Effect of sanctions on Iraq UN sanctions effect us_interventions_project 1990 before_sanctions false 1 ------ Under the leadership of Saddam, Iraq had achieved one of the most modern infrastructures and highest standards of living in the Middle East, and this despite the effects of the war on Iran. [[ http://canesi.org/Engl/impact.html | Article ]] ====== April 1991 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@134b4cb_2 false 1 ------ The original post-Gulf War U.N. Security Council resolution 687, makes a lots of demands on Iraq, but specifies that once Iraq complies with the weapons inspection regime, the economic sanctions '<i>shall have no further force or effect.</i>'. [[ http://www.caabu.org/press/documents/unscr-resolution-687.html | UN Resolution ]] [[ http://www.counterpunch.org/husseini03082003.html | Article ]] ====== May 1991 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@134b4cb_3 false 1 ------ Daddy Bush states states '<i>At this juncture, my view is we don't want to lift these sanctions as long as Saddam Hussein is in power</i>'. The same day, then-Secretary of State James Baker sends the same message - '<i>We are not interested in seeing a relaxation of sanctions as long as Saddam Hussein is in power</i>'. Clinton continues with this same policy during his time as President. [[ http://www.counterpunch.org/husseini03082003.html | Article ]] [[ http://hnn.us/articles/1326.html | Article ]] [[ http://www.accuracy.org/press_releases/PR031803.htm | Article ]] [[ http://www.accuracy.org/press_releases/PR031103.htm | Article ]] ====== sanctions_unicef_est false 1 ------ UNICEF estimates the sanctions have caused 500,000 Iraqi children under 5 to die in the eight year period from 1991 to 1998. [[ http://www.unicef.org.uk/index_s.asp?sct=news&filen=../news/iraq1.htm | UNICEF report ]] [[ http://www.unicef.org/reseval/pdfs/irqu5est.pdf | Article ]] [[ http://www.unicef.org/newsline/99pr29.htm | Article ]] [[ http://www.casi.org.uk/briefing/000707versailles.pdf | Article ]] [[ http://www.unicef.org/noteworthy/iraq/situation.html | Article ]] ====== sanctions_un_est false 1 ------ The UN estimates 1 million Iraqis, mostly children, had died under the sanctions in this period. The Iraqi health ministry claims 1.5 million people. [[ http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/meast/9908/06/iraq.sanctions/ | CNN article ]] [[ http://www.muslimedia.com/archives/oaw98/sanction.htm | Article ]] [[ http://www.cbc.ca/news/features/iraq/iraq_sanctions.html | Article ]] ====== 1996 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@134b4cb_6 false 1 ------ At the International Court On Crimes Against Humanity, US, British and UN officials are charged with '<i>causing the deaths of more than 1,500,000 people including 750,000 children under five, and injury to the entire population of Iraq by genocidal sanctions.</i>', and having committed '<i>genocide as defined in the Convention against Genocide against the population of Iraq including genocide by starvation and sickness through use of sanctions as a weapon of mass destruction and violation of Article 54, Protection of Objects Indispensable to the Civilian Population, of Protocol I Additional to the Geneva Convention 1977.</i>'. The US is charged further with extortion, obstruction of justice, co-ercion, corruption of UN functions and the restriction of press and media coverage on the issue. [[ http://www.twf.org/News/Y1997/Ramsey.html | Article ]] [[ http://www.iacenter.org/warcrime/charges.htm | Article ]] [[ http://www.mediamonitors.net/mosaddeq1.html | Article ]] [[ http://www.infordeus.com/portico3/E_1_97/clark_irak.html | Article ]] [[ http://www.iacenter.org/reportun.htm | Article ]] ====== 1997 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@134b4cb_7 false 1 ------ Madeleine Albright, in her first major foreign policy address as Secretary of State, proclaims '<i>We do not agree with the nations who argue that if Iraq complies with its obligations concerning weapons of mass destruction, sanctions should be lifted</i>'. [[ http://www.counterpunch.org/husseini03082003.html | Article ]] [[ http://www.accuracy.org/press_releases/PR031103.htm | Article ]] [[ http://www.accuracy.org/articles/twisted-policy.html | Article ]] [[ http://www.fair.org/extra/0301/blitzer.html | Article ]] [[ http://www.antiwar.com/rep/utley2.html | Article ]] ====== 1998 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@134b4cb_8 false 1 ------ When asked on 60 minutes whether the price (500,000 children) was worth it, Madeline Albright replies - '<i>I think this is a very hard choice, but the price - we think the price is worth it.</i>' The 500,000 deaths are supposedly 'justified' by the fact that the sanctions have stopped Iraq from building weapons of mass destruction. Yet now [[ bush | Bush ]] is taking us to war because, he alleges, Iraq does in fact still have these weapons, indicating that the sanctions served no purpose except to kill an estimated 4,000 children a month. [[ http://www.cnn.com/2000/WORLD/meast/07/26/iraq7_25.a.tm/ | CNN article ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4274013,00.html | Article ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/meast/9907/12/iraq.sanctions/ | Article ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/meast/9908/12/iraq.unicef/ | Article ]] ====== 2000 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@134b4cb_9 false 1 ------ Iraq drops to 126th on the UNDP Human Development Index, despite having ranked 50th in 1990. [[ http://www.casi.org.uk/info/unicef/sit0202/context.html | UNICEF report ]] [[ http://www.careusa.org/newsroom/specialreports/victimsofwar/iraq-war.asp?gir | Article ]] [[ http://www.unicef.ie/unicef.php?content=iraq_2.php | Article ]] [[ http://www.dawn.com/2000/03/09/int15.htm | Article ]] [[ http://pilger.carlton.com/iraq/myths | Article ]] ====== Nov 2001 oil_for_food false 1 ------ Halliday (who started the oil-for-food programme in Iraq), and Von Sponeck (his successor) - both of whom resigned their long UN careers after calling the embargo "genocide" - write: "<i>The most recent report of the UN secretary general, in October 2001, says that the US and UK governments' blocking of $4bn of humanitarian supplies is by far the greatest constraint on the implementation of the oil-for-food programme. The report says that, in contrast, the Iraqi government's distribution of humanitarian supplies is fully satisfactory ... The death of some 5-6,000 children a month is mostly due to contaminated water, lack of medicines and malnutrition. The US and UK governments' delayed clearance of equipment and materials is responsible for this tragedy, not Baghdad.</i>" [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4309594,00.html | Guardian article ]] [[ http://www.salon.com/people/feature/2002/03/20/halliday/index2.html | Article ]] [[ http://pilger.carlton.com/print/100275 | Article ]] [[ http://www.planetpapers.com/Assets/3800.php | Article ]] ------ When the UN Secretary General refers to the US and UK governments' 'blocking', he is referring partly to US+British efforts to prevent 'kickbacks' from the program reaching the Iraqi leadership. It is estimated their efforts prevented $30-50 million reaching the Iraqi leadership, at a cost however of $2-3 billion to the humanitarian program - a dubious tradeoff. [[ http://www.merip.org/mero/mero030403.html | Article ]] [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/sanction/iraq1/priceindex.htm | Article ]] [[ http://pilger.carlton.com/print/132938 | Article ]] ------ Other blocking included the prevention such 'dual-use' items as medicines, heart and lung machines, water pumps and other agricultural supplies, safety and fire fighting equipment, wheel barrows, detergent, ambulances etc from being provided to Iraq. [[ http://www.planetpapers.com/Assets/3800.php | Article ]] [[ http://www.socialistworker.org/2001/370/370_06_NoIraqSanctions.shtml | Article ]] [[ http://www.zmag.org/sustainers/content/2002-05/21arnove.cfm | Article ]] [[ http://www.washtimes.com/world/20020515-550690.htm | Article ]] [[ http://www.geocities.com/iraqinfo/index.html?page=/iraqinfo/sanctions/sanctions.html | Article ]] [[ http://pilger.carlton.com/print/132938 | Article ]] ======