Congo Congo congo us_interventions_project 1959 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@1ec33c5_1 false 1 ------ Popular revolts and demands for independence from Belgium force the Belgian government to negotiate with the rebellious parties. [[ http://www.alternativeinsight.com/Foreign_Policy_Failures.html | Article ]] ====== June 1960 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@1ec33c5_2 false 1 ------ Lumumba, already recognized as one of Africa's most vociferous leaders of anti-colonial liberation movements, is elected prime minister of the Congo Republic immediately before the country's independence. [[ http://www.alternativeinsight.com/Foreign_Policy_Failures.html | Article ]] ====== Aug 1960 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@1ec33c5_3 false 1 ------ The US is concerned that Lumumba will be the new Castro. Eisenhower tells CIA chief Allen Dulles to 'eliminate' Lumumba at a National Security Council meeting. [[ http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Front_Page/DG03Aa01.html | Article ]] [[ http://www.wsws.org/articles/2001/jan2001/lum-j10.shtml | Article ]] ------ The Church committee hearings of 1975-1976 would later confirm that Eisenhower gave the order to assassinate Lumumba, as well as revealing several CIA plots to assassinate Lumumba. [[ http://history-matters.com/archive/church/reports/ir/html/ChurchIR_0014a.htm | Church report ]] [[ http://www.aarclibrary.org/publib/church/reports/ir/html/ChurchIR_0014a.htm | Article ]] [[ http://www.afrol.com/News2002/drc005_lumumba_us.htm | Article ]] ====== Aug 1960 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@1ec33c5_5 false 1 ------ The CIA establishes Project Wizard, a CIA covert action program aimed at removing Lumumba. Not to be outdone, the Belgians also initiate <a href="http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Front_Page/DG03Aa01.html">their own plot</a> to kill Lumumba later in October, entitled 'Operation Barracuda'. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&node=&contentId=A35560-2002Jul20&notFound=true | Washington Post article ]] [[ http://www.wsws.org/articles/2001/jan2001/lum-j10.shtml | Article ]] ====== org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@1ec33c5_6 false 1 ------ Over the next few months, the CIA works with and makes payments to eight top Congolese, including Kasavubu (who would replace Lumumba) and Mobutu (then army chief of staff). All eight play roles in Lumumba's downfall. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&node=&contentId=A35560-2002Jul20&notFound=true | Washington Post article ]] [[ http://www.aarclibrary.org/publib/church/reports/ir/html/ChurchIR_0014a.htm | Article ]] ====== Sept 5, 1960 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@1ec33c5_7 false 1 ------ Lumumba is ousted and placed in captivity. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A35560-2002Jul20?language=printer | Washington Post article ]] ====== Sept 19, 1960 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@1ec33c5_8 false 1 ------ The British foreign minister meets with Eisenhower, pressing him to kill Lumumba. During the meeting, Kissinger expresses his wish that 'Lumumba would fall into a river full of crocodiles'. [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2001/08/09/wcong109.xml | Telegraph article ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4211887,00.html | Article ]] ====== Oct 1960 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@1ec33c5_9 false 1 ------ The CIA provides Mobutu with $250,000 to win parliamentary support for a Mobutu government. However, when legislators balk at approving any prime minister other than Lumumba, the CIA prevents the parliament from reopening. The following month the CIA is authorized to provide arms, ammunition, sabotage materials and training to Mobutu's military in the event it has to resist pro-Lumumba forces. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&node=&contentId=A35560-2002Jul20&notFound=true | Washington Post article ]] [[ http://history-matters.com/archive/church/reports/ir/html/ChurchIR_0016a.htm | Article ]] ====== Jan 1961 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@1ec33c5_11 false 1 ------ Barely three weeks after his death, the US authorises new funds to be given to the people who arranged Lumumba's murder. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&node=&contentId=A35560-2002Jul20&notFound=true | Washington Post article ]] ====== Jan 1961 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@1ec33c5_10 false 1 ------ Lumumba and two of his comrades are killed, allegedy while attempting to escape confinement. It is recently revealed that he was actually executed by a firing squad commanded by a Belgian. [[ http://www.un.org/ecosocdev/geninfo/afrec/subjindx/154gov2.htm | UN report ]] [[ http://www.usnews.com/usnews/doubleissue/mysteries/patrice.htm | Article ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4211887,00.html | Article ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1802929.stm | Article ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1660615.stm | Article ]] ====== org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@1ec33c5_13 false 1 ------ During this period (up till 1991 when the US cuts aid), Mobutu receives over $1.5 billion in economic and military aid from the US while US companies increase their share of Congo's fabulous mineral wealth. [[ http://www.covertaction.org/full_text_69_01.htm | Article ]] [[ http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Blum/Zaire_KH.html | Article ]] ====== 1965-1997 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@1ec33c5_12 false 1 ------ Mobutu seizes full power and reigns as a despot for 35 years with US support. In 1980 he bans all political parties except his own. He personally controls 70% of the country's wealth, valued at $5 billion. At his death in 1997, he is personally responsible for 80% of his country's debts. [[ http://www.alternativeinsight.com/Foreign_Policy_Failures.html | Article ]] [[ http://www.wsws.org/articles/1999/may1999/cong-m14.shtml | Article ]] ====== 1997 org.ccr.persist.link.TimelineLink@1ec33c5_15 false 1 ------ Laurent-Denise Kabila forces a dissipated Mobutu from power. He inherits a country in ruins which soon finds itself in a brutal civil war in which to date an estimated 3 million people have been killed. The resource rich Congo, once the most promising of the liberated central African countries, after 35 years of US involvement in its affairs, is an economically, politically and socially bankrupt nation. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/country_profiles/1076399.stm | BBC article ]] [[ http://washingtontimes.com/upi-breaking/20030528-054732-3949r.htm | Article ]] [[ http://www.sfbayview.com/052803/coporate052803.shtml | Article ]] [[ http://www.alternativeinsight.com/Foreign_Policy_Failures.html | Article ]] [[ http://www.forward.com/issues/2003/03.05.30/news8.html | Article ]] [[ http://www.thestar.com/NASApp/cs/ContentServer?pagename=thestar/Layout/Article_Type1&c=Article&cid=1052251800613&call_pageid=968332188492&col=968793972154 | Article ]] ======