m2m.com/tt/November_Articles.htm#Major%20Oil%20Spills%20at%20Ground%20Zero | New York Daily News, 11/29/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_indoors >> << env_imp_WTCworkers >> << keyEvents >> << env_imp_benchmarks >> << env_imp_EPAresponsibilities >> 6:10 p.m. September 11, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1313 false 1 ------ Mayor Rudolph Giuliani urges New Yorkers to stay home the following day. [[ http://www.crtv.cm/actualite_det.php?code=433 | CRTV, 11/09/2001 ]] ====== ((+ Rudolph ("Rudy") Giuliani )) (9:00 p.m.) September 11, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1316 false 1 ------ New York Mayor Rudolph Giuliani says in an interview with CNN's Larry King: &#8220;The Health Department has done tests and at this point it is not a concern. So far, all the tests we have done do not show undue amounts of asbestos or any particular chemical agent that you have to be concerned about.&#8221; [[ http://naturalhealthline.com/newsletter/15sep01/wtc.htm | Healthline News, 9/15/2001 ]] [[ http://abcnews.go.com/sections/living/DailyNews/wtc_healthhazards010911.html | ABC News, 9/13/2001 ]] [[ http://cnnstudentnews.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0109/11/lkl.00.html | CNN, 9/11/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentStatements >> << keyEvents >> << env_imp_governmentTests >> ((+ Rudolph ("Rudy") Giuliani )) 9:57 p.m. September 11, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1314 false 1 ------ Mayor Giuliani announces that New York City schools will be closed the following day. He explains that power is out on west side of Manhattan and that NYC Department of Health (DOH) tests indicate that no airborne chemical agents were released during attack. [[ http://www.cnn.com/2001/US/09/11/chronology.attack/index.html | CNN, 9/12/2001 ]] ====== ((+ Rudolph ("Rudy") Giuliani )) (September 12, 2001-September 16, 2002) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1350 false 1 ------ Samples from water runoff into the Hudson and East Rivers indicate elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxin, asbestos and metals. [[ http://www.epa.gov/wtc/summaries/epa-osha01.htm | Environmental Protection Agency, 10/3/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentTests >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) September 12, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1421 false 1 ------ Roger Clark, the astrophysicist who heads the US Geological Survey (USGS)'s portion of the AVIRIS program in Denver, contacts Robert Green, head of the AVIRIS program at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena. (The AVIRIS, or Airborne Visible Infrared Spectrometer, is a remote-sensing unit used by NASA to determine the chemical composition of a planet's surface and atmosphere by analyzing the infrared signatures of minerals that are reflected from the ground and comparing them with the unique peaks and curves of the signatures of thousands of minerals and materials in the USGS database. [[ http://www.stltoday.com/stltoday/news/special/asbestos.nsf/0/8DC49C62C3BDFD2186256CAD0076A1ED?OpenDocument | St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 2/10/02 ]] ------ AVIRIS has been used before to scan Superfund toxic sites to map hot spots of harmful substances.) [[ http://www-pm.larc.nasa.gov/sass/NY_TIMES_091702.html | New York Times, 9/17/2002 ]] ------ He asks Green for NASA permission to use the AVIRIS over New York City and parts of New Jersey to determine the chemical composition of the dust and debris resulting from the collapse of the World Trade Center. [[ http://www.stltoday.com/stltoday/news/special/asbestos.nsf/0/8DC49C62C3BDFD2186256CAD0076A1ED?OpenDocument | St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 2/10/02 ]] ------ NASA gives the go-ahead on September 13 (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1422 ]]). ====== << env_imp_AVIRIS >> ((+ Roger Clark )) ((+ Robert Green )) (September 12, 2001) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1512 false 1 ------ The City of New York samples air at Centre and Chambers St. (7 blocks Northeast of Ground Zero perimeter, east of Broadway) and Spruce and Gold St. (7 to 8 blocks Northeast of Ground Zero perimeter, east of Broadway). Both of these sites are upwind from the World Trade Center disaster site. TEM tests reveal that these air samples have high levels of asbestos fibers suspended in the air&#8212;123.73 s/mm2 at Centre and Chambers St., and 157.48 s/mm2 at Spruce and Gold St. [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/EPA%20concealment-071504-Jenkins.pdf | Jenkins, 7/15/2004 ]] ------ Neither the City of New York nor the EPA will warn residents about these alarming asbestos levels. When the city publishes results of its polarized light microscopy (PLM) tests on October 24 (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1510 ]]), it does not include these sampling results, or even mention that tests were performed at this location. Similarly, when it publishes the results of the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) tests on its website in early 2002 (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1509 ]]), this data is again left out. However, this data is given to the State of New York on November 13 (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1508 ]]). Cate Jenkins, a senior chemist in the EPA's Hazardous Waste Identification Division, will later suggest that the omission was intentional in order to obscure the fact that contamination was occurring considerably north of Ground Zero. [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/EPA%20concealment-071504-Jenkins.pdf | Jenkins, 7/15/2004 ]] ------ The City of New York will not return to these locations to conduct additional monitoring so there is no additional data on contamination in these locations. [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/EPA%20concealment-071504-Jenkins.pdf | Jenkins, 7/15/2004 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentTests >> << env_imp_deception >> << keyEvents >> 12:40:37, September 25, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1343 false 1 ------ Barbara Rubin, a resident of Lower Manhattan, emails the EPA asking the agency specific questions about air quality in New York City. Rubin explains in her email that she suffers from severe asthma. She asks: --- * --- &#8220;What are the parameters of the hot zone and the warm zone geographically?&#8221; --- * --- &#8220;What are the current particulate matter concentrations being found right now in Manhattan versus outlying areas. How does it compare with previous counts?&#8221; --- * --- &#8220;Does the sampling separately analyze primary versus secondary particulate concentrations of PM [particulate] in the air? What results have been found?&#8221; --- * --- &#8220;Is anything known about what chemicals are bound to the soot and dust from such sources as the burning jet fuel, smoldering furnishings, plastics, electrical wire, fiberglass etc.?&#8221; --- * --- &#8220;With regard to health issues, does the EPA have any guidelines about recommending such protections as particulate masks when PM is in excess of certain levels? As you know, the use of bronchodilators to relieve asthmatic symptoms just leaves lung tissue open for deeper invasions by more allergens and foreign bodies (PM). The resulting inflammation requires steroids and the cycle just repeats itself.&#8221; ------ The EPA's response directs her to the agency's website, which does not contain the answers to her questions. [[ http://www.immuneweb.org/911/articles/epa.html | EPA, 9/25/01 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_deception >> ((+ Barbara Rubin )) (September 12, 2001) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1491 false 1 ------ EPA Region 2 decides that it will use a benchmark of 1 percent in determining whether the asbestos level found in outdoor dust samples collected in and around the WTC site constitutes a &#8220;level of concern.&#8221; The figure apparently derives from the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1440 ]]), which defines products containing more than 1 percent asbestos by weight as &#8220;asbestos-containing materials&#8221; (ACM). The NESHAP one percent definition is not based on safety, but rather is the detection limit of the Polarized Light Method (PLM) for determining asbestos levels (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1345 ]]) (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1444 ]]). The EPA will be heavily criticized for selecting this percentage as its &#8220;level of concern&#8221; benchmark. ------ Critics will argue: --- * --- The one percent value is arbitrary because it is not based on safety. Furthermore, it was meant to be applied only to solid asbestos-containing products that do not release emissions (like dust). --- * --- As the EPA has previously acknowledged, there is no safe exposure level to asbestos (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1406 ]]) (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1440 ]]). --- * --- Measuring dust by percentage weight does not allow one to accurately assess the risk to public health because it does not determine the number of asbestos structures in a given area. For example, a sidewalk coated with 4 inches of dust containing .5 percent asbestos is much more of a health risk than a tablespoon's worth of dust on the ground containing 2 percent asbestos because the former obviously has many more structures of asbestos. A person walking on the street would inhale more asbestos fibers walking through the 4 inches of asbestos-contaminated dust than stepping on just the tablespoon's worth. [[ http://911digitalarchive.org/objects/109.pdf | Jenkins, 6/9/2002 ]] ------ In fact, the EPA has previously acknowledged in an official statement to the public that levels &#8220;of 1 percent or less could present a risk where there is enough activity to stir up soil and cause asbestos fibers to become airborne&#8221; (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1492 ]]). Additionally, a study in 1995 on the health effects of vermiculite found that soils with an asbestos level of only 0.001 percent can result in air concentrations of 0.01 fibers per milliliter, which exceeds many times the EPA cancer risk level of 0.000004 f/mL (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1441 ]]) that corresponds to a cancer risk factor of 10 ====== (September 12, 2001-September 29, 2001) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1511 false 1 ------ According to documents that the City of New York later provides to New York State, between eighteen and fifty-two percent of New York City's transmission electron microscopy (TEM) tests (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1444 ]]) performed during this period indicate asbestos levels of over 70 structures/sq. millimeter (s/mm2). Many of these high test results are based on air samples taken several blocks from Ground Zero. [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/EPA%20concealment-071504-Jenkins.pdf | Jenkins, 7/15/2004 ]] ------ This figure is similar to the one that Walter E. Mugdan, the Regional Counsel for EPA Region 2, will provide in a speech to the New York Bar Association in January 2002. &#8220;Around 35 percent of the samples of bulk dust taken in Lower Manhattan in the first few days after the collapse exceeded the 1 percent level,&#8221; he will say. ====== << env_imp_governmentTests >> << keyEvents >> (September 12, 2001-December 31, 2001) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1483 false 1 ------ The White House's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) dictates the content of EPA press releases to the EPA's Public Information Officer in a series of emails. &#8220;100 percent of what CEQ added was added: 100 percent of what CEQ deleted was deleted,&#8221; an internal EPA investigation will later report. [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | EPA IG, 1/27/2003 cited in Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentStatements >> << keyEvents >> << env_imp_deception >> ((+ Council on Environmental Quality )) September 12, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1305 false 1 ------ The City of New York hires LZA Associates and Thornton-Tomasetti Engineers to put together a team of engineers and contractors to inspect the World Trade Center and surrounding structures in order to help ensure the safety of rescue workers. [[ http://www.pubs.asce.org/ceonline/ceonline01/0111feat.html | Civil Engineering Magazine, November 2001 ]] ====== ((+ Thornton-Tomasetti Engineers )) ((+ LZA Associates )) September 12, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1446 false 1 ------ During a conference call, EPA Region 8 offers Region 2 free use of 30 to 40 electron microscopes, along with analysts, to test bulk dust samples in New York City. (( Jenkins, 3/11/2002 )) ------ EPA Region 8 has a contract with EMSL Laboratories for the microscopes, which they are using to evaluate soils at the Libby, Montana cleanup site (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1398 ]]) . Region 8 says they can get twelve of the scopes to Manhattan the next day. But William Muszynski, Region 2's Acting Administrator, rejects the offer in less than polite terms. &#8220;We don't want you fucking cowboys here,&#8221; Muszynski is later alleged to have said. &#8220;The best thing they could do is transfer you to Alaska.&#8221; (( Jenkins, 3/11/2002 )) (( Jenkins, 7/4/2003 )) ------ Instead, the EPA and other federal and city government agencies will use the outdated polarized light microscopy (PLM) testing method (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1444 ]]) to test for the presence of asbestos fibers. [[ http://www.asbestos-attorney.com/news6.htm | St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 1/14/2004 ]] [[ http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/uncivilaction/talc28.shtml | Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 2/28/01 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_EPAresponsibilities >> ((+ William Muszynski )) September 12, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1317 false 1 ------ The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) begins monitoring ambient outdoor air for asbestos. [[ http://www.nyc.gov/html/dep/html/airmonit.html | New York City Department of Health, 9/12/01 ]] ------ Couriers transport the air samples to laboratories, which immediately analyze them and obtain results within hours. [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/EPA%20concealment-071504-Jenkins.pdf | Jenkins, 7/15/2004 ]] ------ The samples are tested using the outdated polarized light microscopy (PLM) technology (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1446 ]]) . [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Kupferman-Chapter-in-LOST-LIBERTIES.pdf | Kupferman, 2003 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentTests >> ((+ The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) )) ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) September 12, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_3242 false 1 ------ Tina Kreisher, a spokeswoman for the EPA, says, &#8220;At the moment, we really don't detect any real danger.&#8221; [[ http://naturalhealthline.com/newsletter/15sep01/wtc.htm | Healthline News, 9/15/2001 ]] [[ http://abcnews.go.com/sections/living/DailyNews/wtc_healthhazards010911.html | ABC News, 9/13/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentStatements >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) ((+ Tina Kreisher )) September 12, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1306 false 1 ------ US Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary Tommy G. Thompson announces his agency's emergency response: &#8220;CDC has a team on the ground taking air, dust and water samples. This is of utmost concern to health officials. Also, Disaster Mortuary Operational Response Teams will ensure that the process of removing bodies is conducted as safely as possible, and identifications occur as efficiently as possible. The heavy dust that has coated Lower Manhattan following the attack also poses respiratory risks, particularly to our children and elderly citizens. We are well aware that New York has one of the highest childhood asthma rates in the nation, and CDC officials are working with New York authorities to conduct tests and protect our vulnerable residents from high levels of dust in the air.&#8221; [[ http://www.hhs.gov/news/press/2001pres/20010912a.html | US Health and Human Services, 9/12/2001 ]] ====== ((+ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention )) ((+ US Health and Human Services (HSS) )) ((+ Tommy G. Thompson )) September 12, 2001 12:00 p.m. EST enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1318 false 1 ------ New York City construction firms begin cleaning up debris at the World Trade Center site that was strewn over a 12-block area. [[ http://www.fwdodge.com/dcp/NYCN/NY-WTCSpecReportSept01.html | New York City Construction News, 9/12/2001 ]] ====== (September 13, 2001) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1320 false 1 ------ Phillip Landrigan, chairman of the Department of Community and Preventive Medicine at the Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York, and a leading expert on occupational diseases, tells the Minnesota Star Tribune that acute exposure to dust and soot could cause bronchitis, eye injuries and asthma-like breathing difficulties in the short term. Landrigan says that workers who inhale the dust increase their risk of developing life-threatening asbestos-related lung diseases, like mesothelioma, an incurable cancer. [[ http://startribune.com/stories/1576/690045.html | Minnesota Start Tribune, 9/14/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_independentStudies >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Phillip Landrigan )) (September 13, 2001) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_2950 false 1 ------ EPA administrator Christie Whitman recommends that New Yorkers who evacuated their homes after the collapse of the World Trade Center &#8220;vacuum everything, including air conditioning filters, and wipe all surfaces with a damp cloth,&#8221; Newsweek reports. [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] [[ http://www.immuneweb.org/911/news/sept01.html#NBC914-2 | Newsweek, 9/14/2001 ]] ------ The recommendation is made despite two studies completed for the EPA in 1993 demonstrating that HEPA vacuums do not effectively remove asbestos from carpets and upholstery (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1474 ]]) and that vacuuming actually increases asbestos levels in the air during use (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1473 ]]). ====== << env_imp_indoors >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) ((+ Christine Todd Whitman )) September 13, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1322 false 1 ------ The New York City Department of Health (DOH) issues its second alert since the fall of the towers. The update, titled, &#8220;Terrorist Attack at the World Trade Center in New York City: Medical and Public Health Issues of Urgent Concern,&#8221; warns the Manhattan public: &#8220;Asbestos was used in the construction of the World Trade Center. Tests performed indicate that asbestos may be present in an area marked by Worth St. to the North, Centre and Nassau Sts. to the East, and Exchange and Thames Sts. to the South.&#8221; [[ http://nyc.gov/html/doh/html/cd/wtcc.html | New York City Department of Health, 9/13/2001 01 ]] ------ The DOH report goes on to say that the &#8220;health risk posed by a single exposure of short duration is very low&#8221; and that the &#8220;risk to persons who have not been present in the affected area following the disaster is also thought to be extremely low.&#8221; [[ http://nyc.gov/html/doh/html/cd/wtcc.html | New York City Department of Health, 9/13/2001 01 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentStatements >> << keyEvents >> ((+ New York City Department of Health )) September 13, 2001-September 19, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1401 false 1 ------ EPA Region 2 hires an industrial hygienist to test the lobby of its building at 290 Broadway St. for the presence of asbestos. The building is located 6 blocks northeast of the World Trade Center site. Some of the settled dust samples collected with a micro-vac and analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal the presence of chrysotile asbestos. Light microscope tests are also used to analyze the dust, but these tests turn up negative. [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] [[ http://www.nycosh.org/WTCcatastrophe/asbestos-status-3-11-02.pdf | Jenkins, 3/11/2002 ]] [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Kupferman-Chapter-in-LOST-LIBERTIES.pdf | Kupferman, 2003 ]] ------ Air monitoring also reveals the presence of asbestos: --- * --- 20 s/mm [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/EPA%20concealment-071504-Jenkins.pdf | Jenkins, 7/15/2004 ]] --- * --- 20 s/mm [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/EPA%20concealment-071504-Jenkins.pdf | Jenkins, 7/15/2004 ]] --- * --- 60 s/mm [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/EPA%20concealment-071504-Jenkins.pdf | Jenkins, 7/15/2004 ]] --- * --- 60 s/mm [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/EPA%20concealment-071504-Jenkins.pdf | Jenkins, 7/15/2004 ]] ------ The discovery of asbestos at the building prompts EPA Region 2 to have the building professionally abated. [[ http://www.nycosh.org/WTCcatastrophe/asbestos-status-3-11-02.pdf | Jenkins, 3/11/2002 ]] [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Kupferman-Chapter-in-LOST-LIBERTIES.pdf | Kupferman, 2003 ]] [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] ------ The EPA later states that micro-vac collection of dust samples (one of the preferred methods of obtaining samples) and TEM testing are not necessary for schools and residences in Lower Manhattan. At 105 Duane Street, the EPA will even discount results obtained by micro-vac collection and TEM tests when they contradict the agency's own results (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1391 ]]). [[ http://www.djnewswires.com/pdfs/rws_051502.pdf | The Wall Street Journal, 5/9/2002 ]] [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Kupferman-Chapter-in-LOST-LIBERTIES.pdf | Kupferman, 2003 ]] [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] [[ http://www.house.gov/nadler/wtc/docs/EPAWhitePaper.pdf | Nadler, 3/18/02 ]] ====== << env_imp_independentStudies >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) September 13, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1323 false 1 ------ EPA Administrator Christie Whitman announces that the EPA is monitoring levels of airborne contaminants in and around the area of Manhattan. She says that samples so far are &#8220;reassuring about potential exposure of rescue crews and the public to environmental contaminants.&#8221; The tests &#8220;found either no asbestos or very low levels of asbestos.&#8221; In Brooklyn, which is directly in the WTC smoke plume's path (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1304 ]]), she says that &#8220;levels of lead, asbestos and volatile organic compounds in air samples ... were not detectable or not of concern.&#8221; [[ http://www.epa.gov/oigearth/reports/2003/wtc/epapr20010913.htm | Environmental Protection Agency, 9/13/01 ]] ------ However, her statements contradict results from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) tests that were conducted the previous day (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1512 ]]). ====== << env_imp_EPAresponsibilities >> << env_imp_governmentTests >> << keyEvents >> << env_imp_deception >> ((+ Christine Todd Whitman )) ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) (September 13, 2001) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1415 false 1 ------ A fact sheet issued by the New York City Department of Health states that dust and ash from the WTC collapse contains &#8220;trace amounts of asbestos&#8221; and denies that short term exposure poses a health risk. &#8220;Based on the asbestos test results received thus far, the general public's risk for any short or long term adverse health affects are extremely low,&#8221; the notice claims. [[ http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/alerts/wtc1.html | New York City Department of Health, 9/22/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentStatements >> << env_imp_governmentTests >> ((+ New York City Department of Health )) September 13, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1422 false 1 ------ Robert Green, head of the AVIRIS program at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, informs Roger Clark, the astrophysicist who heads the US Geological Survey (USGS)'s portion of the AVIRIS program in Denver, that NASA will permit the USGS team to use AVIRIS in an attempt to determine the chemical composition of the dust and debris that resulted from the collapse of the World Trade Center (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1421 ]]). The crew will mount the unit to a de Havilland Twin Otter prop plane owned by NASA, which will make several passes over the WTC and surrounding area. &#8220;The Federal Emergency Management Agency and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy ... signed off on the flight. And the Air Force [has] agreed not to shoot the Twin Otter down,&#8221; the St. Louis Post-Dispatch will later report. [[ http://www.stltoday.com/stltoday/news/special/asbestos.nsf/0/8DC49C62C3BDFD2186256CAD0076A1ED?OpenDocument | St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 2/10/02 ]] ====== << env_imp_AVIRIS >> ((+ Robert Green )) ((+ Roger Clark )) September 14, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1324 false 1 ------ EPA and OSHA announce that the majority of air and dust samples monitored in New York's financial district &#8220;do not indicate levels of concern for asbestos&#8221; and that ambient air quality &#8220;meets OSHA standards.&#8221; The two agencies also say that OSHA has new data indicating that indoor air quality in downtown buildings &#8220;will meet standards.&#8221; The agencies' conclusions are based on samples taken on September 13. &#8220;OSHA staff walked through New York's Financial District ... wearing personal air monitors and collected data on potential asbestos exposure levels. All but two samples contained no asbestos.... Air samples taken ... inside buildings in New York's financial district were negative for asbestos. Debris samples collected outside buildings on cars and other surfaces contained small percentages of asbestos, ranging from 2.1 to 3.3&#8212;slightly above the 1 percent trigger for defining asbestos material.&#8221; [[ http://www.immuneweb.org/911/government/sept01.html#OSHA914 | Environmental Protection Agency, 9/14/01 ]] [[ http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=NEWS_RELEASES&amp;p_id=93&amp;p_id=93 | Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 9/14/01 ]] ------ But the EPA improperly implies that the one percent level is a safety benchmark (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1491 ]]), even though it had previously acknowledged that airborne asbestos particles are unsafe at any level (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1324 ]]). Furthermore, its test results are not accurate, as they are based on the outdated polarized light microscopy (PLM) testing method, which is incapable of identifying fine fibers and which cannot reliably detect asbestos when it is present in concentrations below one percent (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1444 ]]). ====== << env_imp_governmentStatements >> << keyEvents >> << env_imp_governmentTests >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) ((+ Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) )) September 14, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1450 false 1 ------ EPA administrator Christine Todd Whitman is quoted by Newsweek saying that the smoke plume at the World Trade Center disaster site is &#8220;not a health problem.&#8221; She says: &#8220;We have found particulate matter in the air, but other than being an irritant to those people who are out there breathing it deeply that's why people are wearing protective gear and masks it is not a problem for the general population.&#8221; [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Newsweek website, 9/14/2001 cited in Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentStatements >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Christine Todd Whitman )) ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) September 14, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1449 false 1 ------ John L. Henshaw, Assistant Secretary of Labor for OSHA, states: &#8220;Our tests show that it is safe for New Yorkers to go back to work in New York's financial district. Keeping the streets clean and being careful not to track dust into buildings will help protect workers from remaining debris.&#8221; [[ http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/0/e7cc6c4207773c5985256acc007c568f?OpenDocument | EPA, 9/14/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentStatements >> << env_imp_governmentTests >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) )) ((+ John L. Henshaw )) (September 14, 2001) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1327 false 1 ------ Allergists urge New Yorkers with lung disease to use caution in Lower Manhattan. Dr. Daniel Mayer, MD, president of the New York Allergy Society, is quoted in Allergy, Asthma &amp; Immunology Online, &#8220;I recommend that people with chronic lung conditions and allergies don't go near the site.&#8221; [[ http://allergy.mcg.edu/news/wtc915.html | American College of Allergy, Asthma &amp; Immunology, allergy ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_independentStudies >> ((+ Daniel Mayer )) September 14, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1337 false 1 ------ Rainstorms in New York City produce run-off with &#8220;elevated PCB and dioxin levels.&#8221; [[ http://www.immuneweb.org/911/government/sept01.html#other911 | EPA, 9/22/01 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> September 14, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1402 false 1 ------ The New York City Department of Environmental Protection recommends in a memo to building owners in Lower Manhattan that they use the polarized light microscopy (PLM) method to determine the asbestos contamination level in their buildings instead of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) which is far more accurate (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1444 ]]). [[ http://www.djnewswires.com/pdfs/rws_051502.pdf | The Wall Street Journal, 5/9/2002 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_EPAresponsibilities >> ((+ The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) )) September 14, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1451 false 1 ------ EPA spokeswoman Bonnie Bellow says, &#8220;There's nothing at this point that indicates that business can't resume&#8221; in the Wall Street area on Monday as scheduled. [[ http://www.nynewsday.com/ny-lidust152367598sep15,0,6232446.story | Newsday, 9/15/2001 ]] [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Newsday, 9/15/2001 cited in Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentStatements >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) ((+ Bonnie Bellow )) September 14, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1325 false 1 ------ US Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary Tommy G. Thompson announces after meetings in New York with NY State Governor George Pataki and NYC Mayor Rudolph Giuliani that the CDC Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) will send 35 EIS officers to New York hospitals to assist &#8220;health officials and physicians monitor diseases, conduct a medical and health needs assessment, identify existing health problems, such as dust or allergic reactions, determine if there are new medical needs, and if already deployed resources are better used elsewhere.&#8221; [[ http://www.immuneweb.org/911/government/sept01.html#other911 | US Department of Health and Human Services, 9/14/01 ]] ====== ((+ George E. Pataki )) ((+ Rudolph ("Rudy") Giuliani )) ((+ Tommy G. Thompson )) ((+ US Health and Human Services (HSS) )) 10:02 a.m. GMT, September 14, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1326 false 1 ------ The New Scientist reports concerns that Manhattan residents are at serious risk from smoke and airborne contaminants including carcinogenic asbestos. Michelle De Leo of the British Lung Foundation advises people to &#8220;minimize exposure as much as possible by avoiding the area&#8221; or by using respiratory protection. Small dust particles easily penetrate the respiratory system, collecting in remote portions of the lung, and resulting in scarring. &#8220;This impairs lung function and is permanent,&#8221; De Leo of the British Lung Foundation explains. &#8220;Reducing exposure as much as possible is vitally important.&#8221; Other experts warn that toxic fumes from burning furniture in the towers pose additional risks. [[ http://www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id=ns99991291 | New Scientist, 9/14/01 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_independentStudies >> ((+ Michelle De Leo )) September 15, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1328 false 1 ------ EPA administrator Christine Todd Whitman says with regard to Manhattan's air quality, &#8220;[T]here is no reason for concern.&#8221; She says that her agency is regularly sampling airborne particles and that findings indicate that most locations have an asbestos level of less than one percent&#8212;the amount above which the EPA considers a material to be &#8220;asbestos-containing&#8221; &#8212;but notes that the highest recorded reading so far was 4.5 percent (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1321 ]]). [[ http://www.newsday.com/news/printedition/newyork/ny-2368899sep16.story | Newsday, 9/16/01 ]] ------ But the EPA is wrong to use the one percent level as if it were a safety benchmark (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1491 ]]). Furthermore, its test results are not accurate, as they are based on the outdated polarized light microscopy (PLM) testing method which is incapable of identifying fine fibers and which cannot reliably detect asbestos when it is present in concentrations below one percent (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1444 ]]). ====== << env_imp_governmentTests >> << keyEvents >> << env_imp_governmentStatements >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) ((+ Christine Todd Whitman )) September 16, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1405 false 1 ------ The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) publishes a &#8220;fact sheet&#8221; on the dust and debris that blanketed surrounding streets and penetrated numerous buildings during the collapse of the World Trade Center. The first section, titled, &#8220;What is in the dust,&#8221; states only: &#8220;Dust is a mixture of very fine particles that originally made-up the materials of the WTC and the aircraft that struck it. These particles differ depending on what material the dust came from, how the dust was created, and what happened to the dust after it was released. Analysis of dust samples will provide information on components of the dust. We expect that materials that would be present would be at concentrations lower than those normally associated with health effects.&#8221; The flyer makes no effort to name the toxic chemicals and other harmful substances that were known to have been in the two towers. [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Kupferman-Chapter-in-LOST-LIBERTIES.pdf | Kupferman, 2003 ]] [[ http://www.hhs.gov/news/press/2001pres/20010916b.html | US Department of Health and Human Services, 9/16/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_deception >> << env_imp_governmentStatements >> ((+ US Health and Human Services (HSS) )) September 16, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1329 false 1 ------ The EPA and OSHA release a joint statement asserting that the air in downtown New York City is safe to breathe. &#8220;[N]ew samples confirm previous reports that ambient air quality meets OSHA standards and consequently is not a cause for public concern,&#8221; the agencies claim. [[ http://www.epa.gov/wtc/stories/headline_091601.htm | EPA, 9/16/01 ]] ------ But it is later learned that the press release had been heavily edited under pressure from the White House's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). Critical passages in the original draft were either deleted or modified to downplay public health risks posed by contaminants that were released into the air during the collapse of the World Trade Center. [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_03/083003C.shtml | Newsday, 8/26/03 ]] [[ http://www.epa.gov/oigearth/ereading_room/WTC_report_20030821.pdf | EPA Office of Inspector General, 8/21/2003 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentStatements >> << keyEvents >> << env_imp_governmentTests >> << env_imp_deception >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) ((+ Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) )) ((+ Council on Environmental Quality )) September 16, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1330 false 1 ------ The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) issues a public notice advising building owners and building maintenance managers located south of 14th Street to replace filters in air circulation systems and to run their systems on the recirculation mode until fires at the World Trade Center are extinguished. The agency also recommends that owners and managers contract professionals to test their buildings for the presence of asbestos and other hazardous materials prior to beginning cleanup by maintenance employees. If the presence of harmful contaminants are detected, they must telephone the DEP, where a staff employee will review each case and provide verbal approval. [[ http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/pdf/alerts/dust.pdf | New York City Department of Health, 9/16/01 ]] ====== << env_imp_indoors >> << keyEvents >> ((+ The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) )) 12:00 p.m. September 16, 2001-2:00 a.m. September 17, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1423 false 1 ------ NASA's de Havilland Twin Otter propeller plane makes 14 passes over the region affected by the WTC collapse. The infrared-scanning AVIRIS unit, located underneath the plane, records infrared signatures of minerals reflected from the ground (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1421 ]]). After the flight, the data tapes are sent to NASA's Jet Propulsion Lab in Pasadena where NASA scientists Robert Green and Frank Loiza are waiting to review the data. The tapes arrive 2 a.m. the next morning. [[ http://www.stltoday.com/stltoday/news/special/asbestos.nsf/0/8DC49C62C3BDFD2186256CAD0076A1ED?OpenDocument | St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 2/10/02 ]] ====== << env_imp_AVIRIS >> ((+ Robert Green )) ((+ Frank Loiza )) September 17, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1424 false 1 ------ NASA scientists, Robert Green and Frank Loiza, perform the first analysis of the AVIRIS data (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1423 ]]) and determine that there are a total of 34 fires burning at the World Trade Center site with temperatures ranging from 800 degrees to 1,000 degrees. They pass this and all subsequent data to the White House and other government agencies that are involved in responding to the environmental impact of the attacks. [[ http://www.stltoday.com/stltoday/news/special/asbestos.nsf/0/8DC49C62C3BDFD2186256CAD0076A1ED?OpenDocument | St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 2/10/02 ]] ====== << env_imp_AVIRIS >> ((+ Robert Green )) ((+ Frank Loiza )) September 17, 2001-September 19, 2001- enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1425 false 1 ------ US Geological Survey (USGS) geophysicists Gregg Swayze and Todd Hoefen fly to New York City to get calibration data from the ground that will supplement the data collected by AVIRIS (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1423 ]]). They collect 35 dust samples from a variety of locations around Ground Zero including window ledges, flower pots and car windshields. While &#8220;AVIRIS offers a bird's-eye view ...,&#8221; Roger Clark, a USGS astrophysicist, later explains to the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, &#8220;The ground samples ... gave us up-close, specific information on specific points.&#8221; On September 19 they send their data to the USGS office in Denver over the Internet. The next day, scientists will begin conducting a variety of tests on the samples (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1427 ]]). [[ http://www.stltoday.com/stltoday/news/special/asbestos.nsf/0/8DC49C62C3BDFD2186256CAD0076A1ED?OpenDocument | St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 2/10/02 ]] [[ http://www.stltoday.com/stltoday/news/special/asbestos.nsf/0/727E0EBECFD7DD0F86256CAD0076A1EE?OpenDocument | St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 2/10/02 (B) ]] ====== << env_imp_AVIRIS >> ((+ Gregg Swayze )) ((+ Roger Clark )) ((+ Todd Hoefen )) Shortly after September 17, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1403 false 1 ------ Residents at 150 Franklin Street, a seven-story cooperatively owned building several blocks north of Ground Zero, clean their apartments according to the instructions provided by the New York City Department of Health (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1395 ]]). They also sweep the roof and other common areas. Despite their efforts, the building will test positive for asbestos in April 2002 (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1404 ]]). [[ http://www.djnewswires.com/pdfs/rws_051502.pdf | The Wall Street Journal, 5/9/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_indoors >> September 17, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1395 false 1 ------ The New York City Department of Health (DOH) issues recommendations for people reoccupying commercial buildings and residences. [[ http://www.ci.nyc.ny.us/html/doh/html/alerts/wtc3.html | New York City Department of Health, 9/17/2001 ]] --- Recommendations --- --- * --- The NYC DOH advises residents not return to apartments or workplaces south of Warren Street, west of Broadway, and north of Exchange Street, until the buildings have been approved to resume tenancy by building management. --- * --- The DOH recommends that people wear dust masks upon re-entering their indoor areas. After indoor spaces have been cleaned as per instructions, it should not be necessary to wear dust masks. --- * --- The advisory recommends that residents and people working downtown clean homes and offices using &#8220;a wet rag or wet mop.&#8221; --- * --- Additional suggestions include shampooing and vacuuming carpets and upholstery with a HEPA vacuum or a normal vacuum fitted with a HEPA filter. The recommendation is made despite two studies completed for the EPA in 1993 demonstrating that HEPA vacuums do not effectively remove asbestos from carpets and upholstery (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1474 ]]) and that vacuuming actually increases asbestos levels in the air during use (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1473 ]]). --- * --- The advisory recommends that residents filter the air in their homes with HEPA air purifiers. --- * --- NYC DOH instructs residents to &#8220;wash heavily soiled or dusty clothing or linens twice&#8221; and remove &#8220;lint from washing machines and filters in the dryers with each laundry load.&#8221; --- * --- The recommendations say that if the &#8220;apartment is very dusty,&#8221; curtains should be washed or HEPA vacuumed. &#8220;If curtains need to be taken down, take them down slowly to keep dust from circulating in the air,&#8221; it adds. --- * --- Residents are advised to bathe pets &#8220;with running water from a hose or faucet.&#8221; The advisory adds that &#8220;their paws should be wiped to avoid tracking dust inside the home.&#8221; --- * --- The advisory also states to &#8220;[k]eep outdoor dust from entering the home&#8221; by keeping the &#8220;windows closed&#8221; and setting the &#8220;conditioner to re-circulate air (closed vents).&#8221; --- * --- The advisory repeats earlier assertions that air monitoring indicates levels of airborne asbestos fibers detected in outside air does not pose a significant threat to human health. &#8220;Based on the asbestos test results received thus far, there are no significant health risks to occupants in the affected area or to the general public,&#8221; the agency claims. The DOH's recommendations are criticized by industrial hygienists and other experts. The advisory is criticized for failing to mention that the &#8220;dust&#8221; inside these homes could possibly contain asbestos and other toxic substances and for neglecting to inform people that stringent national statutes regulate asbestos removal, requiring professional abatement of materials or dust that contain asbestos or other hazardous substances. US statutory code does not permit unlicensed individuals or contractors, much less residents, to perform asbestos removal. [[ http://www.djnewswires.com/pdfs/rws_051502.pdf | The Wall Street Journal, 5/9/2002 ]] [[ http://www.732-2m2m.com/tt/November_Articles.htm#Parents%20Want%20Say%20On%20School%20Reopenings | New York Daily News, 11/20/2001 ]] [[ /url>http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/pdf/alerts/dust.pdf | NYC DOH, 9/16/2001 ]] [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] ------ In spite of these problems, the EPA website will link to the notice. [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] [[ http://www.stltoday.com/stltoday/news/special/asbestos.nsf/0/8DC49C62C3BDFD2186256CAD0076A1ED?OpenDocument | St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 2/10/02 ]] ------ and refer people to it who email the agency with questions about the safety of indoor air (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1464 ]]) (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1465 ]]). Some people, however, never even learn of this advisory and&#8212;after hearing repeated assurances from officials about safe environmental conditions&#8212;clean their indoor spaces as they otherwise would under normal conditions. [[ http://www.house.gov/nadler/wtc/docs/EPAWhitePaper.pdf | Nadler, 3/18/02 ]] ------ Residents who do hire professional cleaners will find that their homes are still not safe. In November, American Medical News reports numerous doctors in NYC are seeing patients with respiratory conditions.&#8220;Their apartments were covered in dust, and have since been professionally cleaned&#8221; Ira Finegold, MD, chief of allergy at St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, will say. &#8220;But they return, and after 20 minutes, they're developing a raspy cough.&#8221; [[ http://www.ama-assn.org/amednews/2001/11/26/hlsa1126.htm | American Medical News, 11/26/2001 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_indoors >> ((+ New York City Department of Health )) ((+ Ira Finegold )) {{ commentary_cate_jenkins,_phd._5 }} {{ commentary_cate_jenkins,_phd._6 }} {{ commentary_unnamed_certified_asbestos_contractor_2 }} September 18, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1368 false 1 ------ EPA air monitors detect sulfur dioxide levels that are so elevated that &#8220;according to one industrial hygienist, they exceeded the EPA's standard for a classification of &#8216;hazardous,&#8217; &#8221; the New York Daily News later reports. The EPA does not volunteer this information to the public. Rather the data is discovered in internal EPA documents that are obtained by the New York Environmental Law and Justice Project through the Freedom of Information Act in October (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1373 ]]). [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Daily%20Cover%20%20Story%20-%20A%20Toxic%20Nightmare%20At%20Disaster%20Site.pdf | New York Daily News, 10/21/2001 ]] [[ http://archives.tcm.ie/breakingnews/2001/10/26/story27878.asp | Thomas Crosbie Media, 10/26/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentTests >> << keyEvents >> << env_imp_deception >> ((- New York Environmental Law and Justice Project )) ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) September 18, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1366 false 1 ------ The State of New York's Department of Environmental Conservation monitors record dioxin levels more than five times higher than normal in water discharged into the Hudson River from a sewer pipe at Rector St. Additionally, the monitors find PCBs and dioxin levels in the river's sediment that are several times higher than figures recorded in an earlier 1993 study. The EPA does not provide the public with this information. Rather the data is found in internal EPA documents later obtained by the New York Environmental Law and Justice Project through the Freedom of Information Act in October (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1373 ]]). [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Daily%20Cover%20%20Story%20-%20A%20Toxic%20Nightmare%20At%20Disaster%20Site.pdf | New York Daily News, 10/21/2001 ]] [[ http://archives.tcm.ie/breakingnews/2001/10/26/story27878.asp | Thomas Crosbie Media, 10/26/2001 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_governmentTests >> << env_imp_deception >> ((- Environmental Protection Agency )) ((+ New York Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) )) ((- New York Environmental Law and Justice Project )) September 18, 2001, September 22, 2001, September 23, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1426 false 1 ------ At the White House's request, NASA's de Havilland Twin Otter prop plane, equipped with the AVIRIS unit (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1421 ]]) , conducts additional flights over Manhattan (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1423 ]]), collecting data on the chemical composition of the dust and debris that was distributed throughout the city when the World Trade Center's twin towers collapsed. [[ http://www.stltoday.com/stltoday/news/special/asbestos.nsf/0/8DC49C62C3BDFD2186256CAD0076A1ED?OpenDocument | St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 2/10/02 ]] ====== << env_imp_AVIRIS >> ((+ Bush administration )) September 18, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1331 false 1 ------ EPA Administrator Christie Whitman announces that results from further air and drinking water monitoring near the WTC site and the Pentagon indicate that there are few significant risks to public health. &#8220;We are very encouraged that the results from our monitoring of air quality and drinking water conditions in both New York and near the Pentagon show that the public in these areas is not being exposed to excessive levels of asbestos or other harmful substances,&#8221; she says. &#8220;Most&#8221; of the 62 dust samples taken by the agency contained less than one percent of asbestos. [[ http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/b1ab9f485b098972852562e7004dc686/75aef680e69adf6585256acc007c2fc8?OpenDocument | EPA, 9/18/01 ]] ------ The EPA incorrectly uses the one percent level of ambient asbestos as if it were a safety benchmark (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1491 ]]). Moreover, the test results Whitman cites are based on the less sensitive and outdated polarized light microscopy (PLM) testing method which is incapable of identifying ultra-fine asbestos fibers and which cannot reliably detect asbestos when present in concentrations below one percent (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1444 ]]). ------ Whitman's statement also observes that where asbestos levels have exceeded the EPA's one percent &#8220;level of concern,&#8221; the &#8220;EPA has operated its 10 High Efficiency Particulate Arresting (HEPA) vacuum trucks to clean the area and then resample.&#8221; She adds that the trucks have also cleaned the &#8220;streets and sidewalks in the Financial District in preparation for ... return to business.&#8221; [[ http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/b1ab9f485b098972852562e7004dc686/75aef680e69adf6585256acc007c2fc8?OpenDocument | EPA, 9/18/01 ]] ------ However, it is later discovered that the contractor hired to clean the streets failed to equip the vacuum trucks with the required HEPA filters. [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Kupferman-Chapter-in-LOST-LIBERTIES.pdf | Kupferman, 2003 ]] [[ http://www.nydailynews.com/news/story/11015p-10416c.html | New York Daily News, 8/14/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentStatements >> << env_imp_governmentTests >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) ((+ Christine Todd Whitman )) September 18, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1332 false 1 ------ The EPA publishes a FAQ (frequently asked questions web page) on Environmental and Public Health issues related to the collapse of World Trade Center and Pentagon. The response to one of the questions specifically advises people not to wear respirators outside the WTC restricted area. &#8220;EPA has not detected any pollutant levels of concern in Lower Manhattan generally or at the Fresh Kills site on Staten Island, where the debris from the WTC cleanup is being taken for inspection and sorting,&#8221; the public notice explains. [[ http://www.immuneweb.org/911/government/sept01.html#EPA918-2 | EPA, 9/18/01 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) (September 18, 2001-September 21, 2001) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1339 false 1 ------ Attorney Joel R Kupferman of the New York Environmental Law and Justice Project speaks with several emergency workers, police officers, firefighters, union representatives, office workers and residents. According to Kupferman, &#8220;All [express] serious concerns about the health hazards they now face firsthand. Some are having trouble breathing, some wheezing and coughing. Many are suffering with severe eye irritation and headaches.&#8221; [[ http://www.brasscheck.com/911/dust-test.html | New York Environmental Law and Justice Project, 9/22/2001 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_WTCworkers >> ((+ New York Environmental Law and Justice Project )) ((+ Joel R Kupferman )) (September 19, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1340 false 1 ------ ATC Associates of New York analyzes bulk dust samples taken from Vesey and Liberty Streets near the WTC site by Monona Rossol, an industrial hygienist with the Arts, Crafts, and Theater Safety organization, and Attorney Joel R Kupferman of the New York Environmental Law and Justice Project. The first four samples tested are found to contain 10-15 percent fiberglass, an extremely high concentration. A quarter of the samples have an asbestos level of 2.1 percent. [[ http://www.newsday.com/news/health/ny-nyair122410096oct12.story | Newsday, 10/12/01 ]] [[ http://www.immuneweb.org/911/articles/nyeljp2.html | New York Environmental Law &amp; Justice Project, 9/19/2001 ]] [[ http://www.villagevoice.com/issues/0139/baard.php | Village Voice, 9/26/2001 ]] [[ http://www.brasscheck.com/911/dust-test.html | New York Environmental Law &amp; Justice Project, 9/22/2001 ]] ------ Shortly after these results are made public, the New York State Department of Health warns local labs that they will lose their licenses if they process any more &#8220;independent sampling.&#8221; (( Unnamed Lab Technician who received one such warning )) [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Kupferman-Chapter-in-LOST-LIBERTIES.pdf | Kupferman, 2003 ]] ====== << env_imp_independentStudies >> << keyEvents >> ((+ US Health and Human Services (HSS) )) ((+ Arts, Crafts and Theater Safety organization (ACTS) )) ((+ ATC Associates )) ((+ New York Environmental Law and Justice Project )) ((+ Joel R Kupferman )) September 20, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1427 false 1 ------ US Geological Survey (USGS) scientists begin performing tests on the dust samples collected by USGS geophysicists, Gregg Swayze and Todd Hoefen, during the previous three days (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1425 ]]). Roger Clark (the astrophysicist who heads the AVIRIS program at USGS), Gregg Swayze, Todd Hoefen and Eric Livo (another USGS scientist) analyze samples in the Imaging Spectroscopy Lab and Gregory Meeker (head of the USGS's microbeam laboratory) views samples with the scanning electron microscope and conducts energy dispersive spectroscopy. Other USGS scientists study the samples using X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, as well as chemical analysis and chemical leach testing. Within hours, the results from the various tests indicate the presence of asbestos and an &#8220;alphabet soup of heavy metals.&#8221; Each of the different techniques used to determine the chemical components of the dust &#8220;back each other up,&#8221; Swayze later explains to the St. Louis Post-Dispatch. &#8220;Some techniques can see more than others, and we were throwing in every technique we had in house,&#8221; he says. Tests revealed the dust to be extremely alkaline with a pH of 12.1 (out of 14). [[ http://www.stltoday.com/stltoday/news/special/asbestos.nsf/0/8DC49C62C3BDFD2186256CAD0076A1ED?OpenDocument | St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 2/10/02 ]] ------ and that some of it was as caustic as liquid drain cleaner. [[ http://www.stltoday.com/stltoday/news/special/asbestos.nsf/0/727E0EBECFD7DD0F86256CAD0076A1EE?OpenDocument | St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 2/10/02 (B) ]] ------ &#8220;We were startled at the pH level we were finding,&#8221; Swayze adds. &#8220;We knew that the cement dust was caustic, but we were getting pH readings of 12 and higher. It was obvious that precautions had to be taken to protect the workers and people returning to their homes from the dust.&#8221; Sam Vance, an environmental scientist with the EPA, sends the results to officials at the EPA, the New York health department and US Public Health Service. [[ http://www.stltoday.com/stltoday/news/special/asbestos.nsf/0/8DC49C62C3BDFD2186256CAD0076A1ED?OpenDocument | St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 2/10/02 ]] ====== << env_imp_AVIRIS >> << keyEvents >> << env_imp_governmentTests >> ((+ Eric Livo )) ((+ Todd Hoefen )) ((+ Gregg Swayze )) ((+ Geoffrey Plumlee )) ((+ Joe Taggart )) ((+ Steve Sutley )) ((+ Robert Green )) ((+ Roger Clark )) ((+ US Geological Service (USGS) )) ((+ Phil Hageman )) ((+ Gregory Meeker )) September 20, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1333 false 1 ------ Business Week publishes a news report on the potential environmental and human health impact of the World Trade Center collapse. The report cites experts who challenge EPA claims that the air-quality of surrounding areas does not pose significant risks to public health. &#8220;[M]any scientists and public-health experts in New York, across the country, and in Europe counter that dust and toxic materials, not asbestos, may be the biggest threat and that the EPA's testing is, at best, inconclusive,&#8221; the magazine reports. Part of the problem lies in lax EPA pollution limits, which experts say &#8220;are often heavily influenced by industry&#8221; and consequently much too high&#8212; &#8220;especially in an event of such unprecedented magnitude that flooded the environment with so many contaminants simultaneously.&#8221; The report goes on to say that the experts are concerned that &#8220;everyone who was in the explosions' vicinity could have potentially suffered acute exposure from the dust and smoke and could be at risk for everything from near-term respiratory ailments to, over decades, cancer.&#8221; Richard Clapp, a professor at Boston University's School of Public Health, tells Business Week: &#8220;Even at low or barely detectable levels, that's a lot of asbestos fibers and other dangerous particles going into people's lungs. If those get lodged, they could do damage later on.&#8221; Temple University civil engineering professor William Miller notes that the trucks hauling debris away from the WTC are probably dispersing toxic debris &#8220;all over Lower Manhattan.&#8221; The article says the smallest dust particles, which are difficult to detect, are also the &#8220;most insidious&#8221; and are not filtered out by paper masks. [[ http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/sep2001/nf20010920_2238.htm | Business Week, 9/20/01 ]] ------ Yet the EPA had explicitly stated that people living and working in the area did not need to use respirators (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1338 ]]). ====== << env_imp_independentStudies >> << keyEvents >> ((+ William Miller )) ((+ Richard Clapp )) ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) {{ commentary_robin_herbert_2 }} {{ commentary_peter_l._defur_2 }} {{ commentary_richard_clapp_2 }} {{ commentary_lois_gibbs_2 }} September 21, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1334 false 1 ------ EPA Administrator Christie Whitman assures New Yorkers that environmental conditions in Manhattan&#8212;both inside and outside&#8212;are safe, and provides a summary of the tests that have so far been performed on the city's air and drinking water. --- Water --- Whitman says: &#8220;As we continue to monitor drinking water in and around New York City, and as EPA gets more comprehensive analysis of this monitoring data, I am relieved to be able to reassure New York and New Jersey residents that a host of potential contaminants are either not detectable or are below the Agency's concern levels. Results we have just received on drinking water quality show that not only is asbestos not detectable, but also we can not detect any bacterial contamination, PCBs or pesticides.&#8221; She does say however that &#8220;following one rainstorm with particularly high runoff, we did have one isolated detection of slightly elevated levels of PCBs (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1337 ]]).&#8221; --- Outdoor air --- Whitman says that outdoor air sampling does not indicate the existence of significant public health risks. This claim is based on results obtained using the outdated polarized light microscopy (PLM) testing method (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1446 ]]) which is incapable of identifying ultra-fine fibers and which cannot reliably detect asbestos when present in concentrations below one percent (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1444 ]]). Even though Whitman denies a significant risk to public health, she does say &#8220;seven samples taken at or near Ground Zero have had marginally higher levels of asbestos that exceed EPA's level of concern,&#8221; and that her agency has &#8220;done a total of 101 dust samples, of which 37 were slightly over the one percent asbestos.&#8221; Whitman does not mention that the EPA's &#8220;level of concern&#8221; is not a safety benchmark (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1491 ]]) but rather the detection limit of the polarized light microscopy (PLM) testing method (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1444 ]]). --- Indoor air --- Whitman claims, &#8220;New Yorkers and New Jerseyans need not be concerned about environmental issues as they return to their homes and workplaces.&#8221; But the EPA has no data indicating that indoor air is actually safe. The only indoor tests that have been conducted by the EPA were in the EPA's Region 2 offices located in the Federal Building and a few neighboring buildings&#8212;and the results from several of these tests were positive for chrysotile asbestos (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1401 ]]). [[ http://www.house.gov/nadler/wtc/docs/EPAWhitePaper.pdf | Nadler, 3/18/2002 ]] [[ http://www.epa.gov/wtc/stories/headline2_092101.htm | EPA, 9/21/01 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentStatements >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) ((+ Christine Todd Whitman )) September 21, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1335 false 1 ------ The US Department of Health and Human Services announces that it has released $126 million for disaster related expenses. The figure includes $10.4 million for environmental hazard control to pay for worker safety measures, technical assistance for responding to hazardous environmental exposures, and potential needs related to exposure to contaminants. [[ http://www.immuneweb.org/911/government/sept01.html#HHS921 | US Department of Health and Human Services, 9/21/01 ]] ====== ((+ US Health and Human Services (HSS) )) September 22, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1467 false 1 ------ Monona Rossol, an industrial hygienist with Arts, Crafts, and Theater Safety, writes a press release criticizing the New York City Department of Health (DOH)'s WTC disaster cleanup guidelines (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1395 ]]). The press release, co-signed by the New York Environmental Law and Justice Project, points out that the DOH's guidelines could &#8220;cause people to take needless risks.&#8221; Rossol takes issue with a September 20 New York Times article which suggested that residents could adequately clean up their apartments with a $3 mask and a broom, noting that &#8220;[t]aking actions like these can damage health and may even shorten lives in the future.&#8221; She insists &#8220;methods chosen to clean homes and offices must depend on analysis of the dust and the amounts present.&#8221; [[ http://www.brasscheck.com/911/dust-test.html | Kupferman, 9/22/2001 ]] ====== ((+ Monona Rossol )) ((+ New York City Department of Health )) ((+ New York Environmental Law and Justice Project )) September 22, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1336 false 1 ------ By this date, the EPA has set up approximately 15 wash stations for personnel and vehicles with signs posted instructing rescue workers to wear respirators and to take proper safety precautions. [[ http://www.immuneweb.org/911/government/sept01.html#other911 | EPA, 9/22/01 ]] ====== ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) September 22, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1338 false 1 ------ The New York City Department of Health issues a press release reiterating earlier public statements regarding the air quality in Manhattan and announces that the agency has distributed over 50,000 copies of the New York City Department of Health's recommendations for tenant re-occupancy (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1395 ]]). The press release quotes New York City Health Commissioner Neal L. Cohen, MD, who asserts that &#8220;there are no significant adverse health risks to the general public....&#8221; and &#8220;all residents and business owners should check with their building managers or owners to make sure that their buildings are safe, and have been certified for re-occupancy.&#8221; Residents and business owners who are permitted to return to their buildings &#8220;should follow Health Department recommendations to minimize exposure to dust and other particulate matter that may cause throat and eye irritation,&#8221; he says. The statement goes on to say that only people who live or work &#8220;within the general vicinity of the blast zone ... and who have been approved to resume tenancy are advised to wear a dust mask while outside. Dust masks are not necessary for residents in other areas.&#8221; Tenants following the DEP's cleanup guidelines should find it &#8220;unnecessary to wear a mask while inside buildings,&#8221; the statement says. [[ http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/public/press01/pr84-922.html | New York City Department of Health, 9/22/01 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_governmentStatements >> << env_imp_indoors >> ((+ New York City Department of Health )) ((+ Neal L. Cohen, M.D. )) September 23, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1344 false 1 ------ Dermatologist Paul Dantzig writes to The New York Times that he is &#8220;beginning to see dermatological problems arising from the World Trade Center catastrophe, like foreign-body reactions on the skin and cutaneous infections.&#8221; He notes that the &#8220;kinds of problems that occur on the skin can also occur in the lungs,&#8221; and adds that &#8220;People who inhaled large amounts of dust and debris from the center's collapse will be at risk of developing granulomas and fibrosis of the lungs.&#8221; He suggests that people who have been exposed to WTC contaminants be &#8220;followed medically and receive X-rays now and periodically over the next few years.&#8221; [[ http://www.villagevoice.com/issues/0139/baard.php | Village Voice, 9/26/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_independentStudies >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Paul Dantzig )) September 23, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1367 false 1 ------ EPA air monitors at Barclay and West Sts., Church and Dey Sts. and at Ground Zero detect lead levels three times higher than the EPA standard allows. [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Daily%20Cover%20%20Story%20-%20A%20Toxic%20Nightmare%20At%20Disaster%20Site.pdf | New York Daily News, 10/21/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentTests >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) (September 23, 2001) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1341 false 1 ------ EPA monitors detect elevated levels of benzene in the smoke plume from the WTC ruins that exceed OSHA's standard for an eight-hour exposure period. [[ http://www.immuneweb.org/911/government/sept01.html#other911 | EPA, 9/23/01 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentTests >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) September 24, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1479 false 1 ------ An EPA press release summarizes the agency's response to the September 11 attacks under its authority pursuant the National Contingency Plan (NCP) (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1477 ]]) . [[ http://www.epa.gov/ocirpage/hearings/testimony/092402ctw.PDF | EPA, 9/24/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_EPAresponsibilities >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) September 26, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_3243 false 1 ------ The American Lung Association announces plans to distribute more than 10,000 cleanup kits to assist people returning to their homes. Each &#8220;Operation Return Home&#8221; kit will include recommendations (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1395 ]]) from the city's department of health on how to properly clean their residences as well as a dust mask and a pair of latex gloves for cleaning. [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Associated Press, 9/26/01 cited in Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] ====== << env_imp_indoors >> ((+ American Lung Association )) September 26, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1456 false 1 ------ Three of 10 samples taken by the EPA near the attack site indicate elevated levels of lead. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A11173-2002Jan7?language=printer%22 | The Washington Post, 1/8/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentTests >> << keyEvents >> September 27, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1428 false 1 ------ After USGS scientists complete their analysis of the dust samples collected in New York City (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1425 ]]) &#8212;which found asbestos, an &#8220;alphabet soup of heavy metals,&#8221; and an extremely high pH level (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1427 ]]) &#8212;the team emails the results to &#8220;all the government contacts the team had&#8221; including people at the EPA and FEMA, as well as to the federal emergency response coordinator. The EPA never informs the public of the dust's high pH. &#8220;We anticipated that the results would have been shared with the people on the ground, those at risk, but it looks like the information never got to those who needed it,&#8221; Geoffrey Plumlee, a geochemist, will later tell the St. Louis Post-Dispatch. [[ http://www.stltoday.com/stltoday/news/special/asbestos.nsf/0/8DC49C62C3BDFD2186256CAD0076A1ED?OpenDocument | St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 2/10/02 ]] [[ http://www.stltoday.com/stltoday/news/special/asbestos.nsf/0/727E0EBECFD7DD0F86256CAD0076A1EE?OpenDocument | St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 2/10/02 (B) ]] ------ Some scientists will suggest that the dust's high pH is a major cause of what will come to be known as the &#8220;WTC cough&#8221; (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1493 ]]). ====== << env_imp_AVIRIS >> << keyEvents >> << env_imp_governmentTests >> << env_imp_deception >> ((+ US Geological Service (USGS) )) ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) ((+ Federal Emergency Management Agency )) {{ commentary_robin_herbert_3 }} {{ commentary_cate_jenkins,_phd._7 }} {{ commentary_joel_shufro_2 }} (September 28, 2001) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1523 false 1 ------ National Ombudsman Robert Martin sends a memorandum to EPA Administrator Christie Whitman suggesting that the agency implement the recommendations in the General Accounting Office's July 2001 report (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1522 ]]). He advises against a proposal under consideration that would move his office to the Office of Inspector General (OIG). He argues that doing so would not increase the ombudsman's independence and notes that the ombudsman's mission is very different than the OIG's. [[ http://epw.senate.gov/107th/Martin_062502.htm | US Senate, 6/25/2002 ]] [[ http://www.pogo.org/m/ep/ep-doewhitman.pdf | Martin, 11/26/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_ombudsman >> ((+ Robert J. Martin )) ((- General Accounting Office )) ((- EPA Office of Inspector General (OIG) )) ((+ Christine Todd Whitman )) (late September 2001) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1448 false 1 ------ Observers question whether federal, state, and city officials are putting economic interests ahead of the health of New York Lower Manhattan residents and WTC rescue and recovery workers. ====== << env_imp_deception >> << keyEvents >> {{ statement_steve_swaney_2 }} {{ statement_joel_shufro_3 }} October 1, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1361 false 1 ------ Borough of Manhattan Community College, CUNY, (BMCC), located four blocks from the World Trade Center site, reopens its campus. [[ http://www.villagevoice.com/issues/0151/worth.php | Village Voice, 12/19/2005 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/september11/story/0,11209,601777,00.html | The Guardian, 10/4/2001 ]] ------ The school is the only school that was damaged as a result of the attacks on the World Trade Center. When 7 World Trade Center collapsed, the south face of the recently renovated Fiterman Hall was destroyed. The 15-story building housed 40 classrooms, computer labs, and three floors that the college rented to private companies. The remaining portion of the school&#8212;designed to hold no more than 8,000 students&#8212;must now accommodate some 17,000. The attacks have put a tremendous strain on BMCC's finances. The damage is estimated to be about $11.5 million. Additionally, the school will lose about $1.1 million in lost lease revenue. The school's financial problems are compounded by the fact that $9.7 million is set to be cut from next year's CUNY budget. [[ http://www.villagevoice.com/issues/0151/worth.php | Village Voice, 12/19/2005 ]] ------ Shortly after returning to school, students and teachers will complain about ailments such as acquired asthma, upper-respiratory disease, chronic headaches, and itchy eyes and skin believed to be caused by air contamination that resulted from the WTC collapse and made worse by the continuing fire plume. Despite the college's long list of problems, the media and city government will pay little attention to the school, whose student body is largely low-income people of color. Instead, the focus will be on Stuyvesant High School, an elite public school, which suffered no direct damages on September 11. By December, more than $1 million will be spent on environmental cleanup at Stuyvesant compared to only $75,000 at BMCC. [[ http://www.villagevoice.com/issues/0151/worth.php | Village Voice, 12/19/2005 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> ((+ Borough of Manhattan Community College, CUNY, (BMCC) )) ((+ Stuyvesant High School )) October 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1363 false 1 ------ Residents living close to the World Trade Center site complain of ailments they suspect are tied to airborne toxins and dust particles. For example, David Dallow, a resident of Battery Park City apartment, located roughly 100 yards away from the ruins, tells New York Magazine that every time he goes back to his apartment he gets a sore throat, a headache, and a rash. [[ http://www.newyorkmetro.com/nymetro/news/sept11/features/5291/ | New York Magazine, 10/22/01 ]] ====== << env_imp_indoors >> << env_imp_personalStories >> ((+ David Dallow )) (October 2001) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1482 false 1 ------ Monona Rossol, an industrial hygienist with Arts, Crafts, and Theater Safety, writes in the October/November edition of her newsletter, ACTS, that the EPA and NYC Department of Health are providing New Yorkers with false information. &#8220;The tests performed by federal, state, and city agencies on the dusts lying on the ground and other surfaces are incomplete and thus cannot be used to determine the hazards to anyone involved in cleaning up these dusts. The primary substance tested by these agencies was asbestos. But there are other important contaminants, such as fiberglass, fine particulates ... PCB's and dioxins. The agency's tests did not find hazardous airborne asbestos in street air ... But these air monitoring results are misleading because they do not indicate what the air levels are inside buildings, schools, and homes in the area. The dust in outdoor air samples is diluted with wind from non-contaminated areas. Indoors, the dust is contained. Disturbing indoor dust during cleaning and other activities can result in higher levels.... The New York [City] Department of Health's website . . . provides advice that is typical of the major agencies. The NYC DOH says: &#8216;... Based on the asbestos test results received thus far, there are no significant health risks to occupants in the affected area or to the general public....&#8217; This statement is false. As I stated above: there were over 30 locations in Lower Manhattan where asbestos levels were 1 percent or above, including at locations 5 to 7 blocks away from Ground Zero.&#8221; [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | ACTS, 10/2001 cited in Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> ((+ Monona Rossol )) Early October 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1462 false 1 ------ EPA officials distribute respirators to employees at the EPA's Region 2 building at 290 Broadway Street after employees complain about air quality in the building. EPA spokeswoman Mary Helen Cervantes explains that the masks were distributed for the &#8220;voluntary use of those employees who might have respiratory ailments or who feel some temporary discomfort from the air,&#8221; the New York Daily News reports. [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | New York Daily News, 10/9/01 cited in Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] ====== << env_imp_deception >> << keyEvents >> October 2, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1369 false 1 ------ EPA monitors record benzene levels from three spots around Ground Zero that are 42, 31 and 16 times higher than OSHA standards permit. [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Daily%20Cover%20%20Story%20-%20A%20Toxic%20Nightmare%20At%20Disaster%20Site.pdf | New York Daily News, 10/21/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentTests >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) October 2, 2001-Mid-December, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1429 false 1 ------ A team of specialists from UC Davis, known as the Detection and Evaluation of Long-range Transport of Aerosols (DELTA) Group, conducts air sampling from the roof of 201 Varick St., located one mile north-northeast of the WTC site, at the request of the Department of Energy. Regional meteorology will suggest that the monitoring equipment's location at Varick Street probably receives material from the World Trade Center site about half the time. The group's analysts use seven different techniques to analyze the data including synchrotron-induced X-ray fluorescence, scanning transmission ion microscopy and proton elastic scattering analysis, and soft beta mass measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). DELTA will examine the samples for dozens of substances including carbon-based compounds from burning wood, plastic and carpets; glass shards; and asbestos. DELTA will release summary reports in December (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1431 ]]) and February (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1430 ]]). [[ http://pubs.acs.org/cen/topstory/8007/8007notw3.html | Chemical and Engineering News, 2/18/2002 ]] [[ http://www-dateline.ucdavis.edu/021502/DL_wtc.html | University of California at Davis DELTA Group, 2/15/2002 ]] [[ http://www.tms.org/pubs/journals/JOM/0112/News/News7-0112.html | JOM, 12/1/01 ]] ====== << env_imp_independentStudies >> ((+ US Department of Energy )) ((+ DELTA Group )) October 2, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1370 false 1 ------ The EPA monitors record benzene levels at one location near Ground Zero 21 times higher than OSHA standards permit. [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Daily%20Cover%20%20Story%20-%20A%20Toxic%20Nightmare%20At%20Disaster%20Site.pdf | New York Daily News, 10/21/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentTests >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) October 2, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1371 false 1 ------ The EPA monitors record benzene levels at one location near Ground Zero that is 58 times higher than OSHA's permissible exposure limit. This is the highest benzene reading ever recorded at the WTC site. [[ http://archives.tcm.ie/breakingnews/2001/10/26/story27878.asp | Thomas Crosbie Media, 10/26/2001 ]] [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Daily%20Cover%20%20Story%20-%20A%20Toxic%20Nightmare%20At%20Disaster%20Site.pdf | New York Daily News, 10/21/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentTests >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) (October 3, 2001) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1351 false 1 ------ The EPA publishes a summary of results from the air-monitoring program it implemented shortly after the 9/11 attacks. The summary covers the period between September 11 and September 30. --- * --- &#8220;Out of a total of 442 air samples EPA has taken at Ground Zero and in the immediate area, only 27 had levels of asbestos above the standard EPA uses to determine if children can re-enter a school after asbestos has been removed&#8212;a stringent standard based upon assumptions of long term exposure. OSHA has analyzed 67 air samples from the same area, and all were below the OSHA workplace standard for asbestos.&#8221; --- * --- &#8220;All fifty-four air samples from EPA's four monitors in New Jersey found no [asbestos] levels above EPA's standard. Another 162 samples were taken from EPA's monitors at the Fresh Kills landfill in Staten Island, where debris from the World Trade Center is being taken; only two exceeded EPA's standard.&#8221; --- * --- &#8220;Of 177 bulk dust and debris samples collected by EPA and OSHA and analyzed for asbestos, 48 had levels over 1 percent, the level EPA and OSHA use to define asbestos-containing material. Although early samples from water runoff into the Hudson and East Rivers showed some elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxin, asbestos and metals, recent results find non-detectable levels of asbestos, and PCBs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals below the level of concern.&#8221; --- * --- EPA and OSHA samples from Ground Zero and surrounding areas did not contain levels of lead, iron oxide, zinc oxide, copper or beryllium exceeding OSHA limits. --- * --- The EPA &#8220;has measured dioxin levels in and around the World Trade Center site that were at or above EPA's level for taking action.&#8221; However, the risk from dioxin is based on long term exposure, EPA claims, adding that the agency and OSHA &#8220;expect levels to diminish as soon as the remaining fires on the site are extinguished.&#8221; The exact figures of the dioxin levels, however, are startling. More than a year later, the EPA will publish a report which includes the raw dioxin data for this period indicating that dioxins levels on some days were almost six times the highest dioxin level ever recorded in the US (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_2947 ]]). --- * --- &#8220;Of the 36 samples of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) taken around Ground Zero to assist response workers in determining the appropriate level of respiratory protection, several samples have been above the OSHA standard for workers. None presented an immediate risk to workers, and the levels are expected to decline when the fires are out.&#8221; [[ http://www.epa.gov/wtc/summaries/epa-osha01.htm | Environmental Protection Agency, 10/3/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentTests >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) October 3, 2001-March 1, 2004 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1435 false 1 ------ EPA Region 2 says at least four times, and the New York City Department of Health and Environmental Protection at least once, that they are using a protective standard under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) to determine whether indoor and outdoor air pose a threat to public health. They assert that the standard is regularly used to determine whether it is safe for school children to return to school buildings after asbestos has been removed or abated. According to the agencies, the standard designates an asbestos level of 70 or fewer structures per square millimeter as safe. [[ http://www.nycosh.org/WTCcatastrophe/asbestos-status-3-11-02.pdf | Jenkins memo, March 11, 2002 ]] ------ For example, on a page explaining its &#8220;benchmarks, standards and guidelines established to protect public health,&#8221; the EPA states: &#8220;In evaluating data from the World Trade Center and the surrounding areas, EPA is using a protective standard under AHERA, the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act, to evaluate the risk from asbestos in the outdoor and indoor air. This is a very stringent standard that is used to determine whether children may re-enter a school building after asbestos has been removed or abated.... To determine asbestos levels, air filters are collected from monitoring equipment through which air in the school building has passed and viewed through a microscope. The number of structures&#8212;material that has asbestos fibers on or in it&#8212;is then counted. The measurements must be 70 or fewer structures per square millimeter before children are allowed inside.&#8221; [[ http://www.epa.gov/wtc/benchmarks.htm | EPA, 3/1/2004 ]] ------ But according to Title 40, part 763.90, of the Code of Federal Regulations, the 70 s/mm [[ http://www.nycosh.org/WTCcatastrophe/asbestos-status-3-11-02.pdf | Jenkins, 3/11/2002 ]] ------ Instead, AHERA sets as the EPA's cleanup goal an exposure level which scientists have determined has a risk level lower than the EPA's maximum risk level of 10 (( EPA, CASRN 1332-21-4, n.d. )) (( Jenkins memo, March 11, 2002 )) ------ The significance of the two agencies' misstatements cannot be overstated as the 70 s/mm [[ http://www.nycosh.org/WTCcatastrophe/asbestos-status-3-11-02.pdf | Jenkins, 3/11/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_indoors >> << env_imp_benchmarks >> << keyEvents >> ((+ New York Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) )) ((+ Cate Jenkins, PhD. )) ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) {{ statement_thomas_r._frieden_2 }} {{ statement_walter_mugdan_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_epa_region_2_legal_counsel_2 }} {{ statement_environmental_protection_agency_3 }} {{ duplicate_environmental_protection_agency_2 }} October 3, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1348 false 1 ------ EPA Administrator Christine Todd Whitman and John Henshaw, US Department of Labor Assistant Secretary for OSHA, announce that their two agencies &#8220;have found no evidence of any significant public health hazard to residents, visitors or workers beyond the immediate World Trade Center area.&#8221; But later in the statement, they acknowledge that to date, &#8220;Of 177 bulk dust and debris samples collected by EPA and OSHA and analyzed for asbestos, 48 had levels over 1 percent, the level EPA and OSHA use to define asbestos-containing material.&#8221; Additionally, they say that out &#8220;of a total of 442 air samples EPA has taken at Ground Zero and in the immediate area, only 27 had levels of asbestos above the standard EPA uses to determine if children can re-enter a school after asbestos has been removed....&#8221; [[ http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/b1ab9f485b098972852562e7004dc686/a58e3e62ff609f5185256ada00729977?OpenDocument | EPA, 10/3/01 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentStatements >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Christine Todd Whitman )) ((+ John L. Henshaw )) October 3, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1436 false 1 ------ EPA Region 2 states in its daily monitoring notice: &#8220;The samples are evaluated against a variety of benchmarks, standards and guidelines established to protect public health under various conditions. ... EPA analyzed 34 samples taken in and around Ground Zero from October 8 to October 9. All samples showed results less than 70 structures per millimeter squared, which is the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) standard for allowing children to re-enter school buildings after asbestos removal activities.&#8221; [[ http://www.epa.gov/wtc/summaries/epa-osha100301.htm | EPA, 10/03/2001 ]] ------ But the statement is a gross misinterpretation of AHERA (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1435 ]]). ====== << env_imp_benchmarks >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) {{ duplicate_environmental_protection_agency_3 }} October 3, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1352 false 1 ------ HP Environmental, a Virginia law firm, releases a study concluding that there is an overwhelming concentration of ultra fine fibers&#8212;particles measuring less than half a micron in size&#8212;in the Manhattan area that have eluded the standard polarized light microscopy (PLM) techniques (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1446 ]]) used by the EPA. The report was compiled by several scientists and industrial hygienists including Hugh Granger, Ph.D., CIH and Piotr Chmielinski, CIH of HP Environmental; Tom McKee, Ph.D. of Scientific Laboratories; Jim Millette, Ph.D. of MVA, Inc.; and George Pineda, CIH of ET Environmental. Newsweek reports that according to Granger, the study's lead author, high concentrations of these fibers have been detected &#8220;within several blocks of Ground Zero, including inside closed and undamaged offices nearby and as high up as 36 stories.&#8221; Dr. Philip Landrigan, a leading expert on asbestos toxicity, commenting on the report's findings, tells Newsweek, &#8220;I find this very troublesome. The smaller the particle, the more easily it can be aerosolized. And the easier job that it has penetrating right down into the very depths of the lungs.&#8221; The study is based on laboratory tests of samples collected between September 21 and 28. [[ http://www.newyorkmetro.com/nymetro/news/sept11/features/5291/ | New York Magazine, 10/22/01 ]] [[ http://www.planetark.org/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/12800/story.htm | Reuters, 10/15/2001 ]] [[ http://www.enn.com/news/wire-stories/2001/10/10102001/ap_45220.asp | Associated Press, 10/10/01 ]] [[ http://msnbc.msn.com/id/3067591/ | Newsweek, 10/5/01 ]] ------ The study is initially posted on the website of the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA). But is removed after only 5 hours. Cate Jenkins, a veteran EPA employee, will later suggest that &#8220;its removal was motivated by the fact that it conflicted with Governor Whitman's press release of the same day (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1348 ]]) claiming no hazardous exposures to asbestos except at Ground Zero.&#8221; [[ http://911digitalarchive.org/objects/106.pdf | Jenkins, 12/3/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_independentStudies >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Jim Millette, Ph.D. )) ((+ Tom McKee, Ph.D. )) ((+ Piotr Chmielinski, CIH )) ((+ George Pineda, CIH )) ((+ Phillip Landrigan )) ((+ HP Environmental )) ((+ Hugh Granger )) October 5, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1353 false 1 ------ New York City Health Commissioner Neal L. Cohen, MD, says that despite smoky conditions in areas of Lower Manhattan, &#8220;test results from the ongoing monitoring of airborne contaminants indicate that the levels continue to be below the level of concern to public health.&#8221; [[ http://www.immuneweb.org/911/government/oct01.html#NYCDOH1005 | New York City Department of Health, 10/5/01 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentStatements >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Neal L. Cohen, M.D. )) ((+ New York City Department of Health )) October 5, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1532 false 1 ------ The decision to re-open Stuyvesant High School in Lower Manhattan is made based on tests of indoor air samples taken by the EPA. Two EPA &#8220;On Scene-Coordinators&#8221; (OSCs) (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1301 ]]) are present at the meeting and participate in the decision-making. One of the OSCs is Charlie Fitzsimmons. [[ http://landofpuregold.com/truth42.htm | Martin, 3/27/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_EPAresponsibilities >> ((+ Charlie Fitzsimmons )) ((+ Stuyvesant High School )) October 6, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1354 false 1 ------ The New York Times reports that despite EPA assurances that dangerous levels of contamination do not exist, city residents &#8220;who have moved back into downtown homes and offices are convinced that the air is unsafe, and they say they can produce their own data about the health risks: sore throats, tongue lesions, burning eyes and ears and skin rashes.&#8221; The residents are calling for independent air testing and want the city to appoint a nonpartisan &#8220;environmental advocate&#8221; who would explain to the public how studies are being done and what their findings mean. [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2001/10/06/nyregion/06BATT.html | New York Times, 10/6/01 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> October 6, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1355 false 1 ------ Approximately 1,500 concerned downtown New York City residents skeptical of EPA assurances that the city air is safe to breathe meet in a Wall Street hotel lobby with a group of local officials to discuss the issue of air quality. Joel A. Miele Sr., the city's commissioner of environmental protection, tells the New York Times that the government believes residents' concerns are unfounded. [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2001/10/06/nyregion/06BATT.html | New York Times, 10/6/01 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> ((+ Joel A. Miele Sr. )) October 8, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1356 false 1 ------ A draft report written by Dr. Roderick Wallace of New York State Psychiatric Institute and Dr. Deborah N. Wallace of Columbia University, warns that residents of downtown Manhattan may later develop symptoms similar to &#8220;particularly acute forms of Gulf War Syndrome&#8221; because of their exposure to the contaminants released when the World Trade Center towers collapsed and burned. The report's authors write that the collapse and fires appear &#8220;to have exposed an exceedingly large population to dioxins, dibenzofurans, related endocrine disruptors, and a multitude of other physiologically active chemicals arising from the decomposition of the massive quantities of halogenated hydrocarbons and other plastics within the affected buildings.&#8221; The expected pattern &#8220;greatly transcends a simple &#8216;Post Traumatic Stress Disorder&#8217; model, and may come to resemble particularly acute forms of Gulf War Syndrome,&#8221; they say. [[ cogprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/archive/00001817/00/WTCf2a.pdf | Wallace and Wallace, 10/8/01 ]] ====== << env_imp_independentStudies >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Deborah N Wallace )) ((+ Rodrick Wallace )) October 9, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1357 false 1 ------ New York State Governor George E. Pataki announces that New York State will receive $8.5 million in federal funds. $3.5 million of the grant will be provided to the state over a period of five years for initiatives addressing any respiratory impacts of the WTC collapse. The remaining $5 million will be available immediately to support environmental monitoring in New York City, asthma surveillance, health interventions and asthma education. [[ http://www.enn.com/news/wire-stories/2001/10/10102001/ap_45220.asp | Associated Press, 10/10/2001 ]] [[ http://www.state.ny.us/governor/press/year01/oct9_2_01.htm | State of New York, 10/9/01 ]] ====== ((+ George E. Pataki )) October 9, 2001-October 19, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1362 false 1 ------ On October 9, students of Stuyvesant High School, an elite public school known for its rigorous math and science curriculum and ethnic diversity, return to class. [[ http://cnnstudentnews.cnn.com/2001/fyi/teachers.ednews/10/19/attacks.highschool.ap/ | Associated Press, 10/19/01 ]] [[ http://www.asianweek.com/2001_10_26/news_stuyvesant.html | Associated Press, 10/26/2001 ]] ------ The two EPA On-Scene Coordinators (OSC) who took part in the decision to re-open the school (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1532 ]]) are present for the re-opening. [[ http://landofpuregold.com/truth42.htm | Martin, 3/27/2002 ]] ------ The school is located four blocks north of the WTC site and is downwind from its smoke plume. It is also adjacent to where debris is being loaded from uncovered trucks&#8212;some 350 per day&#8212;onto barges around the clock. A week after re-opening the school, approximately 100 of the high school's 3,200 students and teachers complain of respiratory difficulty, mysterious headaches, nausea, sore throats, and nosebleeds. Some students wear respirators to school to protect themselves. [[ http://www.geocities.com/lmrrc911/media_011220nydn.html | New York Daily News, 12/20/2001 ]] [[ http://www.blythe.org/nytransfer-subs/2001act/Fire_at_WTC_Site_May_Smolder_for_Months | New York Daily News, 11/1/2001 ]] [[ http://cnnstudentnews.cnn.com/2001/fyi/teachers.ednews/10/19/attacks.highschool.ap/ | Associated Press, 10/19/01 ]] [[ http://www.asianweek.com/2001_10_26/news_stuyvesant.html | Associated Press, 10/26/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_EPAresponsibilities >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Charlie Fitzsimmons )) ((+ Stuyvesant High School )) October 11, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1360 false 1 ------ Hundreds of residents and workers in Lower Manhattan attend a public meeting at Pace University where a panel of experts discusses the potential health risks associated with post-WTC collapse air contamination. Though they provide reassurances on the issue of asbestos levels, they highlight the uncertainty over the potential impact of other contaminants. &#8220;We don't know all the facts,&#8221; Stephen Levin MD, a panelist, notes. &#8220;We do know that the further you are from the site, the less risk you have. No one at this point can give you absolute reassurance that there is no risk.&#8221; The New York Environmental Law and Justice Project is present at the meeting and distributes an informational flier citing evidence from an independent analysis of dust samples finding that fiberglass composes 15% by weight of the bulk sample (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1340 ]]). The flyer also warns of the effects of WTC fires spewing highly toxic combustion products, including dioxins, PCBs, furans and other cancer-causing substances. [[ http://www.newsday.com/news/health/ny-nyair122410096oct12.story | Newsday, 10/12/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_independentStudies >> << keyEvents >> ((+ New York Environmental Law and Justice Project )) ((+ Stephen Levin MD )) October 11, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1452 false 1 ------ The New York Daily News reports, &#8220;[EPA spokeswoman Bonnie] Bellow says none of the agency's tests for the presence of asbestos, radiation, mercury and other metals, pesticides, PCBs or bacteria have shown any evidence of any significant public health hazard.&#8221; [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | New York Daily News, 10/11/2001 cited in Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentTests >> << keyEvents >> << env_imp_governmentStatements >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) ((+ Bonnie Bellow )) October 11, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1359 false 1 ------ New York State Senator David Paterson holds a news conference in Bryant Park to highlight the need for additional environmental impact studies of the WTC collapse and fires. &#8220;There has never been a public health crisis like this in the city,&#8221; he says. [[ http://www.nycosh.org/linktopics/WTC-catastrophe_archive_Sept-Nov.html | New York City Daily News, 10/11/2001 cited in New York Committee for Occupational Safety and Health , 10/11/01 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> ((+ David Paterson )) October 12, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1547 false 1 ------ Eric Chatfield, Ph.D., and John R. Kominsky of Chatfield Technical Consulting Limited, frequently contracted by EPA, complete a report analyzing the particulate matter found in two Manhattan apartments. The report was commissioned by the Ground Zero Task Force, whose members include US Congressman Jerrold Nadler as well as numerous state and city officials. The study found &#8220;significantly elevated&#8221; concentrations of asbestos in dust samples taken from the apartment interiors of the two buildings. The highest asbestos reading from the &#8220;low-exposure&#8221; building located at 45 Warren St was 316 structures/square mm (s/mm (( Chatfield Technical Consulting Limited, 10/12/2001 )) [[ http://911digitalarchive.org/objects/106.pdf | Jenkins, 12/3/2001, ]] [[ http://www.house.gov/nadler/wtc/docs/EPAWhitePaper.pdf | Nadler, 3/18/2002 ]] ------ The EPA will neither comment on, nor take any action with respect to, these findings. [[ http://www.house.gov/nadler/wtc/docs/EPAWhitePaper.pdf | Nadler, 3/18/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_independentStudies >> << keyEvents >> ((+ John R. Kominsky )) ((+ Eric Chatfield )) ((+ Chatfield Technical Consulting Limited )) October 19, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1373 false 1 ------ The New York Environmental Law and Justice Project obtains internal EPA documents containing data that the agency did not include in the monitoring results it posted on its website on October 3 (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1351 ]]). The documents, which include hundreds of pages of daily monitoring reports, reveal that &#8220;[d]ioxins, PCBs, benzene, lead and chromium are among the toxic substances detected in the air and soil around the WTC site by Environmental Protection Agency [monitoring] equipment&#8212;sometimes at levels far exceeding federal levels.&#8221; For example, one test indicated water being discharged into the Hudson River contained chromium, copper, lead and zinc at levels &#8220;elevated to several orders of magnitude above ambient water-quality criteria for most metals.&#8221; Also included is disturbing data about the air quality. &#8220;On numerous days, sulfur dioxide readings in the air at a half-dozen sites in Lower Manhattan have been far higher than the EPA's ambient air quality standards,&#8221; one document reveals. [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Daily%20Cover%20%20Story%20-%20A%20Toxic%20Nightmare%20At%20Disaster%20Site.pdf | New York Daily News, 10/21/2001 ]] [[ http://archives.tcm.ie/breakingnews/2001/10/26/story27878.asp | Thomas Crosbie Media, 10/26/2001 ]] [[ http://www.brainerddispatch.com/stories/102701/nne_1027010088.shtml | Associated Press, 10/27/2001 ]] [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Kupferman-Chapter-in-LOST-LIBERTIES.pdf | Kupferman, 2003 ]] ====== << env_imp_deception >> << keyEvents >> << env_imp_governmentTests >> ((+ New York Environmental Law and Justice Project )) ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) October 20, 2001-October 23, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1347 false 1 ------ According to a draft report (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1346 ]]) prepared by IT Corporation of Las Vegas, there is an increase in benzene and toluene in the smoke plume emanating from the WTC North Tower Center site during this period. [[ http://911digitalarchive.org/objects/117.pdf | IT Corporation, 10/29/2001 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> ((+ IT Corporation )) (October 24, 2001) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1510 false 1 ------ The City of New York posts test results for asbestos in ambient outdoor air using the polarized light microscopy (PLM) test method on the NYC Department of Environmental Protection website. [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/EPA%20concealment-071504-Jenkins.pdf | Jenkins, 7/15/2004 ]] ------ New York City DEP test results based on the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) testing method are not posted until early 2002 (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1509 ]]). ====== << env_imp_governmentTests >> << keyEvents >> << env_imp_deception >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) (October 25, 2001) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1416 false 1 ------ Joel A. Miele, Sr., commissioner of the city's Department of Environmental Protection, claims his agency has &#8220;bent over backwards to be as conservative as possible in our testing ... and there is no significant danger&#8221; to anyone's health. &#8220;People are safe, not just at the site, but at the perimeters,&#8221; he adds. [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Newsday, 10/26/2003 cited in Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] ====== << env_imp_benchmarks >> << keyEvents >> << env_imp_governmentStatements >> ((+ The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) )) ((+ Joel A. Miele Sr. )) October 25, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1364 false 1 ------ The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) publishes a notice for residents of Lower Manhattan reassuring them that the DEP, in collaboration with other government agencies, is doing everything it can to protect public health. The agencies are taking samples of the air, dust, water, river sediments and drinking water and analyzing them for the presence of pollutants, the statement says, and comparing them to a variety of government &#8220;benchmarks, standards and guidelines.&#8221; The notice claims that current monitoring indicates that containment levels do not represent a significant threat to public health. [[ http://www.epa.gov/oigearth/reports/2003/wtc/nycdep20011025.htm | EPA, 10/25/01 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_governmentStatements >> ((+ The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) )) October 26, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1417 false 1 ------ New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani says NYC government agencies have found that environmental conditions in Lower Manhattan &#8220;are not health-threatening ... what I'm told is that it is not dangerous to your health.&#8221; [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/ Daily%20News%20-10-28-01%20-%20City-FEDS%20say%20WTC%20Air%20OK.pdf | New York Daily News, 10/27/2001 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_governmentStatements >> October 29, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1346 false 1 ------ A draft report prepared by IT Corporation of Las Vegas for the EPA's Office of Emergency and Remedial Response says that bulk dust samples taken from the World Trade Center site were found to contain elevated concentrations of several toxic compounds including CDD/CDF, PCBs, PAHs, and metals. [[ http://911digitalarchive.org/objects/117.pdf | IT Corporation, 10/29/2001 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_independentStudies >> ((+ IT Corporation )) October 30, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1374 false 1 ------ New York City Fire Commissioner Thomas Von Essen says that almost 4,000 firefighters who have participated in the rescue efforts at the World Trade Center have complained of respiratory problems, but adds that long term effects of working at Ground Zero are uncertain. &#8220;We won't know for a long period of time if there is any long term effect. Some might lead to asthma, some might lead to lung conditions,&#8221; One firefighter has been treated for allergic alveolitis, a rare lung inflammation. Von Essen's comments follow a Newsweek interview with Dr. David Prezant, the chief pulmonary physician for the city's fire department. Prezant explained to the magazine that thousands of firefighters require medical care for a range of illnesses, including coughs, sinus infections, lung trauma and severe asthma. Prezant, a professor at the Albert Einstein School of Medicine, has referred to these ailments collectively as the &#8220;World Trade Center cough.&#8221; [[ http://www.cnn.com/2001/US/10/29/rec.wtc.cough/index.html | CNN, 10/29/01 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2001/HEALTH/conditions/10/29/gupta.syndrome.otsc/ | CNN, 10/29/01 ]] [[ http://www.newsday.com/news/health/ny-nysynd302438498oct30.story | Newsday, 10/30/01 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/1630162.stm | BBC, 10/30/2001 ]] [[ http://www.firehouse.com/terrorist/1029_Psyndrome.html | New York Post, 10/29/2001 ]] [[ http://www.732-2m2m.com/tt/November_Articles.htm#Parents%20Want%20Say%20On%20School%20Reopenings | Associated Press, 11/1/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_WTCworkers >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Thomas Von Essen )) ((+ David J. Prezant )) (October 31, 2001) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1375 false 1 ------ EPA Administrator Christie Whitman continues to reassure the public regarding environmental conditions in Lower Manhattan and says: &#8220;Those of us in government and the media share an obligation to provide members of the public, in a responsible and calm manner, with the information they need to protect themselves and their families from any environmental hazards that may result from the attacks on the World Trade Center.&#8221; [[ asthmamoms.com/worldtradecenterarticles2001.htm | New York Daily News cited in Asthma Moms, 10/31/01 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentStatements >> ((+ Christine Todd Whitman )) Late October 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1376 false 1 ------ New York City officials order the Police and Fire Departments to reduce the number of officers and firefighters involved in recovery efforts at any one time to 24 for each department, citing new concerns about air quality at the site. The announcement is met with criticism from members of the police and firefighters unions. &#8220;We were promised by the mayor and the fire commissioner that we wouldn't give this up until we got everybody out,&#8221; Michael Carter, the vice president of the Uniformed Firefighters Association, tells the New York Times. &#8220;To scale back to 24 people, that's to say that this has become nothing more than a construction site.&#8221; Thomas Manley, the health and safety officer for the firefighters union, tells the Times that he does not believe the decision was really based on new concerns regarding air quality. He suggests the mayor wants to minimize the presence of the site in an effort to return business to the area. [[ http://www.911ea.org/News_Stories_From_November_2001.htm#Citing%20Safety,%20City%20Will%20Cut%20Work%20Force%20for%20Recovery | New York Times, 11/1/01 ]] ====== << env_imp_WTCworkers >> ((+ Thomas Manley )) (Late October 2001) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1372 false 1 ------ Paul Bartlett, an expert on aerosols containing PCBs and dioxins at the Queens College Center, is interviewed by the New York Daily News. Dr. Bartlett feels the EPA's response to the WTC attacks has been inadequate. &#8220;What I've seen of the data is troubling,&#8221; he says. &#8220;Their detection limits are aimed at threshold levels for occupational exposure. They aren't treating this as a disaster, so they're not asking what extent and how far are people being exposed or who is possibly being affected by the releases of chemicals. They're just checking what emissions are exceeding regulations.&#8221; He also says the WTC site should be treated like a Superfund site. [[ http://www.732-2m2m.com/tt/October_Articles.htm#A%20Toxic%20Nightmare%20At%20Disaster%20Site | New York Daily News, 10/26/01 ]] ====== << env_imp_independentStudies >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Paul Bartlett )) After November 1, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1464 false 1 ------ The EPA uses a form letter to respond to inquiries from people who live and work in Manhattan asking how they should clean their interior spaces. The letter instructs them to follow the procedures outlined in the New York Department of Health's September 17 advisory (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1395 ]]). &#8220;The EPA does not have jurisdiction or oversight of indoor air quality or indoor cleanups,&#8221; the letter explains. &#8220;New York City (NYC) has the primary authority and responsibility for reoccupancy of buildings and health issues. Since you work very close to the WTC it is important that the recommendations of the New York City Department of Health (NYCDOH) and the New York City Department of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP) on how to clean up be followed.... The NYCDOH fact sheet on the internet (http://www.ci.nyc.ny.us/html/doh/html/alerts/wtc3.html) contains recommendations for people reoccupying commercial buildings and residents re-entering their homes. Should the need arise to investigate the requirements for remediation of your residence, the NYCDEP has compiled a list of asbestos investigators, remediation contractors and air monitoring firms.&#8221; [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | cited in Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] ====== << env_imp_indoors >> {{ duplicate_unknown_form_letter_2 }} After November 1, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1513 false 1 ------ The EPA will repeatedly claim that it does not have jurisdiction or oversight over indoor tests or cleanups of residences and businesses. Critics who disagree note that: --- * --- The EPA's response to the 9/11 attacks were coordinated under the authority of the National Contingency Plan (NCP) (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1301 ]]), which requires that when the EPA delegates any tasks to state or local authorities, the agency ensures that their responses are in accordance with EPA standards (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1477 ]]). Therefore, according to the NCP, the EPA does have jurisdiction over inside air. --- * --- Shortly before the 9/11 attacks, the EPA commenced the abatement of homes in Libby, Montana where a nearby mining operation had contaminated the surrounding area (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1398 ]]). Libby asbestos remediation commenced under the authority of the National Contingency Plan (NCP). [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] ------ In Libby, the highest level of asbestos found in a home was 3,658 structures per square centimeter (s/cm (( Chatfield Technical Consulting Limited, 10/12/2001 )) [[ http://www.mindfully.org/Air/WTC-Breathe-Toxic.htm | MSNBC, 1/11/2002 ]] [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] ------ In December, the EPA will &#8220;fast-track&#8221; the Libby site to a place on the National Priorities List as a Superfund site after a request from Montana's governor (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1470 ]]). In New York, Governor Pataki will make no similar request for the areas affected by World Trade Center collapse. [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Kupferman-Chapter-in-LOST-LIBERTIES.pdf | Kupferman, 2003 ]] [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] --- * --- The EPA is taking responsibility for the indoor environmental conditions at numerous contaminated sites across the US, including at Herculaneum, Missouri; McFarland, California; and Kellogg, Idaho. [[ http://www.house.gov/nadler/archive107/jan17EPA.htm | Nadler, 1/7/2002 ]] --- * --- The EPA has decontaminated more than 1400 homes and businesses in Illinois, Mississippi, and Ohio after the buildings were illegally sprayed with the pesticide methyl parathion (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1514 ]]) (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1515 ]]) (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1516 ]]). ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_indoors >> {{ statement_unnamed_epa_region_ii_spokesperson_2 }} {{ statement_bonnie_bellow_2 }} {{ statement_joe_martyak_2 }} {{ statement_unknown_form_letter_2 }} November 1, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1379 false 1 ------ Nicole Pollier, a legal intern at Center for Constitutional Rights, testifies before the Environment Committee of the New York City Council and discusses health concerns at the WTC recovery site. She says that the Center found that &#8220;virtually none of the people working at the WTC disaster site are or have been wearing any personal protective equipment,&#8221; which the organization attributes to a lack of organized training. Only 5-10 percent of the workers wear disposable dust masks, she said. Additionally, &#8220;workers leaving the site are not decontaminated, nor do they use the washing stations that have been set up at the perimeter of the site by volunteer organizations.&#8221; Pollier says the Center blames OSHA which has taken the position that the site's designation as a &#8220;search and rescue&#8221; operation denies it the authority to enforce safety laws. There have been &#8220;no mandated training sessions, and no enforcement of personal protective equipment requirements or exposure monitoring requirements,&#8221; she explains. Instead, OSHA has played a consultative role as a technical advisor. Pollier says that the Center disagrees with OSHA's position, calling attention to a 1991 directive entitled &#8220;OSHA Response to Significant Events of Potentially Catastrophic Consequences,&#8221; which states: &#8220;The OSH Act requires that OSHA respond to catastrophic events....&#8221; (( Pollier testimony, 11/8/01 )) ====== << env_imp_WTCworkers >> ((+ Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) )) ((+ Nicole Pollier )) November 1, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1377 false 1 ------ Several government experts testify at a New York City Council meeting on environmental conditions following the collapse of the World Trade Center towers. [[ http://www.732-2m2m.com/tt/November_Articles.htm#Workers%20and%20Residents%20Are%20Safe,%20Officials%20Say | New York Daily News, 11/1/2001 ]] ------ Kathleen Callahan, deputy regional director of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), insists that New Yorkers living and working near the World Trade Center site are not in danger. &#8220;The vast majority of our tests find levels of these contaminants pose no significant long term health risks to residents, business employees and visitors beyond Ground Zero,&#8221; she says, repeating what earlier EPA statements have asserted. Downplaying the danger of those areas where higher asbestos levels have been found, she states&#8212;falsely (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1440 ]]) (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1435 ]]) &#8212;that &#8220;EPA and Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards are set many times below the level at which you would expect health impacts.&#8221; She advises New Yorkers who live or work in the affected areas to &#8220;follow the recommendations of the New York City Departments of Health and Environmental Protection on how to clean up properly (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1395 ]]).&#8221; [[ http://www.epa.gov/region02/news/speeches/011101k.htm | EPA, 11/1/2001 ]] ------ Another expert, Dr. Jessica Leighton, assistant city health commissioner for environmental risk assessment, similarly states that people living and working in Lower Manhattan have little to worry about. She says in response to a question whether or not &#8220;people are safe at the present level&#8221; of contamination: &#8220;As far as the science has shown us right now, that is absolutely correct.&#8221; Like Callahan, she claims that EPA standards are overly protective. &#8220;The standards or tolerance levels that are being used are very conservative,&#8221; she claims. &#8220;For example, for asbestos, we are using the standard that is used for indoor air quality for reentry into a school after asbestos removal, which is the most stringent standard, as the tolerance level or standard for outdoor air quality in the residential areas. This is also true for other substances, such as dioxins, identified at the perimeter of the site.... Moreover, these standards have been designed to include many safety factors so that acceptable levels of exposure are far below the levels at which health effects are expected to occur.&#8221; [[ http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/public/testi/era1101.html | New York City Department of Health, 11/1/2001 ]] ------ Joel Kupferman, executive director of the New York Environmental Law and Justice Project, questions the accuracy of Leighton's and Callahan's statements and accuses them of withholding some test results. [[ http://www.732-2m2m.com/tt/November_Articles.htm#Workers%20and%20Residents%20Are%20Safe,%20Officials%20Say | New York Daily News, 11/1/2001 ]] ------ Kathryn Freed, a New York City Council Member who represents Lower Manhattan, said she was not convinced by agency assurances, noting that firemen are already showing symptoms of emphysema, a terminal disease for which there is no cure. &#8220;Just because it doesn't reach a certain level is really irrelevant when people are sick,&#8221; says Marc Ameruso, a member of the area's community board. [[ http://www.732-2m2m.com/tt/November_Articles.htm#Workers%20and%20Residents%20Are%20Safe,%20Officials%20Say | New York Times, 11/1/2001 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_governmentStatements >> << env_imp_benchmarks >> << env_imp_indoors >> ((+ Kathleen Callahan )) ((+ Jessica Leighton, PhD. )) ((+ Joel R Kupferman )) ((+ Kathryn Freed )) {{ duplicate_jessica_leighton,_phd._2 }} {{ duplicate_kathleen_callahan_2 }} Early November 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1431 false 1 ------ A team of specialists from UC Davis, the Detection and Evaluation of Long-range Transport of Aerosols (DELTA) Group, sends the results from their first samples (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1429 ]]) to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light-Source Lab. Since October 2, the group has been conducting air sampling from the roof of 201 Varick St., located one mile north-northeast of the WTC site, at the request of the Department of Energy. According to the team, data indicates that the WTC plume &#8220;in many ways [resembles] those seen from municipal waste incinerators and high temperatures processes in coal-fired power plants.&#8221; A summary report of the data concludes: &#8220;The size fractions above 1 micrometer contained finely powdered concrete gypsum, and glass, with soot-like coatings and anthropogenic metals, but little asbestos. Composition in the very fine size range (0.26 > Dp > 0.09) was dominated by sulfuric acid and organic matter, but, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives, and glasslike silicone containing aerosols.&#8221; [[ http://www.tms.org/pubs/journals/JOM/0112/News/News7-0112.html | JOM, 12/1/01 ]] [[ http://www-dateline.ucdavis.edu/021502/DL_wtc.html | University of California at Davis DELTA Group, 2/15/2002 ]] [[ http://pubs.acs.org/cen/topstory/8007/8007notw3.html | Chemical and Engineering News, 2/18/2002 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_independentStudies >> ((+ DELTA Group )) ((+ Thomas Cahill )) ((+ US Department of Energy )) (November 8, 2001) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1453 false 1 ------ EPA spokeswoman Mary Mears is quoted by Newsday: &#8220;Given the levels of asbestos we don't think there is any kind of significant health risk for people working or living near the site. But there could be some risk to the workers who are actually on the site where the levels tend to be the highest.&#8221; [[ http://www.nycosh.org/NYCOSHNews/2001-Nov.-Dec.-News.html | Newsday, 11/9/2001 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_governmentStatements >> ((+ Mary Mears )) (November 8, 2001) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1454 false 1 ------ David Newman, of the New York Committee for Occupational Safety and Health, interviewed by Newsday, disagrees with the EPA's position that asbestos levels have not been high enough to pose long term health risks. &#8220;While diseases such as asbestosis result from exposure to asbestos over long periods of time, asbestos-related cancers, such as mesothelioma, which have a 10- to 40-year latency period, can develop from low-level exposure to this killing dust,&#8221; Newman explains. [[ http://www.nycosh.org/NYCOSHNews/2001-Nov.-Dec.-News.html | Newsday, 11/9/2001 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_independentStudies >> ((+ David Newman )) After November 10, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1465 false 1 ------ EPA Region 2 responds to an inquiry from a woman concerned about the asbestos levels in the building where her husband works, which is across the street from the World Trade Center site. The EPA informs her that &#8220; that the owner/manager of the building [should] follow the cleanup guidelines in the September 16 City of New York Public Notice (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1330 ]]) .... In addition, the New York City Department of Health has a fact sheet (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1395 ]]) on the internet ... that contains recommendations for people re-occupying commercial buildings and residents re-entering their homes. &#8221; [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] ====== << env_imp_indoors >> << keyEvents >> November 13, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1381 false 1 ------ The Stuyvesant High School Parents' Association holds a meeting to address concerns about health and safety conditions at the school. People attending the meeting complain that the Board of Education has failed to address a number of issues. Other topics that are discussed at the meeting include symptoms of illness among the students, tests showing an elevated level of particulates, and evidence that information publicly disclosed by the EPA does not reveal the actual levels of contaminants around Ground Zero. [[ http://www.stuypa.org/minutes/minutes11_13_01.htm | Stuyvesant High School Parents' Association, 11/13/01 ]] [[ http://www.geocities.com/lmrrc911/media_011220nydn.html | New York Daily News, 12/20/2001 ]] ====== ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) ((+ Stuyvesant High School )) November 13, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1508 false 1 ------ The City of New York supplies the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) with the original version of its transmission electron microscopy (TEM) test results on air asbestos levels. [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/EPA%20concealment-071504-Jenkins.pdf | Jenkins, 7/15/2004 ]] ------ A censored version of the data is later released to the public in early 2002 (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1509 ]]). ====== << env_imp_deception >> ((+ New York Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) )) November 13, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1410 false 1 ------ The New York Environmental Law and Justice Project (NYELJP) receives documents from New York's Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) and the city's Department of Health (DOH) that had been requested through the state's Freedom of Information Law (FOIL). The request was initially denied on grounds that the documents were related to an &#8220;on-going criminal investigation.&#8221; NYELJP receives them only after an appeal and repeated demands. The documents reveal that during spot testing the DEC's monitors became clogged with dust and were not subsequently replaced or re-set as they should have been. The documents also contain NYC DOH test results showing that some of the air monitors located in City Hall offices and other spaces in downtown Manhattan had at times been &#8220;overloaded&#8221; with dust. Instead of recalibrating the equipment and re-testing, the department simply ceased testing. Rather than inform the public about the overload dust finding, the agency listed the results as &#8220;N.A.&#8221; on its website. [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Kupferman-Chapter-in-LOST-LIBERTIES.pdf | Kupferman, 2003 ]] ====== << env_imp_deception >> << keyEvents >> ((+ New York Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) )) ((+ New York Environmental Law and Justice Project )) ((+ New York City Department of Health )) November 15, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1382 false 1 ------ Cate Jenkins, Ph.D., a senior chemist in the EPA's Hazardous Waste Identification Division, writes in a memo to Monona Rossol of the Arts, Crafts, and Theater Safety (ACTS) organization that the EPA is ignoring federal asbestos-abatement laws in buildings close to the World Trade Center site. The 22-year veteran of the agency says that EPA officials &#8220;effectively waived&#8221; the EPA's &#8220;strict national regulations for removal and disposal of asbestos contaminated dust&#8221; by advising residents and commercial building managers in Lower Manhattan to follow the &#8220;extremely lenient (and arguably illegal) asbestos guidelines of the New York City Department of Health.&#8221; She notes that EPA testing discovered the presence of asbestos levels above the one percent &#8220;action level&#8221; in dust samples from at least 30 locations, some of which were located within five to seven blocks of Ground Zero. After the memo is reported in the New York Daily News, EPA officials will assert that Jenkins doesn't understand the law (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1396 ]]). (( Cate Jenkins Memo to Monona Rossol )) [[ http://www.732-2m2m.com/tt/November_Articles.htm#Parents%20Want%20Say%20On%20School%20Reopenings | New York Daily News, 11/20/2001 ]] ====== ((+ New York City Department of Health )) ((+ Cate Jenkins, PhD. )) ((+ Monona Rossol )) ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) (November 19, 2001) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1396 false 1 ------ Walter Mugdan, the EPA's regional counsel, disputes allegations (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1382 ]]) that EPA employee Cate Jenkins recently made against the agency in a memo. Jenkins claimed that EPA officials &#8220;effectively waived&#8221; the EPA's &#8220;strict national regulations for removal and disposal of asbestos contaminated dust.&#8221; Mugdan argues that Jenkins &#8220;assumes that they [the regulations] apply to the cleaning up of dust in residential or office buildings in Lower Manhattan.&#8221; According to him, &#8220;When they were written, they were never intended to apply to something like a terrorist act. These regulations apply to owners and operators of a facility who are carrying out a demolition or renovation. They were never contemplated to apply to someone cleaning an apartment.&#8221; [[ http://www.house.gov/nadler/archive107/jan17EPA.htm | Nadler, 1/7/2002 ]] [[ http://www.whitelung.org/wlaalerts/nydn.html | New York Daily News, 11/20/2001 ]] ------ In response to Mugdan's claim, Jenkins says, &#8220;This is not an academic or scientific argument. Our regulations are very specific. They don't allow you to do this. We've had a breakdown where the federal EPA and the city are scrambling to get everything back to normal, and they're ignoring the law.&#8221; [[ http://www.732-2m2m.com/tt/November_Articles.htm#Parents%20Want%20Say%20On%20School%20Reopenings | New York Daily News, 11/20/2001 ]] ------ Mugdan's assertions are contradicted by the fact that the EPA has recently removed asbestos from private homes in Libby, Montana and has tested for, and removed, other types of hazardous materials in other regions of the US (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1513 ]]). [[ http://www.house.gov/nadler/archive107/jan17EPA.htm | Nadler, 1/7/2002 ]] ------ Furthermore, in May 2000 (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1478 ]]), the EPA affirmed that in the event of a terrorist attack, the EPA would respond under the authority of the NCP (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1477 ]]) &#8212;which binds the EPA to the very rules Mugdan's claims would not apply. ====== << env_imp_indoors >> ((+ Walter Mugdan )) November 26, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_2951 false 1 ------ Jessica Leighton, Ph.D., the assistant commissioner of environmental risk assessment at the New York City Department of Health, testifies before a number of committees of the New York State Assembly. She says that the department has taken a lead role in monitoring the environmental conditions near the WTC site and that there are few concerns that there will be long term effects on public health. &#8220;Some substances, such as the particulate matter from the dust or the smoke in the air, can be irritating but are not expected to have long term effects for most people,&#8221; she says. &#8220;Other substances, such as asbestos, are not expected to have short term effects, but if elevated over long periods of time can have long term effects.&#8221; [[ http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/public/testi/era1126.html | New York City Department of Health, 11/1/01 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_governmentStatements >> ((+ Jessica Leighton, PhD. )) November 26, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1384 false 1 ------ Kathleen Callahan, deputy regional director of the US Environmental Protection Agency, testifies before the joint New York State Assembly Committees on Environmental Conservation, Health, and Labor. She reiterates past EPA assertions that WTC contaminants pose no long term risks to local residents. &#8220;We've tested for the presence of pollutants such as asbestos, fine particulate matter, lead, volatile organic compounds, dioxin, benzene, metals, PCBs and other chemicals and substances that could pose a threat to the public and workers at the site,&#8221; she says. &#8220;Fortunately, the vast majority of our tests find levels of these contaminants that pose no significant long term health risks to residents, business employees and visitors beyond Ground Zero. And despite recent press accounts which suggest otherwise, these findings have not changed. In fact, environmental conditions off the site have improved in recent weeks.&#8221; Callahan also says that people concerned about contamination in their homes &#8220;should follow the recommendations of the New York City Departments of Health and Environmental Protection on how to clean up properly&#8221; (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1395 ]]). (( Speech, Kathleen Callahan, 11/26/2001 )) ====== << env_imp_governmentStatements >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Kathleen Callahan )) November 26, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_3244 false 1 ------ Dr. Stephen Levin of the Mount Sinai-I.J. Selikoff Center for Occupational and Environmental Medicine testifies before the New York State Assembly's Standing Committees on Environmental Conservation, Health, and Labor that conditions &#8220;seen in adults who have been at or near&#8221; the WTC site &#8220;for as little as twenty-four to thirty-six hours&#8221; included &#8220;reactive airways disease, new onset or exacerbation of pre-existing asthma, RADS [reactive airway dysfunction syndrome], sinusitis, irritant rhinitis, persistent cough, and diffuse irritation of nasal mucosal surfaces.&#8221; Among first-responders &#8220;or individuals who were hit by the cloud of dust and debris&#8221; following the collapse, he has observed &#8220;a dramatic increase in GERD [gastro-esophageal reflux] symptoms,&#8221; which for some people can be life-threatening. [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Kupferman-Chapter-in-LOST-LIBERTIES.pdf | Kupferman, 2003 ]] ====== << env_imp_independentStudies >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Stephen Levin MD )) November 26, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1383 false 1 ------ American Medical News reports that doctors in New York City are still treating large numbers of patients for respiratory conditions stemming from the World Trade Center disaster. About one-third of all New York City firefighters have symptoms of what is now termed the &#8220;WTC cough,&#8221; typified by persistent dry unproductive coughs, wheezing, sinus irritation and shortness of breath. One-fifth of responding firefighters also complain of GERD (gastroentero reflux disease) which doctors believe may have been caused by ingesting the pulverized concrete and glass that was present in the World Trade Center dust. &#8220;What you inhale, you also swallow,&#8221; explains David J. Prezant, MD, deputy chief medical officer of the New York City Fire Department. &#8220;Your entire tongue was coated with this stuff.&#8221; Doctors believe these health problems were caused in part by the shortcomings of protective breathing masks, which are not supposed to be worn for days on end. [[ http://www.ama-assn.org/amednews/2001/11/26/hlsa1126.htm | American Medical News, 11/26/2001 ]] [[ http://www-apps.niehs.nih.gov/centers/Public/news/nws164.htm | September 10, 2002 ]] [[ http://www-apps.niehs.nih.gov/centers/Public/news/nws166.htm | Newsday, 9/30/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_WTCworkers >> << keyEvents >> ((+ David J. Prezant )) November 26, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1380 false 1 ------ Sheldon Silver, a New York City Assembly Speaker (D-Manhattan), says that his office has received a &#8220;significant influx&#8221; of complaints concerning skin rashes, sinusitis and aggravated asthma from people working and living in Lower Manhattan. [[ http://www.732-2m2m.com/tt/November_Articles.htm#More%20Ground%20Zero%20Air%20Studies%20Urged | New York Daily News, 11/27/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_independentStudies >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Sheldon Silver )) November 27, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1438 false 1 ------ The EPA Region 2's legal counsel advises in a draft document (obtained by the New York Environmental Law and Justice Project through a Freedom of Information Act): &#8220;[AHERA] was developed to determine whether school buildings where asbestos was used are safe. Under this test, an air monitor pumps room air through a special filter for a specified amount of time. Then the number of asbestos &#8216;structures,&#8217; or fibers, on a square millimeter of the filter are counted. If there are fewer than 70 such structures, the air is judged to be acceptable. EPA has used this same school-based standard to evaluate the safety of outside air in downtown Manhattan.&#8221; (( Jenkins memo, March 11, 2002 )) ------ The EPA counsel's statement is a misinterpretation of AHERA (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1435 ]]). ====== << env_imp_benchmarks >> {{ duplicate_unnamed_epa_region_2_legal_counsel_2 }} Morning November 27, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1524 false 1 ------ EPA Administrator Christie Todd Whitman announces that the National Ombudsman Office will be relocated to the EPA Office of Inspector General (OIG) and that control of all National Ombudsman cases will be likewise transferred to the OIG. She claims the change &#8220;will give the ombudsman more independence and the impartiality necessary to conduct credible inquiries.&#8221; [[ http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/0/f158776b0925bdfe85256b1100650bd4?OpenDocument | EPA, 11/27/2001 ]] ------ The planned change would give the EPA OIG authority to exercise editorial control over the ombudsman's comments if they concern criminal investigations. [[ http://www.montanaforum.com/rednews/2002/04/08/build/pollution/epaombud.php?nnn=2 | Associated Press, 4/8/2002 ]] ------ Additionally, under the plan the EPA OIG would decide which cases are investigated. Decisions regarding budgets and staff would also be handled by the OIG. [[ http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/national/67576_ombudsman24.shtml | Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 4/23/02 ]] ------ Ombudsman Robert Martin vehemently objects to the plan, telling The Washington Post in an interview that putting his office under the OIG would effectively dissolve the national ombudsman function at the EPA. &#8220;I translate that as the IG is taking over my cases. They're going to review and determine whether complaints citizens have made have merit,&#8221; Martin explains. &#8220;They're going to be doing my job.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&amp;contentId=A31578-2001Nov28&amp;notFound=true | The Washington Post, 11/29/2001 ]] [[ http://www.montanaforum.com/rednews/2002/04/08/build/pollution/epaombud.php?nnn=2 | Associated Press, 4/8/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_ombudsman >> ((- EPA Office of Inspector General (OIG) )) ((+ Robert J. Martin )) ((+ Christine Todd Whitman )) Afternoon November 27, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1525 false 1 ------ EPA ombudsman Robert Martin writes to EPA Administrator Christie Whitman criticizing her decision (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1523 ]]) to transfer his office to the Office of Inspector General (OIG). Martin challenges her assertion that this would result in greater autonomy, noting that the IOG had previously &#8220;interfered with [a]... National Ombudsman investigation&#8221; of the Marjol Batter Site. (( Memo from Robert Martin to Christie Whitman, 11/26/2001 )) ====== << env_imp_ombudsman >> ((+ Christine Todd Whitman )) ((+ Robert J. Martin )) ((- EPA Office of Inspector General (OIG) )) November 28, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1537 false 1 ------ EPA Administrator Christie Todd Whitman, appearing before Congress, states: &#8220;Under the provisions of PDD 62, signed by President Clinton in 1998, the EPA is assigned lead responsibility for cleaning up buildings and other sites contaminated by chemical or biological agents as a result of an act of terrorism. This responsibility draws on our decades of experience in cleaning up sites contaminated by toxins through prior practices or accidents.&#8221; Her deputy, Linda Fisher, will repeat this to Congress a week later (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1538 ]]). [[ http://landofpuregold.com/truth49.htm | Nadler, 4/12/2002 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_EPAresponsibilities >> ((+ Christine Todd Whitman )) ((+ US Congress )) Late November 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1378 false 1 ------ People working and living in downtown Manhattan continue to be concerned about environmental conditions. For example, one resident, Catherine McVay Hughes, tells WABC News, &#8220;Last week, in our apartment where I had sealed my windows with energy efficient duct tape and had four large air filters running non-stop and plants, I could still smell the fires burning.&#8221; Another resident, Tammy Meltzer, likewise explains: &#8220;There is a lot of dust in the air that makes your eyes swell shut when it hits you. Your throat also becomes very sore.&#8221; [[ http://abclocal.go.com/wabc/news/WABC_112601_air.html | WABC, 11/26/2001 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_personalStories >> Early December, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1390 false 1 ------ United Press International (UPI) publishes an article on the post-911 environmental conditions in downtown Manhattan. The news agency interviews Indira Singh, a risk architect and volunteer emergency medical technician, who says &#8220;that before the terrorist attacks she was a mountain climber and a pilot and in the top physical condition of her life but since then she has a cough, onset asthma, chest pain and headaches that won't quit.&#8221; She adds that many of her neighbors &#8220;have coughs, headaches, ugly rashes, eye infections, people coughing up blood, kidney infections, upper respiratory problems, swollen tongues and most bizarre of all about a dozen had their dental work fall out.&#8221; [[ http://www.upi.com/view.cfm'storyID=07122001-080718-7129r | United Press International, 12/7/2001 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_personalStories >> ((+ Indira Singh )) Early December, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1389 false 1 ------ The EPA outside air monitoring station at Stuyvesant High School records an asbestos level of 124 fibers per square millimeter, which significantly exceeds acceptable background levels. [[ http://www.geocities.com/lmrrc911/media_011220nydn.html | New York Daily News, 12/20/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentTests >> << env_imp_governmentStatements >> ((+ Stuyvesant High School )) ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) December 3, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1386 false 1 ------ Cate Jenkins, a 22-year veteran EPA employee, writes an internal memo to Robert Dellinger, Director of the Hazardous Waste Identification Division, and Lillian Bagus, Chief of the Waste Identification Branch, in which she argues that the EPA should clean NYC homes and businesses contaminated by the WTC collapse. &#8220;The cleanup of all affected homes in Lower Manhattan should be performed by EPA or other governmental bodies at public expense, utilizing the methods in the NESHAP or as proposed by certified asbestos abatement experts and approved by EPA regional NESHAP coordinators as meeting all CAA requirements,&#8221; she says. &#8220;The criteria for areas receiving such cleanups should include an adequate margin of safety, possibly relating to distance zones around contaminated areas over 0.1 percent asbestos or even lower.&#8221; Jenkins' memo also addresses EPA official statements that have been misleading and deceptive, noting that the EPA has claimed repeatedly that asbestos levels are safe even as they report sampling results which exceed the purported maximum &#8220;safe level&#8221; of one percent. (( Jenkins Memo, 12/3/2001 )) [[ http://www.btinternet.com/~ibas/lka_asb_fallout_wtc_jan02.htm | International Ban Asbestos Secretariat, 1/21/02 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_deception >> ((+ Lillian Bagus )) ((+ Robert Dellinger )) ((+ Cate Jenkins, PhD. )) December 3, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1460 false 1 ------ New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani and NYC Health Commissioner Neal Cohen hold a joint press conference in which they state that vehicles contaminated with World Trade Center dust and debris would not be returned because cleaning the vehicles would be &#8220;too difficult.&#8221; And even if cars were cleaned, safety would be &#8220;inconclusive,&#8221; they explain. [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | New York Times, 12/4/2001 cited in Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_indoors >> ((+ Neal L. Cohen, M.D. )) ((+ Rudolph ("Rudy") Giuliani )) December 3, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1391 false 1 ------ After the New York City Department of Health tests Tribeca Tower at 105 Duane Street for asbestos and finds nothing, the building's residents contact Attorney Joel R Kupferman of the New York Environmental Law and Justice Project (NYELJP) for assistance. Certified industrial hygienist, Ed Olmstead, collects dusts samples for Kupferman using a micro-vac. Analysis is conducted using the highly sensitive transmission electron microscope (TEM) method. The tests results reveal high concentrations of asbestos. A sample taken from a hallway ventilation duct that circulates air throughout the building is found to contain 550,000 structures of asbestos per square centimeter. When confronted with these results, the EPA claims the hygienist's testing method was unsound and that the results were an aberration. The landlord of the building, citing EPA and DEP assurances that the test results could be ignored, refuses to appropriately abate the building. [[ http://911digitalarchive.org/objects/106.pdf | Jenkins, 12/3/2001 ]] [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Kupferman-Chapter-in-LOST-LIBERTIES.pdf | Kupferman, 2003 ]] [[ http://www.abrahm.com/Salonstory.pdf | Salon, 8/15/2003 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A11173-2002Jan7?language=printer | The Washington Post, 1/8/2002 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_independentStudies >> ((+ The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) )) ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) ((+ Ed Olmstead )) December 3, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1387 false 1 ------ The Indoor and Built Environment Journal publishes a study by Dr. E.B. Ilgren, MD, which concludes that residents near the WTC site in downtown Manhattan&#8220;do not appear to be at risk of long term, asbestos&#8212;or metal&#8212;related disease but their homes must still be cleaned professionally to eliminate highly irritating, aerosolized dusts.&#8221; [[ http://content.karger.com/ProdukteDB/produkte.asp?Aktion=ShowFulltext&amp;ProduktNr=224157&amp;Ausgabe=228295&amp;ArtikelNr=57555 | Indoor and Built Environment Journal, 12/2001 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_independentStudies >> ((+ E.B. Ilgren MD )) December 4, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1388 false 1 ------ An article published in the Environmental Health Perspectives journal, titled, &#8220;Environmental Aftermath,&#8221; suggests that the collapse of the World Trade Center towers &#8220;may have serious long term environmental health effects on those in harm's way, including children, office workers, rescuers and residents.&#8221; It cites &#8220;asbestos, lead and PCBs (or polychlorinated biphenyls) present in the dust created by the Twin Towers collapse as among the most potentially serious lingering exposures to the community, including rescue workers, office workers and the more than 20,000 residents, and 3,000 children, who live within half a mile of Ground Zero.&#8221; [[ http://landofpuregold.com/truth2.htm | Environmental Health Perspectives, 12/4/01 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_independentStudies >> December 5, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1538 false 1 ------ Deputy EPA Administrator Linda Fisher, appearing before Congress, states: &#8220;Under the provisions of PDD 62, signed by President Clinton in 1998, the EPA is assigned lead responsibility for cleaning up buildings and other sites contaminated by chemical or biological agents as a result of an act of terrorism. This responsibility draws on our decades of experience in cleaning up sites contaminated by toxins through prior practices or accidents.&#8221; (( Fisher testimony to Congress, 12/5/2001 )) ====== << env_imp_EPAresponsibilities >> ((+ Linda Fisher )) ((+ US Congress )) December 7, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1526 false 1 ------ Eighteen United States Congressional representatives write to EPA Administrator Christie Whitman requesting that she refrain from transferring the National Ombudsman's office to the EPA's Inspector General until after Congressional hearings on the issue have been held in early 2002. Nine additional Congressional representatives write to Whitman on December 19 (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1526 ]]). [[ http://epw.senate.gov/107th/Martin_062502.htm | US Senate, 6/25/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_ombudsman >> ((- EPA Office of Inspector General (OIG) )) ((+ Christine Todd Whitman )) December 18, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1392 false 1 ------ More than 100 residents gather at New York City Hall to protest the city and federal governments' response to the WTC environmental fallout. Demonstrators are concerned that contaminated air is affecting the health of residents, students, and those working in Lower Manhattan. Peggy Sarlin of the World Trade Center Environmental Emergency Group tells NY1 News, &#8220;We are frustrated. We are very scared about our health, both short term and long term. We are angry and we intend to do something about it.&#8221; [[ http://www.ny1.com/ny/Search/SubTopic/index.html?&amp;contentintid=17962&amp;search_result=1 | NY1 News, 12/18/01 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> ((+ World Trade Center Environmental Emergency Group )) ((+ Peggy Sarlin )) December 19, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1393 false 1 ------ The WTC fires are finally extinguished. [[ abcnews.go.com/sections/us/DailyNews/homefront011219.html | ABC News, 12/19/01 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> December 19, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1527 false 1 ------ Nine US Congressional representatives write to EPA Administrator Christie Whitman asking that she refrain from transferring the National Ombudsman office. Eighteen Congressional representatives have already submitted the same request to Whitman (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1525 ]]). [[ http://epw.senate.gov/107th/Martin_062502.htm | US Senate, 6/25/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_ombudsman >> ((+ Christine Todd Whitman )) December 20, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1470 false 1 ------ Montana Governor Judy Martz announces that she will use the Silver Bullet option to fast-track the designation of Libby, Montana (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1398 ]]) as an EPA Superfund site and put it on the National Priorities list. The designation makes Libby eligible for special funding from industry sources. [[ http://www.discoveringmontana.com/gov2/css/press/122001.aspl | Montana Governor Judy Martz News Release, 12/20/2001 ]] [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Kupferman-Chapter-in-LOST-LIBERTIES.pdf | Kupferman, 2003 ]] ====== << env_imp_libby >> ((+ Judy Martz )) December 21, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1394 false 1 ------ Thomas Manley, who monitors health issues for the firefighters union, tells reporters that 500 of the union's members are on sick leave because of a variety of respiratory problems. Three hundred of them may never be able to fight fires again as a result of their medical conditions. &#8220;It's getting worse and worse,&#8221; he says. &#8220;They're having trouble breathing, shortness of breath, coughing with pain in their stomach.&#8221; The union claims the illnesses could have been prevented if proper respirators had been provided to firefighters working at the World Trade Center site. [[ abcnews.go.com/sections/us/DailyNews/homefront011221.html | Associated Press, 12/21/01 ]] [[ http://www.ny1.com/ny/Search/SubTopic/index.html?&amp;contentintid=18042&amp;search_result=1 | NY1 News, 12/21/01 ]] ====== << env_imp_WTCworkers >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Thomas Manley )) December 27, 2001 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1461 false 1 ------ New York City Health Commissioner Neal Cohen says the vehicles affected by dust from the collapse of the World Trade Center &#8220;are contaminated&#8221; and should be condemned. &#8220;The cleanup of them is not practical, and I'll do whatever I can in my authority and recommend to the mayor that they be condemned,&#8221; he explains. [[ http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2001/12/27/archive/main322479.shtml | CBS News, 12/27/2001 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_indoors >> ((+ Neal L. Cohen, M.D. )) Early 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1509 false 1 ------ The City of New York posts the results of its transmission electron microscopy (TEM) tests on air asbestos levels on the New York City Department of Environmental Protection website. The data does not match the results that had been given to the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation back in November (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1508 ]]). Test results indicating excessive asbestos levels have been either deleted or changed to &#8220;not detected.&#8221; [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/EPA%20concealment-071504-Jenkins.pdf | Jenkins, 7/15/2004 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentTests >> << env_imp_deception >> << keyEvents >> January 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1475 false 1 ------ The environmental consulting firm, H.A. Bader Associates, conducts several environmental tests at Fiterman Hall of the Borough of Manhattan Community College, CUNY, (BMCC), located four blocks from the World Trade Center site (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1361 ]]). The test results indicate &#8220;unusually high levels of dioxin in dust samples throughout the building&#8221; that are &#8220;levels 20 to 90 orders of magnitude above results from other buildings where ... [the] firm has tested or cleaned in Lower Manhattan.&#8221; An EPA toxicologist who reviews the firm's data will tell the New York Daily News in February that he believes the levels in the building are &#8220;below EPA levels of concern.&#8221; [[ http://nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/DailyNews-2-7-02-DioxinSeenAtCollegeDowntown.pdf | New York Daily News, 2/7/2002 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_independentStudies >> ((+ Borough of Manhattan Community College, CUNY, (BMCC) )) January 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1480 false 1 ------ Joe Martyak, spokesman for EPA in Administrator Christie Todd Whitman's office, tells MSNBC that &#8220;indoor air is beyond EPA's jurisdiction.&#8221; [[ http://landofpuregold.com/truth6.htm | MSNBC, 1/11/2002 ]] ------ Martyak's assertion is contradicted by recent EPA activities and the agency's obligations under the National Contingency Plan (NCP) (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1513 ]]). ====== << env_imp_indoors >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Joe Martyak )) ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) {{ duplicate_joe_martyak_2 }} (Early January 2002) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1455 false 1 ------ EPA spokeswoman Bonnie Bellow tells the Washington Post: &#8220;There is nothing we have found that is at a significant level that would say you should not come here to live or work.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A11173-2002Jan7?language=printer%22 | The Washington Post, 1/8/2002 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_governmentStatements >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) ((+ Bonnie Bellow )) Early January 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1433 false 1 ------ Attorney Michael Barasch tells the Associated Press that he has filed legal notices on behalf of 700 firefighters and 300 police officers, fire marshals and emergency medical technicians, who have developed respiratory conditions after working at the World Trade Center disaster site. The legal notices are meant to preserve the plaintiffs' right to sue the City of New York at a later date on the premise that the city failed to follow federal regulations and provide the appropriate respirators to the rescue workers at the disaster site. [[ http://www.seacoastonline.com/2002news/1_13_w1.htm | Associated Press, 1/13/2002 ]] [[ http://www.nrdc.org/air/pollution/wtc/wtc.pdf | Natural Resources Defense Council, 2/20/2002 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_WTCworkers >> ((+ Michael Barasch )) January 7, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1528 false 1 ------ EPA National Ombudsman Robert Martin agrees to investigate the World Trade Center environmental case at the request of US Representative Jerrold Nadler of New York. [[ http://epw.senate.gov/107th/Martin_062502.htm | US Senate, 6/25/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_ombudsman >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Jerrold Nadler )) ((+ Robert J. Martin )) January 10, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1529 false 1 ------ EPA National Ombudsman Robert Martin and the Government Accountability Project (GAP) file a lawsuit challenging EPA Administrator Christie Whitman's plan to relocate the ombudsman's office to the EPA Office of Inspector General (OIG) (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1524 ]]). [[ http://www.gsenet.org/library/11gsn/2002/gs020110.php#EPA%20OMBUDSMAN%20SUES%20TO%20PREVENT%20MOVE | Associated Press, 1/10/02 ]] ====== << env_imp_ombudsman >> ((+ Robert J. Martin )) ((+ Christine Todd Whitman )) ((+ Government Accountability Project (GAP) )) January 10, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1457 false 1 ------ Nina Habib, an EPA spokeswoman, acknowledges that the thousands of asbestos tests performed by the EPA so far have been of outdoor air only. She asserts that the results from those tests were &#8220;indicative of what's in people's apartments as well.&#8221; [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] ====== << env_imp_independentStudies >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) ((+ Nina Habib )) January 11, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1530 false 1 ------ US Federal District Court Judge Richard W. Roberts issues a temporary restraining order preventing EPA Administrator Christie Whitman from implementing a plan (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1524 ]]) to transfer the ombudsman's office and investigative files to the EPA's Office of Inspector General (OIG). The restraining order will expire in early April (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1542 ]]). [[ http://www.salon.com/politics/feature/2002/01/14/whitman/print.html | Salon, 1/14/02 ]] [[ http://epw.senate.gov/107th/Martin_062502.htm | US Senate, 6/25/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_ombudsman >> ((+ Richard W. Roberts )) ((+ Christine Todd Whitman )) January 11, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1420 false 1 ------ Dr. Cate Jenkins writes a memorandum comparing the data from a major asbestos-contaminated site in Libby, Montana&#8212;where the EPA tested and cleaned homes (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1398 ]]) &#8212;to that of the WTC disaster site where the EPA has so far refused to take responsibility for the abatement of private residences. She argues that Lower Manhattan should be designated a Superfund site, as was Libby, Montana (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1470 ]]), in order to reduce the public's exposure to harmful substances such as asbestos, fiberglass, fine particulates, mercury and lead. Superfund designation would shift the financial burden from individual citizens to the government. In the memo, she also summarizes the calculated cancer risks for people occupying Lower Manhattan buildings. (( Cate Jenkins memo January 11, 2002 )) ====== << env_imp_indoors >> ((+ Cate Jenkins, PhD. )) (January 13, 2002) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1397 false 1 ------ Bonnie Bellow, spokeswoman for the EPA's region II office in New York tells the St. Louis Post-Dispatch that the EPA is not responsible for testing homes and businesses. &#8220;That's not our job and we have no policies or procedures for doing that type of testing,&#8221; she claims. &#8220;We've never had to worry about asbestos in houses before.&#8221; [[ http://www.stltoday.com/stltoday/news/special/asbestos.nsf/0/FDE3F368E6AF383786256CAD0076A1EB?OpenDocument | St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 1/13/02 ]] [[ http://www.asbestos.org/news/wtc_02_newfinding.html | St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 1/14/2002 ]] ------ Bellow's statement is contradicted by the EPA's record and the agency's obligations under the National Contingency Plan (NCP) (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1513 ]]). ====== << env_imp_indoors >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Bonnie Bellow )) ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) {{ duplicate_bonnie_bellow_2 }} January 14, 2002-March 1, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1485 false 1 ------ A mobile health unit at Ground Zero offers free health examinations for immigrant workers and day laborers hired to clean office buildings in Lower Manhattan. The medical team, headed by Dr. Steven Markowitz, conducts pulmonary testing of workers, collects blood and urine samples, and interviews them about their work history. By March 1, the mobile unit will examine 415 workers, primarily from Colombia and Ecuador. Markowitz later tells Newsday that workers said employers had provided them with mops, rags and bags for removing inches of dust from buildings. &#8220;Most said they were not given protective equipment,&#8221; Newsday reports. &#8220;Some workers who brought their own respirators said employers told them not to wear such protection.&#8221; [[ http://landofpuregold.com/truth51.htm | Newsday, 4/28/02 ]] ====== << env_imp_WTCworkers >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Steven Markowitz MD )) (January 22, 2002) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1481 false 1 ------ An unnamed EPA Region II spokeswoman is cited in the Downtown Express stating, &#8220;The EPA's job was to monitor outdoor air. Monitoring indoors&#8212;that wasn't our job. That's what the city took care of.&#8221; This assertion is contradicted by the EPA's record and the agency's obligations under the National Contingency Plan (NCP) (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1513 ]]). According to the paper she adds that she felt the city had done a good job of testing and monitoring indoor air. [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Nadler-3-11-02-EPA-WhitePaper-Final.pdf | Downtown Express, 1/22/2002 cited in Nadler, 3/11/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_indoors >> << keyEvents >> {{ duplicate_unnamed_epa_region_ii_spokesperson_2 }} January 31, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1541 false 1 ------ Assistant Secretary for Occupational Safety and Health John L. Henshaw writes in a letter to Mr. Lowell Peterson of the law firm, Meyer, Suozzi, English and Klein, P.C., that since &#8220;materials containing asbestos were used in the construction of the Twin Towers, the settled dust from their collapse must be presumed to contain asbestos.&#8221; (( Letter from John L. Henshaw to Mr. Lowell Peterson )) ====== << env_imp_deception >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Lowell Peterson )) ((+ John L. Henshaw )) February 2002-May 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1466 false 1 ------ R. Radhakrishnan, Director of the Asbestos Control Program in the New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), sends letters to owners of buildings located within the zone of WTC contamination requesting &#8220;copies of the environmental hazard assessments including bulk sampling results and air monitoring results and a summary of cleanup activities&#8221; at their buildings within 5 days. The letter recalls that they had been advised in September (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1330 ]]) to have their buildings professionally tested for asbestos and other contaminants. If tests proved positive for any dangerous contaminants, they were to have had them abated professionally. The letter also says that building owners &#8220;are responsible for the cleaning of building exteriors, grounds, and common areas.&#8221; The letter contains no reference to the federal regulations that govern asbestos and other hazardous materials. [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] ------ The DEP makes no effort to enforce compliance with this request. By September 2002, only 354 of the roughly 1900 buildings that were required to provide the agency with data and documentation will have responded to Radhakrishnan's request. Of those, 31 buildings will say they found dangerous levels of asbestos requiring professional abatement. Others will provide records that are incomplete or inadequate. The DEP does not issue a single citation for building owners or managers that do not respond. [[ http://www.house.gov/nadler/EPA_021003.htm | Nadler, 2/10/2003 ]] [[ http://landofpuregold.com/truth139.htm | New York Daily News, 9/11/2003 ]] ====== << env_imp_indoors >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Radhakrishnan )) (February 2002) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1407 false 1 ------ Juan Gonzalez, a New York Daily News reporter and author of the book, <i>Fallout: The Environmental Consequences of the World Trade Center Collapse</i>, tells The American Prospect: &#8220;In 25 years as a reporter, I've never faced as much scrutiny or as much difficulty getting stories in the paper as I have had around this issue. There's been enormous concern expressed by some government officials and some civic leaders about my reporting, that it's unnecessarily alarming people, and I believe that some of these government officials are doing a disservice by unnecessarily saying that things are okay when they really don't know.&#8221; [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Kupferman-Chapter-in-LOST-LIBERTIES.pdf | Kupferman, 2003 ]] [[ http://www.prospect.org/print-friendly/print/V13/4/katz-a.html | American Prospect, 2/25/2002 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> ((+ Juan Gonzales )) (Early February 2002) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1458 false 1 ------ EPA spokeswoman Bonnie Bellow states, &#8220;Based on our findings, and now really more than 10,000 samples of a wide range of substances, we have found no significant long term risk posed by the outdoor air.&#8221; [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | USA Today, 2/7/2002 cited in Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] [[ http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2002-02-07-usat-asbestos.htm | USA Today, 2/7/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentStatements >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Bonnie Bellow )) ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) February 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1504 false 1 ------ The Civil Service Employees Association tests a dust sample taken from a window air conditioner located at the Department of Motor Vehicles offices and finds 8 percent asbestos. [[ http://landofpuregold.com/truth139.htm | New York Daily News, 9/11/2003 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_independentStudies >> February 1, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1434 false 1 ------ The New York Law Journal reports that the Legal Aid Society's offices, located adjacent to the destroyed World Trade Center at 90 Church Street, &#8220;are so contaminated with asbestos, mercury and other poisons that the building's interior will have to be stripped to the slab, cleaned and rebuilt.&#8221; [[ http://www.nrdc.org/air/pollution/wtc/wtc.pdf | Natural Resources Defense Council, 2/20/2002 ]] [[ http://www6.law.com/lawcom/displayid.cfm'statename=NY&amp;docnum=109150&amp;table=news&amp;flag=full | New York Law Journal, 2/1/2002 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_independentStudies >> February 4, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1432 false 1 ------ By this date, more than two-thirds of the 62 rescue workers who came from Menlo Park, California, have complained of respiratory problems. [[ http://landofpuregold.com/truth152.htm | Associated Press, 10/29/2003 ]] [[ http://www.nrdc.org/air/pollution/wtc/wtc.pdf | San Jose Mercury News, 2/4/2002 cited in Natural Resources Defense Council, 2/20/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_WTCworkers >> << keyEvents >> (February 9, 2002) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1418 false 1 ------ New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg proclaims, &#8220;Every test that has been done says the air quality was in acceptable limits.&#8221; [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | New York Daily News, 2/10/2002 cited in Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_governmentStatements >> February 11, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1430 false 1 ------ The Delta Group releases a final report on air quality data collected in Manhattan between October and December, 2001 (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1429 ]]). Thomas Cahill, PhD, Delta Group member, is a noted expert on composition and transport of ultra-fine airborne particles. Dr. Cahill explains that World Trade Center aerosols contained high levels of sulfur, sulfur-based compounds, and very fine silicon that probably came from the thousands of tons of glass that had been in the WTC buildings. The presence of these fine particles decreased during the month of October. The largest spike in very fine particle levels measured 58 micrograms per cubic meter which Cahill says was &#8220;an extremely high peak.&#8221; The sampling also indicated that there were almost always high concentrations of coarse particles&#8212;those about 12 micrometers to 5 micrometers in diameter&#8212;present in the air near the WTC site. &#8220;These particles simply should not be there,&#8221; Cahill says. &#8220;It had rained, sometimes heavily, on six days in the prior three weeks. That rain should have settled these coarse particles.&#8221; He says their presence suggests the hot debris pile was continually generating the larger particles. The study also determined the chemical composition of the dust it sampled. Some of the metals found in the air occurred at the highest levels ever recorded in the United States. Metals present at high levels included iron, titanium (some associated with powdered concrete), vanadium and nickel (often associated with fuel-oil combustion), copper and zinc. Mercury, lead, and asbestos were present at low levels. [[ http://www-dateline.ucdavis.edu/021502/DL_wtc.html | University of California at Davis DELTA Group, 2/15/2002 ]] [[ http://pubs.acs.org/cen/topstory/8007/8007notw3.html | Chemical and Engineering News, 2/18/2002 ]] [[ http://www.NRDC.org/onearth/02spr/field.asp | Natural Resources Defense Council, Spring 2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_independentStudies >> << keyEvents >> ((+ DELTA Group )) ((+ Thomas Cahill )) (February 11, 2002) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1419 false 1 ------ Thomas R. Frieden, MD, Commissioner of the New York City Department of Health, testifies before the US Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works and says: &#8220;The data from air quality tests thus far have been, in general, reassuring. None of the testing done to date has shown results that would indicate long term health impacts.&#8221; But his assessment is based on a flawed interpretation of the AHERA standard. He incorrectly (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1435 ]]) says in the testimony that &#8220;the clearance/reoccupancy standard for indoor air in schools after an asbestos abatement project ... is 70 structures of asbestos per square millimeter.&#8221; (( US Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, February 11, 2002 )) ====== << env_imp_benchmarks >> << env_imp_governmentStatements >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Thomas R. Frieden )) {{ duplicate_thomas_r._frieden_2 }} February 22, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1539 false 1 ------ Dr. David O. Carpenter from the School of Public Health at the University of Albany concludes in a detailed study that the Stuyvesant High School building &#8220;has not yet been proven safe.&#8221; [[ http://landofpuregold.com/truth42.htm | Martin, 3/27/2002 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_independentStudies >> ((+ Stuyvesant High School )) ((+ David O. Carpenter )) February 23, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1531 false 1 ------ The EPA's National Ombudsman's office convenes a hearing on the environmental issues that resulted from the attacks on the World Trade Center. Hugh Kaufman, the EPA ombudsman's chief investigator, remarks during the hearing that he believes the EPA, as well as state and city officials, have intentionally utilized inferior testing methods in order to avoid finding evidence that environmental conditions threaten public health. &#8220;I believe EPA did not do that because they knew it would come up not safe and so they are involved in providing knowingly false information to the public about safety,&#8221; Kaufman, says. &#8220;Not just EPA, the state and the city, too. We also had testimonies that all the agencies&#8212;local, state, and federal&#8212;have been consorting together every week to discuss these issues.&#8221; [[ http://www.cnn.com/2002/TECH/science/02/24/rec.wtc.air.quality/ | CNN, 2/24/02 ]] ------ Numerous experts testify at the hearing, criticizing the EPA's response to the September 11 attacks, including David Newman, an industrial hygienist with the New York Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (NYCOSH); Dr. Thomas Cahill, of the University of California at Davis; Marjorie J. Clarke, PhD, an adjunct professor at Lehman and Hunter College, City University of New York; Alison Johnson, Chairman of the Chemical Sensitivity Foundation, among others. Government officials and employees were invited to participate&#8212;including officials from the EPA, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the US Geological Survey, the governor's office, state agencies, the mayor's office and city agencies&#8212;but did not appear. &#8220;This is the first time this has happened in this type of hearing,&#8221; Hugh Kaufman, tells United Press International. (( Transcripts of EPA National Ombudsman Hearing on EPA response to WTC contamination, 2/21/2002 )) [[ http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/2/24/142917.shtml | Newsmax, 2/24/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_ombudsman >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Federal Emergency Management Agency )) ((+ US Geological Service (USGS) )) ((+ Marjorie J. Clarke, PhD )) ((+ Alison Johnson )) ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) ((+ Thomas Cahill )) ((+ Hugh Kaufman )) ((+ Cate Jenkins, PhD. )) ((+ Jerrold Nadler )) February 27, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1533 false 1 ------ Following the February 23 hearing (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1531 ]]) on the environmental contamination that resulted from the attacks on the World Trade Center, EPA National Ombudsman Robert Martin recommends that the EPA take immediate steps to protect the environment and health of children and young adults attending schools in and around Ground Zero. [[ http://landofpuregold.com/truth42.htm | Martin, 3/27/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_ombudsman >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Memo from Robert Martin to Christie Whitman, 11/26/2001 )) February 28, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1540 false 1 ------ New York City School Board member Irving Hamer Jr. recommends that Stuyvesant High School's air ducts be cleaned during its spring break beginning March 28, 2002. [[ http://landofpuregold.com/truth42.htm | Martin, 3/27/2002 ]] ====== ((+ Irving Hamer Jr. )) ((+ Stuyvesant High School )) March 11th, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1535 false 1 ------ Doug Lair, the supervisor of EPA On Scene Coordinator Charlie Fitzsimmon, in a letter to EPA National Ombudsman Robert Martin, claims that Fitzsimmons spent only &#8220;two weeks in New York City in September&#8221; and that &#8220;he has minimal knowledge of the World Trade Center response activities conducted beyond the two weeks he spent there.&#8221; [[ http://landofpuregold.com/truth42.htm | Martin, 3/27/2002 ]] ------ This statement contradicts evidence that Fitzsimmons and another OSC were actually at the WTC site for a longer period of time (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1532 ]]) (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1362 ]]). ====== << env_imp_ombudsman >> ((+ Robert J. Martin )) ((+ Charlie Fitzsimmons )) ((+ Doug Lair )) March 27, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1536 false 1 ------ The EPA's National Ombudsman's office publishes a report criticizing the EPA's response to the contamination that was caused by the destruction of the World Trade Center. Robert J. Martin, the EPA National Ombudsman, finds that the &#8220;EPA has neither fully used its legal authorities nor its existing hazardous materials response capabilities as a leader of the National Response System to aid the victims of the terrorist attack....&#8221; (( Findings and Recommendations to Date, 3/27/2002 )) --- Observations --- --- * --- The EPA &#8220;initiated the National Contingency Plan (NCP) by mobilizing EPA On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs) [from various locations in the US to work] in Lower Manhattan (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1301 ]]) to sample indoor and outdoor air, dust and water to, among other things, determine the levels of contamination.&#8221; --- * --- &#8220;[T]he United States Geological Survey (USGS) testified that the plume of contaminated dust from the attacks was highly caustic with pH readings at least as high as 12.1 (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1427 ]]).&#8221; --- * --- &#8220;The Director of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, has concluded that all dust from the World Trade Center attack must be presumed to be asbestos containing material (ACM) (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1541 ]]).&#8221; --- * --- &#8220;During the last thirty years as a leader of the National Response System, EPA has used the National Contingency Plan as a framework to perform indoor air testing and remediation where there have been releases of hazardous material into homes, schools, and/or offices throughout the United States.&#8221; --- Conclusions --- --- * --- &#8220;A clear reading of the definition of hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), leads to the reasonable conclusion that all of the material, released from the attack may be a hazardous waste.&#8221; --- * --- &#8220;[A]ny cleanup of this dust, should have been and must now be performed in Ml compliance with the OSHA regulations including but not limited to 29 CFR 1910 and 1926.&#8221; --- * --- &#8220;The EPA is not being honest about the presence of EPA On Scene-Coordinators in New York (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1532 ]]) (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1362 ]]) (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1535 ]]).&#8221; --- * --- &#8220;EPA has not fully discharged its duties under PDD (Presidential Directive) 62 (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1537 ]]), the National Contingency Plan (NCP) (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1477 ]]), and the 2001 OMB Annual Report to Congress on Combating Terrorism (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1534 ]]). EPA has abandoned its responsibilities for cleaning up buildings (both inside and out) that are contaminated, or that are being re-contaminated, as a result of the uncontrolled chemical releases from the World Trade Center terrorist attack.&#8221; --- Recommendations --- --- * --- &#8220;EPA Region II should, pursuant to authorities under Presidential Directive PDD 62, and the National Contingency Plan (NCF) immediately clean the ducts and upgrade the ventilation systems to install high efficiency filtration at the Stuyvesant High School during spring break.&#8221; --- * --- &#8220;EPA Region II should execute authorities under Presidential Directive PDB 62, the National Contingency Plan (NCP), and consistent with Administrator Whitman's statement in Libby, Montana four days before the World Trade Center terrorist attack, issue legal guarantees to all building owners, building managers, local businesses, the New York City Board of Education, and condominium and coop owners to protect them from assuming the costs of cleanup from the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center.&#8221; --- * --- &#8220;Consistent with Presidential Directive PDD 62, the National Contingency Plan (NCP), and Administrator Whitman's statement in Libby, Montana four days before the World Trade Center terrorist attack, EPA Region II should cleanup all impacted buildings (interiors and exteriors) in conjunction with corresponding remediation at &#8216;ground zero.&#8217; &#8221; ====== << env_imp_ombudsman >> << env_imp_EPAresponsibilities >> << keyEvents >> << env_imp_deception >> ((+ Robert J. Martin )) ((- Environmental Protection Agency )) April 2002-May 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_2946 false 1 ------ A New Jersey-based consultant, Uday Singh, conducts tests for toxic contaminants in various apartments and street locations, including City Hall Park, and finds a high concentration of mercury vapor. &#8220;When compared with mercury concentrations observed in non-industrial urban environments, the mercury vapor concentrations in Lower Manhattan were greater by a factor of 1,000 to 1 million,&#8221; he tells Newsday. &#8220;It points to a potential for chronic exposure, and it is important that further studies be undertaken immediately,&#8221; he adds. [[ http://landofpuregold.com/truth60.htm | Newsday, 6/6/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_independentStudies >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Uday Singh )) April 6, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1542 false 1 ------ US District Judge Richard W. Roberts extends, by five days, a temporary restraining order (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1530 ]]) against the EPA, prohibiting the agency from implementing plans (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1524 ]]) to transfer the function of the EPA's national ombudsman to the Office of Inspector General (OIG). [[ http://www.montanaforum.com/rednews/2002/04/08/build/pollution/epaombud.php?nnn=2 | Associated Press, 4/8/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_ombudsman >> ((+ Richard W. Roberts )) ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) ((- EPA Office of Inspector General (OIG) )) April 12, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1543 false 1 ------ US District Judge Richard W. Roberts vacates a temporary restraining order (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1530 ]]) against the EPA, which had prevented the agency from transferring the function of the EPA's national ombudsman to the Office of Inspector General (OIG) (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1524 ]]). The case is referred to the United States Office of Special Counsel. Within hours, EPA Administrator Christie Todd Whitman and the EPA Office of Inspector General move to implement the planned changes (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1524 ]]) to the EPA National Ombudsman office. [[ http://epw.senate.gov/107th/Martin_062502.htm | US Senate, 6/25/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_ombudsman >> ((+ Richard W. Roberts )) ((+ Christine Todd Whitman )) ((+ EPA Office of Inspector General (OIG) )) April 15, 2002-April 18, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1404 false 1 ------ Joel Kupferman of the New York Environmental Law and Justice Project collects dust samples at 150 Franklin Street at the request of the building's tenants. He sends three samples to a lab which tests the dust for asbestos using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The lab finds asbestos levels of 1.2, 1.4 and 1.8 percent. In September (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1403 ]]), the tenants had cleaned the building according to instructions provided by the city's health department (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1395 ]]). The building's tenants&#8212;among them a family-run child care center&#8212;had relied on assurances from EPA and city officials that the downtown air was safe and consequently did not have the building professionally tested. After Kupferman notifies the city about these alarming results, the city tests the building using polarized light microscopy (PLM) on April 18 and does not find elevated asbestos levels. The city's samples are retested by the EPA using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and found to have an asbestos level ranging from 2 percent to 5 percent. &#8220;We recommended that [the building] be professionally cleaned,&#8221; EPA spokesperson Mary Mears later says. [[ http://www.abrahm.com/Salonstory.pdf | Salon, 4/15/2003 ]] [[ http://www.732-2m2m.com/tt/2002May_articles.htm#Asbestos Fallout Is Found In Co-op Near WTC Site | New York Daily News, 5/2/2002 ]] [[ http://www.djnewswires.com/pdfs/rws_051502.pdf | The Wall Street Journal, 5/9/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_independentStudies >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) ((+ Joel R Kupferman )) ((+ New York Environmental Law and Justice Project )) (April 19, 2002) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1544 false 1 ------ The EPA Office of Inspector General (OIG) changes the locks to the office of National Ombudsman Robert Martin while he is away on official travel and sick leave. The contents of the office&#8212;computers, phones and the files of pending cases&#8212;are removed. [[ http://epw.senate.gov/107th/Martin_062502.htm | US Senate, 6/25/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_ombudsman >> ((+ Robert J. Martin )) ((+ EPA Office of Inspector General (OIG) )) April 22, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1545 false 1 ------ On Earth Day, Robert Martin resigns from his position as the EPA national ombudsman in protest of the EPA's decision to curb his autonomy by placing his office under the jurisdiction of the EPA Office of Inspector General (OIG). Martin believes EPA administrator Christie Todd Whitman's decision to relocate jurisdiction of the office was caused by Martin's criticisms (and those of his chief investigator, Hugh Kaufman) of her potential conflicts of interest in respect to a Denver Superfund Site, the Marjol Battery site in Throop, PA, and his criticism of the EPA's response to environmental consequences following the World Trade Center attack in Lower Manhattan. In his letter of resignation, Martin accuses the EPA of concealing data regarding WTC toxic substances from residents, workers, and students in Lower Manhattan. [[ http://epw.senate.gov/107th/Martin_062502.htm | US Senate, 6/25/2002 ]] [[ http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/national/67576_ombudsman24.shtml | Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 4/23/02 ]] ====== << env_imp_ombudsman >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Christine Todd Whitman )) ((+ Hugh Kaufman )) ((+ Memo from Robert Martin to Christie Whitman, 11/26/2001 )) April 27, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1486 false 1 ------ Dr. Steven Markowitz, who directed a mobile health unit targeting immigrant workers hired to clean office buildings near Ground Zero (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1485 ]]), speaks at an immigrant labor conference at the CUNY School of Law in Flushing, New York, sharing his team's findings. The team identified over 400 workers suffering from a variety of ailments. &#8220;One of the most striking findings is the persistence in symptoms, even after workers were no longer exposed to dust,&#8221; Dr. Markowitz reports. &#8220;Many had stopped working [near Ground Zero] two months earlier, and when they came to the van, they still had symptoms.&#8221; He says that most of the workers had symptoms consistent with the inhalation of crushed glass like chronic cough, coughing up of blood, sore throats, nasal congestion and chest pain. Other workers had symptoms that are more difficult to explain, like headaches, fatigue, dizziness and poor appetites. Markowitz admits that his team has &#8220;no idea&#8221; what the cause of those symptoms are. [[ http://landofpuregold.com/truth51.htm | Newsday, 4/28/02 ]] ====== << env_imp_WTCworkers >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Steven Markowitz MD )) (Early May 2002) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1408 false 1 ------ Bruce Lippy, PhD. a certified industrial hygienist with the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program, discusses his data with Occupational Hazards, &#8220;60 percent of our samples were greater than the EPA clearance level....&#8221; [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Kupferman-Chapter-in-LOST-LIBERTIES.pdf | Kupferman, 2003 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_independentStudies >> ((+ Bruce Lippy )) May 7, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1487 false 1 ------ The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) releases its &#8220;Report on Residential Air and Dust Sampling in Lower Manhattan,&#8221; which explains the agency found &#8220;low&#8221; levels of asbestos in 17.5 percent of the residential units sampled, 19.2 percent of the common area samples and 33 percent of the outdoor areas samples. But the study says there were extremely high levels of fibrous glass, which ranged from 2 to 15 percent in almost half the residential areas sampled and 64 percent of the outdoor samples. The ATSDR recommends &#8220;that people continue to conduct frequent cleaning with HEPA vacuums and damp cloths/mops to reduce the potential for exposure in accordance with NYC Department of Health (NYC DEP) guidance (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1395 ]]).&#8221; But the NYC DEP's instructions have been highly criticized (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1395 ]]) (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1467 ]]) and its recommendation to use a HEPA vacuum to remove asbestos contradicts previous EPA commissioned studies (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1473 ]]) (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1474 ]]). [[ http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/NEWS/manhattanair.html | ATSDR, 5/7/02 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentTests >> << keyEvents >> << env_imp_indoors >> ((+ Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) )) May 8, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1459 false 1 ------ The EPA's regional office in New York announces that the agency will assume responsibility for testing and cleaning residences south of Canal, Allen and Pike Streets in Manhattan for asbestos contamination&#8212;if requested by the resident. The EPA claims the decision was made in order to calm residents' fears, and that decontamination is not necessary. &#8220;While the scientific data about any immediate health risks from indoor air is very reassuring, people should not have to live with uncertainty about their futures,&#8221; says Jane Kenny, EPA regional administrator. &#8220;There is no emergency here.&#8221; [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | New York Daily News, 5/9/2002 cited in Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] [[ http://www.djnewswires.com/pdfs/rws_051502.pdf | The Wall Street Journal, 5/9/2002 ]] ------ Similarly, Mary Mears, spokeswoman for Region II of the EPA, states, &#8220;This is to assuage concerns from residents in Lower Manhattan who continue to have concerns over air in their apartments.&#8221; [[ http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/5/9/61452.shtml | United Press International, 5/9/2002 ]] --- Criticisms of the EPA's volunteer cleanup program --- --- * --- The EPA does not include other areas like Brooklyn, which was in the direct path of the September 11 smoke plume (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1305 ]]), or Chinatown, whose residents have also complained of ailments they attribute to WTC contamination. [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/ DailyNews-5-20-02--9-11CleanupIsSoughtForLowerEastSide.pdf | New York Daily News, 5/20/2002 ]] [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] ------ --- * --- The EPA does not acknowledge that there is a public health emergency --- * --- The program is voluntary. --- * --- The EPA program targets asbestos, although the agency will also randomly test for other toxins to determine if additional measures should be taken. &#8220;We will test for asbestos in air. This is the substance of greatest concern, and air is the pathway of exposure. By cleaning up the dust, many other substances will also be removed,&#8221; an EPA public notice explains. [[ http://www.epa.gov/wtc/questions/ | EPA, n.d. ]] ------ However according to Cate Jenkins, &#8220;too few homes [are sampled] to have any statistical power to establish that these substances are not occurring elsewhere.&#8221; [[ http://www.nycosh.org/Jenkins-7-4-03-documentary-d.pdf | Jenkins, 7/4/2003 ]] ------ A panel of experts convened by the EPA in October will agree, and suggest that the EPA conduct tests for additional toxins (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1472 ]]). --- * --- The program is limited to private residences. Office buildings, the common areas of apartment buildings, stores and restaurants are not eligible for the program. [[ http://www.nydailynews.com/news/local/v-pfriendly/story/30987p-29393c.html | Newsday, 10/29/2002 ]] --- * --- Only apartments which appear upon visual inspection to be contaminated will qualify for cleaning. [[ http://www.abrahm.com/Salonstory.pdf | Salon, 4/15/2003 ]] --- * --- The plan does not require that all apartments in a building be evacuated and cleaned&#8212;just those whose residents have filed requests. Consequently, recontamination and cross-contamination will occur from ventilation systems connecting cleaned and uncleaned apartments and from dust tracked in on residents' shoes and clothing. [[ http://www.abrahm.com/Salonstory.pdf | Salon, 4/15/2003 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_indoors >> ((+ Jane Kenny )) ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) ((+ Mary Mears )) {{ commentary_stephen_levin_md_2 }} May 30, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1488 false 1 ------ Recovery efforts end at the World Trade Center site. [[ http://www.seacoastonline.com/2002news/05312002/world/7242.htm | Associated Press, 5/31/2002 ]] ====== June 1, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1489 false 1 ------ An article in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine summarizes the condition of a New York City firefighter who has contracted acute eosinophilic pneumonia, a rare disease caused by acute high dust exposure. Tests indicate that the firefighter&#8212;who worked 16-hour days for 2 weeks at the World Trade Center site&#8212;had fly ash, degraded glass, as well as chrysotile and amosite asbestos fibers in his lungs. [[ http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/cgi/content/full/166/6/797?maxtoshow=&amp;HITS=10&amp;hits=10&amp;RESULTFORMAT=&amp;searchid=1084505456101_9031&amp;stored_search=&amp;FIRSTINDEX=0&amp;minscore=5000&amp;journalcode=ajrccm | American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 2002 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_illnessDocumented >> June 9, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_2949 false 1 ------ Cate Jenkins PhD, a senior chemist in the EPA's Hazardous Waste Identification Division, writes an open memo recommending that New York City residents who believe their apartments were contaminated as a result of the WTC destruction have their carpets and upholstery tested using the &#8220;Millette ultrasonication&#8221; test method, which she explains is far superior to the micro-vac method currently being recommended by the EPA. She also repeats her earlier criticism of EPA Region 2's decision (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1491 ]]) to use the 1 percent asbestos level as its &#8220;level of concern.&#8221; [[ http://911digitalarchive.org/objects/109.pdf | Jenkins, 6/9/2002 ]] ====== ((+ Cate Jenkins, PhD. )) Mid-October 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1472 false 1 ------ A panel of experts convene for two days, at the request of the EPA, and make recommendations for the EPA's indoor cleanup program (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1459 ]]) in Manhattan. The panel suggests expanding the testing to &#8220;include a wider array of toxic contaminants;&#8221; lowering &#8220;the EPA's proposed danger benchmarks to take into account more vulnerable populations, such as children;&#8221; and establishing &#8220;safety standards for both residential and commercial buildings in Lower Manhattan.&#8221; [[ http://www.nydailynews.com/news/local/v-pfriendly/story/30987p-29393c.html | Newsday, 10/29/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_WTCworkers >> << env_imp_indoors >> ((- Environmental Protection Agency )) August 1, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1411 false 1 ------ An environmental engineer tests Stuyvesant High School's carpets and fabrics for contamination using the ultrasonication method and finds an extremely high concentration of 60,000 to 2.5 million structures of asbestos per square centimeter in the school's carpets. The Department of Education claims the results are &#8220;inconclusive.&#8221; (( Cate Jenkins Memo, August 29, 2002 )) (( Howard Bader, email, August 2, 2002 )) [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Kupferman-Chapter-in-LOST-LIBERTIES.pdf | Kupferman, 2003 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_independentStudies >> ((+ Stuyvesant High School )) September 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1494 false 1 ------ By this time, 358 New York City firefighters and paramedics are on sick leave or light-duty because they have the &#8220;World Trade Center cough&#8221; (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1383 ]]). [[ http://www-apps.niehs.nih.gov/centers/Public/news/nws164.htm | Newsday, 9/10/2001 ]] ====== << env_imp_WTCworkers >> << keyEvents >> September 9, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1493 false 1 ------ At a New York Academy of Medicine briefing, doctors discuss how the environmental conditions at Ground Zero during the recovery effort have so far impacted the health of those who worked at the site. Dr. Steven Levin of the Occupational Medical Center at Mt. Sinai Medical Center explains that several of the more than 1,000 workers he has seen &#8220;have developed inflammatory responses&#8221; in their lungs and adds that he has seen only a few recover. Dr. Kerry Kelly, chief medical officer for the NYC Fire Department, says that while only 3 percent of New York City firefighters had respiratory problems prior to September 11, this number has since increased to 15.6 percent. Another speaker at the briefing, Lung Chi Chen of the NYU Department of Environmental Medicine, suggests that either the pulverized glass, the high pH level (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1427 ]]), or a combination of the two, probably causes the World Trade Center cough. &#8220;We can show that human cells can tolerate acidic exposure very well,&#8221; Chen says in an interview. &#8220;But the cell cannot tolerate alkali exposure. You shift the pH up and the impact is devastating.&#8221; [[ http://www-apps.niehs.nih.gov/centers/Public/news/nws164.htm | Newsday, 9/10/2001 ]] [[ http://www-apps.niehs.nih.gov/centers/Public/news/nws166.htm | Newsday, 9/30/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_WTCworkers >> << env_imp_independentStudies >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Kerry Kelly )) ((+ Stephen Levin MD )) ((+ Lung Chi Chen )) December 20, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1498 false 1 ------ The EPA's National Center for Environmental Assessment releases a draft of &#8220;Exposure and Human Health Evaluation of Airborne Pollution from the World Trade Center Disaster&#8221; for public review. The draft report evaluates outdoor levels of various contaminants to which the public may have been exposed. The draft report also includes results from rodent respiratory toxicology studies which suggest a link between short-term exposure to WTC contaminants and mild lung inflammation and cough. [[ http://www.asse.org/govupdate_1-7-03_pollution.htm | jipsee Federal Register: December 27, 2002 (Volume 67, Number 249) ]] [[ http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimscomm.getfile?p_download_id=36387 | EPA, 12/20/2003 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentStatements >> ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) December 27, 2002 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_2947 false 1 ------ The EPA Office of Research and Development releases a comprehensive study on pollution in and around Ground Zero titled, &#8220;Exposure and Human Health Evaluation of Airborne Pollution from the World Trade Center Disaster.&#8221; The study concludes that the majority of residents and employees who returned to homes and offices after September 17 were &#8220;unlikely to suffer short-term or adverse health effects&#8221; from contaminants in the air. However the study warns that the thousands of people who were caught in the huge billowing dust clouds immediately after the towers collapsed, or who inhaled the air near the WTC site a few days after the attack, were &#8220;at risk for immediate acute [and possibly chronic] respiratory and other types of symptoms.&#8221; On page 77 of the report, the authors reveal that recorded dioxin levels from September through November were extremely high. For example, between October 12 and 29, a monitoring station on Park Row near City Hall Park recorded dioxin levels that averaged 5.6 parts per trillion/per cubic meter of air. This level is almost six times greater than the highest dioxin level ever recorded in the US, the report notes. The heaviest concentrations of dioxins were found at Ground Zero where concentrations &#8220;ranging from about 10 to 170&#8221; parts per trillion were recorded during the period between September 23 through November 21. Again the report observes that this figure is &#8220;between 100 and 1,500 times higher than typically found in urban air.&#8221; David Carpenter, MD, a researcher at State University of New York, tells the New York Daily News, &#8220;Those air levels are outrageous. There's a very significant health danger here.&#8221; [[ http://landofpuregold.com/truth113.htm | New York Daily News, 12/31/2002 ]] ====== << env_imp_governmentTests >> << keyEvents >> ((- Environmental Protection Agency )) January 2003 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1495 false 1 ------ The journal, Chest, publishes an article summarizing the case of a 37-year-old male engineer who is diagnosed with cough and dyspnea three weeks after being exposed to dust at Ground Zero. The patient's lung biopsy contained large quantities of silicates. The authors of the study suggest &#8220;that exposure to one or more materials resulting from the WTC catastrophe may be implicated in the development of granulomatous pulmonary disease.&#8221; [[ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov:80/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&amp;db=pubmed&amp;dopt=Abstract&amp;list_uids=12527638 | Safirstein B.H., et al. 1/2003 ]] ====== << env_imp_illnessDocumented >> << keyEvents >> January 2003 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1409 false 1 ------ To date, over 1,000 New York City firefighters have filed lawsuits against the City of New York claiming that the city failed to provide them with respirators during rescue and recovery efforts at the WTC. [[ http://www.nyenvirolaw.org/PDF/Kupferman-Chapter-in-LOST-LIBERTIES.pdf | Kupferman, 2003 ]] ====== << env_imp_WTCworkers >> << keyEvents >> January 27, 2003 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_2952 false 1 ------ The EPA Office of Inspector General (OIG) completes an interim report on the EPA's response to the environmental disaster ensuing from the collapse and burning of the World Trade Center towers. [[ http://www.nycosh.org/NYCOSHNews/2003-Jan-Mar-News.html#anchor101451 | BNA Daily Environment Report, 3/20/2003 ]] ------ The EPA OIG's final report will be released in August 2003 (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1503 ]]). ====== ((+ EPA Office of Inspector General (OIG) )) February 2003 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1497 false 1 ------ Congress passes the 2003 omnibus spending package which contains approximately $90 million to monitor the health of workers who took part in the World Trade Center recovery effort. But the Federal Emergency Management Agency, which controls the money, delays giving the funds to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because of a dispute over how to distribute the aid. [[ http://www.nydailynews.com/news/local/story/91095p-82841c.html | New York Daily News, 6/10/03 ]] ====== ((+ Federal Emergency Management Agency )) ((+ US Congress )) ((- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention )) February 5, 2003 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1500 false 1 ------ The Stone Street apartment of Bob and Diane Van Dyke is cleaned as part of the EPA's volunteer residential cleaning program (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1395 ]]). &#8220;Seven workers spent four hours on the 2,200 square foot space,&#8221; Salon magazine will report. &#8220;None of them wore the waist-level air monitors [EPA spokesperson Mary] Mears insisted all crews would have as a safety precaution. No one wore facemasks, respirators, or even plastic gloves, even though the site supervisor had determined that all of the Van Dykes' upholstered furniture, mattresses and bedding were contaminated and should be thrown out. Hot water was used to remove dust from ventilation grates; Murphy's Oil was spread on the floors. The carpets, which remained, were not vacuumed using the wet methods prescribed on the EPA's Web site. Neither were the drapes. HEPA vacuums were used, but when a hose abruptly popped off the machine and dust spewed onto the freshly vacuumed floor, the hose was simply reattached and the floor was not re-vacuumed. The cleaning process appeared no different from a standard housecleaning.&#8221; [[ http://www.abrahm.com/Salonstory.pdf | Salon, 4/15/2003 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_indoors >> {{ commentary_stephen_levin_md_3 }} March 11, 2003 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1496 false 1 ------ Kathleen Callahan, an EPA assistant regional administrator, rejects the New York City firefighters union's request to expand the EPA's cleanup program (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1459 ]]) for residential spaces in Lower Manhattan to four firehouses in Lower Manhattan. &#8220;We have not undertaken any cleanup of firehouses,&#8221; Callahan explains at an environmental symposium at Fordham University. &#8220;The program that we have is strictly residential and therefore, we would not do firehouses.&#8221; [[ http://1010wins.com/siteSearch/winstopstories_story_071071455.html | Infinity Broadcasting Corp, 3/12/03 ]] ====== ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) ((+ Kathleen Callahan )) April 2003 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1501 false 1 ------ William Horgan, a certified industrial hygienist who works for Assessment Resources and Technologies, Inc., tells Salon magazine that he has found high concentrations of heavy metals in the more than 150 floors he has tested in various high-rise buildings. &#8220;I see the heavy metal contamination as equal to if not greater than the asbestos contamination,&#8221; Horgan tells Salon. &#8220;Pretty much on every floor we found one of the components: lead, cadmium or mercury.&#8221; Approximately 75 percent of Horgan's tests indicated lead levels exceeding the US Department of Housing and Urban Development benchmark requiring lead abatement. He also found mercury in dozens of buildings. &#8220;In the years I've been doing this, I've never found mercury in any of our buildings,&#8221; he notes. &#8220;Why all of a sudden would we find mercury?&#8221; [[ http://www.abrahm.com/Salonstory.pdf | Salon, 4/15/2003 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_independentStudies >> ((+ William Horgan )) April 2003 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1499 false 1 ------ When asked to comment on allegations that the EPA had intentionally used testing methods incapable of detecting ultra fine particles and fibers in order not to find asbestos and other contaminants in Lower Manhattan, agency spokesperson Mary Mears tells Salon Magazine, &#8220;There are certain differences of opinion that will not be resolved.&#8221; She dismisses the fact that independent labs have found much greater levels of contamination than the EPA's tests, arguing that the private labs may not have used precise EPA methods. She also denies that conditions in Manhattan are unsafe. &#8220;We do not agree that this is a public health concern,&#8221; she says. &#8220;We have not seen the evidence, we do not see the danger.&#8221; She explains that the volunteer program is not meant to address a safety problem, just calm the nerves of Lower Manhattan residents. &#8220;While we felt there wasn't a big risk in the long term, we felt a need to offer something to those residents,&#8221; she said. &#8220;We do not feel this is a public-health emergency. But it goes well beyond anything that could be called a PR campaign.&#8221; [[ http://www.abrahm.com/Salonstory.pdf | Salon, 4/15/2003 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_deception >> << env_imp_independentStudies >> << env_imp_governmentTests >> ((+ Mary Mears )) ((+ Environmental Protection Agency )) August 21, 2003 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1503 false 1 ------ The EPA Office of Inspector General (OIG) releases its investigative report on the EPA's response to the environmental consequences resulting from the collapse and burning of the World Trade Center towers. (( EPA August 21, 2003 )) [[ http://www.nycosh.org/NYCOSHNews/2003-Jan-Mar-News.html#anchor101451 | BNA Daily Environment Report, 3/20/2003 ]] ------ The report, titled, &#8220;EPA's Response to the World Trade Center Disaster Collapse: Challenges, Successes, and Areas for Improvement,&#8221; concludes: --- * --- The agency did not have sufficient data to support its claim that air in Lower Manhattan following September 11 was &#8220;safe to breathe&#8221; (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1329 ]]). --- * --- The White House Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) &#8220;heavily influenced&#8221; the EPA's press releases, minimizing the risk to public health. Selected emails analyzed by OIG &#8220;indicated that CEQ dictated the content of early press releases&#8221; (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1483 ]]). --- * --- The EPA does not have an adequate system for reviewing and approving the content of EPA press releases. --- * --- The EPA misled the public by failing to acknowledge that &#8220;health standards do not exist&#8221; for the cumulative simultaneous impact of exposure to more than one toxin and that the synergistic effects resulting from these combinations are not well-understood. --- * --- The EPA Region 2 incorrectly applied AHERA and NESHAP asbestos standards as safety benchmarks when in fact these referred to the detection limits of certain testing methods (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1491 ]]). --- * --- The EPA failed to consider the short-term impacts of acute exposure to various toxins. --- * --- The EPA lacked sufficient data on 10 of the 14 &#8220;pollutants of concern&#8221; identified by scientists as possible components of the WTC dust and debris. --- * --- The EPA based its assessments on a risk standard of 1-in-10,000 for only some of carcinogenic pollutants thought to be contained in the clouds instead of the 1-in-1,000,000 acceptable-risk standard. It also ignored the agency's traditional reliance on the 1-in-100,000 level, which usually triggers corrective action. --- * --- The OIG determined there is &#8220;no evidence that EPA attempted to conceal data results from the public.&#8221; However, EPA scientist Cate Jenkins provides evidence the EPA and the City of New York DEP did in fact alter and in effect, conceal data results (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1507 ]]). --- * --- The OIG finds that the EPA should have implemented the National Contingency Program (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1477 ]]), which would have given EPA jurisdiction over other government agencies and control over the issue of indoor air contamination. Critics of this report will argue that the EPA had in fact implemented the NCP immediately after the attacks (see [[ enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1513 ]]). ====== << env_imp_governmentStatements >> << env_imp_deception >> << keyEvents >> ((+ EPA Office of Inspector General (OIG) )) ((- Cate Jenkins, PhD. )) ((- Council on Environmental Quality )) September 11, 2003 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1505 false 1 ------ A team of scientists from the University of California at Davis, known as the DELTA group, complete a study on the composition of the toxic gases released during fires burning at the World Trade Centers following the September 11 attacks. DELTA scientists release their report at a meeting of the American Chemical Society in New York. The study concludes that samples taken from the World Trade Center site contained four types of particles that the EPA considers harmful to human health: ultra-fine particulate matter composed of heavy metals known to cause lung damage, sulfuric acid harmful to pulmonary cells, ultra-fine glass particles that can travel through the lungs to the bloodstream and heart, and high-temperature carcinogenic organic matter. [[ http://www.enn.com/news/2003-09-11/s_8326.asp | Reuters, 9/11/03 ]] ====== << env_imp_independentStudies >> ((+ DELTA Group )) ((+ Thomas Cahill )) (Late October 2003) enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1502 false 1 ------ Miriam Diamond,PhD, a professor in the Department of Geography at the University of Toronto, and her colleagues obtain sample residues from the windows of nine buildings in Lower Manhattan, all located within one kilometer of the WTC disaster site. These samples are tested for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). Dr. Diamond and her colleagues find that PAHs, PCNs and PCBs are present in concentrations &#8220;up to 10 times greater than New York City's normal background levels and possibly 100 times higher than surrounding rural areas.&#8221; The findings are later published in the July 1, 2004 print edition of Environmental Science and Technology, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Chemical Society, the world's largest scientific society. [[ http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/06/040604032125.htm | American Chemical Society, 6/4/2004 ]] [[ http://www.abrahm.com/Salonstory.pdf | Salon, 4/15/2003 ]] ====== << keyEvents >> << env_imp_independentStudies >> ((+ Miriam Diamond )) April 2004 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1414 false 1 ------ The Manhattan Supreme Court orders the City of New York to pay New York City Officer Richard Lahm a tax-free disability pension, ruling that environmental conditions at Ground Zero exacerbated his tonsil cancer. Earlier in the year, Lahm retired from the 46th Precinct in the Bronx after his terminal tonsil cancer worsened. His doctors argued that toxins released at the WTC actually caused his condition. [[ http://www.nydailynews.com/news/local/story/196481p-169671c.html | New York Daily News, 6/24/04 ]] ====== << env_imp_illnessDocumented >> << keyEvents >> ((+ Richard Lahm )) May 2004 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1506 false 1 ------ By this date, over 1,700 police officers and firefighters have filed lawsuits against the City of New York claiming that conditions at Ground Zero or the Fresh Kills landfill caused their illnesses, including sarcoidosis, asthma, reactive airway disorders, and chronic coughs. [[ http://www.nydailynews.com/news/local/story/196481p-169671c.html | New York Daily News, 6/24/04 ]] ====== << env_imp_WTCworkers >> << keyEvents >> July 15, 2004 enviromental_impact_911_attacks_1507 false 1 ------ Cate Jenkins, a senior chemist in the EPA's Hazardous Waste Identification Division, releases a memorandum arguing that &#8220;both EPA and NYC deliberately concealed, altered, falsified, and deleted data showing asbestos levels that both EPA and NYC declared unsafe.&#8221; (( Memorandum from Cate Jenkins, 7/15/2004 )) ====== << env_imp_deception >> ((+ Cate Jenkins, PhD. ))