Complete timeline of the 2003 Invasion of Iraq Complete Iraq timeline complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq iraq_project general_topic_areas specific_cases_and_issues quotes_from_senior_us_officials February 15, 1848 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1831 false 1 ------ In a letter to his law partner, William H. Herndon, Abraham Lincoln disagrees with Herndon's argument for preemptive war. &#8220;Allow the President to invade a neighboring nation, whenever he shall deem it necessary to repel an invasion ... and you allow him to make war at pleasure. ... The provision of the Constitution giving the war making power to Congress was dictated, as I understand it, by the following reasons: kings had always been involving and impoverishing their people in wars, pretending generally, if not always, that the good of the people was the object. This our convention understood to be the most oppressive of all kingly oppressions, and they resolved to so frame the Constitution that no one man should hold the power of bringing this oppression upon us. But your view destroys the whole matter, and places our President where kings have always stood.&#8221; (( Letter from Abraham Lincoln to William H. Herndon, 2/15/1848 )) ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ Abraham Lincoln )) 1950s complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_44 false 1 ------ The first &#8220;Zippe-type&#8221; gas centrifuge, named after one of its main developers, German scientist Gernot Zippe, is produced. The centrifuge uses duralumin rotors. Centrifuge rotors are thin-walled tubes that spin at high speeds producing enriched uranium 235. Centrifuge rotors are highly sensitive and must be made from specialized high-strength material. [[ http://www.isis-online.org/publications/iraq/aluminumtubes.html | Institute for Science and International Security, 9/23/2002 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> ((+ Gernot Zippe )) After the 1950s complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_9 false 1 ------ The use of aluminum for rotors in gas centrifuges is discontinued. Other materials, such as maraging steel and carbon fiber, are used instead. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39500-2003Aug9.html | Washington Post, 8/10/03 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> Mid-1980s-late 1990s complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_38 false 1 ------ Joe T., an engineer, begins working for the CIA. (( Unnamed US intelligence, US administration, and/or UN inspectors )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39500-2003Aug9.html | Washington Post, 8/10/03 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> ((+ Joe T. )) Early 1980s complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_37 false 1 ------ At this time, an engineer named &#8220;Joe T.,&#8221; is working in the gas centrifuge program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. His work pertains not to actual centrifuges, but to the platforms upon which the centrifuges are installed. (( Unnamed US intelligence, US administration, and/or UN inspectors )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39500-2003Aug9.html | Washington Post, 8/10/03 ]] [[ http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=34042 | World Net Daily, 8/12/03 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> ((+ Joe T. )) (Late 1980s) complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1216 false 1 ------ Iraq begins developing &#8220;Zippe-type&#8221; centrifuges (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_44 ]]). The centrifuges use rotors made from maraging steel and carbon fiber, which are more advanced than aluminum and allow the rotor to spin at significantly higher speeds. But Iraq has problems building them&#8212;even with considerable assistance from German experts. [[ http://www.isis-online.org/publications/iraq/aluminumtubes.html | Institute for Science and International Security, 9/23/2002 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> Mid-1990s complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_186 false 1 ------ Abu Mussab Al Zarqawi, a Jordanian-born Palestinian, moves to Europe where he forms al-Tawhid, a terrorist organization whose aim it is to kill Jews and install an Islamic regime in Jordan. While in Europe, Al Zarqawi and other members of his group make plans to attack Jews and Israeli targets in Germany. (( Shadi Abdallah )) [[ http://truthout.org/docs_03/062703B.shtml | Newsweek, 6/25/03 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/independent020603.htm | Independent, 2/6/03 ]] ------ In late 1999, Al Zarqawi is allegedly involved in an attempt to blow up the Radisson SAS Hotel in Amman, Jordan, whose customers are frequently Israeli and American tourists. (( Unnamed Bush administration official )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A38235-2003Feb6.html | Washington Post, 2/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/independent020603.htm | Independent, 2/6/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,807286,00.html | Guardian, 10/9/02 ]] ------ At some point during this period, Al Zarqawi establishes a terrorist training camp near Herat, Afghanistan, which competes with al-Qaeda for new recruits. According to the Bush administration, the training camp specializes in poisons and explosives. While in Afghanistan, Zarqawi maintains contact with his cells in Europe. (( Shadi Abdallah )) [[ http://truthout.org/docs_03/062703B.shtml | Newsweek, 6/25/03 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/independent020603.htm | Independent, 2/6/03 ]] ====== << alZarqawi >> ((+ Abu Mussab Al Zarqawi )) January 1990 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1833 false 1 ------ Speaking before the Senate Armed Services Committee, CIA Director William acknowledges the West's increasing dependency on Middle East oil. [[ http://www.globalresearch.org/view_article.php?aid=786771175 | Cited in Ahmed, 10/2/2001 ]] ====== << motivesBehindWar >> ((+ William H. Webster )) Mid-September 1990 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1816 false 1 ------ The Pentagon, citing top-secret satellite images, claims that some 250,000 Iraqi troops and 1,500 tanks are gathering on Saudi Arabia?s border in preparation for an attack. But two commercial Soviet satellite images of the border area, taken at the same time, obtained by Florida?s St. Petersburg Times, show only an empty desert. &#8220;The bulk of the mighty Iraqi army, said to number more than 500,000 in Kuwait and southern Iraq, couldn't be found,&#8221; Newsday reports. [[ http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0906/p01s02-wosc.html | Christian Science Monitor 9/6/02 [b] ]] [[ http://www.independent.org/tii/news/030105Marshall.html | Los Angeles Times, 1/5/03 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/1990s/stpetersburgtimes010691.htm | St. Petersburg Times, 1/6/91 ]] ====== << propaganda >> May 1990 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1834 false 1 ------ The US National Security Council presents a white paper to President Bush in which it describes Saddam Hussein's regime in Iraq as the optimum contender &#8220;to replace the Warsaw Pact&#8221; and on that basis argues for the continuation of Cold War-level military spending. [[ http://www.aldeilis.net/jus/econsanc/knowledge.pdf | Pilger, 1991 cited in Davidsson, n.d. ]] ====== << motivesBehindWar >> ((+ George W. Bush )) August 2, 1990 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1830 false 1 ------ The UN Security Council adopts Resolution 678 authorizing &#8220;Member States co-operating with the Government of Kuwait ... to use all necessary means to uphold and implement resolution 660 (1990) and all subsequent relevant resolutions and to restore international peace and security in the area.&#8221; (( UN Resolution 678 )) ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ United Nations Security Council )) August 2, 1990 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1829 false 1 ------ The UN Security Council adopts Resolution 660 condemning Iraq's invasion of Kuwait and demanding that Iraq &#8220;withdraw immediately and unconditionally all its forces to the positions in which they were located on 1 August 1990.&#8221; (( UN Resolution 660 )) ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ United Nations Security Council )) Late 1990 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1817 false 1 ------ An unconfirmed report of Iraqi soldiers entering a Kuwaiti hospital and removing newborns from their incubators is distributed widely. The rumor, which later turns out to be false, is seized upon by senior executives of the PR firm Hill and Knowlton, which has a $10 million contract from the Kuwaiti royal family to win support for a US-led intervention against Iraq. The PR firm, which has very close ties to the Bush administration, helps a 15-year-old Kuwaiti girl, known only as &#8220;Nayirah,&#8221; prepare to speak before a congressional caucus. In her testimony, she describes in detail how she had witnessed Iraqi soldiers storm the hospital where she was an intern and steal the incubators, leaving 312 babies &#8220;on the cold floor to die.&#8221; President Bush refers to the incident numerous times as he lobbies Congress to authorize the use of military force against Iraq. But it is later discovered that Nayirah is actually the daughter of the Kuwaiti ambassador to Washington and that she was never an intern at the Kuwait hospital. The story was a complete fabrication. [[ http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0906/p01s02-wosc.html | Christian Science Monitor 9/6/02 [a] ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/views02/0906-01.htm | Christian Science Monitor 9/6/02 [b] ]] [[ http://www.independent.org/tii/news/030105Marshall.html | Los Angeles Times, 1/5/03 ]] ====== << propaganda >> ((+ Hill and Knowlton )) ((+ George Herbert Walker Bush )) 1991-2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_5 false 1 ------ After the First Gulf War, the British Defense Ministry's Defense Intelligence Staff creates a secret intelligence office known as Operation Rockingham. The purpose of the top secret cell is to collect intelligence that can be used by the US and British to support the case for maintaining UN sanctions on Iraq. After the September 11 attacks, Rockingham helps build Britain's case for the need to use military force against Iraq. (( Scott Ritter )) (( Unnamed British intelligence officials )) [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/34491 | Sunday Herald, 6/8/03a ]] [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/34461 | Sunday Herald, 6/8/03b ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,1089931,00.html | Guardian, 11/21/03 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3227506.stm | BBC, 11/21/03 ]] [[ http://www.news.scotsman.com/latest.cfm?id=2205340 | Scotsman, 11/21/03 ]] [[ http://politics.guardian.co.uk/iraq/story/0,12956,1095955,00.html | Guardian, 11/29/03 ]] ------ Former US Marine intelligence officer Scott Ritter, who has first-hand knowledge of the operation, will later tell reporters that the members of the cell were backed by officials &#8220;from the very highest levels,&#8221; including military and intelligence officers, as well as civilian officials from the ministry of defense. (( Scott Ritter )) [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/34491 | Sunday Herald, 6/8/03a ]] [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/34461 | Sunday Herald, 6/8/03b ]] ------ Sources equate Rockingham to the Pentagon's Office of Special Plans (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_73 ]]), which is also later accused of producing misleading assessments on Iraq based on the selective use of intelligence. (( Scott Ritter )) [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,1089931,00.html | Guardian, 11/21/03 ]] [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/34491 | Sunday Herald, 6/8/03a ]] ------ The operation is similar to Operation Mass Appeal (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_6 ]]), another British intelligence disinformation program. ====== << deception >> ((+ Scott Ritter )) {{ statement_unnamed_report_2 }} {{ statement_scott_ritter_7 }} {{ statement_scott_ritter_6 }} {{ statement_scott_ritter_7 }} {{ statement_scott_ritter_2 }} {{ statement_scott_ritter_5 }} {{ statement_scott_ritter_3 }} 1991-2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_6 false 1 ------ The British MI6 establishes Operation Mass Appeal, a British intelligence mission &#8220;designed to exaggerate Iraq's weapons of mass destruction&#8221; in order to shape public opinion. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3227506.stm | BBC, 11/21/03 ]] ------ The operation plants stories in the US, British, and foreign media from the 1990s through 2003. Intelligence used by Mass Appeal is said to be &#8220;single source data of dubious quality.&#8221; After the First Gulf War, the operation seeks to justify the UN sanctions policy. But after the September 11 attacks, its objective is to secure public support for an invasion of Iraq. The mission is similar to Operation Rockingham (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_5 ]]), another British intelligence disinformation program. (( Former Clinton Administration official )) (( Scott Ritter )) [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3227506.stm | BBC, 11/21/03 ]] [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030331fa_fact1 | New Yorker, 3/31/03 ]] [[ http://www.news.scotsman.com/latest.cfm?id=2205340 | Scotsman, 11/21/03 ]] ------ Former US Marine intelligence officer Scott Ritter says in late in 2003 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_98 ]]) that he supplied Mass Appeal with intelligence while serving as UN chief weapons inspector from the summer of 1997 until August 1998 and that he met with British agents involved in the operation several times in both New York and London. (( Scott Ritter )) [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3227506.stm | BBC, 11/21/03 ]] ====== << deception >> ((+ Scott Ritter )) {{ statement_scott_ritter_10 }} {{ statement_scott_ritter_9 }} {{ statement_scott_ritter_11 }} {{ statement_scott_ritter_8 }} {{ statement_scott_ritter_29 }} {{ commentary_seymour_hersh_4 }} {{ commentary_unnamed_clinton_administration_official_2 }} {{ statement_scott_ritter_28 }} {{ statement_scott_ritter_25 }} {{ statement_scott_ritter_26 }} {{ statement_scott_ritter_27 }} 1991-1997 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_419 false 1 ------ Under the supervision of UNSCOM weapons inspectors, Iraq destroys more than 38,000 filled and unfilled chemical munitions, 690 tons of chemical warfare agents, over 3,000 tons of precursor chemicals, more than 400 pieces of production equipment, 48 missiles, 6 missile launchers, and 30 missile warheads modified to carry chemical or biological agents. (( UNSCOM report, S/1998/332, April 16, 1998 )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/views02/0820-04.htm | Foreign Policy in Focus, 8/02 ]] [[ http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0829/p01s03-wosc.html | Christian Science Monitor, 8/29/02 ]] [[ http://www.fas.org/spp/starwars/crs/98042705_npo.html | Congressional Research Service Reports, 4/98 ]] ------ After cross-referencing weapons-making materials found in Iraq with sales records from other countries, UNSCOM inspectors conclude that at least 90% of Iraq's weapons have been destroyed or dismantled. Chief UNSCOM inspector Scott Ritter believes that a good portion of the remaining 10% was destroyed during the First Gulf War, thus leaving only a small fraction unaccounted for. [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/07.25A.wrp.iraq.htm | Pitt, 7/24/02 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/views02/0731-09.htm | Newsday, 7/30/02 ]] ====== << wmd >> ((+ Scott Ritter )) March 8, 1992 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_626 false 1 ------ The Defense Planning Guidance document, a &#8220;blueprint for the department's spending priorities in the aftermath of the first Gulf War and the collapse of the Soviet Union,&#8221; is leaked to the New York Times. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/1990s/nyt030892.html | New York Times, 3/8/92 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2003/newsday031603.html | Newsday, 3/16/03 ]] ------ The paper causes controversy, because it hadn't yet been &#8220;scrubbed&#8221; to replace candid language with euphemisms. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/1990s/nyt031092.html | New York Times, 3/10/92 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/1990s/nyt031192.html | New York Times, 3/11/92 ]] [[ http://observer.guardian.co.uk/print/0,3858,4388919-102273,00.html | The Observer, 4/7/02 ]] ------ The document argues that the US dominates the world as sole superpower, and to maintain that role it &#8220;must maintain the mechanisms for deterring potential competitors from even aspiring to a larger regional or global role.&#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/1990s/nyt030892.html | New York Times, 3/8/92 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/1990s/nyt030892b.html | New York Times, 3/8/92 [B] ]] ------ As the Observer summarizes it, &#8220;America's friends are potential enemies. They must be in a state of dependence and seek solutions to their problems in Washington.&#8221; [[ http://observer.guardian.co.uk/print/0,3858,4388919-102273,00.html | The Observer, 4/7/02 ]] ------ The document is mainly written by Paul Wolfowitz and Lewis Libby, who hold relatively low posts at the time, but under Bush Jr. become Deputy Defense Secretary and Vice President Cheney's Chief of Staff, respectively. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2003/newsday031603.html | Newsday, 3/16/03 ]] ------ The document conspicuously avoids mention of collective security arrangements through the United Nations, instead suggesting the US &#8220;should expect future coalitions to be ad hoc assemblies, often not lasting beyond the crisis being confronted.&#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/1990s/nyt030892.html | New York Times, 3/8/92 ]] ------ It also calls for &#8220;punishing&#8221; or &#8220;threatening punishment&#8221; against regional aggressors before they act. Interests to be defended pre-emptively include &#8220;access to vital raw materials, primarily Persian Gulf oil, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missiles, [and] threats to US citizens from terrorism.&#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/harpers1002.html | Harper's, 10/02 ]] ------ Senator Lincoln Chafee (R), later says, &#8220;It is my opinion that [Bush Jr.'s] plan for preemptive strikes was formed back at the end of the first Bush administration with that 1992 report.&#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2003/newsday031603.html | Newsday, 3/16/03 ]] ------ In response to the controversy, in May 1992 the US releases an updated version of the document that stresses the US will work with the United Nations and its allies (see also January 1993). [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/1990s/wpost052492.html | The Washington Post, 5/24/92 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/harpers1002.html | Harper's, 10/02 ]] ====== << motivesBehindWar >> << pre911Plans >> ((+ Lincoln Chafee )) ((- George W. Bush )) ((- Dick Cheney )) ((+ Lewis Libby )) ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) August 22, 1995 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_424 false 1 ------ Hussein Kamel, Iraq's former minister of military industry&#8212;who was Saddam Hussein's son-in-law and who had overseen Saddam's nuclear, chemical, biological and missile weapons programs for almost a decade&#8212;is interviewed shortly after defecting by UNMOVIC Executive Chairman Rolf Ekeus, Professor Maurizio Zifferero, deputy director of the Internal Atomic Energy Agency,and Nikita Smidovick of UNSCOM. During the interview, Kamel says that Iraq had destroyed all of its banned weapons after the First Gulf War. &#8220;I ordered destruction of all chemical weapons. All weapons&#8212;biological, chemical, missile, nuclear were destroyed,&#8221; he tells his interviewers. With regard to Anthrax, which Kamel says had been the &#8220;main focus&#8221; of Iraq's biological program, Kamel says, &#8220;nothing remained.&#8221; Regarding the nerve gas, VX, Kamel says, &#8220;they put it in bombs during last days of the Iran-Iraq war. They were not used and the program was terminated.&#8221; When asked if the program had been reconstituted, Kamel replies, &#8220;We changed the factory into pesticide production. Part of the establishment started to produce medicine ... We gave instructions not to produce chemical weapons.&#8221; On the issue of prohibited missiles, Kamel states: &#8220;[N]ot a single missile left but they had blueprints and molds for production. All missiles were destroyed.&#8221; Kamel also says that inspections worked in Iraq. &#8220;You have important role in Iraq with this. You should not underestimate yourself. You are very effective in Iraq,&#8221; he reveals. (( UNSCOM Interview with Hussein Kamel, August 22, 1995 )) ------ But this information is not made public. Newsweek reports in March 2003 that according to its sources, &#8220;Kamel's revelations about the destruction of Iraq's WMD stocks were hushed up by the UN inspectors ... for two reasons. Saddam did not know how much Kamel had revealed, and the inspectors hoped to bluff Saddam into disclosing still more.&#8221; [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0226-01.htm | Newsweek, 3/3/03 ]] [[ http://news.scotsman.com/international.cfm?id=230772003 | Scotsman, 2/24/03 ]] ------ Kamel also says that Khidhir Hamza, an Iraqi nuclear scientist who defected in 1994 and who will be a source for claims regarding Iraq's alleged nuclear weapons program in the lead-up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, is &#8220;a professional liar.&#8221; &#8220;He worked with us, but he was useless and always looking for promotions,&#8221; he tells his interviewers. &#8220;He consulted with me but could not deliver anything. . . . He was even interrogated by a team before he left and was allowed to go.&#8221; [[ http://www.nybooks.com/articles/16922 | New York Review of Books, 2/26/04 ]] ------ At around the same time, Kamel is also interviewed by the CIA and Britain's MI6. According to sources interviewed by Newsweek, Kamel provides them with the same information. (( Unnamed sources )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0226-01.htm | Newsweek, 3/3/03 ]] [[ http://news.scotsman.com/international.cfm?id=230772003 | Scotsman, 2/24/03 ]] ------ But after this is revealed on February 24, 2003 by Newsweek's John Barry, the CIA issues a strong denial. &#8220;It is incorrect, bogus, wrong, untrue,&#8221; CIA spokesman Bill Harlow will say. [[ http://abcnews.go.com/wire/US/reuters20030224_550.html | Reuters, 2/24/03 ]] ====== << wmd >> ((+ Nikita Smidovick )) ((+ Maurizio Zifferero )) ((+ Rolf Ekeus )) ((+ John Barry )) ((+ Hussein Kamel )) ((+ Bill Harlow )) July 8, 1996 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_74 false 1 ------ The Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies, an Israeli think tank, publishes a paper titled, &#8220;A Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm.&#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2003/chicagosuntimes030603.html | Chicago Sun-Times, 3/6/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/elsewhere/journalist/story/0,7792,785394,00.html | Guardian, 9/3/02 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/wtimes100702.htm | Washington Times, 10/7/03 ]] ------ The paper advises the new, right-wing Israeli leader Binyamin Netanyahu to make a complete break with the past by adopting a strategy &#8220;based on an entirely new intellectual foundation, one that restores strategic initiative and provides the nation the room to engage every possible energy on rebuilding Zionism ....&#8221; The document advocates the removal of Saddam Hussein and the weakening of Syria. (( A Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/1990s/instituteforadvancedstrategicandpoliticalstudies.htm | Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies, 7/8/96 ]] [[ http://www.ceip.org/files/nonprolif/templates/Publications.asp?p=8&amp;PublicationID=1214 | Carnegie Endowment for Peace, 3/19/2003 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/elsewhere/journalist/story/0,7792,785394,00.html | Guardian, 9/3/02 ]] ------ Other suggestions for Israel include abandoning the Oslo Accords, developing a foreign policy based on a traditional balance of power strategy, reserving its right to invade the West Bank and Gaza Strip as part of a strategy of &#8220;self-defense,&#8221; abandoning any notion of &#8220;land for peace,&#8221; reestablishing a policy of preemptive strikes, forging closer ties to the US while taking steps towards self-reliance, and seeking an alternative to Yasser Arafat as leader of the PLO. (( A Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/1990s/instituteforadvancedstrategicandpoliticalstudies.htm | Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies, 7/8/96 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/elsewhere/journalist/story/0,7792,785394,00.html | Guardian, 9/3/02 ]] ------ Some of the paper's authors will later be appointed to influential government and quasi-government positions during the administration of George W. Bush. The lead writer, Richard Perle, will serve on the Defense Policy Board (for the first year and a half he will serve as chairman). Douglas Feith will serve as undersecretary of defense for policy. He will oversee the activities of several controversial offices including the Counter Terrorism Evaluation Group (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_82 ]]) and the Office of Special Plans (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_78 ]]). David Wurmser will help run the Counter Terrorism Evaluation Group (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_82 ]]) through August 2002 and then will be transferred to the State Department to serve as a senior advisor to Undersecretary of State for Arms Control John R. Bolton (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_78 ]]). ====== << motivesBehindWar >> << pre911Plans >> ((+ Jeffrey T. Bergner )) ((+ Richard Armitage )) ((+ Richard V. Allen )) ((+ Douglas Feith )) ((+ A Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm )) ((+ Meyrav Wurmser )) ((+ Jonathan Torop )) ((+ Binyamin Netanyahu )) ((+ Robert Loewenberg )) ((+ James Colbert )) ((+ David Wurmser )) ((+ Charles Fairbanks, Jr. )) {{ duplicate_a_clean_break:_a_new_strategy_for_securing_the_realm_2 }} June 3, 1997 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_627 false 1 ------ The Project for the New American Century (PNAC), a neoconservative think tank formed in the spring of 1997, issues its statement of principles. PNAC states that its aims are &#8220;to shape a new century favorable to American principles and interests,&#8221; to achieve &#8220;a foreign policy that boldly and purposefully promotes American principles abroad,&#8221; &#8220;to increase defense spending significantly,&#8221; to challenge &#8220;regimes hostile to US interests and values,&#8221; and to &#8220;accept America's unique role in preserving and extending an international order friendly to our security, our prosperity, and our principles.&#8221; (( Statement of Principles, 6/3/97 )) ------ The statement is significant because it is signed by a group who will become &#8220;a rollcall of today's Bush inner circle.&#8221; [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,903075,00.html | Guardian, 2/26/03 ]] ------ ABC's Ted Koppel will later say PNAC's ideas have &#8220;been called a secret blueprint for US global domination&#8221; (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_482 ]]) (see also September 2000, August 21, 2001 (B)). [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2003/abcnews030503b.html | ABC News, 3/5/03 (B) ]] ====== << motivesBehindWar >> << pre911Plans >> ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) ((+ Steve Rosen )) ((+ Peter Rodman )) ((+ Henry S. Rowen )) ((+ Vin Weber )) ((+ Midge Decter )) ((+ George Weigel )) ((+ Norman Podhoretz )) ((+ Aaron Friedberg )) ((+ Francis Fukuyama )) ((+ Elliott Abrams )) ((+ Steve Forbes )) ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) ((+ William J. Bennett )) ((+ Dick Cheney )) ((+ Zalmay M. Khalilzad )) ((+ Lewis Libby )) ((+ Dan Quayle )) ((+ Jeb Bush )) ((+ Donald Kagan )) ((+ Fred C. Ikle )) ((+ Eliot A. Cohen )) ((+ Paula J. Dobriansky )) ((+ Hasam Amin )) ((+ Frank Gaffney )) November 12, 1997 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_465 false 1 ------ David Wurmser, director of the Middle East program at the American Enterprise Institute, writes an op-ed piece in the Wall Street Journal arguing that the US government should support Ahmed Chalabi's Iraqi National Congress [INC] and work to foment &#8220;an Iraqi insurgency to depose the butcher of Baghdad.&#8221; Wurmser writes: &#8220;Washington has no choice now but to abandon the coup option and resurrect the INC. An insurgency may be able to defeat Saddam's weak and demoralized conventional army. But one thing is clear: There is no cost-free way to depose Saddam. He is more resolute, wily and brutal than we. His strength lies in his weapons of terror; that is why he is so attached to them.... Organizing an insurgency to liberate Iraq under the INC may provoke Saddam to use these weapons on the way down. Better that, though, than current policy, which will lead him to use them on his way back up.&#8221; [[ http://www.aei.org/news/newsID.8361/news_detail.asp | Wall Street Journal, 11/12/97 ]] ====== << pre911Plans >> ((+ David Wurmser )) ((- Ahmed Chalabi )) 1998 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_420 false 1 ------ Expert committees report that Iraq has failed to adequately account for 500 mustard-gas shells, 25 &#8220;special warheads,&#8221; 150 aerial bombs, 2 scud missiles, 520 kilograms of yeast extract growth medium specifically for anthrax, 15,000 122 mm artillery shells, 25,000 rockets and several hundred tons of chemicals for the nerve agent VX. [[ http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0829/p01s03-wosc.html | Christian Science Monitor, 8/29/02 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2239536.stm | BBC, 9/11/2002 ]] [[ http://www.ceip.org/files/Publications/DeadlyArsenals.asp?from=pubdate | Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 6/2002 ]] [[ http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/9/3/171417.shtml | Newsmax, 9/4/02 ]] --- 25 Special Warheads --- Iraq failed to account for 25 &#8220;special warheads&#8221; . Former UNSCOM inspector Scott Ritter will tell the Christian Science Monitor in mid-2002, &#8220;Even if he hid some warheads, they would have degenerated by now.&#8221; [[ http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0829/p01s03-wosc.html | Christian Science Monitor, 8/29/02 ]] --- Scud Missiles --- Iraq has accounted for or destroyed 817 of its 819 Scud missiles. (( Kofi Annan )) [[ http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0829/p01s03-wosc.html | Christian Science Monitor, 8/29/02 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/views02/0820-04.htm | Foreign Policy in Focus, 8/02 ]] ------ It is later suggested by experts, such as former UN inspector Scott Ritter and Charles Duelfer of the Center for Strategic and International Studies, that Iraq could possibly salvage and manufacture enough components to build up a store of between five and 25 missiles. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2239536.stm | BBC, 9/11/2002 ]] ------ But as the San Francisco Chronicle later notes, citing unspecified weapons experts, &#8220;there is no evidence that these have been tested or that Iraq has any functional launchers.&#8221; [[ http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/10/12/MN186933.DTL | San Francisco Chronicle, 10/12/02 ]] --- 8,5000 liters of anthrax --- Iraq maintains that these remaining stores of Anthrax were unilaterally destroyed in the summer of 1991, however they offer no evidence of this. [[ http://www.news.scotsman.com/international.cfm?id=230772003 | Scotsman, 2/24/03 ]] ------ Scott Ritter, a former Marine intelligence officer and chief weapons inspector, will later say that evidence indicates that Iraq's liquid bulk anthrax has not been produced by Iraq since 1991. Furthermore, he adds, the factory where Iraq had produced the pathogen was destroyed in 1996. He says that any anthrax produced before then is no longer a threat to anyone because after three years liquid bulk anthrax becomes &#8220;useless sludge.&#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/reuters020802.htm | Reuters, 2/8/02 ]] --- Several hundred tons of chemicals for the nerve agent VX --- UNSCOM is unable to account for several hundred tons of chemicals for the nerve agent VX. ------ Iraq maintains that these remaining stocks were unilaterally destroyed in the summer of 1991. [[ http://www.news.scotsman.com/international.cfm?id=230772003 | Scotsman, 2/24/03 ]] ------ In March 2003, UNMOVIC, the successor to UNSCOM, will report &#8220;that Iraq's production method created nerve agent that lasted only six to eight weeks.&#8221; [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/politics/story.jsp?story=411300 | Independent, 6/1/03 ]] ------ Critics believe that most of these stocks were destroyed during the First Gulf War. Scott Ritter, a former chief weapons inspector, speaking at the Suffolk Law School building in downtown Boston, will say on July of 2002: &#8220;The research and development factory is destroyed [a Gulf War bomb destroyed the production facility on January 23, 1991]. The product of that factory is destroyed. The weapons they loaded up have been destroyed. More importantly, the equipment procured from Europe that was going to be used for their large-scale VX nerve agent factory was identified by the special commission&#8212;still packed in its crates in 1997&#8212;and destroyed. Is there a VX nerve agent factory in Iraq today? Not on your life.&#8221; [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/07.25A.wrp.iraq.htm | Pitt, 7/24/02 ]] ====== << wmd >> {{ statement_scott_ritter_18 }} {{ statement_richard_butler_3 }} {{ statement_scott_ritter_16 }} {{ commentary_robin_cook_3 }} {{ statement_scott_ritter_21 }} {{ statement_scott_ritter_20 }} {{ statement_scott_ritter_19 }} 1998 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1813 false 1 ------ The National Security Council (NSC) completes a review of Iraq and terrorism. In an interview with journalist Robert Dreyfuss four years later, Daniel Benjamin, then-director of counterterrorism at the NSC, summarizes the report's conclusions: &#8220;[W]e went through every piece of intelligence we could find to see if there was a link [between] al-Qaeda and Iraq, says Benjamin. We came to the conclusion that our intelligence agencies had it right: There was no noteworthy relationship between al-Qaeda and Iraq. I know that for a fact. No other issue has been as closely scrutinized as this one.&#8221; [[ http://www.prospect.org/print-friendly/print/V13/22/dreyfuss-r.html | The American Prospect, 12/16/02 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((+ Daniel Benjamin )) 1998 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_161 false 1 ------ Radio Free Europe, headquartered in Prague, begins transmitting anti-Saddam programs into Iraq. Late in the year, Iraqi diplomat Jabir Salim defects and tells Czech officials that before leaving Iraq he had been given $150,000 in cash to finance a plot to blow up Radio Free Europe's headquarters. This information is apparently passed on to Washington and US officials warn Tom Dine, program director of Radio Free Europe, about the plot. In response, Radio Free Europe begins 24-hour video surveillance of the building. (( Unnamed sources )) (( Jan Kavan )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/newsweek042802.html | Newsweek, 4/28/01 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0501-05.htm | Washington Post, 5/1/2002 ]] [[ http://mason-west.com/Research/News/US/missinglink.php#slate | Slate, 11/19/2003 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2001/independent102601.htm | Independent, 10/26/01 ]] ====== << pragueConnection >> ((+ Radio Free Europe )) ((+ Jabir Salim )) ((+ Tom Dine )) January 26, 1998 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_482 false 1 ------ The Project for the New American Century (PNAC), an influential neoconservative think tank, publishes a letter to President Clinton urging war against Iraq and the removal of Saddam Hussein because he is a &#8220;hazard&#8221; to &#8220;a significant portion of the world's supply of oil.&#8221; In a foretaste of what eventually happens, the letter calls for the US to go to war alone, attacks the United Nations, and says the US should not be &#8220;crippled by a misguided insistence on unanimity in the UN Security Council.&#8221; The letter is signed by many who will later lead the 2003 Iraq war. 10 of the 18 signatories later join the Bush Administration, including (future) Defense Secretary Rumsfeld, Assistant Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz, Assistant Secretary of State Richard Armitage, Undersecretaries of State John Bolton and Paula Dobriansky, presidential adviser for the Middle East Elliott Abrams, and Bush's special Iraq envoy Zalmay Khalilzad. (( January 26, 1998 Open Letter to Bill Clinton )) [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/32185 | Sunday Herald, 3/16/03 ]] ------ Clinton does heavily bomb Iraq in late 1998, but the bombing doesn't last long and its long-term effect is the break off of United Nations weapons inspections. [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/23/international/worldspecial/23PREE.html?pagewanted=all&amp;position=top | New York Times, 3/22/03 ]] ====== << motivesBehindWar >> << pre911Plans >> ((+ Richard Perle )) ((+ William Schneider Jr. )) ((+ Elliott Abrams )) ((+ Richard Armitage )) ((+ Jeffrey T. Bergner )) ((+ William Kristol )) ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) ((+ Zalmay M. Khalilzad )) ((+ Robert Kagan )) ((+ Francis Fukuyama )) ((+ Peter Rodman )) ((+ Paula J. Dobriansky )) ((+ John R. Bolton )) ((+ Vin Weber )) ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) ((+ James Woolsey )) ((+ William J. Bennett )) ((- William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton )) ((+ Robert B. Zoellick )) February 19, 1998 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_75 false 1 ------ The Committee for Peace and Security publishes an open letter to President Bill Clinton outlining a 9-point &#8220;comprehensive political and military strategy for bringing down Saddam and his regime.&#8221; The letter is signed by a litany of former US government officials known for their neoconservative viewpoints. Several of the signatories are also involved with the Project for the New American Century and had endorsed a similar letter published by that organization the previous month. (( February 19, 1998 Open Letter to Bill Clinton )) [[ http:www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/1990s/openletter021998.htm | Committee For Peace and Security, 2/19/98 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/9802/20/iraq.war.presser/ | CNN, 2/20/98 ]] ====== << pre911Plans >> ((+ William Kristol )) ((+ Robert Kagan )) ((+ Douglas Feith )) ((+ Elliott Abrams )) ((+ Richard Perle )) ((+ Michael Ledeen )) ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) ((+ Dov Zakheim )) ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) ((+ Joshua Muravchik )) ((+ Robert A. Pastor )) ((+ Martin Peretz )) ((+ Roger Robinson )) ((+ Peter Rodman )) ((+ Robert C. McFarlane )) ((+ Jarvis Lynch )) ((+ Frederick L. Lewis )) ((+ Bernard Lewis )) ((+ Paula J. Dobriansky )) ((+ William B. Clark )) ((+ Fred C. Ikle )) ((+ Sven F. Kraemer )) ((+ David Wurmser )) ((+ Zalmay M. Khalilzad )) ((+ Frank Gaffney )) ((+ Frank Carlucci )) ((+ Max Singer )) ((+ Richard Armitage )) ((+ Richard V. Allen )) ((+ Stephen Solarz )) ((+ John R. Bolton )) ((+ Gary Schmitt )) ((+ Jeffrey T. Bergner )) ((+ Stephen Bryen )) ((+ Jeffrey Gedmin )) ((+ Helmut Sonnenfeldt )) ((+ Caspar Weinberger )) ((+ Peter Rosenblatt )) ((+ Leon Wienseltier )) ((+ Richard Burt )) July 1998 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_421 false 1 ------ UNSCOM weapons inspector Richard Butler states, &#8220;If Iraqi disarmament were a five-lap race, we would be three quarters of the way around the fifth and final lap.&#8221; [[ http://iraqaction.org/oldsite/policy.html | Boston Globe, 3/22/99 ]] ====== << wmd >> ((+ Robin Cook )) {{ duplicate_richard_butler_3 }} Late December 1998 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_183 false 1 ------ According to US intelligence sources, Farouk Hijazi, the Iraqi ambassador to Turkey, visits Afghanistan in late 1998 after US cruise missiles are fired on al Qaeda training camps following the bombings of the US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. Hijazi, who is also a longtime intelligence officer, meets Osama bin Laden in Kandahar and extends an offer from Baghdad to provide refuge for him and Taliban leader Mullah Mohammed Omar. Bin Laden reportedly rejects the offer because he doesn't want his organization dominated by Saddam Hussein. After the 9/11 attacks, proponents of invading Iraq will claim the visit makes Hijazi a key link between Saddam Hussein and al Qaeda. Hijazi will be captured by US troops in late April 2003 after the US/British invasion of Iraq begins. When interrogated by US authorities, he will deny any Iraq-al-Qaeda ties. [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,314700,00.html | Guardian, 2/16/99 ]] [[ http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/533611/posts | Associated Press, 9/27/01 ]] [[ http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/4234549.htm | Knight Ridder, 10/7/02 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,314700,00.html | Associated Press, 4/25/03 ]] [[ http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2003-07-13-bush-alqaeda_x.htm | USA Today, 7/13/03 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((- Mullah Mohammed Omar )) ((+ Farouk Hijaz )) (1999) complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_39 false 1 ------ Joe T. begins working in the Winpac unit of the CIA, which analyzes intelligence related to dual-use technology and export controls. (( Unnamed US intelligence, US administration, and/or UN inspectors )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39500-2003Aug9.html | Washington Post, 8/10/03 ]] [[ http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=34042 | World Net Daily, 8/12/03 ]] [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> ((+ Joe T. )) 1999 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_162 false 1 ------ Iraqi diplomat and suspected intelligence officer Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani arrives in Prague to replace his predecessor, Jabir Salim, who had defected (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_161 ]]). Fearing that Al-Ani had a similar mission to that of Salim, Czech intelligence closely monitors al-Ani's activities. Sometime in 1999, al-Ani is reportedly videotaped loitering around and photographing the Radio Free Europe building. Al-Ani is sometimes seen with a thinner, taller man wearing a Shell Oil jacket who is never identified. The pictures are passed onto the Czech intelligence agency [BIS]. (( Unnamed sources )) (( Jan Kavan )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/newsweek042802.html | Newsweek, 4/28/01 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0501-05.htm | Washington Post, 5/1/2002 ]] [[ http://mason-west.com/Research/News/US/missinglink.php#slate | Slate, 11/19/2003 ]] ====== << pragueConnection >> ((- Radio Free Europe )) ((- Jabir Salim )) ((+ Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani )) February 1999 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_94 false 1 ------ Wissam al-Zahawie, Iraq's ambassador to the Vatican, sets off on a trip to several African countries, including Niger, where he meets with the country's president. (( Wissam al-Zahawie )) (( Charles O. Cecil )) [[ http://psychoanalystsopposewar.org/resources_files/The_Niger_Timebomb.htm | Independent, 8/10/03a ]] [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?031027fa_fact | New Yorker, 10/20/03 ]] [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/print35264 | Sunday Herald, 7/13/03 ]] ------ Zahawie's visit is reported in the local newspaper as well as by a French news agency. The US and British governments are also aware of the trip but show no concern. At this time, Niger is &#8220;actively seeking economic assistance from the United States.&#8221; No one suggests that the trip's motives have anything to do with acquiring uranium. (( Charles O. Cecil )) (( Wissam al-Zahawie )) [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?031027fa_fact | New Yorker, 10/20/03 ]] ------ Soon after the September 11 attacks, the Italian intelligence service, SISMI, will provide the US with information it has about the trip and will suggest that the motive behind the visit was to discuss the future purchase of uranium oxide, also known as &#8220;yellowcake&#8221; (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_95 ]]). (( Unnamed US intelligence sources )) (( Wissam al-Zahawie )) [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?031027fa_fact | New Yorker, 10/20/03 ]] ====== << africaUraniumClaim >> ((+ Wissam al-Zahawie )) (After February 1999) complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1608 false 1 ------ Rocco Martino, an Italian security consultant, provides French officials with documents suggesting that Iraq intends to expand its &#8220;trade&#8221; with Niger. Martino was formerly a member of Italy's foreign intelligence service (SISMI). The French assume the trade being discussed would be in uranium, Niger's main export. At French intelligence's request, Martino continues supplying them with documents. [[ http://www.benadorassociates.com/article/6282 | Sunday Times, 8/1/2004 ]] [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/justify/2004/0802niger.htm | Financial Times, 8/2/2004 ]] ====== << africaUraniumClaim >> ((+ Rocco Martino )) March 1999 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_422 false 1 ------ A special panel of the UN Security Council reports that &#8220;the declared facilities of Iraq's biological weapons program have been destroyed and rendered harmless.&#8221; [[ http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/PIL204A.html | Daily Mirror, 4/5/02 ]] [[ http://www.cpa.org.au/garchve5/1091war.html | Guardian, 5/15/02 ]] ====== << wmd >> December 17, 1999 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_297 false 1 ------ With the passing of UN Resolution 1284, the United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) is created to assist in the disarming of Iraq. The new body replaces the United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM). UNMOVIC is deliberately designed to prevent infiltration by spies of the UN Security Council member states, specifically the US and Britain. This had been a problem with its predecessor, UNSCOM. The UN diminishes the role of Americans in the new commission by abolishing the powerful office of deputy chairman, which had always been held by an American, and by appointing non-Americans to important positions. In the new inspections body, &#8220;The highest-ranking American in the agency now has a relatively lowly job, in charge of the training division.&#8221; A Chinese official holds the senior &#8220;activity evaluation&#8221; position and a Russian official is in charge of &#8220;liaising with foreign governments and companies.&#8221; Another reform is that the inspectors will use commercial satellite companies, instead of US spy satellites, to monitor Iraq's activities. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0918-08.htm | The Times, 9/18/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> Early 2000 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1610 false 1 ------ Rocco Martino, an Italian security consultant and information peddler, is approached by a former colleague at SISMI, Italy's foreign intelligence agency, who tips him off to a former SISMI source working at the Nigerien Embassy in Rome who can provide Martino with information in exchange for a monthly retainer fee. Martino pursues the lead, and agrees to pay her 500 euros/month. The source, however, remains on SISMI's payroll providing the agency with a way to distribute information to the public while concealing its role. Most of the documents he will receive from the lady will be related to immigration into Italy and Islamist activities in North and Central Africa. [[ http://www.talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/003235.php | Talking Points Memo, 8/1/2004 ]] ====== << africaUraniumClaim >> ((+ SISMI )) ((+ Rocco Martino )) 2000 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_40 false 1 ------ US intelligence learns from the Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS) that Iraq has made arrangements to purchase tubes, made of 7075-T6 aluminum, from China through Garry Cordukes, the director of the Australian company International Aluminum Supply. The company is associated with Kam Kiu Propriety Limited, a subsidiary of the Chinese company that will manufacture the aluminum tubes. Concerned that the tubes may be related to Iraqi efforts to reconstitute its nuclear weapons program, an Australian intelligence agent contacts Cordukes to obtain a sample of the tubes for examination. A CIA agent, Joe T., is said to have played a significant part in this discovery. (( Unnamed US intelligence, US administration, and/or UN inspectors )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39500-2003Aug9.html | Washington Post, 8/10/03 ]] [[ http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2003/transcripts/s976015.htm | Australian Broadcasting Corporation ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> ((+ Joe T. )) 2000 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_483 false 1 ------ During the 2000 presidential campaign, the Republican Party calls for &#8220;a comprehensive plan for the removal of Saddam Hussein.&#8221; Similarly, the Democratic Party's platform supports using &#8220;America's military might against Iraq when and where it is necessary.&#8221; (( Republican National Committee )) (( Democratic National Committee )) [[ http://www.newamericancentury.org/iraq-070601.htm | Project for the New American Century, 7/6/00 ]] [[ http://www.stratmag.com/issueNov-1/page06.htm | Strategic Affairs. 11/1/00 ]] [[ http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2001/2/2/212401.shtml | NewsMax, 2/3/01 ]] [[ http://www.rnc.org/GOPInfo/Platform/2000platform8aaa.htm | Republican National Committee, 2000 Platform ]] [[ http://www.democrats.org/about/2000platform.html | Democratic National Committee, 2000 Platform, pg 46 ]] ====== << pre911Plans >> ((+ Democratic National Committee )) ((+ Republican National Committee )) 2000 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1609 false 1 ------ Former CIA director James Woolsey serves as a corporate officer for the Iraqi National Congress Support Foundation which manages the Iraqi National Congress' US funding. Also during this time, Woolsey and his former law firm, Shea and Gardner, provide the INC and Iraqi exiles with pro bono work. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0716-04.htm | Knight Ridder, 7/16/2004 ]] ====== << pre911Plans >> ((+ Iraqi National Congress (INC) )) ((+ Shea and Gardner )) ((+ James Woolsey )) September 2000 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_76 false 1 ------ The neoconservative think tank Project for the New American Century writes a &#8220;blueprint&#8221; for the &#8220;creation of a &#8216;global Pax Americana&#8217; &#8221; (see also June 3, 1997). The document, titled, Rebuilding America's Defenses: Strategies, Forces and Resources for a New Century, was written for the Bush team even before the 2000 Presidential election. It was written for future Vice President Cheney, future Defense Secretary Rumsfeld, future Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz, Florida Governor and President Bush's brother Jeb Bush, and future Vice President Cheney's Chief of Staff Lewis Libby. The report calls itself a &#8220;blueprint for maintaining global US preeminence, precluding the rise of a great power rival, and shaping the international security order in line with American principles and interests.&#8221; The plan shows that the Bush team intended to take military control of Persian Gulf oil whether or not Saddam Hussein was in power and should retain control of the region even if there is no threat. It says: &#8220;The United States has for decades sought to play a more permanent role in Gulf regional security. While the unresolved conflict with Iraq provides the immediate justification, the need for a substantial American force presence in the Gulf transcends the issue of the regime of Saddam Hussein.&#8221; The report calls for the control of space through a new &#8220;US Space Forces,&#8221; the political control of the internet, the subversion of any growth in political power of even close allies, and advocates &#8220;regime change&#8221; in China, North Korea, Libya, Syria, Iran and other countries. It also mentions that &#8220;advanced forms of biological warfare that can &#8216;target&#8217; specific genotypes may transform biological warfare from the realm of terror to a politically useful tool.&#8221; (see also Spring 2001 and April 2001 (D)). (( Rebuilding America's Defenses )) [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/27735 | Sunday Herald, 9/7/02 ]] ------ However, the report complains that these changes are likely to take a long time, &#8220;absent some catastrophic and catalyzing event&#8212;like a new Pearl Harbor.&#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2003/latimes011203.html | Los Angeles Times, 1/12/03 ]] ------ In an NBC interview at about the same time, Vice Presidential candidate Cheney defends Bush Jr.'s position of maintaining Clinton's policy not to attack Iraq because the US should not act as though &#8220;we were an imperialist power, willy-nilly moving into capitals in that part of the world, taking down governments.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&amp;node=&amp;contentId=A43909-2003Jan11&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 1/12/02 ]] ------ This report and the Project for the New American Century generally are mostly ignored until a few weeks before the start of the Iraq war (see February-March 20, 2003). ====== << motivesBehindWar >> << pre911Plans >> ((+ Robert Killebrew )) ((+ Dov Zakheim )) ((+ Robert Kagan )) ((+ Fred Kagan )) ((+ Donald Kagan )) ((+ William Kristol )) ((+ David Fautua )) ((+ Dan Goure )) ((+ Mark Lagon )) ((+ Barry Watts )) ((+ Michael Vickers )) ((+ Mackubin Owens )) ((+ Abram Shulsky )) ((+ Gary Schmitt )) ((+ David Epstein )) ((+ Phil Meilinger )) ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) ((+ Robert Martinage )) ((+ James Lasswell )) ((+ Lewis Libby )) ((+ Thomas Donnelly )) ((+ Devon Gaffney Cross )) ((+ Eliot A. Cohen )) ((+ William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton )) ((+ Roger Barnett )) ((+ Alvin Bernstein )) ((+ Stephen Cambone )) ((+ Lewis Libby )) ((+ Dick Cheney )) ((+ Jeb Bush )) ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) ((+ Steve Rosen )) {{ duplicate_rebuilding_america_s_defenses_3 }} {{ commentary_tam_dalyel_2 }} {{ duplicate_rebuilding_america_s_defenses_2 }} 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_188 false 1 ------ Abu Mussab Al Zarqawi, a Jordanian Muslim militant later alleged by the Bush administration to have ties to Osama bin Laden, is arrested in Jordan sometime in 2001 for his involvement in a late 1999 plot to blow up the Radisson SAS Hotel in Amman, Jordan, whose customers are frequently Israeli and American tourists. Some time after his arrest, he is released. (( Unnamed Bush administration official )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A38235-2003Feb6.html | Washington Post, 2/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,807286,00.html | Guardian, 10/9/02 ]] ------ At some point he is convicted for his role in the plot and sentenced to death by a Jordanian court in absentia. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/independent020603.htm | Independent, 2/6/03 ]] ====== << alZarqawi >> ((+ Abu Mussab Al Zarqawi )) (Mid-July 2001)-August 17, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_43 false 1 ------ Almost immediately after Joe T.'s theory is circulated through US intelligence and science circles, a team of centrifuge physicists at the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and other similar institutions review the case. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39500-2003Aug9.html | Washington Post, 8/10/03 ]] [[ http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2003/transcripts/s976015.htm | Australian Broadcasting Corporation ]] [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] ------ The team includes Dr. Jon A. Kreykes, head of Oak Ridge's national security advanced technology group; Dr. Duane F. Starr, an expert on nuclear proliferation threats; and Dr. Edward Von Halle, a retired Oak Ridge nuclear expert. They are advised by Dr. Houston G. Wood III, a retired Oak Ridge physicist considered to be &#8220;among the most eminent living experts&#8221; on centrifuges, and Dr. Gernot Zippe, one of the German scientists who developed an early uranium centrifuge in the 1950s (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_44 ]]). On August 17, the team publishes a classified Technical Intelligence Note which details why they believe the 7075-T6 aluminum tubes sought by Iraq were not intended for use in a gas centrifuge. [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] --- * --- The tubes sought by Iraq are very different from tubes Iraq used previously in its centrifuge prototypes before the first Gulf War. The intercepted aluminum tubes are significantly longer and narrower. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39500-2003Aug9.html | Washington Post, 8/10/03 ]] [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] --- * --- Aluminum has not been used in gas centrifuges since the 1950s (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_9 ]]). Furthermore, Iraq is known to have had the blueprints for a more efficient centrifuge, which used maraging steel and carbon fiber, not aluminum (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1216 ]]). [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39500-2003Aug9.html | Washington Post, 8/10/03 ]] ------ &#8220;Aluminum was a huge step backwards,&#8221; Dr. Houston Wood will later explain to the New York Times. [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] --- * --- There are no known centrifuge machines &#8220;deployed in a production environment&#8221; that use tubes with such a small diameter. [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] --- * --- The tubes' walls, measuring 3.3 millimeters, are three times too thick for &#8220;favorable use&#8221; in a &#8220;Zippe-type&#8221; centrifuge, which requires tubes with a thickness of no more than 1.1 millimeter. [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39500-2003Aug9.html | Washington Post, 8/10/03 ]] --- * --- The tubes are anodized, which is &#8220;not consistent&#8221; with a uranium centrifuge because the anodized coating can react with uranium gas. [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] ------ Houston G. Wood later tells The Washington Post in mid-2003 that &#8220;it would have been extremely difficult to make these tubes into centrifuges,&#8221; adding that it stretched &#8220;the imagination to come up with a way.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39500-2003Aug9.html | Washington Post, 8/10/03 ]] ------ Though the scientists' report concludes that &#8220;rocket production is the much more likely end use for these tubes,&#8221; [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] ------ Joe T. sticks with his theory. His position is backed by CIA director George Tenet. [[ http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2003/transcripts/s976015.htm | Australian Broadcasting Corporation ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> ((+ Duane F. Starr )) ((+ Jon A. Kreykes )) ((+ Houston G. Wood III )) ((+ Gernot Zippe )) ((+ George Tenet )) ((+ Joe T. )) ((+ Edward Von Halle )) 2001-2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_474 false 1 ------ The US intelligence community&#8212;most notably the intelligence gatherers working in the Pentagon offices under Douglas Feith (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_78 ]]) &#8212;bases several of its intelligence assessments concerning Iraq on information offered by the Iraqi National Congress (INC) and by Iraqi defectors provided by the INC, despite warnings from the State Department and some CIA analysts that the lobbying group cannot be trusted. (( Unnamed administration official )) (( Greg Thielmann )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0807-02.htm | Inter Press Service, 8/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,999737,00.html | Guardian, 7/17/03 ]] [[ http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article4124.htm | Salon, 7/16/03 ]] [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030512fa_fact | New Yorker, 5/5/03 ]] [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/americas/story.jsp?story=448353 | Independent, 9/30/03 ]] [[ http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html | Mother Jones, 1/04 ]] ------ Some of the INC's intelligence on Iraq's alleged arsenal of weapons of mass destruction and Saddam's supposed ties to terrorists are reportedly funneled directly to the office of Vice President Dick Cheney by Francis Brooke, the DC lobbyist for the group. (( Francis Brooke )) (( Memo )) [[ http://msnbc.msn.com/id/3660169/ | Newsweek, 12/15/03 ]] ------ Brooke will later acknowedge that the information provided by the INC was driven by an agenda. &#8220;I told them [the INC], as their campaign manager, &#8216;Go get me a terrorist and some WMD, because that's what the Bush administration is interested in.&#8217; &#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 230 ]] ------ Brooke had previously worked for the Rendon Group, &#8220;a shadowy CIA-connected public-relations firm.&#8221; [[ http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html | Mother Jones, 1/04 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> << deception >> << wmd >> << officeOfSpecialPlans >> ((- Douglas Feith )) ((+ Frank Gaffney )) ((- Dick Cheney )) ((+ Francis Brooke )) {{ commentary_vince_cannistraro_5 }} {{ statement_scott_ritter_24 }} {{ statement_vince_cannistraro_12 }} {{ statement_scott_ritter_23 }} Early 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_11 false 1 ------ Shortly after Bush is inaugurated into office, Greg Thielmann, an analyst for the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR), is appointed to serve as the intelligence liaison to John Bolton. But Thielmann's intelligence briefings do not support Bolton's assumptions about Iraq, and Thielmann is soon barred from attending the meetings. (( Greg Thielmann )) [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?031027fa_fact | New Yorker, 10/20/03 ]] ====== << deception >> ((+ John R. Bolton )) ((+ Greg Thielmann )) {{ statement_greg_thielmann_3 }} {{ statement_john_r._bolton_2 }} {{ statement_john_r._bolton_3 }} January 2, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1182 false 1 ------ The Italian police discover that the Niger Embassy in Rome has been ransacked. It appears that the people involved in the break-in searched through the embassy's documents and files. [[ http://bulletin.ninemsn.com.au/bulletin/EdDesk.nsf/0/a0f101466d6da341ca256d6b000ae3cc?OpenDocument | Newsweek, 7/28/03 ]] ------ In 2003, Italian investigators will suspect that this incident is related to a collection of forged documents obtained by an Italian journalist in October 2002 which play a significant role in US allegations that Saddam Hussein attempted to obtain uranium oxide from Niger between 1999 and 2001 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_96 ]]). [[ http://bulletin.ninemsn.com.au/bulletin/EdDesk.nsf/0/a0f101466d6da341ca256d6b000ae3cc?OpenDocument | Newsweek, 7/28/03 ]] ====== << africaUraniumClaim >> January 10, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_434 false 1 ------ During a National Press Club Newsmakers luncheon, outgoing Defense Secretary William Cohen says: &#8220;Well, Saddam Hussein's forces are in a state where he cannot pose a threat to his neighbors at this point. We have been successful, through the sanctions regime, to really shut off most of the revenue that will be going to build his&#8212;rebuild his military.&#8221; [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4309594,00.html | US Department of Defense, 1/10/01 ]] [[ http://www.viwuk.freeserve.co.uk/library/hans.html | Jordan Times, 2002 ]] ====== << wmd >> ((+ William Cohen )) January 29, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_459 false 1 ------ Imam Sayed Hassan al-Qazwini, who heads the Islamic Center of America in Detroit, one of the nation's largest mosques, meets with President Bush in the White House about the administration's policy towards Iraq. The president says he supports a policy aimed at removing Saddam Hussein from power, though he does not discuss by what means. &#8220;No method was discussed at all,&#8221; al-Qazwini will tell the New York Times two years later. &#8220;It was a general desire for regime change.&#8221; He will also tell the newspaper that he had spoken with Bush about removing Saddam Hussein a total of six or seven times, both before and after the 2000 elections. (( Imam Sayed Hassan al-Qazwini )) [[ http://foi.missouri.edu/polinfoprop/bushdisputes.html | New York Times, 1/12/04 ]] ====== << pre911Plans >> << decision >> ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ Imam Sayed Hassan al-Qazwini )) (January 30, 2001) complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_457 false 1 ------ The Bush White House holds its first National Security Council meeting. The lead discussion of the meeting centers on the need to remove Saddam Hussein from power. US Secretary of Treasury Paul O'Neill, recalling the meeting, will tell CBS News two years later: &#8220;From the very beginning, there was a conviction, that Saddam Hussein was a bad person and that he needed to go ... From the very first instance, it was about Iraq. It was about what we can do to change this regime. Day one, these things were laid and sealed.&#8221; O'Neill will say officials never questioned the logic behind this policy. No one ever asked, &#8220;Why Saddam?&#8221; and &#8220;Why now?&#8221; Instead, the issue that needed to be resolved was how this could be accomplished. &#8220;It was all about finding a way to do it,&#8221; O'Neill will explain. &#8220;That was the tone of it. The president saying &#8216;Go find me a way to do this.&#8217; &#8221; (( Paul O?Neill )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0110-03.htm | CBS News, 1/10/04 ]] [[ http://foi.missouri.edu/polinfoprop/bushdisputes.html | New York Times, 1/12/04 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,1120959,00.html | Guardian, 1/12/04 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 234 ]] ------ After information of this meeting is revealed by Paul O'Neill, the White House will attempt to downplay its significance. &#8220;... The stated policy of my administration toward Saddam Hussein was very clear,&#8221; Bush will tell reporters during a visit to Mexico In January 2004. &#8220;Like the previous administration, we were for regime change. ... And in the initial stages of the administration, as you might remember, we were dealing with desert badger or fly-overs and fly-betweens and looks, and so we were fashioning policy along those lines.&#8221; [[ http://foi.missouri.edu/polinfoprop/bushdisputes.html | New York Times, 1/12/04 ]] ------ But another official, who is also present at the meeting, will later say that the tone of the meeting implies a policy much more aggressive than that of the previous administration. &#8220;The president told his Pentagon officials to explore the military options, including use of ground forces,&#8221; the official will tell ABC News. &#8220;That went beyond the Clinton administration's halfhearted attempts to overthrow Hussein without force.&#8221; (( Unnamed senior official of the Bush administration )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0113-09.htm | ABC News, 1/13/04 ]] ------ Other people, in addition to O'Neill and Bush, who are likely in attendance include Vice President Dick Cheney, Secretary of State Colin Powell, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice, Director of Central Intelligence George Tenet and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Richard B. Myers. (( National Security Presidential Directives&mdash;NSPD-1, 2/13/01] )) ====== << pre911Plans >> << decision >> ((+ Paul O?Neill )) ((+ Colin Powell )) ((+ Richard B. Myers )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((+ George Tenet )) ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) ((+ George W. Bush )) February 1, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_458 false 1 ------ The Bush White House holds its second National Security Council meeting. Again, the issue of regime change in Iraq is a central topic. One of the memos discussed during the meeting is titled, &#8220;Plan for post-Saddam Iraq.&#8221; It reportedly discusses the need for troops in a post-Saddam occupation, war crimes tribunals, and how to divvy up Iraq's oil wealth. (( Paul O?Neill )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0110-03.htm | CBS News, 1/10/04 ]] [[ http://foi.missouri.edu/polinfoprop/bushdisputes.html | New York Times, 1/12/04 ]] ------ In attendance is Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, who speaks in favor of removing Saddam Hussein. It would &#8220;demonstrate what US policy is all about,&#8221; he says, and help transform the Middle East. According to Paul O'Neill, Rumsfeld talks at the meeting &#8220;in general terms about post-Saddam Iraq, dealing with the Kurds in the north, the oil fields, the reconstruction of the country's economy, and the &#8216;freeing of the Iraqi people.&#8217; &#8221; (( Paul O?Neill )) [[ http://foi.missouri.edu/polinfoprop/bushdisputes.html | New York Times, 1/12/04 ]] ------ Other people, in addition to O'Neill, Bush, and Rumsfeld, who are likely in attendance include Vice President Dick Cheney, Secretary of State Colin Powell, National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice, Director of Central Intelligence George Tenet and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Richard B. Myers. (( National Security Presidential Directives&mdash;NSPD-1, 2/13/01] )) ====== << pre911Plans >> << preWarPlanning >> << decision >> ((+ Colin Powell )) ((+ Richard B. Myers )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((+ Paul O?Neill )) ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ George Tenet )) ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) February 24, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_435 false 1 ------ Secretary of State Colin Powell travels to Cairo and meets with his counterpart Amre Moussa. During a press conference, Powell says: &#8220;He [Saddam Hussein] has not developed any significant capability with respect to weapons of mass destruction. He is unable to project conventional power against his neighbors.&#8221; [[ http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2001/933.htm | US Department of State, 2/24/03 ]] [[ http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/allnews/content_objectid=13434081_method=full_siteid=50143_headline=-THE-BIG-LIE-name_page.html | The Mirror, 9/22/03 ]] [[ http://www.mercurynews.com/mld/mercurynews/news/special_packages/iraq/6860886.htm | Associated Press, 9/25/03 ]] ------ Some nineteen months later, when Powell is asked to explain why his assessment of Iraq had so drastically changed over such a short span of time, Powell says, &#8220;... I did not say he (Iraqi President Saddam Hussein) didn't have weapons of mass destruction.... He was a threat then. The extent of his holdings were yet to be determined. It was early in the administration and the fact of the matter is it was long before 9/11 (the date of the 2001 attacks on the United States).... A lot changed between February 2001 (and the invasion), but I don't find anything inconsistent between what I said then and what I've said all along.&#8221; [[ http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2003/24534.htm | US Department of State, 9/25/03 ]] [[ http://www.unknownnews.net/030929liesliesmorelies.html | Washington Post, 9/26/03 ]] [[ http://www.mercurynews.com/mld/mercurynews/news/special_packages/iraq/6860886.htm | Associated Press, 9/25/03 ]] ====== << wmd >> ((+ Amre Moussa )) ((+ Colin Powell )) March 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_460 false 1 ------ Cheney's Energy Task Force authors a variety of documents relating to the oil industries of Iraq, United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia. [[ http://www.judicialwatch.org/071703.b_PR.shtml | Judicial Watch, 7/17/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0110-03.htm | CBS News, 1/10/04 ]] [[ http://foi.missouri.edu/polinfoprop/bushdisputes.html | New York Times, 1/12/04 ]] --- Foreign Suitors for Iraqi Oilfield contracts --- This document, dated March 5, 2001, includes a table listing 30 countries which have interests in Iraq's oil industry. The document also includes the names of companies that have interests, the oil fields with which those interests are associated, as well as the statuses of those interests. (( Iraq Oil Foreign Suitors, page 1 )) (( Iraq Oil Foreign Suitors, page 2 )) --- Map of Iraq's oil fields --- The map includes markings for &#8220;supergiant&#8221; oil fields of 5 billion barrels or more, other oilfields, fields &#8220;earmarked for production sharing,&#8221; oil pipelines, operational refineries, and tanker terminals. (( Iraq Oil Map )) --- Other documents --- Other documents include oil field maps and project tables for both Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (( UAE Oil Project Table )) (( Saudia Arabia Oil Map )) (( Saudi Arabia Oil Project Table )) (( UAE Oil Map )) ====== << decision >> << pre911Plans >> << motivesBehindWar >> ((+ Dick Cheney )) April 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_77 false 1 ------ A report commissioned by former US Secretary of State James Baker and the Council on Foreign Relations titled, &#8220;Strategic Energy Policy Challenges For The 21st Century&#8221; is submitted to Vice President Cheney. &#8220;The report is linked to a veritable who's who of US hawks, oilmen and corporate bigwigs.&#8221; The report says the &#8220;central dilemma&#8221; for the US administration is that &#8220;the American people continue to demand plentiful and cheap energy without sacrifice or inconvenience.&#8221; It warns that the US is running out of oil, with a painful end to cheap fuel already in sight. It argues that &#8220;the United States remains a prisoner of its energy dilemma,&#8221; and that one of the &#8220;consequences&#8221; of this is a &#8220;need for military intervention&#8221; to secure its oil supply. It argues that Iraq needs to be overthrown so the US can control its oil. (( Strategic Energy Policy Challenges For The 21st Century )) [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/28224 | Sunday Herald, 10/05/02 ]] [[ http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/12/25/1040511092926.html | Sydney Morning Herald, 12/26/02 ]] ------ In what may be a reference to a pipeline through Afghanistan, the report suggests the US should &#8220;Investigate whether any changes to US policy would quickly facilitate higher exports of oil from the Caspian Basin region... the exports from some oil discoveries in the Caspian Basin could be hastened if a secure, economical export route could be identified swiftly&#8221; (see also September 2000 and Spring 2001). (( Strategic Energy Policy Challenges For The 21st Century )) ====== << motivesBehindWar >> << pre911Plans >> ((+ James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy of Rice University )) ((+ Dick Cheney )) {{ excerpt_strategic_energy_policy_challenges_for_the_21st_century_4 }} {{ excerpt_strategic_energy_policy_challenges_for_the_21st_century_3 }} {{ excerpt_strategic_energy_policy_challenges_for_the_21st_century_2 }} Between April 2001 and September 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1224 false 1 ------ The CIA writes at least 15 reports about Iraq's interest in purchasing 7075-T6 aluminum tubes. Several of the assessments are distributed only to high-level policy makers, including President Bush, and are not sent to other intelligence agencies for peer review. According to several Congressional and intelligence officials who later review the documents, they all fail to note that the opinions of leading centrifuge experts at the Energy Department conflict with the CIA's view. [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> ((+ George W. Bush )) April 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_494 false 1 ------ During a National Security Council deputy principals meeting, Paul Wolfowitz is challenged by White House counterterrorism advisor Richard Clarke after asserting that Iraq is involved in terrorism. Recalling the meeting, Clarke tells The Guardian in a March 2004 interview: &#8220;April was an initial discussion of terrorism policy writ large and at that meeting I said we had to talk about al-Qaeda. And because it was terrorism policy writ large [Paul] Wolfowitz said we have to talk about Iraqi terrorism and I said that's interesting because there hasn't been any Iraqi terrorism against the United States. There hasn't been any for 8 years. And he said something derisive about how I shouldn't believe the CIA and FBI, that they've been wrong. And I said if you know more than I know tell me what it is, because I've been doing this for 8 years and I don't know about any Iraqi-sponsored terrorism against the US since 1993. When I said let's start talking about bin Laden, he said bin Laden couldn't possibly have attacked the World Trade Center in '93. One little terrorist group like that couldn't possibly have staged that operation. It must have been Iraq.&#8221; [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/september11/story/0,11209,1175817,00.html | The Guardian, 3/23/04 ]] ====== << decision >> << terroristTies >> ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) ((+ Richard Clarke )) April 8, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_163 false 1 ------ An informant for the BIS, the Czech intelligence agency, reportedly sees Iraqi diplomat Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani meeting in a restaurant outside Prague with an Arab man in his 20s. This draws concern from the intelligence community because the informant suggests the person is &#8220;a visiting &#8216;student&#8217; from Hamburg&#8212;and ... potentially dangerous.&#8221; (( Jan Kavan )) [[ http://mason-west.com/Research/News/US/missinglink.php#slate | Slate, 11/19/2003 ]] ------ The young man is never positively identified or seen again. Fearing that al-Ani may have been attempting to recruit the young man for a mission to blow-up Radio Free Europe headquarters, the diplomat is told to leave the country on April 18. (( Unnamed US officials )) (( Jan Kavan )) [[ http://mason-west.com/Research/News/US/missinglink.php#slate | Slate, 11/19/2003 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2001/10/27/international/middleeast/27IRAQ.html?pagewanted=all | New York Times, 10/27/01 ]] [[ http://www.upi.com/view.cfm?StoryID=20021020-092811-8185r | UPI, 10/21/02 ]] ------ Information about the incident is passed on to US intelligence. After the 9/11 attacks and after it is reported on the news that Atta had likely visited Prague, the BIS informant will say the young man at the restaurant was Atta. (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_165 ]]) This information leads hawks to come up with the so-called &#8220;Prague Connection&#8221; theory, which will hold that 9/11 plotter Mohammed Atta flew to Prague on April 8, met with al-Ani to discuss the planning and financing of the 9/11 attacks, and returned to the US on either April 9 or 10. (( Unnamed BIS informant )) (( Jan Kavan )) (( Unnamed US officials )) [[ http://mason-west.com/Research/News/US/missinglink.php#slate | Slate, 11/19/2003 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2001/10/27/international/middleeast/27IRAQ.html?pagewanted=all | New York Times, 10/27/01 ]] [[ http://www.upi.com/view.cfm?StoryID=20021020-092811-8185r | UPI, 10/21/02 ]] ------ The theory will be widely discounted by October 2002. (( Unnamed US officials )) (( Unnamed BIS informant )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/nyt102102.html | New York Times, 10/21/02 ]] ====== << pragueConnection >> << terroristTies >> ((+ Jabir Salim )) ((- Radio Free Europe )) ((+ Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani )) ((- Mohammed Atta )) April 10, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1217 false 1 ------ A classified intelligence report, based primarily on the work of junior CIA analyst Joe T., concludes that the 7075-T6 aluminum tubes sought by Iraq from China (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_40 ]])&#8220;have little use other than for a uranium enrichment program.&#8221; The report is passed on to the White House. [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> ((+ Joe T. )) April 11, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1218 false 1 ------ US officials in the Energy Department respond to an intelligence report released the previous day (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1217 ]]) which contended that the aluminum tubes sought by Iraq (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_41 ]]) are destined for use as centrifuge rotors in a uranium enrichment program. The Energy Department argues that the tubes are too narrow, too heavy, and too long to be used in a gas centrifuge. Furthermore, the officials note, there is no evidence that Iraq is seeking to acquire other materials that would be needed to construct a centrifuge. And if the Iraqis intend to use the tubes for uranium enrichment, they ask, why are they making no effort to conceal their interest in acquiring the tubes? [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> ((+ Department of Energy (DOE) )) April 20, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_164 false 1 ------ Hynek Kmonicek, the Czech Republic's deputy foreign minister, informs the Iraqi charge d'affaires in Prague that al-Ani must leave the Czech Republic within 24-hours because his &#8220;presence [is] not in the security interests of the Czech Republic&#8221; and because his activities are &#8220;incompatible with his diplomatic status.&#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2001/nyt102701.html | New York Times, 10/27/01 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2001/nyt121601.html | New York Times, 12/16/01 ]] [[ http://mason-west.com/Research/News/US/missinglink.php#slate | Slate, 11/19/2003 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2001/independent102601.htm | Independent, 10/26/01 ]] ------ Kmonicek will later deny that the dismissal is related to the meeting that allegedly took place on April 8 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_163 ]]). A Newsweek report in April 2002 will suggest the dismissal is related to video surveillance footage showing al-Ani photographing the Radio Free Europe building on several occasions. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/newsweek042802.html | Newsweek, 4/28/01 ]] ------ But a November 2003 report in Slate will say that the dismissal is indeed related to the alleged meeting, explaining that Czech intelligence had become nervous after learning of the meeting. (( Jan Kavan )) [[ http://mason-west.com/Research/News/US/missinglink.php#slate | Slate, 11/19/2003 ]] ------ The real cause for his dismissal is never officially disclosed. ====== << pragueConnection >> ((+ Hynek Kmonicek )) ((+ Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani )) April 30, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_139 false 1 ------ The US State Department's 2000 annual report states in its section on state-sponsored terrorism that the Ba'ath regime's &#8220;terrorist&#8221; activities consist primarily of its use of violence to silence dissident exiles. The report also notes that Iraq has not engaged in terrorism against the West &#8220;since its failed plot to assassinate former President Bush in 1993 in Kuwait.&#8221; Significantly the report does not tie Iraq to international Islamic terrorist groups like al-Qaeda. (( US Department of State, 4/30/2001 )) [[ http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/pgtrpt/2000/2441.htm | US Department of State, 4/30/2001 ]] [[ ../../archive/2001/newsday122101.htm | Newsday, 12/24/01 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> May 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1837 false 1 ------ Vice President Dick Cheney's Energy Task Force releases its energy plan. The plan, titled, Reliable, Affordable and Environmentally Sound Energy for America?s Future, warns that the quantity of oil imported per day will need to rise more than fifty percent to 16.7 million barrels by 2020. &#8220;A significant disruption in world oil supplies could adversely affect our economy and our ability to promote key foreign and economic policy objectives, regardless of the level of US dependence on oil imports,&#8221; the report explains. One of these objectives is to open markets to US investors and promote free trade through new investment treaties. To meet the United States' rising demand for imported oil, the plan calls for &#8220;deep water offshore exploration and production in the Atlantic Basin, stretching from offshore Canada to the Caribbean, Brazil and West Africa.&#8221; (( Reliable, Affordable and Environmentally Sound Energy for America?s Future, Chapter 8 )) [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,880443,00.html | The Guardian, 1/23/2003 ]] ====== << motivesBehindWar >> ((+ Dick Cheney )) May 9, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1219 false 1 ------ The Energy Department reports that the 7075-T6 aluminum tubes being sought by Iraq from China (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_41 ]]) have the same specifications as tubes previously used by Iraq to produce conventional rocket tubes. The findings are published in the department's classified Daily Intelligence Highlight, which is posted on an intranet network accessible by members of the intelligence community and the White House. [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> ((+ Department of Energy (DOE) )) May 15, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_436 false 1 ------ Powell says that Saddam Hussein has not been able to &#8220;build his military back up or to develop weapons of mass destruction&#8221; for &#8220;the last 10 years,&#8221; adding that the sanctions policy had successfully kept him &#8220;in a box.&#8221; [[ http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/allnews/content_objectid=13434081_method=full_siteid=50143_headline=-THE-BIG-LIE-name_page.html | The Mirror, 9/22/03 ]] ====== << wmd >> ((+ Colin Powell )) May 23, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_468 false 1 ------ A container shipment of 3,000 7075-T6 aluminum tubes manufactured in China leaves southern China for Hong Kong on a slow barge. From there the shipment will go to Jordan. The tubes' final destination is Iraq. [[ http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2003/transcripts/s976015.htm | Australian Broadcasting Corporation ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> May 25, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_469 false 1 ------ The Chinese government contacts a Chinese aluminum manufacturer that has just filled an order for 3,000 7075-T6 aluminum tubes, which is now on its way to Iraq. The company is told that the US government has a special interest in the order and is determined to prevent the shipment from reaching its destination. (( Garry Cordukes )) [[ http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2003/transcripts/s976015.htm | Australian Broadcasting Corporation ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> (July 2001-March 2003) complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1220 false 1 ------ In meetings and telephone calls, CIA officials inform administration officials that experts at the Department of Energy do not believe that the aluminum tubes sought by Iraq are intended for use in a gas centrifuge. (( Unnamed Senior CIA official )) [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> July 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_487 false 1 ------ The UN's International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) obtains a few samples of the 7075-T6 aluminum tubes that were seized by the CIA and Jordanian secret service. They examine the tubes and initially are quite skeptical that the Iraqis intended to use them as rotors in a gas centrifuge. [[ http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2003/transcripts/s976015.htm | Australian Broadcasting Corporation ]] ------ Later this month, CIA agent Joe T. flies to Vienna and presents his case to the IAEA. (( Jacques Bautes )) (( Andrew Wilkie )) [[ http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2003/transcripts/s976015.htm | Australian Broadcasting Corporation ]] [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] ------ But experts at the agency disagree with his conclusions and explain to him why the believe his analysis is wrong. &#8220;They pointed out errors in his calculations. They noted design discrepancies,&#8221; an unnamed senior US official will later tell the New York Times. (( Unnamed US official )) [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] ------ David Albright, a physicist and former weapons inspector, who heads the Institute for Science and International Security, similarly explains to the Australian Broadcasting Corporation: &#8220;The view in Vienna in the summer of 2001 was &#8216;Maybe this guy has a clever idea, but he really is just grabbing at almost straws to prove his case, and when he's debunked in one model, he then shifts it and tries to make his information fit another centrifuge model.&#8217; And yet whenever you confronted him with the facts or the weaknesses in argument, he always came back with the same answer&#8212; &#8216;It's only for centrifuges.&#8217; &#8221; When Joe T. returns to Washington, he tells his superiors at the CIA that the IAEA agrees with his theory. [[ http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2003/transcripts/s976015.htm | Australian Broadcasting Corporation ]] ------ But according to an unnamed senior US official, scientists at the IAEA send a summary of their views on the tubes to the US government. (( Unnamed US official )) [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> ((+ Joe T. )) (July 2001-March 2003) complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1221 false 1 ------ During briefings, intelligence analysts at CIA Winpac inform senior National Security Council officials who deal with nuclear proliferation issues that experts at the Department of Energy do not believe that the aluminum tubes sought by Iraq were intended for use in a gas centrifuge. (( Four unnamed CIA officials )) (( Unnamed senior administration official )) [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> July 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_437 false 1 ------ National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice says, &#8220;Saddam does not control the northern part of the country. We are able to keep his arms from him. His military forces have not been rebuilt.&#8221; [[ http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/allnews/content_objectid=13434081_method=full_siteid=50143_headline=-THE-BIG-LIE-name_page.html | The Mirror, 9/22/03 ]] ====== << wmd >> ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) July 2001-2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_42 false 1 ------ Joe T. maintains his claim that the 7075-T6 aluminum tubes imported by Iraq but intercepted by the US in Jordan (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_41 ]]) were meant to be used as rotors in centrifuges. Joe T.'s theory becomes one of the most important components of the Bush administration's argument that Saddam Hussein is pursuing the development of nuclear weapons. Despite significant criticisms of his theory from prominent experts in the field, Joe T. (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_43 ]]) (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_47 ]]) (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_49 ]]) receives an award for exceptional performance from the CIA for his analysis of the intercepted aluminum tubes. (( Unnamed US intelligence, US administration, and/or UN inspectors )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39500-2003Aug9.html | Washington Post, 8/10/03 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> ((+ Joe T. )) July 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_41 false 1 ------ Following leads from the Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS) (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_40 ]]), a team of CIA agents and Jordanian secret police confiscate a shipment to 3,000 7075-T6 aluminum tubes in Jordan. The tubes had been purchased by a Jordanian front company, AT&amp;C, on behalf of Iraq. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39500-2003Aug9.html | Washington Post, 8/10/03 ]] [[ http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2003/transcripts/s976015.htm | Australian Broadcasting Corporation ]] ------ It is later learned that Iraq's supply of rocket body casing tubes is depleted at about this time (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_50 ]]) and that &#8220;[t]housands of warheads, motors and fins [are] ... crated at the assembly lines [in Iraq], awaiting the arrival of tubes.&#8221; (( Unnamed US intelligence, US administration, and/or UN inspectors )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39500-2003Aug9.html | Washington Post, 8/10/03 ]] ------ It is also later determined that the shipment of tubes is meant to replenish Iraq's supply of rocket casing tubes; they are not for Iraq's alleged nuclear weapons program. ====== << aluminumTubes >> July 23, 2001-July 25, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1747 false 1 ------ The twenty-fourth negotiating session convenes to negotiate a proposal to add an enforcement and verification protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. For three days, representatives from more than 50 member-states speak favorably of ending the negotiations and adopting the protocol. The mechanism would require member-states to annually declare their biodefense facilities and programs as well as any industrial facilities with capabilities to produce microbial cultures in quantity. Additionally, all member-states would be subject to random inspections of any plant where biological weapons could be made. Inspections would also be conducted if a facility is suspected of illegally producing bioweapons; there are allegations of bioweapons use; or in the event of a disease outbreak suspected to be the result of the activities of a bioweapons facility. But on July 25, US Ambassador Donald Mahley announces that the US will block any consensus on the proposed changes to the convention. &#8220;The United States has concluded that the current approach to a protocol to the Biological Weapons Convention . . . is not, in our view, capable of . . . strengthening confidence in compliance with the Biological Weapons Convention,&#8221; he says. &#8220;We will therefore be unable to support the current text, even with changes.&#8221; US opposition to the convention is based on fears that inspections of US facilities might harm the profits of US biotech companies and impede the United States' current &#8220;biodefense&#8221; program. (( Statement by the United States to the Ad Hoc Group of Biological Weapons Convention States Parties )) [[ http://www.thebulletin.org/article.php?art_ofn=jf03wheelis | Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 1/2003 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/views02/0805-08.htm | Common Dreams, 8/5/02 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2001/ALLPOLITICS/11/01/bush.bioterror/ | CNN, 11/1/01 ]] [[ http://www.counterpunch.org/sunshine1.html | Counterpunch, 10/25/01 ]] ====== << wmd >> ((+ Donald Mahley )) Early September 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_64 false 1 ------ At the behest of Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz, former CIA director James Woolsey flies to London to look for evidence tying Osama bin Laden and Saddam Hussein to the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center and evidence that 9/11 hijacker Mohammed Atta had worked with Iraqi intelligence to plan the September 11 attacks. Woolsey is advised to meet with Iraqi exiles and others who may have useful intelligence. [[ http://www.observer.co.uk/international/story/0,6903,573893,00.html | Observer 10/14/01 ]] [[ http://www.villagevoice.com/issues/0147/vest.php | The Village Voice, 11/21/01 ]] [[ http://globalresearch.ca/articles//BEA112A.html | Observer, 12/2/01 ]] ------ Secretary of State Colin Powell and CIA director George Tenet are not informed of the visit. [[ http://www.villagevoice.com/issues/0147/vest.php | The Village Voice, 11/21/01 ]] ====== << decision >> ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) ((+ James Woolsey )) September 4, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_441 false 1 ------ The New York Times reports: &#8220;Over the past several years, the United States has embarked on a program of secret research on biological weapons that, some officials say, tests the limits of the global treaty banning such weapons. ... The projects, which have not been previously disclosed, were begun under President Clinton and have been embraced by the Bush administration, which intends to expand them.&#8221; The US claims that this research is needed to protect Americans from the threat posed by rogue nations or terrorist groups who may be developing such weapons. [[ http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/CHO111D.html | New York Times, 9/4/01 ]] ====== << wmd >> September 11, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_706 false 1 ------ Seven members of Donald Rumsfeld's so-called neocon &#8220;brain trust,&#8221; including Undersecretary of Defense for Policy Douglas Feith and William Luti, head of the Pentagon's Near Eastern and South Asian desk, are &#8220;busy on unrelated missions in Europe and the Middle East.&#8221; They return to Washington the next day (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_705 ]]). (( Douglas Feith )) (( William Luti )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 234 ]] ====== << officeOfSpecialPlans >> ((+ Douglas Feith )) ((+ William Luti )) Shortly after September 11, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_82 false 1 ------ Undersecretary of Defense for Policy Douglas Feith and Middle East specialist Harold Rhode recruit David Wurmser, the director of Middle East studies for the American Enterprise Institute, to serve as a Pentagon consultant. Wurmser is a known advocate of regime change in Iraq, having expressed his views in a 1997 op-ed piece published in the Wall Street Journal (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_465 ]]) and having participated in the drafting of a 1996 policy paper for Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu called &#8220;A Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm&#8221; (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_74 ]]). Wurmser works at Feith's office, where he and another neocon, F. Michael Maloof, a former aide to Richard Perle, head a secret intelligence unit, named the Counter Terrorism Evaluation Group, or the &#8220;Wurmser-Maloof&#8221; project. The four- to five-person unit, a &#8220;B Team&#8221; commissioned by Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, uses powerful computers and software to scan and sort already-analyzed documents and reports from the CIA, the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, and other agencies in an effort to consider possible interpretations and angles of analysis that these agencies may have missed due to deeply ingrained biases and out-of-date worldviews. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/wtimes011402.htm | Washington Times, 1/14/02 ]] [[ http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html | Mother Jones, 1/04 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/10/24/international/24INTE.html | New York Times, 10/24/02 ]] [[ http://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/suncommentary/la-op-arkin8feb08,1,1827395.story?coll=la-headlines-suncomment | Los Angeles Times, 2/8/04 ]] [[ http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/s1048656.htm | Reuters, 2/19/04 ]] ------ The Pentagon unit's activities cause tension within the traditional intelligence community. Critics claim that its members manipulate and distort intelligence, &#8220;cherry-picking&#8221; bits of information that fit their preconceived conclusions. &#8220;There is a complete breakdown in the relationship between the Defense Department and the intelligence community, to include its own Defense Intelligence Agency,&#8221; a defense official will tell the New York Times. &#8220;Wolfowitz and company disbelieve any analysis that doesn't support their own preconceived conclusions. The CIA is enemy territory, as far are they're concerned.&#8221; (( Unnamed defense official )) [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/10/24/international/24INTE.html | New York Times, 10/24/02 ]] ------ Defending the project, Paul Wolfowitz will tell the New York Times that the team's purpose is to circumvent the problem &#8220;in intelligence work, that people who are pursuing a certain hypothesis will see certain facts that others won't, and not see other facts that others will.&#8221; He insists that the special Pentagon unit is &#8220;not making independent intelligence assessments.&#8221; [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/10/24/international/24INTE.html | New York Times, 10/24/02 ]] ------ One of the cell's projects includes sorting through existing intelligence to create a map of relationships demonstrating links between terrorist groups and state powers. This chart of links, which they name the &#8220;matrix,&#8221; leads the intelligence unit to conclude that Hamas, Hezbollah, Islamic Jihad and other groups with conflicting ideologies and objectives are allowing these differences to fall to the wayside as they discover their shared hatred of the US. The group's research also leads them to believe that al-Qaeda has a presence in such places as Latin American. For weeks, the unit will attempt to uncover evidence tying Saddam Hussein to the 9/11 attacks, a theory advocated by both Feith and Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/wtimes011402.htm | Washington Times, 1/14/02 ]] [[ http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html | Mother Jones, 1/04 ]] [[ http://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/suncommentary/la-op-arkin8feb08,1,1827395.story?coll=la-headlines-suncomment | Los Angeles Times, 2/8/04 ]] ------ David Wurmser will later be relocated to the State Department where he will be the senior advisor to Undersecretary Of State for Arms Control John Bolton.(see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_78 ]]). [[ http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html | Mother Jones, 1/04 ]] [[ http://amconmag.com/12_1_03/feature.html | American Conservative, 12/1/03 ]] ====== << deception >> << officeOfSpecialPlans >> << terroristTies >> ((+ Douglas Feith )) ((+ David Wurmser )) ((+ F. Michael Maloof )) ((+ Harold Rhode )) ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) ((- Paul Wolfowitz )) ((- Richard Perle )) September 11, 2001-March 17, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_13 false 1 ------ In the months leading up to the war with Iraq, Bush administration officials manipulate the intelligence provided to them by analysts in order to drum up support for the invasion. Some analysts complain that they are under pressure to write assessments that support the administration's case for invading Iraq. ------ On March 7, 2002, Knight Ridder reports that various military officials, intelligence employees, and diplomats in the Bush administration have charged &#8220;that the administration squelches dissenting views and that intelligence analysts are under intense pressure to produce reports supporting the White House's argument that Hussein poses such an immediate threat to the United States that preemptive military action is necessary.&#8221; (( Simon Crean )) (( Edward Kennedy )) (( Jonathan Dean )) (( Seymour Hersh )) (( Demetrius Perricos )) (( Scott Ritter )) (( David Albright )) (( Mel Goodman )) (( Karen Kwiatkowski )) (( Knight Ridder Newspapers )) (( John Prados )) (( Robin Cook )) (( Ivan Eland )) (( Vince Cannistraro )) (( Menzies Campbell )) (( Bob Graham )) (( Several unnamed US intelligence officials )) (( David Albright )) (( Ray McGovern )) (( Larry Hanauer )) (( Andrew Wilkie )) (( Dick Cheney )) (( Stansfield Turner )) (( Larry Johnson )) (( Greg Thielmann )) (( Patrick Lang )) (( Joseph Cirincione )) (( Patrick G. Eddington )) [[ http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/4234549.htm | Knight Ridder 10/7/02 ]] ====== << deception >> {{ statement_greg_thielmann_12 }} {{ statement_andrew_wilkie_14 }} {{ statement_greg_thielmann_11 }} {{ statement_unnamed_us_intelligence_official_3 }} {{ commentary_bob_kerrey_2 }} {{ statement_david_albright_6 }} {{ statement_patrick_lang_6 }} {{ commentary_joseph_c._wilson_4 }} {{ commentary_joseph_c._wilson_3 }} {{ statement_john_brady_kiesling_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_us_intelligence_official_2 }} {{ statement_karen_kwiatkowski_4 }} {{ commentary_richard_durbin_2 }} {{ commentary_us_government_official_2 }} {{ commentary_jonathan_dean_2 }} {{ commentary_kenneth_pollack_3 }} {{ commentary_edward_kennedy_2 }} {{ commentary_seymour_hersh_2 }} {{ commentary_knight_ridder_newspapers_2 }} {{ commentary_karen_kwiatkowski_3 }} {{ statement_unnamed_unnamed_us/british_military_officials,_intelligence_professionals,_and_ diplomats_2 }} {{ commentary_scott_ritter_12 }} {{ statement_karen_kwiatkowski_5 }} {{ statement_max_cleland_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_us_intelligence_official_4 }} {{ commentary_kenneth_pollack_2 }} {{ statement_karen_kwiatkowski_13 }} {{ statement_karen_kwiatkowski_11 }} {{ statement_greg_thielmann_23 }} {{ statement_karen_kwiatkowski_14 }} {{ commentary_david_albright_4 }} {{ statement_david_albright_3 }} {{ commentary_bob_filippone_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_senior_central_intelligence_agency_official_2 }} {{ statement_david_albright_3 }} {{ statement_melvin_a._goodman_3 }} {{ statement_max_cleland_3 }} {{ statement_kenneth_pollack_5 }} {{ statement_richard_clarke_5 }} {{ commentary_ray_mcgovern_8 }} {{ statement_ray_mcgovern_7 }} {{ statement_david_albright_7 }} {{ commentary_david_macmichael_2 }} {{ commentary_ray_mcgovern_10 }} {{ commentary_ray_mcgovern_11 }} {{ statement_richard_clarke_4 }} {{ statement_vince_cannistraro_12 }} {{ statement_frank_anderson_2 }} {{ statement_richard_clarke_6 }} {{ commentary_mel_goodman_2 }} {{ statement_demetrius_perricos_2 }} {{ commentary_joseph_cirincione_2 }} {{ commentary_ray_mcgovern_6 }} {{ commentary_ray_mcgovern_6 }} {{ commentary_ray_mcgovern_4 }} {{ statement_veteran_intelligence_professionals_for_sanity_3 }} {{ statement_unnamed_high-level_uk_source_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_british_intelligence_officer_2 }} {{ statement_andrew_wilkie_4 }} {{ statement_andrew_wilkie_3 }} {{ statement_andrew_wilkie_2 }} {{ statement_ray_mcgovern_3 }} {{ commentary_ray_mcgovern_2 }} {{ commentary_patrick_g._eddington_2 }} {{ statement_john_prados_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_senior_military_official_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_us_veteran_intelligence_officer_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_us_intelligence_officials_3 }} {{ statement_unnamed_senior_cia_analyst_2 }} {{ statement_andrew_wilkie_5 }} {{ statement_unnamed_cia_analysts_and_officials_2 }} {{ statement_vince_cannistraro_2 }} {{ commentary_vince_cannistraro_5 }} {{ statement_vince_cannistraro_4 }} {{ statement_vince_cannistraro_3 }} {{ statement_bob_graham_2 }} {{ statement_andrew_wilkie_6 }} {{ commentary_menzies_campbell_2 }} {{ statement_andrew_wilkie_8 }} {{ statement_greg_thielmann_10 }} {{ statement_greg_thielmann_9 }} {{ statement_greg_thielmann_8 }} {{ statement_unnamed_us_army_intelligence_officer_2 }} {{ statement_greg_thielmann_7 }} {{ commentary_larry_johnson_2 }} {{ statement_andrew_wilkie_7 }} {{ commentary_ivan_eland_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_us_official_2 }} {{ statement_stansfield_turner_2 }} {{ statement_robin_cook_2 }} {{ statement_greg_thielmann_6 }} {{ commentary_karen_kwiatkowski_2 }} {{ statement_greg_thielmann_4 }} {{ statement_andrew_wilkie_11 }} {{ statement_greg_thielmann_5 }} {{ statement_andrew_wilkie_12 }} {{ statement_andrew_wilkie_10 }} {{ statement_patrick_lang_2 }} {{ statement_andrew_wilkie_13 }} {{ commentary_patrick_lang_4 }} {{ statement_vince_cannistraro_6 }} {{ commentary_patrick_lang_3 }} {{ statement_andrew_wilkie_9 }} {{ statement_patrick_lang_5 }} Soon after September 11, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_63 false 1 ------ Soon after September 11, a concerted effort begins to pin the blame for the attacks on Saddam Hussein. ------ Retired General Wesley Clark will later say on NBC's &#8220;Meet the Press&#8221; in June 2003 and in a letter published by the New York Times that &#8220;immediately after 9/11&#8221; there was a &#8220;concerted effort ... to pin 9/11 and the terrorism problem on Saddam Hussein&#8221; and use the attacks as an excuse to go after the Iraqi dictator. When asked by NBC's Tim Russert, who was behind the concerted effort, Clark will respond: &#8220;Well, it came from the White House, it came from people around the White House. It came from all over.&#8221; Clark also says, &#8220;I got a call on 9/11. I was on CNN, and I got a call at my home saying, &#8216;You got to say this is connected. This is state-sponsored terrorism. This has to be connected to Saddam Hussein.&#8217; I said, &#8216;But&#8212;I'm willing to say it, but what's your evidence?&#8217; And I never got any evidence.&#8221; He says the phone call came from a Middle Eastern think tank outside of the country. [[ http://www.fair.org/press-releases/clark-iraq.html | MSNBC, 6/15/03 ]] [[ http://www.pandagon.net/archives/00001512.htm | New York Times, 7/18/03 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> << decision >> << deception >> ((+ Wesley Clark )) {{ duplicate_wesley_clark_2 }} Shortly after September 11, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_493 false 1 ------ According to White House counterterrorism advisor, Richard Clarke, Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz, asks during a meeting, &#8220;Why we are [sic] beginning by talking about this one man, bin Laden?&#8221; Clarke responds with an explaination that only al-Qaeda &#8220;poses an immediate and serious threat to the United States.&#8221; Wolfowitz then claims that Iraqi terrorism poses &#8220;at least as much&#8221; a danger. According to Clarke, FBI and CIA representatives who are present at the meeting agree that there is no evidence to support Wolfowitz's assertion. (( Richard Clarke )) [[ http://www.palmbeachpost.com/news/content/auto/epaper/editions/today/news_04e5f65c05b8512e00a5.html | Washington Post, 3/22/2004 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((+ Richard Clarke )) ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) {{ duplicate_richard_clarke_7 }} 2:40PM (EST), September 11, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_57 false 1 ------ About five hours after American Airlines Flight 77 crashes into the Pentagon, Donald Rumsfeld learns that three of the names on the airplane passenger manifests are suspected al-Qaeda operatives. Notes taken by one of the aides, read: &#8220;[I want the] best info fast. Judge whether good enough hit S.H. [Saddam Hussein] at same time. Not only UBL [Usama bin Laden]. ... Go massive. Sweep it all up. Things related and not.&#8221; However, at this time, there is no intelligence indicating that Saddam Hussein was behind the attacks. (( Notes taken by an aide of Rumsfeld on 9/11 )) [[ http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/09/04/september11/main520830.shtml | CBS News, 9/4/02 ]] [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0385506724/centerforcoop-20 | Bamford, 2004, p. 285 ]] ====== << decision >> ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) {{ commentary_cbs_news_2 }} {{ duplicate_donald_rumsfeld_3 }} September 12, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_492 false 1 ------ US President George Bush speaks privately with White House counterterrorism advisor Richard Clarke in the White House Situation Room. According to Clarke, Bush tells him to investigate the possibility that Iraq had been involved in the attacks. &#8220;I want you, as soon as you can, to go back over everything, everything,&#8221; Bush says. &#8220;See if Saddam did this.&#8221; When Clarke responds, &#8220;But Mr. President, Al-Qaeda did this,&#8221; Bush replies, &#8220;I know, I know, but... see if Saddam was involved. Just look. I want to know any shred.&#8221; Clarke insists that the CIA, FBI and White House had already concluded that there were no such links. As he exits the room, Bush &#8220;testily&#8221; reiterates, &#8220;Look into Iraq, Saddam.&#8221; (( Richard Clarke )) [[ http://www.palmbeachpost.com/news/content/auto/epaper/editions/today/news_04e5f65c05b8512e00a5.html | Washington Post, 3/22/2004 ]] ------ During a &#8220;60 Minutes&#8221; interview, Clarke will add that Bush's instructions were made in a way that were &#8220;very intimidating,&#8221; and which hinted that Clarke &#8220;should come back with that answer.&#8221; &#8220;Now he never said, &#8216;Make it up.&#8217; But the entire conversation left me in absolutely no doubt that George Bush wanted me to come back with a report that said Iraq did this.&#8221; [[ http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/03/19/60minutes/main607356.shtml | CBS News, 3/20/04 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2004/03/23/politics/23ASSE.html?ex=1081011465&amp;ei=1&amp;en=33db0132fd003259 | New York Times, 3/23/04 ]] ------ White House Press Secretary Scott McClellan will later dispute Clarke's account. Bush &#8220;doesn't have any recollection&#8221; of such a meeting or conversation, McClellan will say on March 22, 2004. &#8220;There's no record of the President being in the Situation Room on that day that ... you know, when the President is in the Situation Room, we keep track of that.&#8221; [[ http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/news/archive/2004/03/22/national1723EST0709.DTL | Associated Press, 3/22/04 ]] ------ But 60 Minutes will later find two sources to confirm Clarke's account and [[ http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/03/19/60minutes/main607356.shtml | CBS News, 3/20/04 ]] ------ White House aides eventually concede that the meeting &#8220;probably&#8221; occurred. [[ http://www.nydailynews.com/03-27-2004/news/wn_report/story/177783p-154700c.html | New York Daily News, 3/27/04 ]] ------ After the meeting, Clarke collaborates with CIA and FBI experts producing a report which finds no evidence that Iraq had a hand in the attacks. But &#8220;it got bounced by the national-securty advisor, or deputy,&#8221; Clarke will explain. &#8220; It got bounced and sent back, saying &#8216;Wrong answer .... Do it again.&#8217; &#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 238 ]] ====== << deception >> << decision >> ((+ Scott McClellan )) ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ Richard Clarke )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((+ Stephen Hadley )) {{ commentary_morton_i._abramowitz_2 }} {{ commentary_bob_graham_4 }} September 12, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_58 false 1 ------ White House counterterrorism advisor Richard Clarke meets with Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, President Bush, and Secretary of State Colin Powell. During the briefing Rumsfeld suggests that the US should bomb Iraq in retaliation for the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. &#8220;Rumsfeld was saying we needed to bomb Iraq,&#8221; Clarke will later recall in his book, Against All Enemies. &#8220;... We all said, &#8216;but no, no. Al-Qaeda is in Afghanistan&#8217; and Rumsfeld said, &#8216;There aren't any good targets in Afghanistan and there are lots of good targets in Iraq.&#8217; &#8221; (( Richard Clarke )) [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&amp;cgi=product&amp;isbn=0743260244 | Clarke, 2004. ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldlatest/story/0,1280,-3881862,00.html | Associated Press, 3/20/04 ]] [[ http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=worldNews&amp;storyID=4610418&amp;section=news | Reuters, 3/19/04 ]] [[ http://www.palmbeachpost.com/news/content/auto/epaper/editions/today/news_04e5f65c05b8512e00a5.html | Washington Post, 3/22/2004 ]] ------ Secretary of State Powell agrees with Clarke that the immediate focus should be on al-Qaeda. However, Powell also says, &#8220;Public opinion has to be prepared before a move against Iraq is possible.&#8221; Clarke complains to him, &#8220;Having been attacked by al-Qaeda, for us now to go bombing Iraq in response would be like our invading Mexico after the Japanese attacked us at Pearl Harbor.&#8221; President Bush notes the goal should be replacing the Iraqi government, not just bombing it, but the military warns an invasion would need a large force and many months to assemble. [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&amp;cgi=product&amp;isbn=0743260244 | Clarke, 2004. ]] ------ Rumsfeld's view is said to be closely aligned with that of his deputy, Paul Wolfowitz, who believes Saddam, not Osama bin Laden or al-Qaeda, should be the principal target of the &#8220;war on terrorism.&#8221; [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&amp;cgi=product&amp;isbn=0743204735 | Woodward, Bob. Bush at War. New York: Simon &amp; Schuster, 2002. Pg. 49 ]] ------ Commenting on his feelings after the meeting, Clarke will later write: &#8220;At first I was incredulous that we were talking about something other than getting al-Qaeda. I realized with almost a sharp physical pain that (Defense Secretary Donald) Rumsfeld and Wolfowitz were going to try to take advantage of this national tragedy to promote their agenda about Iraq. Since the beginning of the administration, indeed well before, they had been pressing for a war with Iraq. My friends in the Pentagon had been telling me that the word was we would be invading Iraq sometime in 2002.&#8221; [[ http://www.palmbeachpost.com/news/content/auto/epaper/editions/today/news_04e5f65c05b8512e00a5.html | Washington Post, 3/22/2004 ]] ------ Bush administration officials will contest the accusations Clarke&#8212;who was a registered Republican in 2000&#8212;makes in his book, dismissing them as politically motivated comments made during an election year. [[ http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/news/archive/2004/03/22/national1723EST0709.DTL | Associated Press, 3/22/04 ]] ------ But another source had provided a similar account a year earlier. In his book, Bush at War, Washington Post reporter Bob Woodward stated that during a White House meeting, Rumsfeld had suggested that the US should attack Iraq. (Note: It is not clear whether or not this meeting is the same one referred to by Clarke.) [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&amp;cgi=product&amp;isbn=0743204735 | Woodward, Bob. Bush at War. New York: Simon &amp; Schuster, 2002. Pg. 49 ]] ------ Clarke also says in his book, referring to unspecified administration officials, &#8220;They were talking about Iraq on 9/11. They were talking about it on 9/12.&#8221; (( Richard Clarke )) [[ http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&amp;cgi=product&amp;isbn=0743260244 | Clarke, Richard. Against All Enemies. Free Press, 2004. ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldlatest/story/0,1280,-3881862,00.html | Associated Press, 3/20/04 ]] [[ http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=worldNews&amp;storyID=4610418&amp;section=news | Reuters, 3/19/04 ]] ====== << decision >> ((+ Colin Powell )) ((- Paul Wolfowitz )) ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ Richard Clarke )) ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) {{ duplicate_richard_clarke_2 }} {{ duplicate_richard_clarke_3 }} {{ duplicate_richard_clarke_5 }} {{ commentary_bob_graham_4 }} {{ commentary_morton_i._abramowitz_2 }} September 12, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_705 false 1 ------ Seven members of Donald Rumsfeld's so-called neocon &#8220;brain trust,&#8221; meet at an airport in Frankfurt, Germany where they are picked up by an Air Force refueling plane which brings them back to Washington. During the flight they discuss the implications of the 911 attacks for US foreign policy. (( William Luti )) (( Douglas Feith )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 234 ]] ------ &#8220;[R]ight there on the plane, we took out our laptops and sketched out for Secretary Rumsfeld where we thought we had to go, what it meant to get things on a war footing,&#8221; William Luti will tell Vanity Fair magazine. &#8220;Obviously we had Afghanistan on our minds straightaway. That was our immediate concern. But we also thought we had to learn about the terrorist networks, how they connected to he states.&#8221; They arrive at Andrews Air Force base a few minutes after five in the afternoon. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 234 ]] ====== << decision >> << officeOfSpecialPlans >> ((+ William Luti )) ((+ Douglas Feith )) September 13, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_59 false 1 ------ Two days after the September 11 attacks, the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA), a neoconservative think tank focused on maintaining and strengthening the US/Israeli military alliance, releases a press statement calling for regime change in Iraq. &#8220;In response to the attack on September 11, 2001 JINSA calls on the United States to: Halt all US purchases of Iraqi oil under the UN Oil for Food Program and to provide all necessary support to the Iraq [sic] National Congress, including direct American military support, to effect a regime change in Iraq,&#8221; the statement reads. [[ http://www.jinsa.org/articles/print.html/documentid/1262 | Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA), 9/13/01 ]] ====== << decision >> ((+ The Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA) )) {{ duplicate_donald_rumsfeld_3 }} September 14, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_165 false 1 ------ The CIA intelligence liaison in Prague is told by the Czech intelligence agency (BIS) that one of its informants in the local Prague Arab community believes the Hamburg &#8220;student&#8221; he had seen meeting with Iraqi diplomat Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani on April 8, 2001 in a restaurant outside of Prague was 9/11 plotter Mohamed Atta. (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_163 ]]) Czech intelligence treats the claim skeptically because it comes only after Atta's picture has been broadcast on television and after the Czech press reported that records showed Atta had traveled to Prague. FBI agents go to the Czech Republic and are given full access to Czech intelligence material. This information leads hawks to come up with the so-called &#8220;Prague Connection&#8221; theory, which holds that 9/11 plotter Mohammed Atta flew to Prague on April 8, met with al-Ani to discuss the planning and financing of the 9/11 attacks, and returned to the US on either April 9 or 10. The theory will be widely discounted by October 2002. (( Jan Kavan )) [[ http://mason-west.com/Research/News/US/missinglink.php#slate | Slate, 11/19/2003 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/nyt102102.html | New York Times, 10/21/02 ]] ====== << pragueConnection >> << terroristTies >> ((- Mohammed Atta )) ((- Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani )) September 15, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_60 false 1 ------ George W. Bush, CIA Director George Tenet, Dick Cheney, Colin Powell, Donald Rumsfeld, Treasury Secretary Paul O'Neill, National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice, FBI Director Robert S. Mueller III, Paul Wolfowitz, and perhaps other officials as well, meet at Camp David to discuss war plans in Afghanistan. The meeting reportedly begins at 9:30 AM with a prayer. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&amp;node=&amp;contentId=A64802-2002Jan30&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 1/31/02 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 232 ]] ------ There is discission on a paper submitted by the Defense Department depicting Iraq, the Taliban, and al-Qaeda as priority targets. Paul Wolfowitz pushes for regime change in Iraq, claiming that there is a 10 to 50 percent chance that Iraq was involved in the attacks. [[ http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0743204735/centerforcoop-20 | Woodward, Bob. Bush at War. New York: Simon &amp; Schuster, 2002. Pg. 83 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 232 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A7336-2004Jul22.html | Washington Post, 7/23/2004 ]] ====== << decision >> ((+ George Tenet )) ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) ((+ Robert S. Mueller III )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) ((+ Paul O?Neill )) ((+ Dick Cheney )) ((+ Colin Powell )) {{ statement_bob_woodward_2 }} September 17, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_61 false 1 ------ President Bush signs a 2 1/2-page &#8220;top secret&#8221; document that outlines the administration's plan to invade Afghanistan and topple its government. According to administration officials interviewed by The Washington Post, the document also instructs the Pentagon to begin planning for an invasion of Iraq. (( senior administration officials )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A43909-2003Jan11.html | Washington Post, 1/12/03 ]] [[ http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/allnews/content_objectid=13434081_method=full_siteid=50143_headline=-THE-BIG-LIE-name_page.html | The Mirror, 9/22/03 ]] ------ The document further orders the military to be ready to occupy Iraq's oil fields if the country acts against US interests. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A7336-2004Jul22.html | Washington Post, 7/23/04 ]] ====== << decision >> ((+ George W. Bush )) September 18, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_166 false 1 ------ Information about the alleged April 2001 meeting in Prague between 9/11 plotter Mohammed Atta and Iraqi diplomat Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani is leaked to the Associated Press, which reports, &#8220;A US official, speaking on condition of anonymity, said the United States has received information from a foreign intelligence service that Mohamed Atta, a hijacker aboard one of the planes that slammed into the World Trade Center, met earlier this year in Europe with an Iraqi intelligence agent.&#8221; (( Unnamed US official )) [[ http://mason-west.com/Research/News/US/missinglink.php#slate | Slate, 11/19/2003 ]] [[ http://www.augustachronicle.com/morrisnews/918criminal.html | Associated Press, 9/18/01 ]] ====== << pragueConnection >> ((- Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani )) ((- Mohammed Atta )) On and around September 18, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_2013 false 1 ------ Paul Wolfowitz and Undersecretary of Defense Douglas Feith argue in three memos why Iraq should be included as a target in the war on terrorism. One memo dated September 18, &#8220;Were We Asleep?&#8221; and suggests links between Iraq and al-Qaeda, which most intelligence officials consider highly dubious. (( senior administration officials )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A43909-2003Jan11.html | Washington Post, 1/12/03 ]] [[ http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/allnews/content_objectid=13434081_method=full_siteid=50143_headline=-THE-BIG-LIE-name_page.html | The Mirror, 9/22/03 ]] ====== << decision >> ((+ George W. Bush )) September 19, 2001-September 20, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_62 false 1 ------ The Defense Policy Board (DPB) meets in secrecy in Rumsfeld's Pentagon conference room on September 19 and 20 for nineteen hours to discuss the option of taking military action against Iraq. This is reported in detail by the New York Times three weeks later on October 12 [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2001/nyt101201.htm | New York Times, 10/12/01 ]] ------ Among those attending the meeting are the 18 members of the Defense Policy Board, Paul Wolfowitz, and Donald Rumsfeld, Ahmed Chalabi, and Bernard Lewis. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2001/nyt101201.htm | New York Times 10/12/01 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 236 ]] ------ Secretary of State Colin Powell and other State Department officials in charge of US policy toward Iraq are not invited and are not informed of the meeting. A source will later tell the New York Times that Powell was irritated about not being briefed on the meeting. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2001/nyt101201.htm | New York Times 10/12/01 ]] ------ During the seminar, two of Richard Perle's invited guests, Princeton professor Bernard Lewis and Ahmed Chalabi, the president of the Iraqi National Congress, are given the opportunity to speak. Lewis says that the US must encourage democratic reformers in the Middle East, &#8220;such as my friend here, Ahmed Chalbi.&#8221; Chalabi argues that Iraq is a breeding ground for terrorists and asserts that Saddam's regime has weapons of mass destruction. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 232 ]] ------ During another part of the meeting, the attendees write a letter to President Bush calling for the removal of Saddam Hussein. &#8220;[E]ven if evidence does not link Iraq directly to the attack, any strategy aiming at the eradication of terrorism and its sponsors must include a determined effort to remove Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq. Failure to undertake such an effort will constitute an early and perhaps decisive surrender in the war on international terrorism,&#8221; the letter reads. The letter is published in The Washington Times on September 20 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_2014 ]]) in the name of The Project for a New American Century (PNAC), a conservative think tank that believes the US needs to shoulder the responsibility for maintaining &#8220;peace&#8221; and &#8220;security&#8221; in the world by strengthening its global hegemony. [[ http://www.newamericancentury.org/Bushletter.htm | Project for a New American Century, 9/20/01 ]] [[ http://www.manilatimes.net/national/2003/jul/19/opinion/20030719opi5.html | Manila Times, 7/19/03 ]] ------ They also discuss how to overcome some of the obvious diplomatic and political pressures that will impede a policy of regime change in Iraq. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2001/nyt101201.htm | New York Times 10/12/01 ]] ------ Bush reportedly rejects the proposal, as both Cheney and Powell agree that there is no evidence implicating Saddam Hussein in the attacks. (( Unnamed senior administration officials and defense experts )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2001/nyt101201.htm | New York Times 10/12/01 ]] ====== << decision >> ((+ Adm. David E. Jeremiah )) ((+ James Woolsey )) ((+ Henry A. Kissinger )) ((+ Newt Gingrich )) ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) ((+ Harold Brown )) ((+ Defense Policy Board )) ((+ Dan Quayle )) ((+ A Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm )) ((+ Bernard Lewis )) ((+ James R. Schlesinger )) ((+ Ahmed Chalabi )) {{ duplicate_defense_policy_board_2 }} September 20, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq-153 false 1 ------ A top Pentagon official&#8212;thought to be Douglas Feith&#8212;pens a top-secret memo fielding the idea that the US should consider initially attacking targets outside the Middle East, like Latin America, or &#8220;non-Al Qaeda&#8221; targets like Iraq. The memo suggests that striking such a target would catch al-Qaeda off-guard. (( 9/11 Commission Report )) ------ The memo's recommendation is reportedly based on research by the Counter Terrorism Evaluation Group <ref key="82"/>, a two-man secret intelligence team operating under Feith's office that was set up to identify possible links between al-Qaeda and other groups, including states like Iraq. [[ http://msnbc.msn.com/id/5570015/site/newsweek | Newsweek, 8/9/2004 ]] ====== << decision >> << officeOfSpecialPlans >> ((+ David Wurmser )) ((+ Douglas Feith )) ((+ F. Michael Maloof )) September 20, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_707 false 1 ------ British Prime Minister Tony Blair meets with President George Bush at the White House. During dinner that night, also attended by Colin Powell, Condoleezza Rice, and British ambassador Sir Christopher Meyer, Blair tells Bush that he wants to concentrate on ousting the Taliban in Afghanistan. Bush replies, &#8220;I agree with you Tony. We must deal with this first. But when we have dealt with Afghanistan, we must come back to Iraq.&#8221; Blair says nothing to disagree. (( Christopher Meyers )) [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/2915149.stm | BBC, 4/3/03 ]] [[ http://observer.guardian.co.uk/politics/story/0,6903,1185407,00.html | Observer, 4/4/04 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0404-02.htm | Independent, 4/4/04 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 238 ]] ====== << decision >> ((+ Colin Powell )) ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ Tony Blair )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((+ Christopher Meyers )) September 20, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_2014 false 1 ------ The Project for the New American Century (PNAC), an influential neoconservative think tank, publicly publishes a letter to President Bush, advising him to conquer Iraq quickly. &#8220;Failure to undertake such an effort will constitute an early and perhaps decisive surrender in the war on international terrorism.&#8221; According to PNAC, the US should demand that Iran and Syria cease all support of Hezbollah, and if they fail to do so, the US should &#8220;retaliate&#8221; against those two countries as well. PNAC also praises Israel as &#8220;America's staunchest ally against international terrorism.&#8221; [[ http://www.newamericancentury.org/Bushletter.htm | Project for the New American Century, 9/20/01 ]] ====== << decision >> ((+ Project for the New American Century (PNAC) )) After October 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_156 false 1 ------ Rohan Gunaratna, a research fellow at the Center for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland, begins researching for his book, Inside al-Qaeda: Global Network of Terror. He examines several tens of thousands of documents acquired from al-Qaeda and Taliban sources. During the course of his investigation, he finds no evidence of an Iraqi-al-Qaeda link. In an op-ed piece printed in the International Herald Tribune on February 19, 2003, he writes: &#8220;In addition to listening to 240 tapes taken from al-Qaeda's central registry, I debriefed several al-Qaeda and Taliban detainees. I could find no evidence of links between Iraq and al-Qaeda. The documentation and interviews indicated that al-Qaeda regarded Saddam, a secular leader, as an infidel.&#8221; (( Rohan Gunaratna )) [[ http://www.iht.com/articles/87151.html | International Herald Tribune, 2/19/03 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((+ Rohan Gunaratna )) Fall 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_95 false 1 ------ The Italian intelligence agency, SISMI, provides the CIA with a report on a 1999 trip to Niger made by Wissam al-Zahawie (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_94 ]]), Iraq's former ambassador to the Vatican. The report suggests that the trip's mission was to discuss the future purchase of uranium oxide, known as &#8220;yellowcake.&#8221; According to sources later interviewed by New Yorker's Seymour Hersh, the report is &#8220;dismissed as amateurish and unsubstantiated&#8221; by US intelligence. (( Wissam al-Zahawie )) (( Unnamed US intelligence sources )) [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?031027fa_fact | New Yorker, 10/20/03 ]] ====== << africaUraniumClaim >> ((+ Wissam al-Zahawie )) ((+ SISMI )) Fall 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_712 false 1 ------ Joe T., an analyst for the CIA, gives a presentation in Room 6526 of the State Department's Office of Strategic Proliferation on his theory that a confiscated shipment of 7075-T6 aluminum tubes destined for Iraq (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_41 ]]) had been intended for use in a gas centrifuge program. Present at the meeting is Greg Theilmann, head of the nuclear proliferation monitoring division at the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research, who is not at all impressed with Joe T.'s argument. &#8220;I found the presentation to be unpersuasive,&#8221; Thielmann later explains to Vanity Fair. &#8220;He seemed far more a man on a mission than an objective analyst. He had something to sell.&#8221; Also in attendance is a scientist from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory who also disagrees with Joe T.'s conclusions. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 281 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> ((+ Joe T. )) ((+ Greg Thielmann )) Fall 2001 and after complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_67 false 1 ------ The momentum towards a policy of &#8220;regime change&#8221; in Iraq increases, independent of Bush's own decisions. &#8220;The issue got away from the president,&#8221; a senior official will later tell The Washington Post. &#8220;He wasn't controlling the tone or the direction&#8221; and was influenced by people who &#8220;painted him into a corner because Iraq was an albatross around their necks.&#8221; (( Unnamed senior official )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A43909-2003Jan11.html | Washington Post, 1/12/03 ]] ====== << decision >> ((- George W. Bush )) October 4, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_428 false 1 ------ Gary Milhollin of the Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control testifies in Congress before the Subcommittee on the Middle East and the South Asia Committee on International Relations that Iraq &#8220;is still committed to developing weapons of mass destruction.&#8221; He states: &#8220;Iraq has become self-sufficient in biological weaponry; it possesses the strains, growth media and infrastructure necessary to build a biological arsenal. Iraq also retains stocks of chemical agent from the period of the Gulf War and is known to have all the elements of a workable nuclear weapon except the fissile material needed to fuel it. Iraq&apos;s authorized program for developing short-range missiles will also enable the building of longer-range missiles, and Iraq is showing an interest in cruise missiles and unmanned aerial vehicles, apparently to deliver chemical or biological payloads.&#8221; [[ http://www.wisconsinproject.org/pubs/testimonies/2001/10-4-01.htm | US House of Representatives, 10/4/01 ]] [[ http://www.insightmag.com/main.cfm/include/detail/storyid/165820.html | United Press International, 1/17/02 ]] ====== << wmd >> ((+ Gary Milhollin )) October 13, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_167 false 1 ------ Czech foreign minister Jan Kavan briefs Secretary of State Colin Powell in Washington about the alleged trip 9/11 plotter Mohammed Atta took to the Czech Republic in April 2001 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_163 ]]). Kavan tells Powell that the BIS, the Czech intelligence service, has reason to believe that Mohamed Atta may have met near Prague with Iraqi Counsel Al-Ani. (( Jan Kavan )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2001/nyt102001.html | New York Times, 10/20/01 ]] ====== << pragueConnection >> ((+ Colin Powell )) ((+ Jan Kavan )) ((- Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani )) ((- Mohammed Atta )) October 16, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_452 false 1 ------ Referring to the claim that Atta met with Iraqi Counsel al-Ani on April 8, 2001 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_163 ]]), Stanislav Gross, the Czech interior minister, states, &#8220;I can only confirm one visit in the summer&#8221; and Petr Necas, chairman of the parliamentary defense committee, says, &#8220;I haven't seen any direct evidence that Mr. Atta met any Iraqi agent.&#8221; Citing a senior Czech Republic official, the New York Times will report on October 20 that &#8220;firm documentary evidence existed only that Mr. Atta had passed through the Prague airport from Germany to take a flight to Newark.&#8221; (( Unnamed senior Czech Republic official )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2001/nyt102001.html | New York Times, 10/20/01 ]] ------ The rumors, which had first surfaced shortly after the attacks, were based on information from a Czech intelligence source inside Prague's Middle Eastern community. The source had told the BIS, the Czech Republic's intelligence service, that he had seen Atta meeting al-Ani in a restaurant outside of Prague on April 8 earlier that year.(see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_163 ]]) [[ http://www.cnn.com/2001/US/09/19/inv.iraq.terrorism/index.html | CNN, 9/19/01 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/newsweek042802.html | Newsweek, 4/28/02 ]] ====== << pragueConnection >> ((+ Stanislav Gross )) ((- Mohammed Atta )) ((- Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani )) ((+ Petr Necas )) October 25, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_140 false 1 ------ Powell, speaking before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, dismisses bin Laden's claims that al-Qaeda's fight is in solidarity with Iraqis and Palestinians. Powell argues: &#8220;We cannot let Osama bin Laden pretend that he is doing it in the name of helping the Iraqi people or the Palestinian people. He doesn't care one whit about them. He has never given a dollar toward them. He has never spoken out for them.&#8221; [[ http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2001/5751.htm | US Department of State ]] [[ http://slate.msn.com/id/2078437 | Slate MSNBC, 2/11/03 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((+ Colin Powell )) {{ duplicate_colin_powell_7 }} October 26, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_168 false 1 ------ Czech interior minister Stanislav Gross says during a press conference that 9/11 plotter Mohammed Atta had in fact met with Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani, the consul and second secretary of the Iraqi embassy, in the Czech Republic after arriving in Prague on April 8, 2001 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_163 ]]). &#8220;We can confirm now that during his ... trip to the Czech Republic, he did have a contact with an officer of the Iraqi intelligence,&#8221; he says. He also says that Atta had been in Prague at least twice&#8212;in May 2000 after coming to Prague from Germany on his way to the United States and then again in April when he allegedly met with Ahni. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2001/nyt102701.html | New York Times, 10/27/01 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/europe/10/27/inv.czech.iraq/ | CNN, 10/27/01 ]] ------ Also, by this time, the FBI claims it has physical evidence of Atta's trip to Prague. The New York Times reports, &#8220;On April 4 he was in Virginia Beach. He flew to the Czech Republic on April 8 and met with the Iraqi intelligence officer ... By April 11, Atta was back in Florida renting a car.&#8221; (( Jan Kavan )) (( Unnamed US officials )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2001/nyt102701.html | New York Times, 10/27/01 ]] ------ But this will later be disputed. In late April 2002, Newsweek will report, &#8220;The FBI could find no visa or airline records showing he had left or re-entered the United States that month,&#8221; quoting an unnamed US official who says, &#8220;Neither we nor the Czechs nor anybody else has any information he was coming or going [to Prague] at that time.&#8221; (( Jan Kavan )) (( Unnamed US official )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/newsweek042802.html | Newsweek, 4/28/02 ]] ------ And in late 2003, Edward Jay Epstein will similarly report in Slate that there &#8220;were no car rental records in Virginia, Florida, or anywhere else in April 2001 for Mohamed Atta, since he had not yet obtained his Florida license ... [n]or were there other records in the hands of the FBI that put Atta in the United States at the time.&#8221; But Epstein will note that Atta would likely have traveled to Prague using false documents anyway. [[ http://mason-west.com/Research/News/US/missinglink.php#slate | Slate, 11/19/03 ]] ====== << pragueConnection >> ((+ Stanislav Gross )) ((- Mohammed Atta )) ((- Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani )) {{ commentary_james_woolsey_2 }} October 28, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1183 false 1 ------ The White House repeats its warning to the UN that the US will act if the UN fails to pass a stronger resolution. George Bush says: &#8220;Either the UN will do its duty to disarm Saddam Hussein. Or Saddam Hussein will disarm himself. In either case, if they refuse to act ... the US will lead a coalition and disarm Saddam Hussein.&#8221; And Ari Fleischer, the White House Press Secretary says, &#8220;The United Nations has debated this long enough. The time has come for people to raise their hands and cast their vote.&#8221; [[ http://www.mwaw.org/article.php?sid=1634 | Independent, 10/29/02 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> Early November 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_66 false 1 ------ Wayne Downing, a retired Army general who is heading counterterrorism in the White House, is drawing up plans for a US invasion of Iraq on his own initiative. (( Unnamed senior administration official )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A43909-2003Jan11.html | Washington Post, 1/12/03 ]] ====== << decision >> ((+ Wayne Downing )) {{ commentary_usa_today_2 }} Early November 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_65 false 1 ------ According to a September 2002 USA Today article, the decision to invade Iraq is made at this time. Significantly, the decision is made independent of normal policy-making procedures&#8212;a National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) on Iraq was not requested, members of Congress were not consulted, and the concerns of senior military officers and intelligence analysts were ignored. Explaining why the White House did not request a NIE on Iraq, an unnamed US intelligence official explains it didn't want to detail the uncertainties regarding the threat Iraq allegedly poses to the US. And a senior administration official says the White House did not believe an NIE would be helpful. Notwithstanding, an NIE will be requested in September 2002 as a result of pressure from Congress. The classified version of the document will include many qualified and nuanced statements, but the shorter, unclassified, public version, which is given to Congress, will not include these uncertainties (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_7 ]]). (( officials at the White House, State Department, Pentagon, intelligence agencies, Congress and elsewhere )) [[ http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2002-09-10-iraq-war_x.htm | USA Today, 9/10/02 ]] ====== << wmd >> ((+ George W. Bush )) November 9, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_169 false 1 ------ Czech Prime Minister Milos Zeman tells Colin Powell and CNN that during the alleged April 2001 meeting in Prague between 9/11 plotter Mohammed Atta and Iraqi diplomat Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani, the two men discussed plans to bomb the Radio Free Europe building in Prague, which also housed Radio Free Iraq. The claim is reportedly based on footage from surveillance cameras at the Radio Free Europe building which had shown al-Ani surveying the building in April 2001 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_162 ]]). The Prime Minister will later back away from the claim, explaining it was just a hypothesis raised by Czech intelligence. [[ http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/europe/11/09/inv.czech.atta/index.html | CNN, 11/09/01 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2001/ap121601.htm | Associated Press, 12/16/01 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0501-05.htm | Washington Post 5/1/02 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/newsweek042802.html | Newsweek, 4/28/01 ]] ====== << pragueConnection >> ((+ Colin Powell )) ((- Mohammed Atta )) ((- Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani )) ((+ Milos Zeman )) November 19, 2001-December 7, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_440 false 1 ------ The Fifth Review Conference for the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention convenes in Geneva, Switzerland. The primary objective of the conference is to complete the negotiation of an enforcement and verification protocol. Member-states, known as the &#8220;Ad Hoc Group,&#8221; had previously attempted to do this during a forum in July, but the efforts had been blocked by the US (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1747 ]]). The proposed change to the Convention would, among other things (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1747 ]]), require mandatory inspections of any plant where biological weapons could be made&#8212;including sites located in the United States. For six years, the US has opposed this proposal. At the very end of the Review Conference, the Bush admininistration proposes to eliminate the Ad Hoc Group and terminate the protocol negotiations completely. The proposal is rejected by other members, but the action effectively blocks consensus on the conference's Final Declaration. To prevent the outright failure of the Review Conference, the chairman suspends negotiations until November 2002. [[ http://www.nti.org/e_research/e3_7a.html | Nuclear Threat Initiative, 2/2002 ]] [[ http://www.thebulletin.org/article.php?art_ofn=jf03wheelis | Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 1/2003 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/views02/0805-08.htm | Common Dreams, 8/5/02 ]] ====== << wmd >> ((+ Bush administration )) November 21, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_665 false 1 ------ George W. Bush and Donald Rumsfeld speak in private. Bush asks the Defense Secretary what kind of plan the Pentagon has for invading Iraq. When Rumsfeld says its current plan is outdated, Bush instructs him to devise a new one. &#8220;Let's get started on this,&#8221; Bush will later tell Bob Woodward. &#8220;And get Tommy Franks looking at what it would take to protect America by removing Saddam Hussein if we have to.&#8221; Bush requests that discussion about Iraq remain low-key. &#8220;I knew what would happen if people thought we were developing a potential war plan for Iraq,&#8221; Bush will say to Woodward. Bush does not share the details of his conversation with Condoleezza Rice, only telling her that Rumsfeld would be working on Iraq. (( George Bush and other top officials interviewed by Washington Post editor Bob Woodward )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0416-01.htm | Woodward, 2004 cited in Associated Press, 4/16/2004 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2004/04/17/international/middleeast/17BOOK.html | Woodward, 2004 cited in New York Times, 4/17/2004 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A20860-2004Apr17.html | Woodward, 2004 cited in Washington Post 1/18/2004 ]] ------ When General Tommy Franks&#8212;who already has his hands full with the operation in Afghanistan&#8212;learns that the administration is considering plans to invade Iraq, he utters &#8220;a string of obscenities.&#8221; (( Top officials interviewed by Washington Post editor Bob Woodward )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0416-01.htm | Woodward, 2004 cited in Associated Press, 4/16/2004 ]] ------ General Franks will meet with Bush and brief him on the plan's progress on December 28 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_666 ]]). ====== << decision >> ((+ Thomas Franks )) ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) Late 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1222 false 1 ------ Energy Department analysts publish a classified report disputing the theory that the 7075-T6 aluminum tubes sought by Iraq were intended to be used as rotors in a &#8220;Zippe-type&#8221; gas centrifuge. The report emphasizes that Zippe centrifuges are not suited for the production of nuclear bombs but rather had been designed for use in laboratory experiment. The Energy Department's experts also say that Iraq would need up to 16,000 of such centrifuges working in concert to produce enough enriched uranium for a nuclear bomb, which they note would be a challenge for even the most advanced centrifuge plants. [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> Late 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1809 false 1 ------ The Italian government reportedly obtains half a dozen letters and other documents from a source in Rome alleged to be correspondence between Niger and Iraqi officials negotiating a sale of 500 tons of uranium oxide. The Italians share the intelligence with their counterparts in both Britain and the US. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/time072103.htm | Time Magazine, 7/21/2003 ]] ====== << africaUraniumClaim >> Late 2001-May 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_185 false 1 ------ Jordanian Muslim militant Abu Mussab Al Zarqawi flees Afghanistan and heads to Iran where he continues to run his terrorist organization, al-Tawhid, using telephones and a network of couriers to maintain contact with his operatives in Europe. Al Zarqawi's organization establishes another poison and explosive training center camp in northeastern Iraq in an area controlled by Ansar al-Islam, an Islamist group opposed to Saddam Hussein. In May 2002, Zarqawi goes to Baghdad and has an amputation performed on his leg, which had been injured when he was fleeing US forces in Afghanistan. According to the Bush administration, Al Zarqawi stays in Baghdad for two months, during which time some two dozen &#8220;al-Qaeda affiliates&#8221; establish a base of operations in the city. The group presumably &#8220;coordinate[s] the movement of people, money and supplies into and throughout Iraq for his network.&#8221; Then Zarqawi reportedly travels to the Ansar al-Islam-controlled region in Northern Iraq, before eventually returning to Iran. [[ http://truthout.org/docs_03/062703B.shtml | Newsweek, 6/25/03 ]] [[ http://www.mercurynews.com/mld/mercurynews/news/politics/5052710.htm | Knight Ridder Newspapers, 1/28/03 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/independent020603.htm | Independent, 2/6/03 ]] ------ In an effort to justify military action against Iraq, the Bush administration will later claim that Saddam Hussein is aware of Al Zarqawi's presence in Baghdad and therefore is guilty of knowingly harboring a terrorist (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_184 ]]). The administration will also allege&#8212;falsely&#8212;that Al Zarqawi is a senior al-Qaeda agent and that his visit is evidence that Saddam's regime has ties to Osama bin Laden. (( Shadi Abdallah )) [[ http://truthout.org/docs_03/062703B.shtml | Newsweek, 6/25/03 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/independent020603.htm | Independent, 2/6/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,807286,00.html | Guardian, 10/9/02 ]] ------ But the administration never offers any conclusive evidence to support this allegation. The claim is disputed by intelligence analysts in both Washington and London. [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/02/04/wirq04.xml/ | Telegraph, 2/4/03 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> << alZarqawi >> ((+ Abu Mussab Al Zarqawi )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- Saddam Hussein )) {{ statement_unnamed_us_official_4 }} {{ commentary_jason_burke,_london_observer_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_us_intelligence_officials_4 }} {{ statement_unnamed_us_intelligence_officials_5 }} Late 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1611 false 1 ------ A member of SISMI, Italy's foreign intelligence service, provides an agency asset working at the Nigerien embassy in Rome with a set of documents which the asset then slips into a collection of documents she later gives to Rocco Martino, an Italian security consultant and information peddler. [[ http://www.talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/003235.php | Talking Points Memo, 8/1/2004 ]] [[ http://www.benadorassociates.com/article/6282 | Sunday Times, 8/1/2004 ]] [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/justify/2004/0802niger.htm | Financial Times, 8/2/2004 ]] ------ The documents consist of a series of letters purported to have been exchanged between the Niger government and an Iraqi diplomat. According to these letters, Iraq had attempted to obtain 500 tons of uranium oxide, or &#8220;yellowcake,&#8221; from Niger. [[ http://www.talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/week_2003_10_26.html#002145 | Corriere della Sera, date unknown, cited in Talking Points Memo, 10/31/03 ]] [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?031027fa_fact | New Yorker, 10/20/03 ]] [[ http://quickstart.clari.net/qs_se/webnews/wed/bi/Qus-iraq-niger-italy.Rt17_DlJ.html | Agence France Presse, 7/19/03 ]] [[ http://www.matamat.com/fullstory.php?gd=25&amp;cd=2003-07-19 | Reuters, 7/19/03 ]] ====== << africaUraniumClaim >> ((+ Rocco Martino )) ((+ SISMI )) Late 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1810 false 1 ------ The CIA briefs Vice President Dick Cheney on intelligence that was provided by the Italians (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1809 ]]) suggesting that Iraq is attempting to purchase uranium from Niger. Cheney asks about the implications of the report. (( Lewis Libby )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/time072103.htm | Time Magazine, 7/21/2003 ]] ====== << africaUraniumClaim >> ((+ Dick Cheney )) December 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_430 false 1 ------ In early December, Adnan Ihsan Saeed al-Haideri flees Iraq and defects to the United States. He tells US intelligence that he was a civil engineer until the end of 2000 and that he was involved in rebuilding Iraqi facilities that would produce chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons. He claims &#8220;that as many as 300 secret weapons facilities ... [have] been &#8216;reactivated&#8217; since the withdrawal of UN inspectors.&#8221; He describes a biological weapons program consisting of small underground labs and mobile labs concealed within specially modified trucks. &#8220;In some areas, houses or a small factory would get converted into labs,&#8221; Saeed tells his debriefers. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A23545-2002Jul30.html | Washington Post, 7/31/2002 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A9604-2001Dec20?language=printer | Washington Post, 12/21/01 ]] [[ http://www.realdemocracy.com/iraqidef.htm | New York Times, 12/20/2001 ]] ------ In late December, Ahmed Chalabi of the Iraqi National Congress arranges for Saeed al-Haideri to be interviewed by New York Times reporter Judith Miller in Thailand. In the interview, Saeed describes visits he made to the secret weapons labs. He says &#8220;that he had personally visited at least 20 different sites that he believed to have been associated with Iraq's chemical or biological weapons programs,&#8221; reports the New York Times. &#8220;[S]everal of the production and storage facilities were hidden in the rear of government companies and private villas in residential areas, or underground in what were built to look like water wells which are lined with lead-filled concrete and contain no water. He said that he was shown biological materials from a laboratory that was underneath Saddam Hussein Hospital, the largest hospital in Baghdad.&#8221; [[ http://www.nybooks.com/articles/16922 | New York Review of Books 2/26/04 ]] [[ http://www.realdemocracy.com/iraqidef.htm | New York Times, 12/20/2001 ]] ------ After the invasion of Iraq, no evidence will be found to substantiate Saeed's claims, and Judith Miller will be widely criticized for her heavy&#8212;almost exclusive&#8212;reliance on the INC and its members as the main sources for her stories. [[ http://slate.msn.com/id/2087735/ | Slate, 8/29/03 ]] [[ http://slate.msn.com/id/2086110/ | Slate, 7/25/03 ]] ====== << wmd >> ((+ Adnan Ihsan Saeed al-Haideri )) ((+ Judith Miller )) ((+ Iraqi National Congress (INC) )) ((+ Ahmed Chalabi )) Between late 2001 and September 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1612 false 1 ------ Rocco Martino, an Italian security consultant and information peddler, receives a telephone call from a former colleague at SISMI, Italy's foreign intelligence service, who informs him that his source at the Nigerien embassy is in possession of documents (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1611 ]]) that might be of interest to him. &#8220;I met her and she gave me documents,&#8221; Martino later tells the Sunday Times. &#8220;Sismi wanted me to pass on the documents but they didn't want anyone to know they had been involved.&#8221; [[ http://www.benadorassociates.com/article/6282 | Sunday Times, 8/1/2004 ]] [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/justify/2004/0802niger.htm | Financial Times, 8/2/2004 ]] ====== << africaUraniumClaim >> ((+ Rocco Martino )) ((+ SISMI )) Late 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_80 false 1 ------ A small group of CIA agents, among them Joe T., flies to Canberra, Australia and meets with Australian intelligence officers from the Australian Security Intelligence Organization (ASIO), Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS), Defense Intelligence Organization (DIO) and the Office of National Assessments (ONA) at ASIO headquarters. The team of CIA officers presents what is later described as a compelling case that the aluminum tubes, which in July had been intercepted by the US in Jordan on their way to Iraq (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_41 ]]), had been intended for use as rotors in a gas centrifuge program. [[ http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2003/transcripts/s976015.htm | Australian Broadcasting Corporation ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> December 10, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_68 false 1 ------ US Congressmen write a letter to President Bush urging him to take military action against Iraq. Among those who sign the letter are Jesse Helms, Joseph Lieberman, John McCain, Henry Hyde, and Trent Lott. The letter states, &#8220;As we work to clean up Afghanistan, it is imperative that we plan to eliminate the threat from Iraq. This December will mark three years since United Nations inspectors last visited Iraq. There is no doubt that since that time, Saddam Hussein has reinvigorated his weapons programs. ...Reports indicate that biological, chemical and nuclear programs continue apace and may be back to pre-Gulf War levels. We believe we must directly confront Saddam, sooner rather than later.&#8221; [[ http://www.nandotimes.com/special_reports/terrorism/opinions/story/195435p-1896515c.html | Scripps Howard News Service, 12/15/01 ]] [[ http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/terror/01120705.htm | US Department of State, 12/5/01 ]] ====== << decision >> ((+ Henry Hyde )) ((+ John McCain )) ((+ Trent Lott )) ((+ Joseph Lieberman )) ((+ Jesse Helms )) {{ duplicate_us_senators_john_mccain,_jesse_helms,_richard_shelby,_sam_brownback,_joe_lieberman,_and_trent_lott;_and_us_representatives_henry_hyde,_ben_gilman,_and_harold_ford,_jr._2 }} December 11, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_69 false 1 ------ The House International Relations Committee drafts House Joint Resolution 75 which states that if Iraq refuses to allow UN inspectors to investigate freely in Iraq, the refusal will constitute an &#8220;act of aggression against the United States.&#8221; The bill is sponsored by Representatives Lindsey Graham, Porter Goss and Henry Hyde. A different version of this resolution is passed by the House on December 20 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_499 ]]). [[ http://worldnetdaily.com/news/printer-friendly.asp?ARTICLE_ID=25629 | World Net Daily, 12/11/01 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2001/uscongress122001.htm | H.J Res 75 ]] ====== << decision >> ((+ Porter J. Goss )) ((+ Henry Hyde )) ((+ Lindsey Graham )) December 17, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_170 false 1 ------ Czech Police Chief Jiri Kolar says that there is no evidence that 9/11 ringleader Mohammed Atta met an Iraqi intelligence agent in Prague in April (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_163 ]]). He also says&#8212;contradicting earlier reports&#8212;that there is no documentary evidence that Atta traveled to Prague at all in 2001. Additionally, an unnamed Czech intelligence official tells the newspaper Mlada Fronta Dnes, that that the person who had met with al-Ani on April 2001 near Prague was not Atta. Another person with the same name had arrived in Prague in 2001 but he &#8220;didn't have the same identity card number.&#8221; Furthermore, &#8220;There was a great difference in their ages, their nationalities didn't match, basically nothing&#8212;it was someone else,&#8221; the source says. It is also reported that a man named Hassan, described as a businessman and a long-time member of Prague's Arab community, claims to have been a close friend of al-Ani. Hassan says that he believes the Czechs had mistaken another man for Atta, a used car dealer from Nuremberg by the name of Saleh, who often visited Prague to meet al-Ani and and who sold him at least one car. &#8220;I have sat with the two of them at least twice. The double is an Iraqi who has met with the consul. If someone saw a photo of Atta he might easily mistake the two,&#8221; Hassan says. (( Jiri Kolar )) (( Hassan )) (( Unnamed Czech intelligence officials )) (( Unnamed Interior Ministry official )) [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2001/12/18/wirq18.xml | Telegraph, 12/18/01 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2001/nyt121601.html | New York Times, 12/16/01 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2001/ap121601.htm | Associated Press, 12/16/01 ]] ------ Responding to the report, Gabriela Bartikova, spokeswoman for the Czech Minister of Interior, says that the Czech intelligence agency still believes that Mohammed Atta and al-Ani, the consul and second secretary of the Iraqi embassy met in April 2001. She says, &#8220;Minister Gross had the information from BIS (the Czech Republic's Intelligence Agency), and BIS guarantees the information. So we stick by that information.&#8221; At about the same time, US officials tell the Associated Press they also still believe the meeting had transpired. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2001/ap121601.htm | Associated Press, 12/16/01 ]] ====== << pragueConnection >> ((+ Stanislav Gross )) ((+ Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani )) ((+ Mohammed Atta )) December 20, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_499 false 1 ------ House Joint Resolution 75 is passed by the House and sent to the Senate where it is referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations. It is not as strongly worded as the initial draft (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_69 ]]), which had included a provision stating that the refusal to admit inspectors would constitute an &#8220;act of aggression against the United States.&#8221; The final version instead reads: &#8220;Iraq's refusal to allow United Nations weapons inspectors immediate, unconditional, and unrestricted access to facilities and documents covered by United Nations Security Council Resolution 687 and other relevant resolutions presents a mounting threat to the United States, its friends and allies, and international peace and security.&#8221; The bill is sponsored by Representatives Lindsey Graham, Porter Goss and Henry Hyde. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2001/uscongress122001.htm | H.J Res 75 ]] ------ This bill will die in the Senate. The congressional bill that conditionally authorizes Bush to take military action against Iraq is not passed until October 11, 2002 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_216 ]]). ====== << decision >> ((+ Lindsey Graham )) ((+ Henry Hyde )) ((+ Porter J. Goss )) December 28, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_666 false 1 ------ General Tommy Franks, the head of the US Central Command, visits Bush at his ranch in Crawford, Texas and briefs him on the progress of his Iraq war plan. Bush had requested an updated plan from the Defense Department on November 21 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_665 ]]). (( Top officials interviewed by Washington Post editor Bob Woodward )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A20860-2004Apr17.html | Woodward, 2004 cited in Washington Post 1/18/2004 ]] ====== << decision >> ((+ Thomas Franks )) ((+ George W. Bush )) (2002) complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_711 false 1 ------ Vice President Dick Cheney asks that his daily intelligence briefer from the CIA be replaced. An unnamed former CIA official later explains to Vanity Fair magazine: &#8220;One briefer annoyed Cheney and he asked that she be replaced. He asked for a new briefer. That sent a chill through the whole process. It sent out the message to the analysts, &#8216;Be careful with some of this stuff. Be careful what you say.&#8217; &#8221; (( Unnamed former CIA official )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 242-44 ]] ====== << deception >> ((+ Dick Cheney )) Mid-January 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_312 false 1 ------ By this time, more than 300 different inspections have been conducted in Iraq by the UN weapons inspection teams, which report no instances of Iraqi attempts to impede their access to the alleged weapons sites. [[ http://www.nctimes.net/news/2003/20030119/55310.html | Associated Press, 1/18/03 ]] [[ http://www.sunspot.net/news/nationworld/bal-te.evidence19jan19,0,887892.story?coll=bal-nationworld-headlines | Baltimore Sun, 1/20/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/20/international/middleeast/20IRAQ.html | New York Times, 1/20/03 ]] ------ The London Independent quotes one diplomat, who says, &#8220;Realistically, it is not going to be easy to see in the next two months that we will be able to say that Iraq is not cooperating.&#8221; [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/politics/story.jsp?story=367577 | Independent 1/8/03 ]] ------ Inspectors also say that there are no signs that Iraq is developing weapons of mass destruction. An Associated Press report cites several specific cases of alleged weapons sites that the inspection teams&#8212;after repeated visits&#8212;have determined are not involved in the production of weapons of mass destruction. &#8220;UN arms monitors have inspected 13 sites identified by US and British intelligence agencies as major &#8216;facilities of concern,&#8217; and reported no signs of revived weapons building.&#8221; [[ http://www.nctimes.net/news/2003/20030119/55310.html | Associated Press, 1/18/03 ]] [[ http://www.sunspot.net/news/nationworld/bal-te.evidence19jan19,0,887892.story?coll=bal-nationworld-headlines | Baltimore Sun, 1/20/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/20/international/middleeast/20IRAQ.html | New York Times, 1/20/03 ]] ------ And International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Chief Weapons Inspector Mohamed ElBaradei tells reporters: &#8220;I think it's difficult for Iraq to hide a complete nuclear-weapons program. They might be hiding some computer studies or R. and D. on one single centrifuge. These are not enough to make weapons&#8221; (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_51 ]]). [[ http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1101030120-407286,00.html | Time, 1/12/03 ]] ====== << wmd >> << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Mohamed ElBaradei )) {{ duplicate_mohamed_elbaradei_3 }} 2002-2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_353 false 1 ------ The Bush administration develops plans for post-war Iraq. But the process is plagued with infighting between a small, highly secretive group of planners in the Pentagon and experts at the CIA and State Department who are involved with the &#8220;Future of Iraq Project&#8221; (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_349 ]]). The two opposing groups disagree on a wide range of topics, but it is the Pentagon group which exerts the strongest influence on the White House's plans (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_347 ]]) for administering post-Saddam Iraq. One State Department official complains to The Washington Post in October 2002 &#8220;that the Pentagon is seeking to dominate every aspect of Iraq's postwar reconstruction.&#8221; The group of Pentagon planners includes several noted neoconservatives who work in, or in association with, the Pentagon's Office of Special Plans (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_78 ]]) and the Near East/South Asia bureau. The planners have close ties to the American Enterprise Institute (AEI) and the Project for the New American Century (PNAC), two think tanks with a shared vision of reshaping the geopolitical landscape of the Middle East in favor of US and Israeli interests. The Pentagon planning group &#8220;had a visionary strategy that it hoped would transform Iraq into an ally of Israel, remove a potential threat to the Persian Gulf oil trade and encircle Iran with US friends and allies,&#8221; Knight Ridder Newspapers will later observe. The group's objectives put it at odds with planners at the CIA and State Department whose approach and objectives are much more prudent. The Pentagon unit works independently of the CIA and State Department and pays little attention to the work of those two agencies. Critics complain that the group is working in virtual secrecy and evading the scrutiny and oversight of others involved in the post-war planning process by confining their inter-agency communications to discussions with their neoconservative colleagues working in other parts of the government. The Pentagon planners even have a direct line to the office of Dick Cheney where their fellow neoconservative, Lewis Libby, is working. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0712-05.htm | Knight Ridder, 7/12/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A6098-2003Apr1.html | Washington Post, 4/2/03 ]] [[ http://news.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/11/12/wirq112.xml&amp;sSheet=/news/2002/11/12/ixnewstop.html | Associated Press, 11/12/02 ]] ------ In the fall of 2002, the various groups involved in planning for post-war Iraq send their recommendations to the White House&apos;s Executive Steering Committee, which reviews their work and then passes on its own recommendations to the cabinet heads (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_347 ]]). According to a July 2003 report by Knight Ridder Newspapers, the ultimate responsibility for deciding the administration's post-war transition plans lay with Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld and National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0712-05.htm | Knight Ridder, 7/12/03 ]] --- The Office of Special Plans --- --- * --- The civilian planners at the Pentagon believe that the UN should exert no influence over the structure, make-up, or policy of the interim Iraqi post-Saddam government. They seek to limit the UN's role to humanitarian and reconstruction projects, and possibly security. The State Department, however, believes that the US will not be able to do it alone and that UN participation in post-Saddam Iraq will be essential. [[ http://www.observer.co.uk/focus/story/0,6903,930591,00.html | Observer, 4/6/03 ]] [[ http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/iraq/homefront/la-war-postwar2apr02,1,7358865.story?coll=la%2Dhome%2Dheadlines | Los Angeles Times, 4/2/03 ]] --- * --- The Pentagon group wants to install Ahmad Chalabi, the controversial Iraqi exile leader of the Iraqi National Congress (INC), as leader of post-Saddam Iraq. (( Richard Perle )) [[ http://www.prospect.org/print/V14/5/dreyfuss-r.html | American Prospect, 5/1/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0712-05.htm | Knight Ridder, 7/12/03 ]] ------ ------ The group thinks that the Iraqis will welcome Chalabi, who claims he has a secret network inside and outside the Ba'ath government which will quickly fill in the power vacuum to restore order to the country. Chalabi is a notorious figure who is considered untrustworthy by the State Department and CIA and who has a history of financial misdealings. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0712-05.htm | Knight Ridder, 7/12/03 ]] ------ But the Pentagon is said to be enamored with Chalabi &#8220;because he [advocates] normal diplomatic relations with Israel&#8221; which they believe will &#8220;&#8216; [take] off the board&#8217; one of the only remaining major Arab threats to Israeli security.&#8221; Another geopolitical benefit to installing Chalabi is that he can help the US contain &#8220;the influence of Iran's radical Islamic leaders in the region, because he would ... [provide] bases in Iraq for US troops,&#8221; which would &#8220;complete Iran's encirclement by American military forces around the Persian Gulf and US friends in Russia and Central Asia.&#8221; (( Unnamed Bush administration official )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0712-05.htm | Knight Ridder, 7/12/03 ]] ------ Danielle Pletka, vice president of the American Enterprise Institute, with close ties to the Pentagon's planning group, tells Robert Dreyfuss of American Prospect Magazine that the State Department's perception of Chalabi is wrong. &#8220;The [Defense Department] is running post-Saddam Iraq,&#8221; said Pletka, almost shouting. &#8220;The people at the State Department don't know what they are talking about! Who the hell are they? ... the simple fact is, the president is comfortable with people who are comfortable with the INC.&#8221; [[ http://www.prospect.org/print/V14/5/dreyfuss-r.html | American Prospect, 5/1/03 ]] --- * --- The Pentagon's planning unit believes that the Iraqis will welcome US troops as liberators and that any militant resistance will be short-lived. They do not develop a contingency plan for persistent civil unrest. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0712-05.htm | Knight Ridder, 7/12/03 ]] ------ However the State Department's &#8220;Future of Iraq&#8221; planning project is more prudent, noting that Iraqis will likely be weary of US designs on their country. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1019-07.htm | New York Times, 10/19/03 ]] --- * --- The Pentagon planners believe that Iraq's oil reserves&#8212;estimated to contain some 112 billion barrels of oil&#8212;should be used to help fund the reconstruction of Iraq. They also advocate a plan that would give the US more control over Iraq's oil. &#8220;[The Pentagon] hawks have long argued that US control of Iraq's oil would help deliver a second objective,&#8221; reports the Observer. &#8220;That is the destruction of OPEC, the oil producers' cartel, which they argue is &#8216;evil&#8217;&#8212;that is, incompatible with American interests.&#8221; The State Department, however, believes such aggressive policies will surely infuriate Iraqis and give credence to suspicions that the invasion is motivated by oil interests. One critic of the plan says &#8220;that only a puppet Iraqi government would acquiesce to US supervision of the oil fields and that one so slavish to US interests risks becoming untenable with Iraqis.&#8221; [[ http://www.observer.co.uk/international/story/0,6903,825103,00.html | Observer, 11/3/02 ]] [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/oil/2002/1228divides.htm | Insight, 12/28/02 ]] ====== << officeOfSpecialPlans >> << preWarPlanning >> ((- Project for the New American Century (PNAC) )) ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) ((- Ahmed Chalabi )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((+ Danielle Pletka )) ((- American Enterprise Institute )) {{ commentary_kenneth_bacon_2 }} {{ commentary_knight_ridder_newspapers_3 }} {{ commentary_robert_dreyfuss,_american_prospect_magazine_2 }} January 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_294 false 1 ------ Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz orders the CIA to conduct an investigation of Hans Blix, chairman of the new UN weapons inspection team (UNMOVIC) that will go to Iraq if Saddam Hussein agrees to re-admit the weapons inspectors. Wolfowitz feels that past investigations of Saddam's declared nuclear power plants under the authority of Hans Blix were not sufficiently aggressive. The CIA reports back in late January that Blix conducted his past investigations &#8220;fully within the parameters he could operate&#8221; as chief of the agency. There are two opposing accounts of how Wolfowitz responds to the report's conclusion. According to an anonymous former State Department official, Wolfowitz &#8220;hit the ceiling&#8221; upon learning the results because it did not provide a pretext for undermining Blix and UNMOVIC. However an administration official disputes this, claiming that he &#8220;did not angrily respond.&#8221; (( Unnamed former State Department official )) (( Unnamed administration official )) [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/2002/0415cia.htm | The Washington Post 4/15/02 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4399549,00.html | Guardian 4/23/02 ]] [[ http://www.rense.com/general25/sdt.htm | Independent 5/10/02 ]] ------ The Washington Post notes, &#8220;[T]he request for a CIA investigation underscored the degree of concern by Wolfowitz and his civilian colleagues in the Pentagon that new inspections&#8212;or protracted negotiations over them&#8212;could torpedo their plans for military action to remove Hussein from power&#8221; and ultimately lead to the suspension of sanctions. [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/2002/0415cia.htm | The Washington Post 4/15/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) ((- Hans Blix )) Early January 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_466 false 1 ------ Harold Rhode, a specialist on Islam who speaks Hebrew, Arabic, Turkish, and Farsi, moves into the Pentagon Office of Net Assessment, &#8220;an in-house Pentagon think tank&#8221; run by Andrew Marshall. Rhode, along with Douglas Feith, whose appointment to Undersecretary of Defense for Policy is not approved until July, imposes a new anti-Iraq and anti-Arab orientation on the department. The two men purge the department of career Defense officials whose worldviews are not considered sufficiently compatible with the neoconservative perspective. An intelligence analyst will tell reporter Robert Dreyfuss that Rhode appeared to be &#8220;pulling people out of nooks and crannies of the Defense Intelligence Agency and other places to replace us with.&#8221; The source adds: &#8220;They wanted nothing to do with the professional staff. And they wanted us the fuck out of there.&#8221; [[ http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html | Mother Jones, 1/04 ]] ====== << officeOfSpecialPlans >> ((+ Harold Rhode )) ((- Andrew Marshall )) Mid-November 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1138 false 1 ------ In an Interview with the Philadelphia Inquirer, Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz suggests, &#8220;If you're looking for a historical analogy, it's probably closer to post-liberation France [after World War II].&#8221; [[ http://www.philly.com/mld/philly/news/columnists/trudy_rubin/4535946.htm | Philadelphia Inquirer, 11/17/2002 ]] ====== << democracyRhetoricQuotes >> ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) {{ duplicate_paul_wolfowitz_7 }} Early 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_491 false 1 ------ Bruce Hardcastle, the Defense Intelligence Agency officer assigned to Bill Luti, provides Luti's office with intelligence briefings. But his reports are not appreciated by Luti or his colleagues, because they do not support neoconservatives' assumptions about Iraq's weapon capabilities and terrorist activities. (( Paul O?Neill )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0310-09.htm | Salon, 3/10/2004 ]] ====== << officeOfSpecialPlans >> << deception >> ((+ William Luti )) ((+ Bruce Hardcastle )) 2002-2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_399 false 1 ------ Noted experts, analysts and commentators, as well as current and former US and foreign government officials, say that control over Iraq's oil would benefit the United States. A pro-American government in Iraq would provide the US with stable access to its northern and southern oil fields, provide US oil companies with favorable access to oil production sharing agreements and other oil industry-related contracts, allow the US to undermine OPEC's influence in the oil market, and ensure that Iraq's oil is traded in US dollars. ====== << motivesBehindWar >> {{ statement_reuel_marc_gerecht_2 }} {{ statement_rob_sobhani_2 }} {{ commentary_james_placke_2 }} {{ statement_michael_klare_2 }} {{ statement_f.j._chalabi_2 }} {{ statement_grant_aldonas_2 }} {{ statement_thomas_ferguson_2 }} {{ statement_sara_emerson_2 }} {{ statement_sara_emerson_3 }} {{ commentary_youssef_m._ibrahim_3 }} {{ statement_f.j._chalabi_3 }} {{ statement_mark_flannery_2 }} {{ statement_phillip_j._carroll_2 }} {{ commentary_time_magazine_2 }} {{ statement_salah_shaikhly_2 }} {{ statement_colin_powell_25 }} {{ statement_ahmed_chalabi_2 }} {{ statement_john_teeling_2 }} {{ statement_kenneth_derr_2 }} {{ statement_youssef_m._ibrahim_4 }} {{ statement_michael_klare_5 }} {{ commentary_research_unit_for_political_economy_3 }} {{ statement_thomas_ferguson_3 }} {{ statement_viktor_a._kremenyuk_2 }} {{ statement_nikolai_p._tokarev_3 }} {{ commentary_thomas_walde_2 }} {{ statement_michael_klare_3 }} {{ statement_michael_klare_4 }} {{ statement_nikolai_p._tokarev_2 }} Mid-January 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_307 false 1 ------ Referring to the weapons inspectors upcoming January 27 report (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_292 ]]), Colin Powell says in an interview with Saturday's Sueddeutsche Zeitung, &#8220;We believe that at the end of the month it will be convincingly proven that Iraq is not cooperating.&#8221; [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/2670429.stm | BBC, 1/18/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Colin Powell )) Early 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_136 false 1 ------ Unnamed US intelligence officials tell the New York Times that the CIA has no evidence that Saddam Hussein's government has participated in terrorist operations against the United States in nearly a decade. The agency also believes that Saddam Hussein has not provided chemical or biological weapons to al-Qaeda or other terrorist organizations. (( Unnamed US Intelligence Officials )) [[ http://www.embargos.de/irak/post1109/english/terror_acts_waned.htm | New York Times, 2/6/02 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((- Saddam Hussein )) 2002-2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_306 false 1 ------ In explaining the Bush administration's policy on Iraq, top US officials waver between &#8220;disarmament&#8221; and &#8220;regime change.&#8221; ====== << legalJustification >> {{ statement_a_clean_break:_a_new_strategy_for_securing_the_realm_2 }} {{ statement_ari_fleischer_8 }} {{ statement_ari_fleischer_4 }} {{ statement_george_w._bush_20 }} {{ statement_ari_fleischer_11 }} {{ statement_colin_powell_3 }} {{ statement_colin_powell_29 }} {{ statement_george_w._bush_19 }} {{ statement_paul_wolfowitz_5 }} {{ statement_ari_fleischer_10 }} {{ statement_scott_mcclellan_2 }} {{ statement_colin_powell_17 }} {{ commentary_jim_mcdermott_3 }} {{ statement_george_w._bush_18 }} {{ statement_donald_rumsfeld_12 }} 2002-2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_135 false 1 ------ In the lead-up to the war, top Bush administration officials make strong statements asserting that Saddam Hussein possesses weapons of mass destruction. The administration claims that it has incontrovertible evidence, though no such evidence is disclosed to the public&#8212;neither before nor after the invasion. [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/09/20020912-1.html | White House, 9/12/02 ]] [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021007-8.html | White House, 10/7/02 ]] [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/01/20030109-8.html | White House, 1/9/2003 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/onpolitics/transcripts/bushtext_012803.html | Washington Post, 1/28/03 ]] [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/03/20030317-7.html | US President, 3/17/03 ]] [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/03/20030321-9.html | White House, 3/21/03 ]] [[ http://usinfo.state.gov/regional/nea/disarm/intro.htm | US Department of State, 2/5/03 ]] [[ http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/middle_east/july-dec02/bkgdiraq_9-12.html | PBS, 9/12/02 ]] [[ http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/06/06/1054700385928.html | The Age (Australia), 6/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/08/26/international/middleeast/26WEB-CHENEY.html | US Vice President 8/26/02 ]] [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/print35264 | Sunday Herald, 7/13/03 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/chicagotribune020702.htm | Chicago Tribune 2/7/02 ]] [[ http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,60818,00.html | Fox News, 8/20/03 ]] [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/08/21/wirq21.xml/ | Telegraph 8/21/02 ]] [[ http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/08/21/1029114137295.html | Guardian 8/22/02 ]] [[ http://www.centcom.mil/CENTCOMNews/transcripts/20020903.htm | Centcom, 9/3/2002 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/ap090302.htm | Associated Press 9/3/02 ]] [[ http://www.washtimes.com/upi-breaking/20020903-041327-7431r.htm | UPI 9/3/02 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/uslatest/story/0,1282,-2302299,00.html | AP, 1/7/03b ]] [[ http://www.villagevoice.com/issues/0325/mondo2.php | Village Voice, 6/18/03 ]] [[ http://www.ceip.org/files/nonprolif/templates/article.asp?NewsID=5102 | Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 7/17/03 ]] [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/attack/2002/0908exinspector.htm | Associated Press 9/8/02 ]] [[ http://www.newsmax.com/showinsidecover.shtml?a=2002/9/8/110715 | Newsmax 9/8/02 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/02/05/sprj.irq.powell.transcript.10/ | CNN, 2/5/03 ]] [[ http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/story.hts/front/1690282 | AP, 12/5/03 ]] [[ http://www.cbc.ca/stories/2002/12/05/iraq021205 | CBC News, 12/5/2002 ]] ====== << wmd >> {{ statement_ari_fleischer_2 }} {{ statement_donald_rumsfeld_6 }} {{ statement_donald_rumsfeld_7 }} {{ statement_donald_rumsfeld_5 }} {{ statement_dick_cheney_3 }} {{ statement_george_tenet_2 }} {{ statement_donald_rumsfeld_8 }} {{ statement_donald_rumsfeld_9 }} {{ statement_colin_powell_3 }} {{ statement_ari_fleischer_3 }} {{ statement_ari_fleischer_4 }} {{ commentary_scott_ritter_17 }} {{ statement_colin_powell_5 }} {{ statement_colin_powell_4 }} {{ statement_george_w._bush_6 }} {{ statement_george_w._bush_7 }} {{ statement_george_w._bush_4 }} {{ statement_colin_powell_6 }} {{ statement_george_w._bush_5 }} {{ statement_dick_cheney_2 }} {{ commentary_scott_ritter_12 }} Mid-January 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_313 false 1 ------ After more than two months and more than 350 inspections, the UN teams have failed to find the arsenal of banned weapons the US and Britain claim Iraq has. Nor are there any signs of programs to build such weapons. The London Observer reports that International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors are convinced Iraq does not have a reconstituted nuclear weapons program. &#8220;IAEA officials and intelligence sources admit it is extremely unlikely that Iraq has nuclear weapons squirreled away,&#8221; The Observer reports, explaining that &#8220;... the IAEA [had] revealed that analysis of samples taken by UN nuclear inspectors in Iraq ... showed no evidence of prohibited nuclear activity.&#8221; [[ http://www.observer.co.uk/iraq/story/0,12239,882739,00.html | Observer, 1/26/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A47302-2003Jan26.html | The Washington Post, 12/27/03 ]] [[ http://www.latimes.com/la-fg-inspect26jan26,0,575624.story | Los Angeles Times, 1/26/03 ]] ====== << wmd >> << weaponsInspections >> Early 2002, probably May or later complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_174 false 1 ------ Czech president Vaclav Havel informs Washington that there is no evidence to substantiate claims that 9/11 plotter Mohammed Atta met with Iraqi diplomat Ahmad Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani in Prague in April 2001 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_163 ]]). The information is relayed to the White House quietly to avoid embarrassing top Czech officials&#8212;presumably Interior Minister Stanislav Gross -who had publicly stated on more than one occasion that there was no evidence to suggest that the meeting did not take place. The New York Times will report in October 2002: &#8220;Mr. Havel ... moved carefully behind the scenes in the months after the reports of the Prague meeting came to light to try to determine what really happened, officials said. He asked trusted advisers to investigate, and they quietly went through back channels to talk with Czech intelligence officers to get to the bottom of the story. The intelligence officers told them there was no evidence of a meeting.&#8221; The New York Times also reports that analysts in the Czech intelligence service were furious that the Prime Minister stovepiped the information straight to Washington, before they had the opportunity to investigate further. (( Unnamed CIA and FBI officials )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/nyt102102.html | New York Times, 10/21/02 ]] [[ http://www.upi.com/view.cfm?StoryID=20021020-092811-8185r | United Press International, 10/20/03 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> << pragueConnection >> ((- Mohammed Atta )) ((- Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani )) ((+ Vaclav Havel )) ((+ Stanislav Gross )) {{ statement_a_high-ranking_source_close_to_the_bis_2 }} Early 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_708 false 1 ------ DIA reservist and Penn-State political-science professor Chris Carney takes over the Counter Terrorism Evaluation Group (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_82 ]]). [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 238 ]] ====== << officeOfSpecialPlans >> ((+ Chris Carney )) 2002-early 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_34 false 1 ------ Vice President Dick Cheney, sometimes accompanied by his chief of staff, Lewis Libby, visits the offices of US intelligence analysts working at CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia &#8220;approximately 10&#8221; times. He drills them on their intelligence work on Iraq. Some analysts later complain that Cheney's visits made them feel pressured to provide the administration with conclusions that supported the case for war. Other analysts will say they did not feel pressured. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A15019-2003Jun4.html | Washington Post, 6/5/03 ]] [[ http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/06/05/1054700335400.html | Sydney Morning Herald, 6/5/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,999737,00.html | Guardian, 7/17/03 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 242 ]] ------ Newt Gingrich also makes visits to CIA headquarters in Langley. [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,999737,00.html | Guardian, 7/17/03 ]] ====== << deception >> ((+ Dick Cheney )) ((+ Newt Gingrich )) {{ commentary_greg_thielmann_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_central_intelligence_agency_official_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_senior_central_intelligence_agency_official_2 }} {{ commentary_veteran_intelligence_professionals_for_sanity_2 }} 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_83 false 1 ------ Shortly after George W. Bush is inaugurated, &#8220;[k]ey personnel, long-time civilian professionals&#8221; at the Pentagon's Near East South Asia (NESA) desk are moved or replaced with people from neoconservative think tanks. (( Karen Kwiatkowski )) [[ http://amconmag.com/12_1_03/feature.html | American Conservative, 12/1/03 ]] [[ http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html | Mother Jones, 1/04 ]] ------ Joe McMillan, the Office Director, is moved to a new location outside of the Pentagon, which according to Karen Kwiatkowski, who works at the NESA desk, is odd because &#8220;the whole reason for the Office Director being a permanent civilian (occasionally military) professional is to help bring the new appointee up to speed, ensure office continuity, and act as a resource relating to regional histories and policies.&#8221; (( Karen Kwiatkowski )) [[ http://amconmag.com/12_1_03/feature.html | American Conservative, 12/1/03 ]] [[ http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html | Mother Jones, 1/04 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0310-09.htm | Salon, 3/10/04 ]] ------ Larry Hanauer, who has long been at the Israel-Syria-Lebanon desk and who is known to be &#8220;even-handed with Israel,&#8221; is replaced by David Schenker of the Washington Institute. (( Karen Kwiatkowski )) [[ http://amconmag.com/12_1_03/feature.html | American Conservative, 12/1/03 ]] [[ http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html | Mother Jones, 1/04 ]] ------ Other veteran NESA employees who are banished include James Russell, who has served as the country director for Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates, and Marybeth McDevitt, the country director for Egypt. [[ http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html | Mother Jones, 1/04 ]] ====== << officeOfSpecialPlans >> << deception >> << pre911Plans >> ((+ Larry Hanauer )) ((+ David Schenker )) ((+ Marybeth McDevitt )) ((+ James Russell )) ((+ Joe McMillan )) {{ statement_karen_kwiatkowski_12 }} {{ statement_bob_kerrey_3 }} 2002-2004 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_406 false 1 ------ Critics of the Bush administration's Iraq policy say that its plans for war are motivated by reasons other than those being cited by the White House. ====== << motivesBehindWar >> {{ statement_scott_ritter_13 }} {{ statement_andrew_wilkie_3 }} {{ statement_scott_ritter_14 }} {{ statement_ray_mcgovern_9 }} {{ statement_richard_clarke_4 }} {{ statement_boston_globe_2 }} {{ statement_hubert_g._locke,_a_retired_professor_and_former_dean_of_the_daniel_j._evans_graduate_school_of_public_affairs_at_the_university_of_washington_2 }} {{ commentary_youssef_m._ibrahim_3 }} January 16, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_338 false 1 ------ CIA Director George Tenet informs Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak during a meeting in Sharm el Sheikh that the Bush administration has already decided to attack Iraq and asks Mubarak not to publicly express Egypt's opposition to the planned invasion. The Egyptian president warns that such an attack could destabilize the entire Middle East. (( Unnamed source interviewed by the Lebanese newspaper Al-Mustaqbal )) [[ http://www.haaretzdaily.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=131145&amp;contrassID=1&amp;subContrassID=0&amp;sbSubContrassID=0 | Ha'aretz, 2/17/02 ]] ====== << decision >> ((+ Hosni Mubarak )) ((+ Letter from CIA Director George Tenet to Bob Graham )) February 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_496 false 1 ------ Vice President Dick Cheney prepares for a March trip to the Middle East. According to public statements by the Bush administration, Cheney will be conferring with Arab leaders on US Iraq policy. However, a senior Bush administration official tells the Philadelphia Inquirer: &#8220;He's not going to beg for support. He's going to inform them that the President's decision has been made and will be carried out, and if they want some input into how and when it's carried out, now's the time for them to speak up.&#8221; (( Unnamed Bush administration official )) [[ http://www.philly.com/mld/inquirer/2661207.htm | Philadelphia Inquirer, 2/13/02 ]] ====== << decision >> ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) February 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_337 false 1 ------ A Bush administration official tells the Philadelphia Inquirer: &#8220;This is not an argument about whether to get rid of Saddam Hussein. That debate is over. This is ... how you do it.&#8221; (( Unnamed Bush administration official )) [[ http://www.philly.com/mld/inquirer/2661207.htm | Philadelphia Inquirer, 2/13/02 ]] ====== << decision >> February 6, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_123 false 1 ------ George Tenet tells the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, &#8220;Our major near-term concern is the possibility that Saddam might gain access to fissile material, . . . [and] with substantial foreign assistance, [Iraq] could flight-test a longer-range ballistic missile within the next five years.&#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/chicagotribune020702.htm | Chicago Tribune 2/7/02 ]] ====== << nuclearQuotes >> ((+ George Tenet )) {{ duplicate_george_tenet_2 }} February 6, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_171 false 1 ------ The New York Times reports, &#8220;[S]enior American intelligence officials have concluded that the meeting between Mr. Atta and the Iraqi officer, Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani, did take place. But they say they do not believe that the meeting provides enough evidence to tie Iraq to the Sept. 11 attacks.&#8221; A month and a half earlier, the same newspaper had reported that sources in the Czech Republic thought that it had been a different &#8220;Mohammed Atta&#8221; who had met al-Ani (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_170 ]]). (( Unnamed Senior US intelligence officials )) [[ http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/europe/11/09/inv.czech.atta/index.html | CNN, 11/09/01 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2001/nyt121601.html | New York Times, 12/16/01 ]] ====== << pragueConnection >> ((- Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani )) ((- Mohammed Atta )) February 8, 2002-February 10, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1847 false 1 ------ In a CNN/USA Today/Gallup poll, 48 percent of the respondents believe that Iraq has &#8220;weapons that threaten US.&#8221; [[ http://www.usatoday.com/news/2002-02-11-poll.htm | USA Today, 2/11/2002 ]] ====== << publicOpinion >> February 11, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_484 false 1 ------ Former CIA Director James Woolsey telephones Deputy Asistant Defense Secretary Linton Wells to arrange a meeting between Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) analysts and Mohammad Harith, an Iraqi defector being supplied by the Iraqi exile group, the Iraqi National Congress. (( Classified Pentagon report )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0716-04.htm | Knight Ridder, 7/16/2004 ]] ------ After the phone call, Wells issues an &#8220;executive referral,&#8221; requesting that the Iraqi National Congress (INC) introduce Harith to the Pentagon's Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA). (( Classified Pentagon report )) [[ http://www.reuters.com/locales/newsArticle.jsp;:4032bd96:6f9ede1cc8cbb76f?type=worldNews&amp;locale=en_IN&amp;storyID=4379274 | Reuters, 2/18/04 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0716-04.htm | Knight Ridder, 7/16/2004 ]] ------ Later in the day, two DIA officers meet with Ahmed Chalabi to arrange an interview with Harith. In an email to Knight Ridder Newspapers, Wells will later recall, &#8220;I discussed the issue of an individual with information on Iraq weapons of mass destruction with intelligence community members. They said they would follow up. I never met with any member of the INC.&#8221; [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0716-04.htm | Knight Ridder, 7/16/2004 ]] ====== << wmd >> ((+ James Woolsey )) ((+ Iraqi National Congress (INC) )) ((+ Linton Wells )) ((+ Mohammad Harith )) February 12, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_710 false 1 ------ Colin Powell tells the Senate Budget Committee: &#8220;With respect to Iraq, it's long been, for several years now, a policy of the United States' government that regime change would be in the best interest of the region, the best interest of the Iraqi people. And we're looking at a variety of options that would bring that about.&#8221; [[ http://www.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0202/13/ip.00.html | CNN, 2/13/2002 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ Colin Powell )) {{ duplicate_colin_powell_29 }} Between February 12, 2002 and March 31, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1614 false 1 ------ After several meetings with Mohammad Harith (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_484 ]])&#8212;an Iraqi defector provided by the Iraqi National Congress&#8212;a Defense Intelligence Agency debriefer determines that the defector's information on Iraq's presumed arsenal of banned weapons seems &#8220;accurate, but much of it [apears] embellished.&#8221; Defense Intelligence Agency analysts also determine that the defected Iraqi has been &#8220;coached by [the] Iraqi National Congress.&#8221; Harith claimed that he was a major in an Iraqi intelligence unit charged with concealing illicit weapons and that Iraq has developed mobile biological weapons labs. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0716-04.htm | Knight Ridder, 7/16/2004 ]] ====== << wmd >> ((+ Mohammad Harith )) ((+ Iraqi National Congress (INC) )) February 15, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_667 false 1 ------ Bush signs an intelligence finding, directing the CIA to conduct operations within Iraq as part of an ultimate plan to overthrow Saddam's government. The CIA warns Bush that staging a coup to depose the leader would be impossible. (( Top officials interviewed by Washington Post editor Bob Woodward )) [[ http://msnbc.msn.com/id/4761041/ | Woodward, 2004 cited in Washington Post 1/18/2004 ]] ====== << decision >> ((+ George W. Bush )) February 20, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1818 false 1 ------ Senior administration officials say the White House intends to create a permanent office of global diplomacy in order to spread a positive image of the United States around the world and combat anti-Americanism, which the administration believes has been caused by the world?s failure to understand America. &#8220;A lot of the world does not like America, and it's going to take years to change their hearts and minds,&#8221; an unnamed senior official tells the New York Times. The office will coordinate the public statements of the State, Defense and the other departments to ensure that foreign governments, media organizations, and opinion-makers understand US policies. The Times reports that according to one official, &#8220;Global diplomacy as envisioned in the new office will inject patriotism into the punishing 24-hour, seven-day news cycle.&#8221; Reports broadcasted by the office would include information about both US foreign and domestic policies and would utilize the State Department's huge communications network of American embassies and media offices. The earlier White House effort to create a more positive image of the United States was handled by the Coalition Information Center, a joint effort between the US and UK that was led by the President's senior advisor, Karen P. Hughes. [[ http://www.refuseandresist.org/big_brother/022302propaganda.html | The New York Times, 2/02/2002 ]] ------ The office will be formally created in July and given the name, &#8220;The Office of Global Communications&#8221; (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1819 ]]). ====== << propaganda >> ((+ Bush administration )) ((+ Office of Global Communications )) Late February 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_328 false 1 ------ Chief UN Inspector Hans Blix prepares a list of disarmament tasks that Iraq needs to complete in order prove its claim that it has no weapons of mass destruction. According to UN Resolution 1284, the completion of these tasks would make Iraq eligible for the suspension of sanctions. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A18454-2003Feb28.html | The Washington Post, 3/01/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Hans Blix )) Late February 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_110 false 1 ------ Four-Star Marine General Carlton W. Fulford Jr., deputy commander of the US European Command, travels to Niger to investigate the security of that country's uranium and to remind Niger's president of the need to keep a close eye on its ore deposits. The trip is separate from, and independent of, retired diplomat Joseph Wilson's mission, which occurs at about the same time. On February 24, Fulford joins US ambassador to Niger, Barbro Owens-Kirkpatrick, at a meeting with Niger's President Mamadou Tandja. He explains the importance of keeping Niger's ore deposits secure. Fulford's investigation concludes that Niger's uranium is safely in the hands of a French consortium and that there is little risk that the material will end up in the wrong hands. These findings are passed on to General Joseph Ralston who provides them to General Richard B. Myers, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. (( Carlton W. Fulford )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A56336-2003Jul14.html | The Washington Post, 7/15/03 ]] [[ http://www.voanews.com/article.cfm?objectID=1317249F-4A4C-4008-96E74561EBC52FE8 | Voce of America, 7/15/03 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 282 ]] ------ The Pentagon will later say that Donald Rumsfeld was not informed about the trip or its conclusions. [[ http://www.voanews.com/article.cfm?objectID=1317249F-4A4C-4008-96E74561EBC52FE8 | Voice of America, 7/15/03 ]] ====== << africaUraniumClaim >> ((+ Carlton W. Fulford )) ((+ General Joseph Ralston )) ((+ Barbro Owens-Kirkpatrick )) ((+ Richard B. Myers )) {{ statement_carlton_w._fulford_2 }} February 28, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_21 false 1 ------ During a British cabinet meeting, Home Secretary David Blunkett initiates a discussion about Iraq. During the discussion, British Foreign Minister Robin Cook mentions that most of the Arab world considers Ariel Sharon, rather than Saddam Hussein, to be the largest threat to peace in the Middle East. Describing the subsequent reaction to his comments, Cook later writes in his diary: &#8220;Somewhat to my surprise this line provides a round of &#8216;hear, hearing&#8217; from colleagues, which is the nearest I heard to mutiny in the cabinet.&#8221; (( Robin Cook's diary )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1005-01.htm | Sunday Times, 10/5/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1005-01.htm | Guardian, 10/6/03 ]] [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/politics/story.jsp?story=450373 | Independent, 10/6/03 ]] ------ During the meeting, Patricia Hewitt, the Trade and Industry Secretary, says &#8220;We are in danger of being seen as close to President Bush, but without any influence over President Bush.&#8221; (( Robin Cook's diary )) [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/politics/story.jsp?story=450373 | Independent, 10/6/03 ]] ====== << maintreamDissent >> ((+ Patricia Hewitt )) ((+ Robin Cook )) ((+ David Blunkett )) Late February 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_327 false 1 ------ An unnamed UN official tells The Washington Post that Iraq's level of cooperation is improving. &#8220;[F]or example,&#8221; the Iraqis have been &#8220;frantically digging in an area where it claims biological weapons were destroyed,&#8221; the UN official explains. (( Unnamed UN official )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A18454-2003Feb28.html | The Washington Post, 3/1/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> Late February 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_106 false 1 ------ The CIA sends Joseph C. Wilson, a retired US diplomat, to Niger to investigate claims that Iraq had sought to purchase uranium from that country. The trip is paid for by the CIA. But the identity of the party who requests the mission is later disputed. While Wilson will claim the trip was requested directly by Dick Cheney's office, other sources will say that the CIA had decided that a delegation to Niger was needed in order to investigate questions raised by one of Dick Cheney's aides. (( Joseph C. Wilson )) (( Unnamed senior officials )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A46957-2003Jun11.html | The Washington Post, 6/12/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0706-02.htm | New York Times, 7/6/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0506-02.htm | New York Times, 5/6/03 ]] [[ http://www.arena.org.nz/iraqccc.htm | Independent, 6/29/03 ]] ------ In Niger, Wilson makes &#8220;it abundantly clear to everyone&#8221; that he is &#8220;acting on behalf of the United States government.&#8221; He meets with US Ambassador to Niger Barbro Owens-Kirkpatrick who informs Wilson that she has already concluded that the allegations of uranium sales to Iraq are unfounded. She tells Wilson &#8220;she had already debunked them in her reports to Washington.&#8221; After spending eight days chatting with current government officials, former government officials, and people associated with the country's uranium business, Wilson concludes the rumors are false. He calls the allegations &#8220;bogus and unrealistic.&#8221; (( Joseph C. Wilson )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A46957-2003Jun11.html | The Washington Post, 6/12/03 ]] [[ http://www.bayarea.com/mld/cctimes/news/6079211.htm | Knight Ridder, 6/13/03 ]] [[ http://www.abcnews.go.com/sections/wnt/World/iraq030612_uranium.html/ | ABC News, 6/12/03 ]] [[ http://www.arena.org.nz/iraqccc.htm | Independent, 6/29/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0706-02.htm | New York Times, 7/6/03 ]] [[ http://cbsnewyork.com/terror/terror_story_192084528.html | CBS News, 7/11/03 ]] [[ http://www.townhall.com/columnists/robertnovak/rn20030714.shtml | Novak, 7/14/03 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 282 ]] ------ ====== << africaUraniumClaim >> ((+ Barbro Owens-Kirkpatrick )) ((+ Joseph C. Wilson )) {{ statement_joseph_c._wilson_7 }} {{ statement_joseph_c._wilson_8 }} March 1, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1811 false 1 ------ The State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR) sends a memo directly to Secretary of State Colin Powell disputing an Italian intelligence report (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1809 ]]) that suggested Iraq is attemptiong to purchase uranium from Niger. &#8220;A whole lot of things told us that the report was bogus,&#8221; Greg Thielmann, a high-ranking INR official, later explains to Time Magazine. &#8220;This wasn't highly contested. There weren't strong advocates on the other side. It was done, shot down.&#8221; (( Greg Thielmann )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/time072103.htm | Time Magazine, 7/21/2003 ]] ====== << africaUraniumClaim >> ((+ Colin Powell )) Early March 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_70 false 1 ------ According to a former White House official interviewed by Seymour Hersh during the fall of 2003, Bush makes the decision to invade Iraq at this time and begins diverting resources away from the &#8220;war on terrorism&#8221; to the planned invasion of Iraq. &#8220;The Bush administration took many intelligence operations that had been aimed at al-Qaeda and other terrorist groups around the world and redirected them to the Persian Gulf. Linguists and special operatives were abruptly reassigned, and several ongoing anti-terrorism intelligence programs were curtailed.&#8221; (( Unnamed Former White House official )) [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?031027fa_fact | The New Yorker, 10/20/03 ]] ====== << decision >> ((+ George W. Bush )) {{ commentary_a_clean_break:_a_new_strategy_for_securing_the_realm_2 }} March 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1613 false 1 ------ Iraqi defector Mohammad Harith (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_484 ]]) appears on CBS's &#8220;60 Minutes&#8221; and claims that while working as an Iraqi intelligence operative he had purchased seven Renault refrigerated trucks for the purpose of converting them into biological weapons laboratories. His identity is not revealed during the program. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0716-04.htm | Knight Ridder, 7/16/2004 ]] ====== << wmd >> ((+ Mohammad Harith )) March 7, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_23 false 1 ------ According to British Foreign Minister Robin, Home Secretary David Blunkett asks where Britain had obtained the &#8220;legal authority&#8221; to invade Iraq. (( Robin Cook's diary )) [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/politics/story.jsp?story=450373 | Independent, 10/6/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1005-01.htm | Guardian, 10/6/03 ]] ====== << maintreamDissent >> ((+ David Blunkett )) March 9, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_107 false 1 ------ The CIA sends a 1 1/2-page cable to the White House, the FBI, the Justice Department, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Defense Intelligence Agency, with news that a CIA source (Joseph Wilson) sent to Niger has failed to find any evidence to back claims that Iraq sought uranium from that country. (( senior CIA official )) [[ http://www.realcities.com/mld/krwashington/6076178.htm | Knight Ridder Newspapers, 6/12/03 ]] [[ http://www.bayarea.com/mld/cctimes/news/6079211.htm | Knight Ridder, 6/13/03 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3056626.stm | BBC, 7/8/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A52813-2003Jun12.html? nav=hptop_ts | The Washington Post, 6/13/03 ]] [[ http://www.abcnews.go.com/sections/wnt/World/iraq030612_uranium.html/ | ABC News, 6/12/03 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3056626.stm | BBC, 7/8/03 ]] ------ Bush administration officials will later say in June 2003 that the cable left out important details of the trip. They will say it did not include the name of the diplomat who had gone to Niger or his conclusions. And consequently, The Washington Post will report in June 2003, &#8220;It was not considered unusual or very important and not passed on to Condoleezza Rice, the president's national security adviser, or other senior White House officials.&#8221; (( senior administration official )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A46957-2003Jun11.html | The Washington Post, 6/12/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A52813-2003Jun12.html | The Washington Post, 6/13/03 ]] [[ http://www.bayarea.com/mld/cctimes/news/6079211.htm | Knight Ridder, 6/13/03 ]] ------ But the CIA source who made the journey, Joseph Wilson, will find this explanation hard to believe. &#8220;Though I did not file a written report, there should be at least four documents in United States government archives confirming my mission,&#8221; he will later explain. &#8220;The documents should include the ambassador's report of my debriefing in Niamey, a separate report written by the embassy staff, a CIA report summing up my trip, and a specific answer from the agency to the office of the vice president (this may have been delivered orally). While I have not seen any of these reports, I have spent enough time in government to know that this is standard operating procedure.&#8221; (( Joseph C. Wilson )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0706-02.htm | New York Times, 7/6/03 ]] ====== << africaUraniumClaim >> ((+ Joseph C. Wilson )) March 12, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1223 false 1 ------ Vice President Richard Cheney and other senior administration officials receive two CIA reports which cite the aluminum tubes sought by Iraq as evidence that &#8220;Iraq ... may be trying to reconstitute its gas centrifuge program.&#8221; Neither report mentions the fact that leading centrifuge experts at the Energy Department strongly disagree with the CIA's theory. [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> ((+ Dick Cheney )) March 19, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_179 false 1 ------ Testifying before the Senate Intelligence Committee, CIA Director George Tenet says: &#8220;There is no doubt that there have been (Iraqi) contacts and linkages to the al-Qaeda organization. As to where we are on September 11, the jury is still out. As I said carefully in my statement, it would be a mistake to dismiss the possibility of state sponsorship whether Iranian or Iraqi and we'll see where the evidence takes us.... There is nothing new in the last several months that changes our analysis in any way.... There's no doubt there have been contacts or linkages to the al-Qaeda organization.... I want you to think about al-Qaeda as a front company that mixes and matches its capabilities.... The distinction between Sunni and Shia that have traditionally divided terrorists groups are not distinctions we should make any more, because there are common interests against the United States and its allies in this region, and they will seek capabilities wherever they can get it.... Their ties may be limited by divergent ideologies, but the two sides' mutual antipathies toward the United States and the Saudi royal family suggests that tactical cooperation between them is possible.&#8221; [[ http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/tenet_3-19-02.html | PBS, 3/19/02 ]] [[ http://www.intelmessages.org/Messages/National_Security/Archives/Archive_05/wwwboard/messages/215.html | Agence France Press, 3/20/02 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((+ George Tenet )) {{ duplicate_george_tenet_3 }} Late March 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_407 false 1 ------ Philip Gordon of the Brooking Institution tells the Associated Press, &#8220;Removing Saddam will be opening a Pandora's box, and there might not be any easy way to close it back up.&#8221; [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0331-04.htm | Associated Press, 3/31/02 ]] ====== << predictions >> ((+ Philip Gordon )) Late March 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_339 false 1 ------ After Dick Cheney's 10-day trip across the Middle East, during which he was told by several Middle East leaders that their respective governments would not support an invasion of Iraq, an official tells the Telegraph of London: &#8220;I don't think it will change the administration's thinking. We are quite determined on this account.&#8221; [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/03/24/wafg124.xml | Telegraph, 3/24/02 ]] ====== << decision >> April 2002-March 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_349 false 1 ------ The US State Department begins the &#8220;Future of Iraq&#8221; project aimed at developing plans for post-Saddam Iraq. The project eventually evolves into the collaborative effort of some seventeen working groups involving more than 200 exiled Iraqi opposition figures and professionals including jurists, academics, engineers, scientists and technical experts. These groups meet on numerous occasions over the next eight to ten months, preparing plans to address a wide range of issues. The seventeen working groups include: Public Health and Humanitarian Needs; Water, Agriculture and the Environment; Public Finance and Accounts; Transitional Justice; Economy and Infrastructure; Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons, and Migration Policy; Foreign and National Security Policy; Defense Institutions and Policy; Civil Society Capacity-Building; Public and Media Outreach; Economic and Infrastructure; Local Government; Anti-Corruption Measures; Oil and Energy; Education; Free Media; and Democratic Principles. [[ http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/19708.pdf | US State Department, 4/23/03 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/usnews112502.htm | US News, 11/25/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1019-07.htm | New York Times, 10/19/03 ]] [[ http://www.washtimes.com/upi-breaking/05062002-041921-3354r.htm | Washington Times, 6/5/02 ]] [[ http://www.useu.be/Categories/GlobalAffairs/Oct0402PowellBlixIraqInspections.html | United States Mission to the European Union, 10/4/02 ]] [[ http://www.useu.be/Categories/GlobalAffairs/Oct1102futureiraqopposition.html | United States Mission to the European Union, 10/11/02 ]] [[ http://aina.org/releases/2002/workgroups.htm | Assyrian International News Agency, 10/31/02 ]] [[ http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/dpb/2002/14340.htm | US Department of State, 10/11/02 ]] [[ http://www.krg.org/about/ministries/reconstruction/minister-interview-dec-2002.asp | Washington File, 12/16/02 ]] [[ http://usinfo.state.gov/regional/nea/iraq/text/1216group.htm | Washington File, 12/16/02 ]] [[ http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2002/16119.htm | US Department of State, 12/19/02 ]] [[ http://usembassy.state.gov/islamabad/wwwh03012303.html | Washington File, 1/23/02 ]] [[ http://www.freep.com/news/metro/shias10_20030210.htm | Free Press, 2/10/03 ]] [[ http://www.usembassy.ro/WF/300/03-02-12/eur304.htm | Washington File, 2/12/03 ]] [[ http://usinfo.state.gov/regional/nea/iraq/text2003/0203edu.htm | US Department of State, 2/3/03 ]] --- Problems and setbacks --- The project suffers from a serious lack of interest and funds. In July, the Guardian reports, &#8220;Deep in the bowels of the US State Department, not far from the cafeteria, there is a small office identified only by a handwritten sign on the door reading: &#8216;The Future of Iraq Project.&#8217; .... [T]he understaffed and underfunded Future of Iraq Project has been spending more effort struggling with other government departments than plotting Saddam's downfall.&#8221; [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,752591,00.html | Guardian 7/10/02 ]] --- Achievements --- The $5 million project ultimately produces 13 volumes of reports consisting of some 2,000 pages of what is described as varying quality. The New York Times will later report: &#8220;A review of the work shows a wide range of quality and industriousness.&#8221; [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1019-07.htm | New York Times, 10/19/03 ]] ------ The newspaper cites several examples: --- * --- &#8220;... the transitional justice working group, made up of Iraqi judges, law professors and legal experts, ... met four times and drafted more than 600 pages of proposed reforms in the Iraqi criminal code, civil code, nationality laws and military procedure.&#8221; [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1019-07.htm | New York Times, 10/19/03 ]] --- * --- &#8220;The group studying defense policy and institutions expected problems if the Iraqi Army was disbanded quickly.... The working group recommended that jobs be found for demobilized troops to avoid having them turn against allied forces ...&#8221; [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1019-07.htm | New York Times, 10/19/03 ]] --- * --- &#8220;The democratic principles working group wrestled with myriad complicated issues from reinvigorating a dormant political system to forming special tribunals for trying war criminals to laying out principles of a new Iraqi bill of rights.&#8221; [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1019-07.htm | New York Times, 10/19/03 ]] --- * --- &#8220;The transparency and anticorruption working group warned that &#8216;actions regarding anticorruption must start immediately; it cannot wait until the legal, legislative and executive systems are reformed.&#8217;&#8221; [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1019-07.htm | New York Times, 10/19/03 ]] --- * --- &#8220;The economy and infrastructure working group warned of the deep investments needed to repair Iraq's water, electrical and sewage systems.&#8221; [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1019-07.htm | New York Times, 10/19/03 ]] --- * --- &#8220;The free media working group noted the potential to use Iraq's television and radio capabilities to promote the goals of a post-Hussein Iraq ....&#8221; [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1019-07.htm | New York Times, 10/19/03 ]] --- Impact of the project's work --- After the US and British invasion of Iraq, Knight Ridder will report, &#8220;Virtually none of the &#8216;Future of Iraq&#8217; project's work was used.&#8221; [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0712-05.htm | Knight Ridder, 7/12/03 ]] ------ It was &#8220;ignored by Pentagon officials,&#8221; the New York Times will also observe. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1019-07.htm | New York Times, 10/19/03 ]] ------ Iraq expert and former CIA analyst Judith Yaphe, who is one of the American experts involved in the &#8220;Future of Iraq&#8221; project, will tell American Prospect magazine in May 2003: &#8220;[The Office of the Secretary of Defense] has no interest in what I do.&#8221; She will also complain about how the Defense Department prevented the State Department from getting involved in the post-war administration of Iraq. &#8220;They've brought in their own stable of people from AEI [American Enterprise Institute], and the people at the State Department who worked with the Iraqi exiles are being kept from Garner,&#8221; she will explain. [[ http://www.prospect.org/print/V14/5/dreyfuss-r.html | American Prospect, 5/1/03 ]] ------ One of those people is Tom Warrick, the &#8220;Future of Iraq&#8221; project director. When retired Lt. Gen. Jay Garner, the first US administrator in Iraq, requests that Warrick join his staff, Pentagon civilians veto the appointment. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0712-05.htm | Knight Ridder, 7/12/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1019-07.htm | New York Times, 10/19/03 ]] ------ Other sources will also say that the Pentagon purposefully ignored the work of the &#8220;Future of Iraq&#8221; project. Air Force Lt. Col. Karen Kwiatkowski, who retires from the Pentagon's Near East/South Asia bureau on July 1, will tell Knight Ridder Newspapers that she and her colleagues were instructed by Pentagon officials in the Office of Special Plans to ignore the State Department's concerns and views. &#8220;We almost disemboweled State,&#8221; Kwiatkowski will recall. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0712-05.htm | Knight Ridder, 7/12/03 ]] ------ After the fall of Saddam Hussein, critics will say that several of the post-war problems encountered could have been avoided had the Pentagon considered the warnings and recommendations of the &#8220;Future of Iraq&#8221; project. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1019-07.htm | New York Times, 10/19/03 ]] [[ http://www.prospect.org/print/V14/5/dreyfuss-r.html | American Prospect, 5/1/03 ]] ====== << preWarPlanning >> ((+ Tom Warrick )) ((+ Judith Yaphe )) ((+ Karen Kwiatkowski )) ((+ Jay Garner )) {{ duplicate_judith_yaphe_2 }} April 25, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_180 false 1 ------ British Prime Minister Tony Blair's spokesperson states, &#8220;Given what we know about al-Qaeda's interest in the material, we have to have concerns about a possible marriage between those who wish to acquire it and those who have it.&#8221; Immediately after the statement is made, Britain's own senior military officials refute the claim saying that there is no credible evidence to support the claim. A senior source tells the Independent of London, &#8220;We are not aware of evidence, intelligence or otherwise, that the Iraqi government or its agencies are passing on weapons of mass destruction to al-Qaeda. Nor have we seen any credible evidence linking the Iraqi government to the September 11 attacks.&#8221; (( Unnamed senior British military source )) [[ http://www.converge.org.nz/pma/cra0323.htm | Independent, 3/26/02 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> {{ duplicate_unnamed_senior_british_military_source_2 }} April 28, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_172 false 1 ------ Newsweek reports that both US and Czech officials no longer believe the alleged April 2001 meeting between Mr. Atta and the Iraqi officer, Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani, ever took place (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_163 ]]). The magazine reports that FBI and CIA investigations show no record that Atta visited Prague during that time and instead place the 9/11 plotter in Virginia Beach, Virginia, and Florida during that month. (( Unnamed Czech intelligence officials )) (( Unnamed US Intelligence Officials )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/newsweek042802.html | Newsweek, 4/28/01 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0501-05.htm | Washington Post, 5/1/02 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/world/americas/1961668.stm | BBC, 5/1/02 ]] ------ But Interior Minister Stanislav Gross maintains that the meeting did take place. A few days after the Newsweek report is published, he says, &#8220;Right now I do not have the slightest information that anything is wrong with the details I obtained from BIS counterintelligence. I trust the BIS more than journalists.&#8221; [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/world/americas/1961668.stm | BBC, 5/1/02 ]] [[ http://www.praguepost.com/P02/2002/20508/news3.php | Prague Post, 5/8/02 ]] ====== << pragueConnection >> ((- Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani )) ((+ Stanislav Gross )) ((- Mohammed Atta )) {{ statement_unnamed_us_law_enforcement_official_2 }} May 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_473 false 1 ------ Defense Intelligence Agency analysts issue a &#8220;fabricator notice,&#8221; warning the intelligence community that Iraqi defector Mohammad Harith is of questionable reliability and recommending that agencies disregard any intelligence that he has provided. (( Unnamed US intelligence official )) [[ http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4208564 | Newsweek, 2/16/04 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2004/02/13/politics/13INTE.html | New York Times 2/13/04 ]] [[ http://www.reuters.com/locales/newsArticle.jsp;:4032bd96:6f9ede1cc8cbb76f?type=worldNews&amp;locale=en_IN&amp;storyID=4379274 | Reuters, 2/18/04 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0716-04.htm | Knight Ridder, 7/16/2004 ]] ------ The classified memo is &#8220;widely circulated within intelligence agencies, including the DIA and CIA,&#8221; Newsweek will later report, citing unnamed intelligence officials. (( Unnamed US Intelligence Officials )) (( Linton Wells )) [[ http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4208564 | Newsweek, 2/16/04 ]] ------ Almost a year later, in a presentation to the UN, Secretary of State Colin Powell will make the claim that Iraq has mobile biological weapons labs (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_442 ]]), and cite Harith as one of intelligence's four sources. Explaining how the reference to a dubious source made its way into Powell's speech, the State Department will say that the &#8220;fabricator notice&#8221; had not been properly cross-referenced in intelligence computers. [[ http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4208564 | Newsweek, 2/16/04 ]] ====== << wmd >> ((+ Iraqi National Congress (INC) )) (May 2002-February 2003) complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_79 false 1 ------ Karen Kwiatkowski escorts about half a dozen Israelis, including some generals, from the first floor reception area of the Pentagon to Douglas Feith's office. &#8220;We just followed them, because they knew exactly where they were going and moving fast,&#8221; she later explains. The Israelis are not required to sign in as is required under special regulations put into effect after the Sept. 11 attacks. Kwiatkowski speculates that Feith's office may have waived this requirement for the Israelis so that there would be no record of the meeting. (( Karen Kwiatkowski )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0807-02.htm | Inter Press Service, 8/7/03 ]] ====== << officeOfSpecialPlans >> May 5, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_304 false 1 ------ Appearing on ABC's &#8220;This Week,&#8221; Colin Powell says, &#8220;The United States reserves its option to do whatever it believes might be appropriate to see if there can be a regime change.... US policy is that regardless of what the inspectors do, the people of Iraq and the people of the region would be better off with a different regime in Baghdad.&#8221; [[ http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/terror/02050707.htm | US Department of State, 5/5/02 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/2586425.stm | BBC, 12/19/02 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ Colin Powell )) {{ duplicate_colin_powell_17 }} June 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1187 false 1 ------ The CIA issues a classified report titled, &#8220;Iraq and al-Qaeda: A Murky Relationship,&#8221; which reportedly expresses doubts that Iraq is involved in international terrorism. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A53578-2002Oct19?language=printer | The Washington Post, 10/20/2002 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0428-07.htm | New York Times, 4/28/2004 ]] [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2004/07/11/wsept11.xml&amp;sSheet=/news/2004/07/11/ixnewstop.html | Telegraph, 7/11/2004 ]] ------ Undersecretary of Defense for Policy Douglas Feith informs Donald Rumsfeld that the report should be read &#8220;for content only&#8212;and CIA's interpretation should be ignored.&#8221; [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2004/07/11/wsept11.xml&amp;sSheet=/news/2004/07/11/ixnewstop.html | Telegraph, 7/11/2004 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) ((+ Douglas Feith )) June 26, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_462 false 1 ------ Entifadh Qunbar, a lobbyist for the Iraqi National Congress (INC), sends a memo to the staff of the Senate Appropriations Committee, in which he provides information about a State Department-funded intelligence program, known as the &#8220;information-collection program,&#8221; run by the INC. Qunbar, who says he is the overall manager of the group, states in the memo that under the program, &#8220;defectors, reports and raw intelligence are cultivated and analyzed,&#8221; and &#8220;the results are reported through the INC newspaper (Al Mutamar), the Arabic and Western media and to appropriate governmental, nongovernmental and international agencies.&#8221; Information is also passed on to William Luti, who will later run the Office of Special Plans (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_78 ]]), and John Hannah, a senior national-security aide on Cheney's staff, who Qunbar describes as the &#8220;principal point of contact.&#8221; (( Memo )) [[ http://msnbc.msn.com/id/3660169/ | Newsweek, 12/15/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2004/02/12/politics/12EXIL.html?pagewanted=all | New York Times, 2/12/04 ]] ------ The memo provides a description of some of the people involved in the group and their activities. It says that the analytical group includes five analysts with a background in Iraq's military, Iraq's intelligence services and human rights. One person, a consultant, monitors the Iraqi government's alleged efforts to develop banned weapons. The five analysts process information and write reports, which are sent to Al Mutamar, the INC's newspaper, as well as the US government and many mainstream news organizations. Qunbar says that the information-collection program issued 30 reports between August 2001 and June 2002, which were sent to Al Mutamar. His memo also indicates the group published 28 private reports in collaboration with the INC's headquarters in London. The memo reveals that between October 2001 and May 2002, information provided by the INC was cited in more than 100 articles published by a variety of English-language news publications, including The New York Times, The Washington Post, Time, Newsweek, The New Yorker, CNN, Fox News, and several others. (( Memo )) [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2004/02/12/politics/12EXIL.html?pagewanted=all | New York Times, 2/12/04 ]] ====== << officeOfSpecialPlans >> << deception >> ((+ Iraqi National Congress (INC) )) ((+ Memo )) ((+ Entifadh Qunbar )) ((+ Dick Cheney )) June 28, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_405 false 1 ------ The National Review publishes an op-ed piece by Lawrence Kudlow, titled, &#8220;Taking back the market . . . by force,&#8221; in which he claims, &#8220;The shock therapy of decisive war will elevate the stock market by a couple thousand points.&#8221; Kudlow is the CEO of Kudlow &amp; Co. [[ http://www.nationalreview.com/script/printpage.asp?ref=/kudlow/kudlow062602.asp | National Review, 6/26/02 ]] ====== << motivesBehindWar >> ((+ Research Unit for Political Economy )) July 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1225 false 1 ------ Australia's intelligence services report in a July 2002 assessment: &#8220;US agencies differ on whether aluminum tubes, a dual-use item sought by Iraq, were meant for gas centrifuges.&#8221; It adds that the tubes evidence is &#8220;patchy and inconclusive.&#8221; [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> Summer 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_72 false 1 ------ Claire Short, the British secretary for international development who later resigns in protest of the impending invasion of Iraq, will say in June 2003 that three senior British Intelligence officials told her before the war that Bush and Blair's decision to attack Iraq had been made sometime during the summer of 2002 and that it would likely begin in mid-February 2003. &#8220;Three extremely senior people in the Whitehall system said to me very clearly and specifically that the target date was mid-February.&#8221; Furthermore, Short will learn, the decision by Blair's government to participate in the US invasion of Iraq bypassed proper government procedures and ignored opposition to the war from Britain's intelligence quarters. (( Claire Short )) [[ http://politics.guardian.co.uk/iraq/story/0,12956,979787,00.html | Guardian, 6/18/03 ]] ====== << decision >> ((+ Claire Short )) {{ duplicate_condoleezza_rice_2 }} Summer 2002-2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_361 false 1 ------ Current and former top US military brass dispute White House claims that Iraq poses an immediate threat to the US and that it must be dealt with militarily. In late July 2002, The Washington Post reports that &#8220;top generals and admirals in the military establishment, including members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff&#8221; believe that Saddam Hussein's regime &#8220;poses no immediate threat and that the United States should continue its policy of containment rather than invade Iraq to force a change of leadership in Baghdad.&#8221; The report says that the military officials' positions are based &#8220;in part on intelligence assessments of the state of Hussein's nuclear, chemical and biological weapons programs and his missile delivery capabilities.&#8221; The newspaper says that there are several reasons why these dissident officers disagree with their civilian bosses. They worry that if Saddam Hussein is removed, Iraq could &#8220;split up, ... potentially leading to chaos and the creation of new anti-American regimes and terrorist sanctuaries in the region.&#8221; It is also possible, they say, that an invasion of Iraq could provoke Saddam Hussein into using whatever weapons of mass destruction he may have. And even if the invasion is successful, the aftermath could see &#8220;mass instability, requiring tens of thousands of US troops to maintain peace, prop up a post-Saddam government, and prevent the fragmentation of Iraq,&#8221; the military brass warns. Their position is that the US should continue its policy of containment, specifically sanctions and the enforcement of the US- and British- imposed &#8220;no-fly&#8221; zones. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A10749-2002Jul27.html | The Washington Post, 7/28/02 ]] ------ Responding to the dissenting opinions of these military officials, Richard Perle, current chairman of the Defense Policy Board, says that the decision of whether or not to attack Iraq is &#8220;a political judgment that these guys aren't competent to make.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A10749-2002Jul27.html | The Washington Post, 7/28/02 ]] ------ A few days later, The Washington Post publishes another story along similar lines, reporting, &#8220;Much of the senior uniformed military, with the notable exception of some top Air Force and Marine generals, opposes going to war anytime soon, a stance that is provoking frustration among civilian officials in the Pentagon and in the White House.&#8221; Notably the division has created &#8220;an unusual alliance between the State Department and the uniformed side of the Pentagon, elements of the government that more often seem to oppose each other in foreign policy debates.&#8221; (( Unnamed senior military officials )) [[ http://www.mafhoum.com/press3/tim107.htm | The Washington Post, 8/1/02 ]] ------ The extent of the generals' disagreement is quite significant, reports the Post, which quotes one proponent of invading Iraq expressing his/her concern that the brass' opinion could ultimately dissuade Bush from taking military action. &#8220;You can't force things onto people who don't want to do it, and the three- and four-star Army generals don't want to do it. I think this will go back and forth, and back and forth, until it's time for Bush to run for reelection,&#8221; the source says. (( Unnamed US official )) [[ http://www.mafhoum.com/press3/tim107.htm | The Washington Post, 8/1/02 ]] ------ During the next several months, several former military officials speak out against the Bush administration's military plans, including Wesley Clark, Joseph P. Hoar, John M. Shalikashvili, Tony McPeak, Gen James L Jones, Norman Schwarzkopf, Anthony Zinni, Henry H. Shelton and Thomas G. McInerney. ------ In mid-January 2003, Time magazine reports that according to its sources, &#8220;as many as 1 in 3 senior officers questions the wisdom of a preemptive war with Iraq.&#8221; They complain that &#8220;the US military is already stretched across the globe, the war against Osama bin Laden is unfinished, and ... a long postwar occupation looks inevitable.&#8221; [[ http://www.time.com/time/covers/1101030127/nrummy.html | Time, 1/19/03 ]] ====== << predictions >> << maintreamDissent >> ((+ Norman Schwarzkopf )) ((+ James L Jones )) ((+ Anthony Zinni )) ((+ Thomas G. McInerney )) ((+ Henry H. Shelton )) ((+ Tony McPeak )) ((+ Richard Perle )) ((+ John M. Shalikashvili )) ((+ Kim Holmes )) ((+ Joseph Hoar )) ((+ Wesley Clark )) {{ statement_thomas_g._mcinerney_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_general_whose_was_involved_in_the_2001_afghanistan_war_2 }} {{ statement_richard_dunn_iii_2 }} {{ statement_tony_mcpeak_2 }} {{ statement_wesley_clark_3 }} {{ statement_richard_dunn_iii_3 }} {{ statement_unnamed_defense_official_2 }} {{ statement_john_m._shalikashvili_3 }} {{ statement_anthony_zinni_2 }} {{ statement_john_m._shalikashvili_2 }} {{ statement_joseph_hoar_3 }} {{ statement_james_l_jones_2 }} {{ statement_norman_schwarzkopf_2 }} {{ statement_jim_cornette_2 }} {{ statement_anthony_zinni_4 }} {{ statement_anthony_zinni_3 }} {{ statement_henry_h._shelton_2 }} After Summer 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_100 false 1 ------ The CIA shares its doubts about the veracity of the Africa-uranium claim with the White House, National Security Council staffers, members of Congress, other intelligence offices and the British. The agency warns administration officials against using the Africa-uranium claim as evidence that Iraq is pursuing the development of nuclear weapons. (( Unnamed US Intelligence Officials )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A9011-2003Mar22.html | The Washington Post, 3/22/03 ]] [[ http://www.bayarea.com/mld/cctimes/news/6079211.htm | Knight Ridder, 6/13/03 ]] ====== << africaUraniumClaim >> {{ statement_unnamed_bush_administration_official_2 }} July 2002-March 19, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_158 false 1 ------ Numerous US and British, current and former, intelligence, military, and other government officials who have inside knowledge refute claims made by the Bush administration that Saddam Hussein's regime has or is seeking ties with global Islamic terrorist groups. [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/politics/story.jsp?story=376732 | Independent, 2/9/03 ]] [[ http://www.iht.com/articles/85354.html | New York Times, 2/3/03 ]] [[ http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/4234549.htm | Knight Ridder, 10/7/02 ]] [[ http://www.rferl.org/nca/features/2002/10/29102002161249.asp | Radio Free Europe, 10/29/02 ]] [[ http://www.iht.com/cgi-bin/generic.cgi?template=articleprint.tmplh&amp;ArticleId=75500 | International Herald Tribune, 11/1/02 ]] [[ http://www.latimes.com/la-fg-noqaeda4nov04,0,4538810.story | Los Angeles Times, 11/4/02 ]] [[ http://www.sunspot.net/bal-op.iraq26sep26.story | Baltimore Sun, 9/26/02 ]] [[ http://www.opinionjournal.com/editorial/feature.html?id=110002133 | Wall Street Journal, 8/15/02 ]] [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/02/04/wirq04.xml/ | Telegraph, 2/4/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A59403-2002Sep9.html | Washington Post 9/10/02 ]] [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/28384 | Sunday Herald, 10/13/02 ]] [[ http://www.cbc.ca/stories/2002/11/01/bushiraq021101 | CBC News, 11/1/02 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((+ Vince Cannistraro )) ((+ Brent Scowcroft )) ((+ Igor Ivanov )) ((+ Youssef M. Ibrahim )) ((+ MIchael O'Hanlon )) ((+ Rohan Gunaratna )) ((+ Tony Blair )) ((+ Baltasar Garzon )) ((+ Jean Chretien )) ((+ Anna Eshoo )) ((- Saddam Hussein )) ((+ US Department of State, 4/30/2001 )) ((+ Vince Cannistraro )) ((+ Jack Straw )) ((+ Daniel Benjamin )) ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ Jean-Louis Brugui?re )) ((+ Richard Durbin )) ((+ Michael Chandler )) {{ statement_unnamed_military_officer_2 }} {{ commentary_vince_cannistraro_11 }} {{ statement_unnamed_high-ranking_source_in_the_german_intelligence_community_2 }} {{ commentary_max_cleland_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_us_official_3 }} {{ statement_vince_cannistraro_8 }} {{ statement_daniel_benjamin_2 }} {{ statement_jean-louis_brugui?re_2 }} {{ statement_jean-louis_brugui?re_3 }} {{ commentary_youssef_m._ibrahim_2 }} {{ commentary_baltasar_garzon_2 }} {{ statement_condoleezza_rice_25 }} {{ statement_condoleezza_rice_26 }} {{ statement_condoleezza_rice_27 }} {{ statement_condoleezza_rice_28 }} {{ statement_condoleezza_rice_29 }} {{ statement_condoleezza_rice_24 }} {{ commentary_michael_o_hanlon_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_general_whose_was_involved_in_the_2001_afghanistan_war_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_senior_british_military_source_2 }} {{ commentary_brent_scowcroft_2 }} {{ statement_jack_straw_2 }} {{ commentary_rohan_gunaratna_2 }} {{ commentary_saudi_prince_turki_bin_faisal_2 }} {{ statement_richard_butler_2 }} {{ statement_vince_cannistraro_10 }} Summer 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_722 false 1 ------ Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz secretly meets with Francis Brooke, the Iraqi National Congress' lobbyist, and Khidir Hamza, the former chief of Iraq's nuclear program. Wolfowitz asks Hamza if he thinks the aluminum tubes (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_41 ]]) could be used in centrifuges. Hamza&#8212;who has never built a centrifuge and who is considered an unreliable source by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_427 ]]) &#8212;looks at the tubes' specifications and concludes that the tubes are adaptable. Wolfowitz disseminates Hamza's assessment to several of his neoconservative colleagues who have posts in the administration. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 281 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> ((+ Khidir Hamza )) ((+ Francis Brooke )) ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) July 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_71 false 1 ------ Condoleezza Rice tells an unnamed Bush administration official who has doubts about invading Iraq: &#8220;A decision has been made. Don't waste your breath.&#8221; (( Unnamed Bush administration official(s) and/or US intelligence official(s) )) [[ http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/allnews/content_objectid=13434081_method=full_siteid=50143_headline=-THE-BIG-LIE-name_page.html | The Mirror, 9/22/03 ]] ====== << decision >> ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) {{ duplicate_condoleezza_rice_2 }} Summer 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_431 false 1 ------ Ahmed Chalabi, the leader of the Iraqi National Congress, says that &#8220;informants within the Iraqi intelligence community,&#8221; have revealed &#8220;that Hussein's VX stockpile is far larger than the 3.9 tons Iraq reported&#8212;something UNSCOM inspectors have long suspected,&#8221; reports The Washington Post. &#8220;Chalabi also says that the VX had been converted into a dry salt for long-term storage and was positioned in various sites across Iraq for use in the event of a foreign attack. UNSCOM officials said the account seemed credible, given what was learned about Iraq's VX program in the final months of weapons inspections.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A23545-2002Jul30.html | Washington Post, 7/31/2002 ]] ====== << wmd >> ((+ Iraqi National Congress (INC) )) ((+ Ahmed Chalabi )) July 10, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1137 false 1 ------ President George Bush says in a speech at the Cincinnati Museum Center: &#8220;Some worry that a change of leadership in Iraq could create instability and make the situation worse. The situation could hardly get worse, for world security and for the people of Iraq.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021007-8.html | White House, 7/10/2002 ]] ====== << democracyRhetoricQuotes >> ((+ George W. Bush )) {{ duplicate_george_w._bush_26 }} Late July 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_178 false 1 ------ A Congressional panel investigating the terrorist attacks of September 11 concludes that there is no evidence that Mohammad Atta&#8212;under any of his known aliases&#8212;visited Prague in April 2001 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_163 ]]). [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0803-04.htm | Boston Globe, 8/3/03 ]] ====== << pragueConnection >> << terroristTies >> ((- Mohammed Atta )) ((- Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani )) {{ commentary_former_intelligence_official__2 }} July 30, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1819 false 1 ------ The White House formally announces plans to create a public diplomacy agency, to be called the Office of Global Communications, that will be charged with projecting a more positive image of the US abroad. [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,765924,00.html | Guardian, 7/31/2002 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A18822-2002Jul29?language=printer | The Washington Post, 7/30/2002 ]] [[ http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/07/30/politics/main516881.shtml | CBS News, 7/30/2002 ]] [[ http://www.independent.org/tii/news/030105Marshall.html | Los Angeles Times, 1/5/03 ]] ------ It will help the world understand &#8220;what America is all about and why America does what it does,&#8221; says White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer. ------ The task formerly belonged to the State Department, but Bush?s advisors didn?t think it was &#8220;doing a good enough job, so they're going to take it on,&#8221; a former Coalition Information Center (CIC) official tells the Guardian. &#8220;Nobody [was] that impressed with Charlotte Beers [of the State Department] and what she's done. She listens to people. She's done a lot of listening, but you need to go further than that.&#8221; [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,765924,00.html | Guardian, 7/31/2002 ]] ------ This new public diplomacy office, said to the brainchild of Bush's senior advisor, Karen Hughes, has actually &#8220;existed for months, quietly working with foreign news media outlets to get the American message out about the war on terrorism,&#8221; according to CBS News. [[ http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/07/30/politics/main516881.shtml | CBS News, 7/30/2002 ]] ====== << propaganda >> ((+ George Herbert Walker Bush )) ((+ Hill and Knowlton )) July 30, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_427 false 1 ------ Khidir Hamza, &#8220;who played a leading role in Iraq's nuclear weapon program before defecting in 1994,&#8221; tells the Senate Judiciary Committee that according to German intelligence, Iraq has &#8220;more than 10 tons of uranium and one ton of slightly enriched uranium ... in its possession&#8221; which would be &#8220;enough to generate the needed bomb-grade uranium for three nuclear weapons by 2005.&#8221; He says that Iraq is &#8220;using corporations in India and other countries to import the needed equipment for its program and channel it through countries like Malaysia for shipment to Iraq.&#8221; He also claims that Iraq is &#8220;gearing up to extend the range of its missiles to easily reach Israel.&#8221; The testimony is widely reported in the media. [[ http://www.cnn.com/2002/ALLPOLITICS/07/31/senate.iraq.hearing/ | CNN, 8/1/02 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,767235,00.html | Guardian, 8/1/02 ]] [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/08/01/wirq01.xml/ | Telegraph, 8/1/02 ]] ------ Hamza, however, is considered by many to be an unreliable source. David Albright, president of the Institute for Science and International Security where Hamza worked as an analyst from 1997 to 1999, says that after Hamza defected &#8220;he went off the edge&#8221; and &#8220;started saying irresponsible things.&#8221; [[ http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/10/12/MN186933.DTL | San Francisco Chronicle, 10/12/02 ]] [[ http://www.nybooks.com/articles/16922 | New York Review of Books, 2/26/04 ]] ------ And General Hussein Kamel, Saddam Hussein's son-in-law who was in charge of the dictator's former weapons program but who defected in 1995, told UNSCOM and IAEA inspectors at the time of his defection, as well as US and British intelligence, that Khidhir Hamza was not a reliable source (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_424 ]]). (( UNSCOM Interview with Hussein Kamel, August 22, 1995 )) [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030512fa_fact | New Yorker, 5/5/03 ]] ------ The IAEA will say in 2004 that before the US invasion of Iraq, it had warned journalists reporting on Iraq's alleged nuclear weapons program that Hamza was not a credible source. &#8220;Hamza had no credibility at all. Journalists who called us and asked for an assessment of these people&#8212;we'd certainly tell them&#8221; (( Unnamed IAEA staff member )) [[ http://www.nybooks.com/articles/16922 | New York Review of Books, 2/26/04 ]] ====== << wmd >> ((+ David Albright )) ((+ Khidir Hamza )) ((+ Hussein Kamel )) July 30, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1821 false 1 ------ The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) publishes a report, entitled, &#8220;Public Diplomacy: A Strategy for Reform,&#8221; concluding that, &#8220;There is little doubt that stereotypes of the United States as arrogant, self-indulgent, hypocritical, inattentive and unwilling or unable to engage in cross-cultural dialogue are pervasive and deeply rooted.&#8221; As a solution, the report recommends developing &#8220;a coherent strategic and coordinating framework, including a presidential directive on public diplomacy and a Public Diplomacy Coordinating Structure led by the president?s personal designee.&#8221; The short term public diplomacy objective would be to &#8220;influence opinions and mobilize publics in ways that support specific US interests and policies.&#8221; However, the long term goal would be to promote &#8220;dialogue in ways that are politically, culturally, and socially,&#8221; the report says. (( Public Diplomacy: A Strategy for Reform )) [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,765924,00.html | Guardian, 7/31/2002 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/views02/0813-06.htm | Miami Herald, 8/13/2002 ]] ====== << propaganda >> ((+ Council on Foreign Relations )) July 30, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_181 false 1 ------ Richard Butler, a former UN inspector from Australia, tells the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, &#8220;I have seen no evidence of Iraq providing weapons of mass destruction to non-Iraqi terrorist groups.&#8221; [[ http://www.themercury.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5936,4817425^401,00.html | Associated Press, 8/1/02 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((+ Richard Butler )) {{ duplicate_richard_butler_2 }} After September 11, 200a complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1822 false 1 ------ The Pentagon creates a secret office charged with the task of manufacturing support for US policy through the dissemination of misinformation to foreign governments and medias. The office, named the Office of Strategic Influence, or OSI, is headed by Brigadier General Simon P. Wordon [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0219-01.htm | New York Times, 2/19/2002 ]] ------ , an astrophysicist with experience in space operations and missile defense. [[ http://www.sftt.org/article02202002b.html | The Washington Post, 2/20/2002 ]] ------ His assistant is Thomas A. Timmes. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0219-01.htm | New York Times, 2/19/2002 ]] ------ OSI is a small, but well funded operation and there are reportedly plans to provide it with an annual budget of as much as $100 million. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0219-01.htm | New York Times, 2/19/2002 ]] [[ http://nucnews.net/nucnews/2002nn/0202nn/020227nn.htm#660 | New York Times, 2/27/2002 ]] [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,13-213439,00.html | The Times, 2/20/2002 ]] ------ The office's existence is first revealed in February 2002 by the New York Times. Describing some of the office's proposed plans, the newspaper reports: &#8220;[T]he new office has begun circulating classified proposals calling for aggressive campaigns that use not only the foreign media and the Internet, but also covert operations.... One of the office's proposals calls for planting news items with foreign media organizations through outside concerns that might not have obvious ties to the Pentagon.... General Worden envisions a broad mission ranging from &#8216;black&#8217; campaigns that use disinformation and other covert activities to &#8216;white&#8217; public affairs that rely on truthful news releases.... &#8216;It goes from the blackest of black programs to the whitest of white,&#8217; a senior Pentagon official said.... Another proposal involves sending journalists, civic leaders and foreign leaders e-mail messages that promote American views or attack unfriendly governments.&#8221; [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0219-01.htm | New York Times, 2/19/2002 ]] ------ When OSI's classified agenda is leaked to the press, White House officials say they are &#8220;furious&#8221; about the OSI proposal and quickly shut the office down. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A61716-2002Feb24.html | The Washington Post, 2/25/2002 ]] ------ Initially, the Pentagon denies that the office was ever intended to spread false information. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A42427-2002Feb20.html | The Washington Post, 2/21/2002 ]] ------ Then it blames the initiative on &#8220;lower levels of the Pentagon.&#8221; [[ http://www.why-war.com/news/2002/02/25/pentagon.html | New York Times, 2/25/2002 ]] ====== << propaganda >> ((+ Office of Strategic Influence )) July 31, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_362 false 1 ------ Joseph P. Hoar, a retired Marine Corps general who commanded American forces in the Persian Gulf after the 1991 war, warns the Senate Foreign Relations Committee that the proposed invasion is both &#8220;risky&#8221; and possibly unnecessary. [[ http://www.why-war.com/news/2002/08/01/expertsw.html | New York Times, 8/1/02 ]] ====== << maintreamDissent >> ((+ Joseph Hoar )) August 1, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_409 false 1 ------ A panel of experts on Iraq warns the Senate Foreign Relations Committee that administering Iraq after the toppling of Saddam's government will be expensive and difficult. The panel says that &#8220;there are no obvious successors to Saddam Hussein and that the Bush administration should be prepared to help install and protect a pro-American government if it decides to topple him&#8212;a proposition, they added, that would be long and expensive,&#8221; the New York Times reports. &#8220;Nearly all the experts argued that setting up a stable, pro-Western government in Baghdad would require a huge infusion of aid and a long-term commitment of American troops to maintain peace.&#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/nytimes080202.htm | New York Times, 8/2/02 ]] ------ Phebe Marr, a professor from the National Defense University who has written prolifically on Iraq, tells the panel, &#8220;If the US is going to take the responsibility for removing the current leadership, it should assume that it cannot get the results it wants on the cheap.&#8221; Scott Feil, a retired Army colonel who studies postwar reconstruction programs, says that 75,000 troops will be needed in Iraq to stabilize the country after Saddam is removed from power. He estimates that such a deployment will cost in excess of $16 billion per year. After the first 12 months, the colonel says that the force could be reduced in number, possibly to as low as 5,000, though this military presence would have to be maintained for at least another five years. In contrast, Caspar W. Weinberger, the secretary of defense under President Ronald Reagan argues that the United States will not need to undertake a major effort in rebuilding Iraq. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/nytimes080202.htm | New York Times, 8/2/02 ]] ====== << preWarPlanning >> << predictions >> ((+ Scott Feil )) ((+ Caspar Weinberger )) ((+ Phebe Marr )) Early August 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_173 false 1 ------ Several Pentagon officials, including Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz, meet with the FBI's assistant director for counterterrorism, Pat D'Amuro, to discuss the latest intelligence concerning the alleged April 2001 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_163 ]]) meeting between 9/11 plotter Mohammed Atta and Iraqi diplomat Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani. Wolfowitz pressures the two agencies' analysts to confirm that the Prague meeting had in fact happened. The FBI concedes that the occurrence of the meeting, though not proven, was at least possible. (( Unnamed CIA and FBI officials )) [[ http://www.cnn.com/2002/ALLPOLITICS/08/26/time.iraq/ | Time, 9/2/02 ]] ====== << pragueConnection >> << deception >> << terroristTies >> ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) ((- Mohammed Atta )) ((- Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani )) ((+ Pat D'Amuro )) (August 2002) complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1188 false 1 ------ Pentagon officials working in the Office of Special Plans visit George Tenet at CIA headquarters under the direction of Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Douglas Feith to voice their objections to the final draft of a CIA assessment on Iraq's supposed links to terrorism. The officials disputed the report's conclusion that intelligence suggesting an alleged April 2001 Prague meeting between Mohammed Atta and Iraqi diplomat Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_162 ]]) was not credible. As a result of Pentagon officials' objections, the CIA's assessment is postponed until September 18. Tenet will later say he &#8220;didn't think much of&#8221; the briefing. [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2004/07/11/wsept11.xml&amp;sSheet=/news/2004/07/11/ixnewstop.html | Telegraph, 7/11/2004 ]] [[ http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5412317/site/newsweek | Newsweek, 7/19/2004 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> << officeOfSpecialPlans >> << pragueConnection >> ((+ George Tenet )) August 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_709 false 1 ------ Defense Intelligence Agency [DIA] reservist and Penn-State political-science professor Chris Carney and Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Douglas Feith give two presentations on Iraq's alleged ties to al-Qaeda to the CIA at the agency's Langley headquarters. CIA analysts are not impressed, having seen much of the information before and having already determined that it was not credible. Some of the information will nevertheless be included in speeches by Bush and in testimony by Tenet to Congress. The information is also put into a classified memo to the Senate Intelligence Committee by Feith, which is later leaked to The Weekly Standard, a neoconservative magazine. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 238 ]] ====== << officeOfSpecialPlans >> << terroristTies >> ((+ Chris Carney )) ((+ Douglas Feith )) August 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_366 false 1 ------ General James L. Jones, the four-star commander of the Marine Corps who will be taking over as NATO's supreme allied commander, tells The Washington Times that toppling Iraq's government and defeating its army will be much more difficult than it was to remove the Taliban. &#8220;Afghanistan was Afghanistan; Iraq is Iraq,&#8221; he explains. &#8220;It would be foolish, if you were ever committed to going into Iraq, to think that the principles that were successful in Afghanistan would necessarily be successful in Iraq. In my opinion, they would not.&#8221; The general suggests that a large force will be needed to successfully invade the country. [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/08/23/wirq23.xml/ | Telegraph, 8/23/02 ]] ====== << maintreamDissent >> ((+ James L Jones )) {{ duplicate_james_l_jones_2 }} August 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_481 false 1 ------ The Counter Terrorism Evaluation Group, also know as the &#8220;Wurmser-Maloof&#8221; project, which had been formed shortly after the September 11 attacks (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_82 ]]), is disbanded. [[ http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/s1048656.htm | Reuters, 2/19/04 ]] ====== << officeOfSpecialPlans >> (Early August 2002) complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_715 false 1 ------ British Prime Minister Tony Blair and US President George Bush discuss over the phone their intention to topple Saddam Hussein's government. An unnamed White House official who later reads the transcripts of the 15-minute phone call, will explain to Vanity Fair that it was clear from their conversation that the decision to invade Iraq had already been made. The magazine reports in April 2004: &#8220;Before the call, the official says, he had the impression that the probability of invasion was high, but still below 100 percent, Afterward, he says, &#8216;it was a done deal.&#8217; &#8221; (( Unnamed White House official )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 284 ]] ====== << decision >> ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ Tony Blair )) August 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_369 false 1 ------ Retired Army General Henry H. Shelton, a former chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, tells The Washington Post, &#8220;If we get drawn into something in Iraq, then our focus will go very heavily there, and it will be hard to sustain the momentum in the war on terrorism. That's the biggest danger that I see.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A21639-2002Aug31.html | The Washington Post, 9/1/02 ]] ====== << maintreamDissent >> ((+ Henry H. Shelton )) {{ duplicate_henry_h._shelton_2 }} August 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_432 false 1 ------ US satellite photos reportedly show increased activity near the Taji factory in Iraq, which US intelligence suspects may be involved in the production of anthrax. The facility is located 10 miles outside of Baghdad. [[ http://216.26.163.62/2002/ss_jordan_08_14.html | World Tribune, 8/14/02 ]] ------ But on August 20, a week after news of the satellite photos are reported, the Iraqi government allows 15 journalists, mostly Iraqis representing foreign presses, to tour the alleged weapons site. Reporters who tour the facility find &#8220;piles of 110-pound sacks of sugar and rice and boxes of milk covered the floor. Writing on the sacks [indicates] ... they were imported under the oil-for-food program that allows Iraq to sell unlimited quantities of oil provided the proceeds go for food, medicine and other supplies,&#8221; [[ http://www.why-war.com/news/2002/08/20/iraqioff.html | Associated Press, 8/20/02 ]] ------ including powdered milk imported from Yemen, Vietnam, Tunisia and Indonesia and sacks of sugar imported from Egypt and India. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0820-03.htm | Saleh, 8/20/02 ]] ------ Iraq's trade minister, Mohammed Mehdi Saleh, explains that the trucks captured by the satellite photos had been distributing foodstuffs from al-Taji to warehouses in the various provinces of Iraq. He states: &#8220;They [Americans] are checking every movement in Iraq, but a satellite cannot tell real information. This is rubbish information, actually rubbish information to convert baby milk and baby food and sugar to weapons of mass destruction.... We started to move food from this warehouse to supply stores in provinces early this month, and more specifically on August 4 as we started to distribute food rations every two months.... We have transported 2,500 tons of powdered milk in 187 trucks and not 60 trucks as the Americans said and we will continue (to do so).... If they enlarge the satellite photographs they can compare boxes of the baby milk moved from this site as they were not covered and boxes here.&#8221; [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0820-03.htm | Saleh, 8/20/02 ]] ------ An enlargement of the pictures would have revealed the words, &#8220;Al-moudhish,&#8221; written on the packages&#8212;the brand name of the milk that had been imported from Oman. [[ http://www.why-war.com/news/2002/08/20/iraqioff.html | Associated Press, 8/20/02 ]] ====== << wmd >> ((+ Mohammed Mehdi Saleh )) August 4, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_381 false 1 ------ Appearing on CBS's &#8220;Face the Nation,&#8221; Brent Scowcroft warns that a unilateral invasion of Iraq could destabilize the Middle East and undermine efforts to defeat global terrorist groups. Scowcroft says: &#8220;It's a matter of setting your priorities. There's no question that Saddam is a problem. He has already launched two wars and spent all the resources he can working on his military. But the President has announced that terrorism is our number one focus. Saddam is a problem, but he's not a problem because of terrorism. I think we could have an explosion in the Middle East. It could turn the whole region into a cauldron and destroy the War on Terror.&#8221; [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0805-02.htm | Times, 8/5/02 ]] ====== << predictions >> << maintreamDissent >> ((+ Brent Scowcroft )) {{ commentary_michael_ledeen_2 }} (8:00 p.m.) August 5, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_716 false 1 ------ After dinner at the White House, Colin Powell speaks privately with George Bush and convinces him that international backing would be crucial for an invasion of Iraq and the inevitable occupation that would follow. Powell cites polls which indicate that a majority of Americans favor seeking a UN resolution. Bush reluctantly agrees. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 284 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Colin Powell )) ((+ George W. Bush )) August 7, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_371 false 1 ------ Speaking to the Commonwealth Club of California in San Francisco, Cheney states, &#8220;Many of us, I think, are skeptical that simply returning the inspectors will solve the problem. A debate with [Mr Hussein] over inspectors simply, I think, would be an effort by him to obfuscate, delay and avoid having to live up to the accords that he signed up to at the end of the Gulf war.&#8221; [[ http://www.intelmessages.org/Messages/National_Security/wwwboard/messages/1460.html | New York Times, 8/7/02 ]] [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/oil/2002/0811greed.htm | Observer, 8/11/02 ]] ------ In the speech, he also tells his audience that Saddam &#8220;sits on top of 10 per cent of the world's oil reserves. He has enormous wealth being generated by that,&#8221; ------ adding, &#8220;And left to his own devices, it's the judgment of many of us that in the not too distant future he will acquire nuclear weapons.&#8221; [[ http://www.intelmessages.org/Messages/National_Security/wwwboard/messages/1460.html | New York Times, 8/7/02 ]] [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/oil/2002/0811greed.htm | Observer, 8/11/02 ]] ====== << motivesBehindWar >> << nuclearQuotes >> << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Dick Cheney )) August 12, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_379 false 1 ------ Former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger writes an op-ed piece which is published in the paper edition of The Washington Post. In it, Kissinger argues against a unilateral preemptive strike against Iraq without first creating a new international security framework that allows for nations to conduct preemptive strikes only under specific limited conditions. Otherwise, Kissinger argues, such an action would set a dangerous precedent that other nations might attempt to use in justifying their own policies. [[ http://www.etaiwannews.com/Perspective/2002/08/17/1029553745.htm | New York Times, 8/16/02 ]] [[ http://www.why-war.com/news/2002/08/13/bushrisk.html | Times of London, 8/13/02 ]] [[ http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,60626,00.html | Fox News, 8/16/02 ]] [[ http://www.why-war.com/news/2002/08/17/kissinge.html | Independent, 8/17/02 ]] ====== << maintreamDissent >> ((+ John Larson )) {{ excerpt_henry_a._kissinger_4 }} {{ excerpt_henry_a._kissinger_3 }} {{ excerpt_henry_a._kissinger_2 }} {{ excerpt_henry_a._kissinger_5 }} August 13, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_382 false 1 ------ Former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger joins Secretary of State Colin L. Powell and his advisors for a meeting. Describing the meeting, the New York Times reports three days later that they &#8220;have decided that they should focus international discussion on how Iraq would be governed after Mr. Hussein&#8212;not only in an effort to assure a democracy but as a way to outflank administration hawks and slow the rush to war, which many in the department oppose.&#8221; [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/08.17A.gop.no.irq.htm | New York Times, 8/15/02 ]] ====== << preWarPlanning >> << maintreamDissent >> ((+ Henry A. Kissinger )) ((+ Colin Powell )) August 15, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_380 false 1 ------ Brent Scowcroft is the source of major embarrassment for the administration when he authors an op-ed piece in the Wall Street Journal arguing against the need to remove Saddam Hussein from power. He says that the toppling of Saddam's regime would destabilize the Middle East and thus &#8220;turn the whole region into a cauldron and destroy the War on Terror.&#8221; Noting that &#8220;there is scant evidence to tie Saddam to terrorist organizations, and even less to the Sept. 11 attacks,&#8221; he calls on Bush to abandon his designs on Saddam Hussein and instead refocus his foreign policy on the war on terrorism. [[ http://ffip.com/opeds081502.htm | Wall Street Journal ]] ------ It is suggested that Scowcroft's criticisms probably reflect the feelings of the President's father. The Los Angeles Times reports: &#8220;Several former officials close to Scowcroft said they doubted he would have gone public with that posture without clearing the move first with the senior Bush, heightening questions about the latter's view on confronting Iraq. The former president has not commented publicly, which has only fed speculation.&#8221; [[ http://www.latimes.com/la-fg-bush17aug17002040.story | Los Angeles Times, 8/17/02 ]] ====== << predictions >> << terroristTies >> << maintreamDissent >> ((+ George Herbert Walker Bush )) ((+ Brent Scowcroft )) {{ commentary_james_baker_5 }} {{ commentary_james_baker_6 }} {{ commentary_unnamed_administration_official_4 }} {{ commentary_james_baker_4 }} {{ commentary_james_baker_3 }} {{ commentary_james_baker_2 }} {{ excerpt_brent_scowcroft_3 }} {{ commentary_lawrence_eagleburger_2 }} {{ commentary_richard_perle_3 }} {{ excerpt_brent_scowcroft_4 }} {{ excerpt_brent_scowcroft_6 }} {{ excerpt_brent_scowcroft_8 }} {{ excerpt_brent_scowcroft_7 }} {{ excerpt_brent_scowcroft_5 }} August 15, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_386 false 1 ------ Kenneth Adelman, a former Reagan official with close ties to senior Bush aides, &#8220;It'll be a piece of cake to get public support. The American people will be 90 percent for it. Almost nobody in Congress will object, and the allies will pipe down.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A31067-2002Aug17.html | The Washington Post, 8/18/02 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ Kenneth Adelman )) August 15, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_438 false 1 ------ USA Today reports: &#8220;US intelligence cannot say conclusively that Saddam Hussein has weapons of mass destruction, an information gap that is complicating White House efforts to build support for an attack on Saddam's Iraqi regime. The CIA has advised top administration officials to assume that Iraq has some weapons of mass destruction. But the agency has not given President Bush a &#8216;smoking gun,&#8217; according to US intelligence and administration officials. The most recent unclassified CIA report on the subject goes no further than saying it is &#8216;likely&#8217; that Iraq has used the four years since United Nations inspectors left the country to rebuild chemical and biological weapons programs.&#8221; (( Unnamed US intelligence and administration officials )) [[ http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2002-08-15-iraq-weapons_x.htm | USA Today, 8/15/02 ]] ====== << wmd >> August 15, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_370 false 1 ------ In an interview broadcast by BBC Radio 4's Today Program, Condoleezza Rice says: &#8220;This is an evil man who, left to his own devices, will wreak havoc again on his own population, his neighbors and, if he gets weapons of mass destruction and the means to deliver them, on all of us. There is a very powerful moral case for regime change. We certainly do not have the luxury of doing nothing.... Clearly, if Saddam Hussein is left in power doing the things that he is doing now, this is a threat that will emerge, and emerge in a very big way.... The case for regime change is very strong. This is a regime that we know has twice tried and come closer than we thought at the time to acquiring nuclear weapons. He has used chemical weapons against his own people and against his neighbors, he has invaded his neighbors, he has killed thousands of his own people. He shoots at our planes, our airplanes, in the no-fly zones where we are trying to enforce UN security resolutions.... History is littered with cases of inaction that led to very grave consequences for the world. We just have to look back and ask how many dictators who ended up being a tremendous global threat and killing thousands and, indeed, millions of people, should we have stopped in their tracks.&#8221; [[ http://www.miami.com/mld/miami/3867529.htm | Reuters, 8/15/2002 ]] [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/08/16/wirq16.xml | Telegraph, 8/16/2002 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0816-03.htm | Times, 8/16/2002 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,775110,00.html | Guardian, 8/15/02 ]] ------ Interestingly, Rice does not say Iraq has chemical, biological or nuclear arms. Instead, she speaks of the danger Saddam would pose, &#8220;if he gets weapons of mass destruction and the means to deliver them.&#8221; [[ http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2002-08-15-iraq-weapons_x.htm | USA Today, 8/15/02 ]] ====== << imminentThreatQuotes >> ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) {{ commentary_tony_lloyd_2 }} August 15, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_387 false 1 ------ The Washington Post syndicated columnist Charles Krauthhammer, speaking on &#8220;Inside Washington&#8221; in a discussion with fellow Post columnist Charlie King and Post military reporter Thomas Ricks, argues in favor of the Bush administration's policy on Iraq. At one point, moderator Gordan Petersons asks what the US should do after deposing Saddam. Krauthhammer responds: &#8220;We don't speak about exit strategies; this is not Bosnia, or Haiti, or the Balkans. This is very important, everybody understands it, we are not going to run away. We are going to get there, and we are going to stay. We are going to try to make a reasonably civil society, reasonably pro-American, a good influence on the neighbors, and disarmed. That's a large undertaking, and I think we are absolutely [unintelligible] everybody who is supporting the war or the invasion is in favor of staying and doing the job.&#8221; When Thomas Ricks notes that Krauthhammer's proposal would involve nine of the US Army's ten active-duty divisions, he counters, &#8220;That assumption is entirely unwarranted. I think we will be accepted as liberators, as we were in Afghanistan.&#8221; He also shoots down a comment from Peterson referring to the cost of invading Iraq. &#8220;If we win the war, we are in control of Iraq, it is the single largest source of oil in the world, it's got huge reserves, which have been suppressed because of Iraq's actions, and Saddam's. We will have a bonanza, a financial one, at the other end, if the war is successful,&#8221; Krauthhammer explains. [[ http://www.wusatv9.com/insidewashington/insidewashington_article.aspx?storyid=8463 | WUSATV, 8/3/02 ]] ====== << motivesBehindWar >> << preWarPlanning >> ((+ Charles Krauthhammer )) August 15, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_385 false 1 ------ Former Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleberger says on ABC News that unless Mr. Hussein &#8220;has his hand on a trigger that is for a weapon of mass destruction, and our intelligence is clear, I don't know why we have to do it now, when all our allies are opposed to it.&#8221; [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/08.17A.gop.no.irq.htm | New York Times, 8/15/02 ]] ====== << maintreamDissent >> ((+ Lawrence Eagleburger )) August 16, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_391 false 1 ------ After a spate of criticism of his administration's Iraq policy from several prominent Republican former US government officials, President George Bush says from his ranch in Mount Crawford, Texas: &#8220;I am aware that some very intelligent people are expressing their opinions about Saddam Hussein and Iraq. I listen very carefully to what they have to say. I'll continue to consult.... I will use all the latest intelligence to make informed decisions about how best to keep the world at peace, how best to defend freedom for the long run.... Listen, it's a healthy debate for people to express their opinion. People should be allowed to express their opinion. But America needs to know, I'll be making up my mind based upon the latest intelligence and how best to protect our own country plus our friends and allies.&#8221; But he also adds, &#8220;There should be no doubt in anybody's mind that this man is thumbing his nose at the world, that he has gassed his own people, that he is trouble in his neighborhood, that he desires weapons of mass destruction.&#8221; [[ http://www.howardlabs.com/Headlines/HTML/870.htm | New York Times, 8/17/02 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2002/ALLPOLITICS/08/16/bush.iraq/index.html | CNN, 8/16/02 ]] [[ http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,60626,00.html | Fox News, 8/16/02 ]] ====== << wmdQuotesGeneral >> << maintreamDissent >> ((+ George W. Bush )) {{ excerpt_hamid_sohrabpour_2 }} August 18, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_365 false 1 ------ Retired General Norman Schwarzkopf, who commanded allied forces during the Gulf War, warns against invading Iraq without the support of allies. He explains: &#8220;In the Gulf War we had an international force and troops from many nations. We would be lacking if we went it alone at this time.... It is not going to be an easy battle but it would be much more effective if we didn't have to do it alone.&#8221; [[ http://www.obv.org.uk/reports/2002/rpt20020819h.html | Times, 8/19/02 ]] ====== << maintreamDissent >> ((+ Norman Schwarzkopf )) {{ duplicate_norman_schwarzkopf_2 }} August 18, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_384 false 1 ------ In a Washington Post op-ed piece, Zbigniew Brzezinski reprimands the Bush administration for its reckless foreign policy, saying that &#8220;war is too serious a business and too unpredictable in its dynamic consequences&#8212;especially in a highly flammable region&#8212;to be undertaken because of a personal peeve, demagogically articulated fears or vague factual assertions.&#8221; He adds that &#8220;[i]f it is to be war, it should be conducted in a manner that legitimizes US global hegemony and, at the same time, contributes to a more responsible system of international security.&#8221; He then makes several recommendations for improving US foreign policy, including a summary of &#8220;a wrong way for America to initiate a war.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A28822-2002Aug16.html | The Washington Post, 8/18/02 ]] ====== << maintreamDissent >> ((+ Zbigniew Brzezinski )) {{ excerpt_zbigniew_brzezinski_2 }} {{ excerpt_zbigniew_brzezinski_3 }} {{ excerpt_zbigniew_brzezinski_5 }} {{ excerpt_zbigniew_brzezinski_4 }} {{ excerpt_zbigniew_brzezinski_7 }} {{ excerpt_zbigniew_brzezinski_6 }} {{ excerpt_zbigniew_brzezinski_9 }} {{ excerpt_zbigniew_brzezinski_8 }} August 19-21, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1839 false 1 ------ 86 percent of those polled in a CNN/USA Today Gallup poll say they believe that Saddam Hussein supports terrorist groups &#8220;that have plans to attack the United States&#8221; and 53 percent think Saddam was &#8220;personally involved in the September 11th attacks.&#8221; The results are based on telephone interviews with 801 adults and the margin of error is estimated at 4 percent. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archives/2002/gallup082302.html | Gallup, 08/23/2002 ]] ====== << publicOpinion >> August 20, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_182 false 1 ------ Secretary of State Donald Rumsfeld, citing various &#8220;intelligence reports,&#8221; claims that the Iraqi government is &#8220;hosting, supporting or sponsoring&#8221; an al-Qaeda presence in Iraq. When asked if he has evidence to support this claim Rumsfeld responds: &#8220;There are al-Qaeda in a number of locations in Iraq.... The suggestion that ... [Iraqi government officials] who are so attentive in denying human rights to their population aren't aware of where these folks [al-Qaeda] are or what they're doing is ludicrous in a vicious, repressive dictatorship.&#8221; He also says, &#8220;It's very hard to imagine that the government is not aware of what's taking place in the country.&#8221; [[ http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Aug2002/t08202002_t0820sd.html | US Department of Defense, 8/20/02 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/08/20/politics/20CND-MILI.html | New York Times, 8/20/02 ]] ------ Shortly after the Defense Secretary's allegations, an unnamed intelligence official tells the Guardian, &#8220;They are not the official guests of the Government,&#8221; adding that any al-Qaeda in the region are still &#8220;on the run.&#8221; A month later, Knight Ridder reports that according to an anonymous US official, Rumsfeld's charge is based on information from Kurdish opposition groups which are feeding information to the Pentagon. (( Unnamed US official )) (( Unnamed US intelligence official )) [[ http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/08/21/1029114137295.html | Guardian, 8/22/02 ]] [[ http://www.kansas.com/mld/kansas/4150487.htm | Knight Ridder, 9/25/02 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) August 20, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_124 false 1 ------ During an interview with Fox News, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld mocks calls from Washington, Europe and the Arab world demanding that the Bush administration show them evidence to substantiate the hawk's claim that Saddam Hussein is a threat to the US and its allies. &#8220;Think of the prelude to World War Two,&#8221; the Defense Secretary says. &#8220;Think of all the countries that said, well, we don't have enough evidence. I mean, Mein Kampf had been written. Hitler had indicated what he intended to do. Maybe he won't attack us. Maybe he won't do this or that. Well, there were millions of people dead because of the miscalculations. The people who argued for waiting for more evidence have to ask themselves how they are going to feel at that point where another event occurs.&#8221; [[ http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,60818,00.html | Fox News, 8/20/03 ]] [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/08/21/wirq21.xml/ | Telegraph 8/21/02 ]] [[ http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/08/21/1029114137295.html | Guardian 8/22/02 ]] ------ Rumsfeld also says during a news conference that according to &#8220;intelligence reports,&#8221; Saddam's government is &#8220;hosting, supporting or sponsoring&#8221; an al-Qaeda presence in Iraq. Responding to a question about whether he has any evidence to support the claim that al-Qaeda is operating in Iraq, Rumsfeld states, &#8220;There are Al-Qaeda in a number of locations in Iraq.... The suggestion that ... [Iraqi government officials] who are so attentive in denying human rights to their population aren't aware of where these folks [al-Qaeda] are or what they're doing is ludicrous in a vicious, repressive dictatorship.... [I]t's very hard to imagine that the government is not aware of what's taking place in the country.&#8221; [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/08/20/politics/20CND-MILI.html | New York Times 8/20/02 ]] ------ Shortly after Rumsfeld's remarks, a senior US intelligence official tells The Guardian that there is no evidence to back the defense secretary's claims. &#8220;They are not the official guests of the Government,&#8221; a second official says, adding that any al-Qaeda in the region are still &#8220;on the run.&#8221; [[ http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/08/21/1029114137295.html | Guardian 8/22/02 ]] ====== << ChemicalBiologicalQuotes >> << imminentThreatQuotes >> << terroristTiesQuotes >> ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) {{ duplicate_donald_rumsfeld_5 }} August 21, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_378 false 1 ------ Following a trip to several Middle Eastern countries, which included meetings with several diplomats and foreign dignitaries, US Representative John Larson warns that &#8220;the innocent slaughter of Muslims will create, in essence, what Osama bin Laden was unable to do, a united Islamic jihad against us.&#8221; [[ http://www.zwire.com/site/news.cfm?newsid=5122538&amp;BRD=1641&amp;PAG=461&amp;dept_id=10110&amp;rfi=6 | New Britain Herald, 8/22/02 ]] ====== << predictions >> ((+ John Larson )) August 23, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_367 false 1 ------ In a speech to the Economic Club of Florida in Tallahassee, retired Marine General Anthony Zinni, who recently served as the president's special envoy to the Middle East, argues that there are more pressing issues than Saddam Hussein's regime in Iraq. Specifically, he points to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, instability in Afghanistan, the continuing existence of the al-Qaeda network, and the theocracy in Iran. He adds that the proposed war with Iraq would be expensive and would put considerable strain on the military's resources, which already are &#8220;stretched too tight all over the world.&#8221; Furthermore, notes the general, invading Iraq would further antagonize America's allies in the Middle East. &#8220;We need to quit making enemies that we don't need to make enemies out of,&#8221; he says. He also notes, &#8220;It's pretty interesting that all the generals see it the same way and all the others who have never fired a shot and are hot to go to war see it another way.&#8221; [[ http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/bush/zinni2.htm | Tampa Tribune, 8/24/02 ]] ====== << maintreamDissent >> ((+ James L Jones )) {{ duplicate_anthony_zinni_2 }} August 25, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_383 false 1 ------ The New York Times publishes an opinion article by James Baker, a former secretary of state and a close friend of the Bush family. In his piece, Baker writes that the US must raise a coalition and secure a broad base of support before attempting to remove Saddam Hussein by force. Although it may be possible to successfully invade the country and depose its regime, he argues, America's image would suffer irreparable damage as a consequence. Therefore, according to Baker, a unilateral preemptive strike in the midst of massive opposition from US allies in Europe and the Middle East would be detrimental to American strategic interests. [[ http://middleeastinfo.org/article1342.html | New York Times, 8/25/02 ]] ====== << maintreamDissent >> ((+ James Baker )) August 26, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_121 false 1 ------ In a speech to the Nashville convention of the Veterans of Foreign Wars, Vice President Richard Cheney says Saddam Hussein will &#8220;seek domination of the entire Middle East, take control of a great portion of the world's energy supplies, directly threaten America's friends throughout the region and subject the United States or any other nation to nuclear blackmail.&#8221; He also states unequivocally that Iraq has weapons of mass destruction. &#8220;Simply stated, there is no doubt that Saddam Hussein now has weapons of mass destruction,&#8221; he says. &#8220;There is no doubt that he is amassing them to use against our friends, against our allies and against us ... What he wants is time, and more time to husband his resources to invest in his ongoing chemical and biological weapons program, and to gain possession of nuclear weapons.&#8221; Therefore he argues, the answer is not weapons inspections. &#8220;Against that background, a person would be right to question any suggestion that we should just get inspectors back into Iraq, and then our worries will be over. Saddam has perfected the game of shoot and retreat, and is very skilled in the art of denial and deception. A return of inspectors would provide no assurance whatsoever of his compliance with UN resolutions.&#8221; [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/08/26/international/middleeast/26WEB-CHENEY.html | New York Times, 8/26/02 ]] ------ Cheney's speech marks the first major statement from the White House regarding the Bush administration's Iraq policy following a flood of criticisms from former officials. Significantly, the speech was not cleared by the CIA or the State Department. (( Unnamed sources interviewed by Newsweek )) [[ http://msnbc.msn.com/id/3068035/ | Newsweek, 9/9/02 ]] ------ Furthermore, Cheney's comments dismissing the need for the return of inspectors, were not cleared by President Bush. (( Andrew Card )) [[ http://msnbc.msn.com/id/3068035/ | Newsweek, 9/9/02 ]] ------ Three days after the speech, a State Department source tells CNN that Powell's view clashes with that which was presented in Cheney's speech, explaining that the Secretary of State is opposed to any military action in which the US would &#8220;go it alone ... as if it doesn't give a damn&#8221; what other nations think. The source also says that Powell and &#8220;others in the State Department were &#8216;blindsided&#8217; by Cheney's &#8216;time is running out&#8217; speech ... and were just as surprised as everyone else,&#8221; CNN reports. (( Unnamed source interviewed by CNN )) [[ http://www.cnn.com/2002/US/08/30/powell.iraq/ | CNN, 8/30/02 ]] ====== << maintreamDissent >> << nuclearQuotes >> << ChemicalBiologicalQuotes >> ((+ Colin Powell )) ((+ Dick Cheney )) {{ statement_dick_cheney_11 }} {{ statement_dick_cheney_12 }} {{ statement_dick_cheney_13 }} {{ statement_dick_cheney_10 }} {{ statement_dick_cheney_9 }} {{ statement_dick_cheney_8 }} {{ statement_dick_cheney_7 }} {{ duplicate_dick_cheney_2 }} August 27, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_498 false 1 ------ Speaking to US Marines of the 1st Marine Division at Camp Pendleton in California, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld says: &#8220;Leadership in the right direction finds followers and supporters.... It's less important to have unanimity than it is making the right decision and doing the right thing, even though at the outset it may seem lonesome.&#8221; [[ http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Aug2002/t08282002_t0827thm.html | US Department of Defense, 8/27/03 ]] [[ http://www.firstcoastnews.com/news/2002-08-28/usw_gop.asp | Associated Press, 8/28/02 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) Late August 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_389 false 1 ------ Gideon Ezra, Israel's deputy interior minister, says, &#8220;The more aggressive the attack is, the more it will help Israel against the Palestinians. The understanding would be that what is good to do in Iraq, is also good for here.&#8221; He also says that a US invasion of Iraq would &#8220;undoubtedly deal a psychological blow&#8221; to the Palestinians. [[ http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0830/p08s01-wome.htm | Christian Science Monitor, 8/30/02 ]] ====== << motivesBehindWar >> ((+ Gideon Ezra )) Late August 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_390 false 1 ------ Yuval Steinitz, a Likud party member of the Knesset's Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee, suggests that the imposition of a pro-American regime in Baghdad would ease Israel's discomfort with Syria, which it views as a threat. Steinitz says, &#8220;After Iraq is taken by US troops and we see a new regime installed as in Afghanistan, and Iraqi bases become American bases, it will be very easy to pressure Syria to stop supporting terrorist organizations like Hizbullah and Islamic Jihad, to allow the Lebanese army to dismantle Hizbullah, and maybe to put an end to the Syrian occupation in Lebanon. If this happens we will really see a new Middle East.&#8221; [[ http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0830/p08s01-wome.htm | Christian Science Monitor, 8/30/02 ]] ====== << motivesBehindWar >> ((+ Yuval Steinitz )) September 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_343 false 1 ------ James Woolsey tells the Washington Post: &#8220;It's pretty straightforward. France and Russia have oil companies and interests in Iraq. They should be told that if they are of assistance in moving Iraq toward decent government, we'll do the best we can to ensure that the new government and American companies work closely with them..... If they throw in their lot with Saddam, it will be difficult to the point of impossible to persuade the new Iraqi government to work with them.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A18841-2002Sep14.html | The Washington Post, 9/15/02 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ James Woolsey )) {{ statement_curt_weldon_2 }} September 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1 false 1 ------ The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) issues an 80-plus-page classified report titled, &#8220;Iraq: Key Weapons Facilities&#8212;An Operational Support Study,&#8221; concluding that there is insufficient evidence to substantiate the claim that Iraq has an ongoing chemical weapons program or that Iraq still has biological weapons capabilities. (( Iraq: Key Weapons Facilities&mdash;An Operational Support Study )) [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/unmovic/2003/0609conseq.htm | US News and World Report, 6/9/03 ]] [[ http://quote.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=10000087&amp;sid=anFlpqtus8H8&amp;refer=home# | Bloomberg News, 6/6/03 ]] ------ When this is reported in the press in June 2003, Michael Anton, a spokesman with the National Security Council, immediately denies that the report suggested the administration had misrepresented intelligence. &#8220;The entire report paints a different picture than the selective quotes would lead you to believe. The entire report is consistent with [sic] the president was saying at the time,&#8221; he claims. [[ http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,88767,00.html | Fox News, 6/6/03 ]] ------ But two Pentagon officials confirm to Fox News that according to the report, the Defense Intelligence Agency indeed had no hard evidence of Iraqi chemical weapons. [[ http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,88767,00.html | Fox News, 6/6/03 ]] ====== << deception >> << wmd >> ((+ Iraq: Key Weapons Facilities&mdash;An Operational Support Study )) {{ statement_unnamed_us_intelligence_officials_2 }} {{ excerpt_iraq:_key_weapons_facilities&mdash;an_operational_support_study_5 }} {{ statement_vice_admiral_lowell_jacoby_2 }} {{ excerpt_iraq:_key_weapons_facilities&mdash;an_operational_support_study_6 }} {{ excerpt_iraq:_key_weapons_facilities&mdash;an_operational_support_study_4 }} {{ statement_joe_mcmillan_2 }} {{ excerpt_iraq:_key_weapons_facilities&mdash;an_operational_support_study_3 }} {{ excerpt_iraq:_key_weapons_facilities&mdash;an_operational_support_study_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_us_department_of_defense_official_2 }} September 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_33 false 1 ------ Representatives from the Central Intelligence Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency, National Security Agency, National Imagery and Mapping Agency, the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research and the Energy Department's intelligence agency meet to discuss the draft of the 2002 National Intelligence Estimate on Iraq, which will be published the following month (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_7 ]]). ------ Representing the DOE's intelligence service is Thomas Ryder, who is temporarily filling in as the office's acting director. Significantly, Ryder is a &#8220;human resources guy&#8221; with no intelligence background. &#8220;Ryder is not an intelligence guy by any stretch of the imagination,&#8221; a DOE source will later explain to World Net Daily. &#8220;He [has] ... no intel background whatsoever. He [works] on all the personnel stuff&#8212;paperwork for promotions, hiring contractors, stuff like that.&#8221; At the meeting, Ryder is supposed to represent the position of the DOE's scientists and intelligence officers, who believe that Iraq has not reconstituted its nuclear weapons program. Scientists in the Energy Department as well as officers in the department's intelligence office want to join the INR in its dissenting vote. One official will later explain to World Net Daily, &#8220;Senior folks in the office wanted to join INR on the footnote, and even wanted to write it with them, so the footnote would have read, &#8216;Energy and INR.&#8217; &#8221; (( Unnamed US official )) [[ http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=33948 | World Net Daily, 8/12/03 ]] [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] ------ Instead Ryder will side with the other intelligence agencies who claim that Iraq has reconstituted its nuclear weapons program. An official later tells World Net Daily that when Ryder and his staff were arguing over Iraq's alleged program during a pre-brief, Ryder told them to &#8220;shut up and sit down.&#8221; (( Unnamed US official )) [[ http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=34042 | World Net Daily, 8/12/03 ]] ------ When the voting takes place, Ryder does not sign his department onto the State Department's dissenting opinion. As a result, the final vote is a near unanimous 5-1. &#8220;Time comes for the Iraq NIE, and instead of being hard-charging and proactive and pulling everybody together, he just didn't know what to do,&#8221; one source later says. &#8220;He wasn't a strong advocate. He just didn't have the background. He didn't have the gravitas.&#8221; The Department of Energy's position on the issue is considered very important. &#8220;Energy's vote on the nuclear allegation was critical, because the department is viewed as the final arbiter of technical disputes regarding nuclear-proliferation issues,&#8221; World Net Daily will note. (( Unnamed US official )) [[ http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=33948 | World Net Daily, 8/12/03 ]] [[ http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=34042 | World Net Daily, 8/12/03 ]] ------ While serving in the temporary DOE position, Ryder, who is said to be close to Secretary Spencer Abraham, receives bonuses totaling $20,500. Energy insiders will say they cannot remember a previous instance where an intelligence chief had been provided with such a large bonus. &#8220;That's a hell of a lot of money for an intelligence director who had no experience or background in intelligence, and who'd only been running the office for nine months,&#8221; one official says. &#8220;Something's fishy.&#8221; [[ http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=34042 | World Net Daily, 8/12/03 ]] ====== << deception >> ((+ Thomas S. Ryder )) ((+ Spencer Abraham )) {{ commentary_david_albright_5 }} September 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_78 false 1 ------ Undersecretary of Defense for Policy Douglas J. Feith and Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz, adamant hawks, rename the Northern Gulf Affairs Office on the Pentagon's fourth floor (in the seventh corridor of D Ring) the &#8220;Office of Special Plans&#8221; (OSP) and increase its four-person staff to sixteen. (( Greg Thielmann )) (( Unnamed administration official )) (( Karen Kwiatkowski )) [[ http://www.dfw.com/mld/dfw/3871853.htm | Knight Ridder Newspapers, 8/16/02 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/latimes112402b.html | Los Angeles Times, 11/24/02 ]] [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030512fa_fact | New Yorker, 5/5/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0807-02.htm | Inter Press Service, 8/7/03 ]] [[ http://amconmag.com/12_1_03/feature.html | American Conservative, 12/1/03 ]] [[ http://www.tompaine.com/feature2.cfm/ID/8725 | Tom Paine [.com], 8/27/03 ]] [[ http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html | Mother Jones, 1/04 ]] ------ William Luti, a former navy officer and ex-aide to Vice President Cheney, is put in charge of the day-to-day operations. [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,999737,00.html | Guardian, 7/17/03 ]] [[ http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html | Mother Jones, 1/04 ]] ------ The Office of Special Plans is staffed with a tight group of like-minded neoconservative ideologues, who are known advocates of regime change in Iraq. Notably, the staffers have little background in intelligence or Iraqi history and culture. (( Karen Kwiatkowski )) (( A Pentagon adviser )) (( Greg Thielmann )) [[ http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article4124.htm | Salon, 7/16/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0807-02.htm | Inter Press Service, 8/7/03 ]] [[ http://amconmag.com/12_1_03/feature.html | American Conservative, 12/1/03 ]] [[ http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html | Mother Jones, 1/04 ]] ------ They hire &#8220;scores of temporary &#8216;consultants&#8217; ... including like-minded lawyers, congressional staffers, and policy wonks from the numerous rightwing think-tanks in the US capital.&#8221; Neoconservative ideologues, like Richard Perle and Newt Gingrich, are afforded direct input into the Office of Special Plans. [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,999737,00.html | Guardian, 7/17/03 ]] [[ http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html | Mother Jones, 1/04 ]] ------ The office works alongside the Near East and South Asia (NESA) bureau, also under the authority of Douglas Feith (( Karen Kwiatkowski )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0807-02.htm | Inter Press Service, 8/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html | Mother Jones, 1/04 ]] ------ The official business of Special Plans is to help plan for post-Saddam Iraq. The office's staff members presumably &#8220;develop defense policies aimed at building an international coalition, prepare the secretary of defense and his top deputies for interagency meetings, coordinate troop-deployment orders, craft policies for dealing with prisoners of war and illegal combatants, postwar assistance and reconstruction policy planning, postwar governance, Iraqi oil infrastructure policy, postwar Iraqi property disputes, war crimes and atrocities, war-plan review and, in their spare time, prepare congressional testimony for their principals.&#8221; [[ http://perspectives.zambezitimes.com/fullcom.php?id_comm=34 | Insight, 12/2/03 ]] ------ But according to numerous well-placed sources, the office becomes a source for many of the administration's prewar allegations against Iraq. It is accused of exaggerating, politicizing, and misrepresenting intelligence, which is &#8220;stovepiped&#8221; to top administration officials who use the intelligence in their policy decisions on Iraq. (( Greg Thielmann )) (( Unnamed administration official )) (( Karen Kwiatkowski )) [[ http://www.dfw.com/mld/dfw/3871853.htm | Knight Ridder Newspapers, 8/16/02 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/latimes112402b.html | Los Angeles Times, 11/24/02 ]] [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030512fa_fact | New Yorker, 5/5/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0807-02.htm | Inter Press Service, 8/7/03 ]] [[ http://amconmag.com/12_1_03/feature.html | American Conservative, 12/1/03 ]] [[ http://www.tompaine.com/feature2.cfm/ID/8725 | Tom Paine [.com], 8/27/03 ]] [[ http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html | Mother Jones, 1/04 ]] [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2004/07/11/wsept11.xml&amp;sSheet=/news/2004/07/11/ixnewstop.html | Telegraph, 7/11/2004 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/07/11/senate.pentagon/ | CNN, 7/11/2004 ]] ------ Colin Powell is said to have felt that Cheney and the neoconservatives in this &#8220;Gestapo&#8221; office had established what was essentially a separate government. (( Top officials interviewed by Washington Post editor Bob Woodward )) [[ http://msnbc.msn.com/id/4761041/ | Woodward, 2004 cited in Washington Post 1/18/2004 ]] ------ Some of the people associated with this office were earlier involved with the Counter Terrorism Evaluation Group, also known as the &#8220;Wurmser-Maloof&#8221; project (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_82 ]]). ------ Among the claims critics find most troubling about the office are: --- * --- The office relies heavily on accounts from Iraqi exiles and defectors associated with Ahmed Chalabi's Iraqi National Congress (INC), long considered suspect by other US intelligence agencies. (( Greg Thielmann )) (( Unnamed administration official )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0807-02.htm | Inter Press Service, 8/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,999737,00.html | Guardian, 7/17/03 ]] [[ http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article4124.htm | Salon, 7/16/03 ]] [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030512fa_fact | New Yorker, 5/5/03 ]] [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/americas/story.jsp?story=448353 | Independent, 9/30/03 ]] [[ http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html | Mother Jones, 1/04 ]] ------ One defector in particular, code-named &#8220;Curve Ball,&#8221; provides as much as 98% of the intelligence on Iraq's alleged arsenal of biological weapons. [[ http://www.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/07/11/senate.pentagon/ | CNN, 7/11/2004 ]] ------ Much of the information provided by the INC's sources consists of &#8220;misleading and often faked intelligence reports,&#8221; which often flow to Special Plans and NESA directly, &#8220;sometimes through Defense Intelligence Agency debriefings of Iraqi defectors via the Defense Human Intelligence Service and sometimes through the INC's own US-funded Intelligence Collection Program, which was overseen by the Pentagon.&#8221; [[ http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html | Mother Jones, 1/04 ]] ------ According to Karen Kwiatkowski, the movement of intelligence from the INC to the Office of Special Plans is facilitated by Colonel Bruner, a former military aide to Gingrich. (( Memo )) (( Karen Kwiatkowski )) [[ http://msnbc.msn.com/id/3660169/ | Newsweek, 12/15/03 ]] [[ http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html | Mother Jones, 1/04 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0310-09.htm | Salon, 3/10/2004 ]] ------ Bruner &#8220;was Chalabi's handler,&#8221; Kwiatkowski will tell Mother Jones. &#8220;He would arrange meetings with Chalabi and Chalabi's folks.&#8221; (( Karen Kwiatkowski )) [[ http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html | Mother Jones, 1/04 ]] --- * --- The Office of Special Plans purposefully ignores intelligence that undermines the case for war while exaggerating any leads that support it. &#8220;It wasn't intelligence,&#8212;it was propaganda,&#8221; Karen Kwiatkowski, who worked at the NESA desk, will later explain. &#8220;They'd take a little bit of intelligence, cherry-pick it, make it sound much more exciting, usually by taking it out of context, often by juxtaposition of two pieces of information that don't belong together.&#8221; (( Greg Thielmann )) (( Ellen Tauscher )) (( Unnamed former intelligence official )) [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030512fa_fact | New Yorker, 5/5/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/10/24/international/24INTE.html | New York Times, 10/24/02 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0807-02.htm | Inter Press Service, 8/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,999737,00.html | Guardian, 7/17/03 ]] [[ http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article4124.htm | Salon, 7/16/03 ]] [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/americas/story.jsp?story=448353 | Independent, 9/30/03 ]] [[ http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html | Mother Jones, 1/04 ]] --- * --- The OSP bypasses established oversight procedures by sending its intelligence assessments directly to the White House and National Security Council without having them first vetted by a review process involving other US intelligence agencies. (( Unnamed senior officer who left the Pentagon during the planning of the Iraq war )) (( David Obey )) (( Greg Thielmann )) [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,999737,00.html | Guardian, 7/17/03 ]] [[ http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article4124.htm | Salon, 7/16/03 ]] [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030512fa_fact | New Yorker, 5/5/03 ]] [[ http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html | Mother Jones, 1/04 ]] ------ The people at Special Plans are so successful at bypassing conventional procedures, in part, because their neoconservative colleagues hold key positions in several other agencies and offices. Their contacts in other agencies include: John Bolton, Undersecretary of State for Arms Control and International; Bolton's advisor, David Wurmser, a former research fellow on the Middle East at the American Enterprise Institute, who was just recently working in a secret Pentagon planning unit at Douglas Feith's office (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_82 ]]); Elizabeth Cheney, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Near East Affairs; Stephen Hadley, the deputy national security adviser; Elliott Abrams, The National Security Council's top Middle East aide; and Richard Perle, Newt Gingrich, James Woolsey and Kenneth Adelman of the Defense Policy Board. The office provides very little information about its work to other US intelligence offices. (( David Obey )) (( Karen Kwiatkowski )) (( Greg Thielmann )) (( Unnamed An unnamed senior officer who left the Pentagon during the planning of the Iraq war )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0807-02.htm | Inter Press Service, 8/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,999737,00.html | Guardian, 7/17/03 ]] [[ http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article4124.htm | Salon, 7/16/03 ]] --- * --- Lastly, the people involved in Special Plans openly exhibit strong pro-Israel and anti-Arab bias. The problem, note critics, is that the analysis of intelligence is supposed to be apolitical and untainted by ideological viewpoints. (( Karen Kwiatkowski )) [[ http://amconmag.com/12_1_03/feature.html | American Conservative, 12/1/03 ]] ------ According to a CIA intelligence official and four members of the Senate's Intelligence Committee, Special Plans is the group responsible for the claim Bush will make in his 2003 State of the Union address that Iraq had attempted to procure uranium from an African country (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_92 ]]). [[ http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article4123.htm | Information Clearing House, 7/16/03 ]] [[ http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml?i=20030707&amp;s=dreyfuss | The Nation, 6/19/03 ]] ------ After the existence of the Office of Special Plans is revealed to the public, the Pentagon will deny that it served as a direct conduit to the White House for misleading intelligence, instead claiming that its activities had been limited to postwar plans for Iraq. [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030512fa_fact | New Yorker, 5/5/03 ]] ------ And a December 2003 opinion piece published in Insight magazine will call the allegations surrounding the Office of Special Plans the work of conspiracy theorists. [[ http://perspectives.zambezitimes.com/fullcom.php?id_comm=34 | Insight, 12/2/03 ]] ====== << deception >> << officeOfSpecialPlans >> ((+ Kenneth Adelman )) ((+ James Woolsey )) ((+ Colonel Bruner )) ((+ Colin Powell )) ((+ Newt Gingrich )) ((+ Douglas Feith )) ((+ Richard Perle )) ((+ Stephen Hadley )) ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) ((+ Abram Shulsky )) ((+ Elliott Abrams )) ((+ Elizabeth Cheney )) ((+ David Wurmser )) ((+ Karen Kwiatkowski )) {{ commentary_vince_cannistraro_5 }} {{ statement_karen_kwiatkowski_6 }} {{ commentary_greg_thielmann_13 }} {{ commentary_seymour_hersh_5 }} {{ statement_greg_thielmann_16 }} {{ statement_richard_clarke_8 }} {{ statement_melvin_a._goodman_2 }} {{ statement_karen_kwiatkowski_10 }} {{ statement_unnamed_former_intelligence_official_2 }} {{ statement_karen_kwiatkowski_7 }} {{ statement_karen_kwiatkowski_9 }} {{ commentary_ellen_tauscher_2 }} {{ commentary_steve_aftergood_2 }} {{ statement_greg_thielmann_15 }} {{ statement_david_obey_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_senior_official_3 }} {{ statement_karen_kwiatkowski_8 }} {{ statement_greg_thielmann_14 }} {{ statement_unnamed_senior_officer_who_left_the_pentagon_during_the_planning_of_ the_iraq_war_2 }} September 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1213 false 1 ------ The CIA completes a highly classified report on &#8220;Iraqi Ties to Terrorism,&#8221; summarizing claims that Iraq has provided &#8220;training in poisons and gases&#8221; to members of al-Qaeda. The report warns that evidence for the claim comes from &#8220;sources of varying reliability&#8221; and has not yet been substanitated. The main source behind this allegation, Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi, who once operated bin Laden's Khalden terrorist camp in Afghanistan and who is being held in custody by the CIA, will later recant the claim (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1214 ]]). [[ http://msnbc.msn.com/id/5305085/site/newsweek/ | Newsweek, 7/5/2004 ]] [[ http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article6587.htm | The New York Times, 7/31/2004 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((- Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi )) September 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_150 false 1 ------ An unnamed Pentagon official tells USA Today that the hawks' recent assertions regarding Iraq-al Qaeda ties are &#8220;exaggeration[s].&#8221; (( Unnamed Pentagon official )) [[ http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2002-09-26-iraq-alqaeda_x.htm | USA Today, 9/26/02 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> Before September 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_113 false 1 ------ According to a senior intelligence official interviewed by the Associated Press in June of 2003, the CIA shares with Britain the results of Joseph Wilson's trip to Niger (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_106 ]]), advising British intelligence that claims that Iraq attempted to procure uranium from Niger are unsubstantiated. But another report, by the Guardian in London the following month, contradicts this AP report. It cites a series of letters to the British Foreign Affairs Committee which show that the US had asked Britain not to use the Africa-uranium claim, but did not provide details about Wilson's mission to Niger. [[ http://www.mail-archive.com/marxist-leninist-list@lists.econ.utah.edu/msg03645.html | Associated Press, 6/12/03 ]] [[ http://observer.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,6903,997243,00.html | Observer, 7/13/03 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/time072103.htm | Time Magazine, 7/21/2003 ]] ------ In spite of this warning, Britain publishes a dossier in September which includes the claim.(see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_475 ]]) ====== << africaUraniumClaim >> ((- Joseph C. Wilson )) (Early September 2002) complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1229 false 1 ------ Democratic senators begin pressing for a new National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) on Iraq. They want it completed before they vote on a resolution that would authorize the use of force against Iraq. Though NIEs usually take months to prepare, US intelligence services will finish the report by the beginning of the following month (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_7 ]]). The last NIE on Iraq had been done in 2000. [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1109-12.htm | Independent, 11/3/03 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> ((+ Joe T. )) September 1, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_372 false 1 ------ In an interview with the BBC, Powell states that he favors the return of UN inspectors as a necessary &#8220;first step&#8221; in dealing with Iraq. He says: &#8220;Iraq has been in violation of these many UN resolutions for most of the last 11 or so years. So as a first step, let's see what the inspectors find, send them back in, why are they being kept out.&#8221; Regarding the decision of whether or not the use of military action would be required, he says: &#8220;The world has to be presented with the information, with the intelligence that is available. A debate is needed within the international community so that everybody can make a judgment about this.&#8221; [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/americas/story.jsp?story=329676 | Independent, 9/2/03 ]] ------ His comments directly contradict statements made by Vice President Dick Cheney in a speech to the Commonwealth Club of California in San Francisco on August 7 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_371 ]]), and another speech to the Nashville convention of the Veterans of Foreign Wars on August 26 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_121 ]]). Interestingly, it also comes one day after Scott McClellan, the White House deputy press secretary, told reporters, &#8220;The view of the administration is united and one in the same. We are singing from the same songbook.&#8221; [[ http://www.cnn.com/2002/US/08/30/powell.iraq/ | CNN, 8/30/02 ]] ------ But commentators are concluding otherwise, which spurs another statement from Washington, this one from White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer, who the next day tells reporters as they accompany him on Air Force One: &#8220;There is no difference in position between Cheney, Powell, and President Bush. It's much ado about no difference.&#8221; [[ http://www.cnn.com/2002/ALLPOLITICS/09/02/whitehouse.iraq/ | CNN, 9/03/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Colin Powell )) ((+ Ari Fleischer )) ((+ Scott McClellan )) September 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_151 false 1 ------ A US official with inside knowledge of the interrogations of detainees at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, tells USA Today that the administration's recent assertions that Iraq has trained al-Qaeda members are based on uncorroborated information from a single detainee. The source also notes that the detainees may be lying to US authorities to encourage a US invasion of Iraq in order to add support to the al-Qaeda argument &#8220;that the United States is the mortal enemy of Muslim countries.&#8221; (( Unnamed US official )) [[ http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2002-09-26-iraq-alqaeda_x.htm | USA Today, 9/26/02 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> September 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_148 false 1 ------ Senior intelligence officials tell the Washington Post that the CIA has yet to find solid evidence that Saddam Hussein has ties to global terrorism despite substantial efforts including analysis of surveillance photos and communications intercepts. (( Unnamed senior intelligence officials )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A59403-2002Sep9.html | Washington Post, 9/10/02 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A3206-2002Sep25.html | Washington Post, 9/26/02 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((- Saddam Hussein )) September 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_363 false 1 ------ Retired General Wesley Clark writes a piece in the Washington Monthly, titled, &#8220;An Army of One: In the war on terrorism, alliances are not an obstacle to victory. They're the key to it,&#8221; in which he argues that it is a &#8220;fundamental misjudgment&#8221; to continue the war on terrorism in the absence of NATO support. He refers to NATO's war in Kosovo repeatedly in his essay using it as an example of how he thinks a just and effective war should be fought. He also says that cooperation with its European allies is crucial if the Bush administration wants to prevent future terrorist attacks, noting that most of the terrorist planning and preparations for the 9-11 attacks took place in terrorist cells in Europe. [[ http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/features/2001/0209.clark.html | The Washington Monthly, 9/2002 ]] ====== << maintreamDissent >> ((+ Wesley Clark )) {{ statement_wesley_clark_6 }} {{ statement_wesley_clark_5 }} {{ statement_wesley_clark_4 }} September 2002-2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_85 false 1 ------ The US and British repeatedly assert that Iraq has sought to obtain uranium from an African country. In most cases the African country is not named, though it later becomes evident that the country in question is Niger. ====== << wmd >> << deception >> << africaUraniumClaim >> {{ statement_iraq_s_weapons_of_mass_destruction&mdash;the_assessment_of_the_british_government_2 }} {{ statement_donald_rumsfeld_4 }} {{ statement_condoleezza_rice_5 }} {{ statement_tony_blair_3 }} {{ statement_illustrative_examples_of_omissions_from_the_iraqi_declaration_to_the_united_nations_security_council_2 }} {{ statement_paul_wolfowitz_3 }} {{ statement_colin_powell_2 }} {{ statement_george_w._bush_3 }} {{ statement_white_house_website_2 }} {{ statement_what_does_disarmament_look_like?_2 }} {{ statement_a_report_on_matters_relevant_to_the_authorization_for_use_of_military_force_against_iraq_2 }} September 3, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_125 false 1 ------ During a Defense Department news briefing, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld says: &#8220;We know that they were a lot closer than any of the experts had estimated they would be with respect to [developing] a nuclear weapon. To the extent that they have kept their nuclear scientists together and working on these efforts, one has to assume they've not been playing tiddlywinks.&#8221; [[ http://www.centcom.mil/CENTCOMNews/transcripts/20020903.htm | Centcom, 9/3/2002 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/ap090302.htm | Associated Press 9/3/02 ]] [[ http://www.washtimes.com/upi-breaking/20020903-041327-7431r.htm | UPI 9/3/02 ]] ====== << nuclearQuotes >> ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) {{ duplicate_donald_rumsfeld_6 }} September 4, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_388 false 1 ------ The Washington Post publishes an op-ed piece by James Webb, a former assistant secretary of defense and secretary of the Navy, warning that the neoconservatives' plan to invade Iraq would commit the US to a long term occupation of Iraq. &#8220;The issue before us is not simply whether the United States should end the regime of Saddam Hussein, but whether we as a nation are prepared to physically occupy territory in the Middle East for the next 30 to 50 years. Those who are pushing for a unilateral war in Iraq know full well that there is no exit strategy if we invade and stay. This reality was the genesis of a rift that goes back to the Gulf War itself, when neoconservatives were vocal in their calls for &#8216;a MacArthurian regency in Baghdad.&#8217; Their expectation is that the United States would not only change Iraq's regime but also remain as a long-term occupation force in an attempt to reconstruct Iraqi society itself.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A34847-2002Sep3.html | The Washington Post, 9/4/02 ]] ====== << predictions >> << maintreamDissent >> ((+ James Webb )) September 4, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_2015 false 1 ------ Over 1,400 relatives of 9/11 attack victims sue Iraq for more than $1 trillion, claiming there is evidence Iraq conspired with al-Qaeda on the 9/11 attacks. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/cbs120802.html | CBS News, 9/5/02 ]] ------ One of the key pieces of evidence cited is an article in a small town Iraqi newspaper written by Naeem Abd Muhalhal on July 21, 2001. He describes bin Laden thinking &#8220;seriously, with the seriousness of the Bedouin of the desert, about the way he will try to bomb the Pentagon after he destroys the White House.&#8221; He adds that bin Laden is &#8220;insisting very convincingly that he will strike America on the arm that is already hurting,&#8221; which has been interpreted as a possible reference to the 1993 bombing of the WTC. Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein apparently praised this writer on September 1, 2001. The lawsuit is based largely on the idea that &#8220;Iraqi officials were aware of plans to attack American landmarks,&#8221; yet did not warn their archenemy, the US. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/ap090402b.html | Associated Press, 9/4/02 ]] ------ Former CIA agent and terrorist consultant Robert Baer is hired by the prosecuting legal team to find evidence of a meeting between Mohamed Atta and Iraqi agents on April 8, 2001, but despite the help of the CIA, he is unable find any evidence of such a meeting. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/cbs120802.html | CBS News, 9/5/02 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((+ Robert Baer )) September 7, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_28 false 1 ------ During a joint press conference with US President George W. Bush and British Prime Minister Tony Blair, the two leaders make 2 false and misleading statements, which are quickly contested by experts. --- * --- Tony Blair states, &#8220;We only need to look at the report from the International Atomic Agency [IAEA] this morning showing what has been going on at the former nuclear weapons sites to realize that&#8221; Saddam is a real threat. [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/09/20020907-2.html | White House, 9/7/02 ]] ------ But no such report exists. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0927-08.htm | Washington Times, 9/27/02 ]] ------ What Blair is actually referring to is a set of commercial satellite photographs showing signs of new construction at a site the US had bombed in 1998. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/msnbc090702.htm | MSNBC 9/7/02 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/september11/story/0,11209,798175,00.html | Guardian 9/9/02 ]] [[ http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2002-09-10-iraq-weapons_x.htm | Associated Press, 9/10/02 ]] ------ That same day, Mark Gwozdecky, a spokesman for the UN agency, says the agency had drawn no conclusion from those photographs. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/msnbc090702.htm | MSNBC 9/7/02 ]] ------ On September 9, the Guardian of London will report that according to &#8220;a well-placed source&#8221; the photographs do not support Blair's statement. &#8220;You cannot draw any conclusions,&#8221; the source explains. &#8220;The satellites were only looking at the top of a roof. You cannot tell without inspectors on the ground.&#8221; [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,788469,00.html | Guardian, 9/9/02 ]] ------ [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,788469,00.html | Guardian, 9/9/02 ]] ------ The following day, Hans Blix, head of UNMOVIC, will similarly tell reporters: &#8220;... satellites don't see through roofs. So we are not drawing conclusions from them. But it would be an important element in where, maybe, we want to go to inspect and monitor.&#8221; [[ http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2002-09-10-iraq-weapons_x.htm | Associated Press, 9/10/02 ]] [[ http://www.globeandmail.com/servlet/ArticleNews/PEstory/TGAM/20020911/UUNITN/Headlines/headdex/headdexInternational_temp/5/5/27/ | The Globe and Mail, 9/11/02 ]] --- * --- Bush asserts, &#8220;I would remind you that when the inspectors first went into Iraq and were denied&#8212;finally denied access [in 1998], a report came out of the Atomic&#8212;the IAEA that they were six months away from developing a weapon,&#8221; adding, &#8220;I don't know what more evidence we need.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/09/20020907-2.html | White House, 9/7/02 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0927-08.htm | Washington Times, 9/27/02 ]] ------ But Bush's statement is quickly refuted by an MSNBC news report published later that day, which includes an excerpt from the summary of the 1998 IAEA report Bush cited. The summary reads, &#8220;[B]ased on all credible information available to date ... the IAEA has found no indication of Iraq having achieved its program goal of producing nuclear weapons or of Iraq having retained a physical capability for the production of weapon-useable nuclear material or having clandestinely obtained such material.&#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/msnbc090702.htm | MSNBC 9/7/02 ]] ------ The text of the actual report, authored by IAEA Director-General Mohamed ElBaradei, reads: &#8220;There are no indications that there remains in Iraq any physical capability for the production of weapon-usable nuclear material of any practical significance.&#8221; [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0927-08.htm | Washington Times, 9/27/02 ]] ------ When confronted by MSNBC reporters on this point, an unnamed senior White House official states, &#8220;What happened was, we formed our own conclusions based on the report.&#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/msnbc090702.htm | MSNBC 9/7/02 ]] ------ Later, when The Washington Times presses Deputy Press Secretary Scott McClellan for an explanation, he says, &#8220;[Bush is] referring to 1991 there. In '91, there was a report saying that after the war they found out they were about six months away.&#8221; But this too is challenged by Mr. Gwozdecky, spokesman for the UN agency, who says that no such report was ever published by the IAEA in 1991. Apparently the President's accusations are based on two news articles that were published more than a decade ago&#8212; &#8220;a July 16 [2001] story in the London Times by Michael Evans and a July 18 [2001] story in the New York Times by Paul Lewis.&#8221; But as The Washington Times notes, &#8220;Neither article cites an IAEA report on Iraq's nuclear-weapons program or states that Saddam was only six months away from &#8216;developing a weapon&#8217; &#8212;as claimed by Mr. Bush.&#8221; Instead the two news articles reported that at that time, UN inspectors had concluded that Iraq was only six months away from the large-scale production of enriched uranium. But as the 1998 report shows, both 1991 news stories are outdated. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0927-08.htm | Washington Times, 9/27/02 ]] ====== << deception >> ((+ Mohamed ElBaradei )) ((+ Tony Blair )) ((+ Scott McClellan )) ((+ Mark Gwozdecky )) ((+ George W. Bush )) {{ duplicate_george_w._bush_2 }} {{ duplicate_tony_blair_2 }} {{ duplicate_unknown_2 }} {{ duplicate_unknown_2 }} September 8, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_129 false 1 ------ Secretary of State Colin Powell responds to a speech former UN Chief Weapons Inspector Scott Ritter made to Iraq's parliament and a cadre of foreign reporters, in which the former weapons inspector had stated: &#8220;The truth is Iraq is not a threat to its neighbors and it is not acting in a manner which threatens anyone outside its borders. Military action against Iraq cannot be justified.&#8221; [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/attack/2002/0908exinspector.htm | Associated Press 9/8/02 ]] ------ Ritter had also stated: &#8220;The rhetoric of fear that is disseminated by my government and others has not to date been backed up by hard facts to substantiate any allegations that Iraq is today in possession of weapons of mass destruction or has links to terror groups responsible for attacking the United States. Void of such facts, all we have is speculation.&#8221; [[ http://www.newsmax.com/showinsidecover.shtml?a=2002/9/8/110715 | Newsmax 9/8/02 ]] ------ In response, Powell says on &#8220;Fox News Sunday&#8221; : &#8220;We have facts, not speculation. Scott is certainly entitled to his opinion but I'm afraid that I would not place the security of my nation and the security of our friends in the region on that kind of an assertion by somebody who's not in the intelligence chain any longer... If Scott is right, then why are they keeping the inspectors out? If Scott is right, why don't they say, &#8216;Anytime, any place, anywhere, bring'em in, everybody come in&#8212;we are clean?&#8217; The reason is they are not clean. And we have to find out what they have and what we're going to do about it. And that's why it's been the policy of this government to insist that Iraq be disarmed in accordance with the terms of the relevant UN resolutions.&#8221; [[ http://www.newsmax.com/showinsidecover.shtml?a=2002/9/8/110715 | Newsmax 9/8/02 ]] ====== << wmdQuotesGeneral >> ((+ Colin Powell )) {{ duplicate_colin_powell_4 }} {{ duplicate_colin_powell_3 }} {{ duplicate_colin_powell_5 }} September 8, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1125 false 1 ------ National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice continues to insist Saddam Hussein remains determined to acquire nuclear weapons.&#8220;We do know that he is actively pursuing a nuclear weapon.&#8221; [[ http://www.cnn.com/2002/ALLPOLITICS/09/08/iraq.debate/ | CNN, 9/8/2002 ]] [[ http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/weekly/aa091011a.htm | US Government Info, 9/8/2002 ]] [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/09/09/wirq109.xml | Telegraph, 9/9/2002 ]] [[ http://www.house.gov/reform/min/features/iraq_on_the_record/ | Iraq on the Record database, 3/16/2004 ]] ====== << nuclearQuotes >> ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) {{ duplicate_condoleezza_rice_22 }} September 8, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1126 false 1 ------ Asked by Wolf Blitzer how close Saddam Hussein has come to developing nuclear weapon capabilities, National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice claims, &#8220;We know that he has the infrastructure, nuclear scientists to make a nuclear weapon.&#8221; [[ http://www.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0209/08/le.00.html | CNN Late Edition with Wolf Blitzer, 9/8/2002 ]] [[ http://www.house.gov/reform/min/features/iraq_on_the_record/ | Iraq on the Record database, 3/16/2004 ]] ====== << nuclearQuotes >> ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) {{ duplicate_condoleezza_rice_23 }} September 8, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1124 false 1 ------ When asked if Saddam Hussein presents a &#8220;clear and present danger&#8221; to the United States, Condoleezza Rice tells Wolf Blitzer on CNN's Late Edition there is [no doubt] that &#8220;the danger is gathering momentum.&#8221;&nbsp;&#8220;We do know that there have been shipments going ... into Iraq ... of aluminum tubes that really are only suited to&#8212;high-quality aluminum tools [sic] that are only really suited for nuclear weapons programs, centrifuge programs.&#8221; [[ http://www.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0209/08/le.00.html | CNN Late Night with Wolf Blitzer, 9/8/2002 ]] [[ http://www.refuseandresist.org/war/art.php?aid=949 | New York Times, 7/20/2003 ]] [[ http://www.house.gov/reform/min/features/iraq_on_the_record/ | Iraq on the Record database, 3/16/2004 ]] ====== << nuclearQuotes >> << aluminumTubes >> ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) {{ duplicate_condoleezza_rice_21 }} (After September 8, 2002) complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_471 false 1 ------ President George Bush and National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice learn that Department of Energy scientists disagree (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_43 ]]) with the CIA's assessment (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_42 ]]) that a shipment of aluminum tubes intercepted on their way to Iraq (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_41 ]]) were to be used in a uranium enrichment program. (( Two unnamed Bush administration officials )) [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> ((+ General Joseph Ralston )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) September 8, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_472 false 1 ------ Dick Cheney says on NBC's &#8220;Meet the Press&#8221; : &#8220;We do know, with absolute certainty, that he [Saddam Hussein] is using his procurement system to acquire the equipment [aluminum tubes] he needs in order to enrich uranium to build a nuclear weapon.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A20194-2004Feb6.html | Washington Post, 2/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2003/transcripts/s976015.htm | Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 10/27/03 ]] ------ During the appearance, he also says, flatly, that Saddam &#8220;has reconstituted his nuclear program to develop a nuclear weapon....&#8221; [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> << nuclearQuotes >> ((+ Dick Cheney )) {{ duplicate_dick_cheney_14 }} (1:00am) September 8, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_470 false 1 ------ The New York Times publishes a front page story reporting that Iraq has attempted to obtain aluminum tubes which, US intelligence believes, were intended for use in a nuclear weapons program. The article&#8212;written by Times reporters Judith Miller and Michael Gordon&#8212;cites unnamed intelligence officials as its sources. &#8220;In the last 14 months, Iraq has sought to buy thousands of specially designed aluminum tubes, which American officials believe were intended as components of centrifuges to enrich uranium,&#8221; reports the newspaper. &#8220;The diameter, thickness and other technical specifications of the aluminum tubes had persuaded American intelligence experts that they were meant for Iraq's nuclear program ....&#8221; The article does not say that experts at the Department of Energy do not believe the tubes were intended for use in a gas centrifuge. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/nytimes090802.htm | New York Times, 9/8/2002 ]] ------ Houston G. Wood III, a retired Oak Ridge physicist who had filed a report with the US government more than a year before (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_43 ]]) concluding that the tubes were not meant for centrifuges, is shocked by the report. In an interview with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation more than a year later, he will recount his initial reaction: &#8220;My first thought was, &#8216;This must be some new tubes&#8217; , you know. And then...and then when I realized that these were the tubes that I had been looking at a year before, I was just ... I was ... I was just shocked. I couldn't believe that, you know, here we were, saying that these tubes were, you know, the same tubes that I'd come to the conclusion a year before were not valid for centrifuges, and here they're saying they are. So, er ... that was a real surprise.&#8221; [[ http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2003/transcripts/s976015.htm | Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 10/27/03 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> ((+ Judith Miller )) ((+ Michael Gordon )) ((+ Houston G. Wood III )) September 9, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_429 false 1 ------ The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) in London concludes in a report that &#8220;Iraq does not possess facilities to produce fissile material in sufficient amounts for nuclear weapons&#8221; and that &#8220;it would require several years and extensive foreign assistance to build such fissile material production facilities.&#8221; [[ http://www.iiss.org/news-more.php?itemID=88 | International Institute for Strategic Studies, 9/9/02 ]] [[ http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/10/12/MN186933.DTL | San Francisco Chronicle, 10/12/02 ]] [[ http://www.iiss.org/confPress-more.php?confID=50 | Guardian, 9/10/02 ]] [[ http://www.iiss.org/confPress-more.php?confID=93 | Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 9/10/02 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2246441.stm | BBC, 9/9/02 ]] ====== << wmd >> ((+ International Institute for Strategic Studies )) September 9, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_149 false 1 ------ Canadian Primer Minister Jean Chretien and US President George Bush meet in Detroit to discuss policy towards Iraq as well as security measures along the US-Canadian border initiated after September 11. Chretien later tells reporters that Bush said that Saddam Hussein's alleged ties to terrorism was &#8220;not the angle they're exploring now. The angle they're exploring is the production of weapons of mass destruction.&#8221; (( Jean Chretien )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A59403-2002Sep9.html | Washington Post, 9/10/02 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0209/09/wbr.00.html | CNN, 9/10/02 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((+ George W. Bush )) ((- Saddam Hussein )) ((+ Jean Chretien )) {{ duplicate_jean_chretien_2 }} September 10, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_360 false 1 ------ In an appearance on Good Morning America with Charlie Gibson, Rumsfeld dismisses the notion that the administration needs to disclose evidence about Iraq's banned weapons to the public before going to war. Gibson asks: &#8220;One of the sentinel moments of my life was when John Kennedy went on television and showed satellite photos of Soviet missiles on Cuban soil. Isn't it going to take and do you have that kind of direct evidence?&#8221;In response, Rumsfeld states: &#8220;You know, the idea of direct evidence is not like a court of law under Article 3 of our Constitution where your goal is to punish somebody for doing something wrong. That really isn't the case here. This is self defense, and the United States task is to see that we don't allow an event to happen that then one has to punish someone.&#8221; Gibson then follows with another question: &#8220;But you can't go to war without American public support and I'm asking don't you need that kind of direct evidence? Or do you have it, to get the American public support or to get a coalition?&#8221; Rumsfeld replies: &#8220;The evidence is certainly there. The President has to decide what precisely he believes is the best approach. And one thing he'd say is, the one course of action that's not acceptable is doing nothing.&#8221; [[ http://news.ft.com/servlet/ContentServer?pagename=FT.com/StoryFT/FullStory&amp;c=StoryFT&amp;cid=1031119181922&amp;p=1012571727102 | Financial Times, 9/11/02 ]] [[ http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Sep2002/t09092002_t0909sdgma.html | US Department of Defense, 9/11/02 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) September 10, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_376 false 1 ------ Condoleezza Rice and George Tenet give a classified briefing to some members of Congress. After the briefing, several Democrats said they are unconvinced that Saddam Hussein poses an imminent threat to the US. Minority Whip Nancy Pelosi from California, the ranking Democrat on the House intelligence committee, tells The Washington Post, &#8220;I did not hear anything today that was different about [Saddam Hussein's] capabilities,&#8221; save a few &#8220;embellishments.&#8221; Democratic Senator Richard J. Durbin from Illinois tells the newspaper: &#8220;It would be a severe mistake for us to vote on Iraq with as little information as we have. This would be a rash and hasty decision&#8221; adding that he has heard &#8220;no groundbreaking news&#8221; on Iraq's capabilities. Democrat Robert Menendez, a representative from New Jersey, says he also didn't hear any new evidence. &#8220;What was described as new is not new. It was not compelling enough,&#8221; he says. &#8220;Did I see a clear and present danger to the United States? No.&#8221; And an unnamed House Republican leader also seems to believe the case Tenet and Rice presented is weak. He says, &#8220;Daschle will want to delay this and he can make a credible case for delay&#8221; . [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A64509-2002Sep10?language=printer | The Washington Post, 9/10/02 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2002/ALLPOLITICS/09/10/congress.iraq/ | CNN, 9/10/02 ]] ====== << wmd >> ((+ Richard Durbin )) ((+ Robert Menendez )) ((+ Nancy Pelosi )) ((+ George Tenet )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) September 12, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_725 false 1 ------ In an address to the UN General Assembly, US President George Bush announces that the US &#8220;will work with the UN Security Council.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/09/20020912-1.html | White House, 9/12/2002 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 285 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ George W. Bush )) September 12, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_45 false 1 ------ In a speech to the United Nations General Assembly, George Bush says: &#8220;Right now, Iraq is expanding and improving facilities that were used for the production of biological weapons . . . Iraq has made several attempts to buy high-strength aluminum tubes used to enrich uranium for a nuclear weapon.&#8221; [[ http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/06/06/1054700385928.html | The Age (Australia), 6/7/03 ]] ====== << wmd >> << aluminumTubes >> September 12-16, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1840 false 1 ------ A CBS news poll concludes that 51 percent of Americans think that Saddam Hussein &#8220;was personally involved in the Sept. 11 attacks&#8221; and &#8220;70 percent believe that members of al-Qaeda are currently in Iraq.&#8221; [[ http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/09/24/opinion/polls/main523130.shtml | CBS News, 9/24/2002 ]] ====== << publicOpinion >> September 12, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_138 false 1 ------ The White House publishes a 26-page government white paper titled, &#8220;A Decade of Defiance and Deception,&#8221; which seeks to demonstrate that Saddam Hussein represents a serious and imminent threat to the United States and its people. Section 5 of the report deals with &#8220;Saddam Hussein's support for international terrorism,&#8221; though it makes no attempt to tie the Iraqi leader to al-Qaeda or Osama bin Laden. It includes a brief list of six points implicating Saddam Hussein in terrorist activities, some dating as far back as the '70s. One of the points criticizes Iraq for its ties to the Mujahadeen-e Khalq Organization (MKO), an obscure militant Iranian dissident group whose main office is in Baghdad. The report says: &#8220;Iraq shelters terrorist groups including the Mujahedin-e-Khalq Organization (MKO), which has used terrorist violence against Iran and in the 1970s was responsible for killing several US military personnel and US civilians.&#8221; The paper notes that the US State Department classified MKO as a &#8220;foreign terrorist organization&#8221; in 1997, &#8220;accusing the Baghdad-based group of a long series of bombings, guerilla cross-border raids and targeted assassinations of Iranian leaders.&#8221; (( Richard Durbin )) [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/infocus/iraq/decade/sect5.html | White House, 9/12/02 ]] [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/09.30B.nswk.bagdad.htm | Newsweek, 9/26/2002 ]] ------ The administration is quickly ridiculed for making the claim when, two weeks later, Newsweek reports that MKO's front organization, the National Council of Resistance of Iran, has a small office in the National Press Building in Washington D.C. It is also reported that only two years beforehand this very group had been supported by then-Senator John Ashcroft and more than 200 other members of Congress. On several issues the senator and his colleagues had expressed solidarity with MKO at the behest of their Iranian-American constituencies. [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/09.30B.nswk.bagdad.htm | Newsweek, 9/26/2002 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((- Saddam Hussein )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- John Ashcroft )) September 12, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_117 false 1 ------ President George Bush tells the UN General Assembly, &#8220;Right now, Iraq is expanding and improving facilities that were used for the production of biological weapons.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/09/20020912-1.html | White House, 9/12/02 ]] [[ http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/middle_east/july-dec02/bkgdiraq_9-12.html | PBS, 9/12/02 ]] [[ http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/06/06/1054700385928.html | The Age (Australia), 6/7/03 ]] ====== << ChemicalBiologicalQuotes >> ((+ George W. Bush )) {{ duplicate_george_w._bush_4 }} September 13, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_377 false 1 ------ Dennis Kucinich, a Democratic representative from Ohio and outspoken critic of the administration's plan to invade Iraq, says: &#8220;There is no imminent threat by Iraq against the United States. Iraq does not have nuclear capabilities that anyone has been able to specifically determine, nor does it have the ability to deliver such a weapon, nor does it have the intent to do so. It could be said by Iraq that they are facing the imminent threat.... Oil is a factor. How much [of a factor] is anybody's guess, but to discount it as a factor is, I think, to be misleading.... It's not a conspiracy theory to bring it in because, after all, it is the second largest oil supply in the world.&#8221; [[ http://www.cnsnews.com/Politics/archive/200209/POL20020916c.html | CNS News, 9/16/02 ]] ====== << maintreamDissent >> ((+ Dennis Kucinich )) September 13, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1226 false 1 ------ The New York Times publishes a second article reporting that the Bush administration believes a shipment of aluminum tubes destined for Iraq, intercepted in Jordan by US authorities in July (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_41 ]]), was intended for use in a gas centrifuge. Unlike The Times' previous report, this article mentions that there is a debate over the tubes between the Energy Department and CIA. It says that according to an unnamed official &#8220;[T]here have been debates among intelligence experts about Iraq's intentions in trying to buy such tubes.&#8221; The article says that the official claims &#8220;the dominant view in the administration was that the tubes were intended for use in gas centrifuges to enrich uranium.&#8221; Another official interviewed by the newspaper claims that Energy's alternative view &#8220;is a footnote, not a split.&#8221; One administration official is even quoted by the paper asserting &#8220;that the best technical experts and nuclear scientists at laboratories like Oak Ridge supported the CIA assessment.&#8221; [[ http://nucnews.net/nucnews/2002nn/0209nn/020913nn.htm#035 | New York Times, 9/13/2002 ]] [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] ------ After the article is published, the Energy Department releases a directive forbidding employees from discussing the issue with reporters. [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] ====== << wmd >> << aluminumTubes >> ((+ Department of Energy (DOE) )) September 15, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1132 false 1 ------ In response to Tony Snow's probing on Fox News Sunday as to whether or not President Bush was convinced there were links between Saddam Hussein and Osama bin Laden, the National Security Advisor is circumspect until she's pressed. &#8220; He clearly has links to terrorism ... &#8212;Links to terrorism [that] would include al-Qaeda....&#8221; [[ http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,63125,00.html | Fox News, 9/15/2002 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2002/US/09/25/us.iraq.alqaeda/ | CNN, 9/26/2002 ]] [[ http://www.islam-online.net/English/News/2002-09/15/article78.shtml | Islam OnLine, 9/15/2002 ]] [[ http://www.house.gov/reform/min/features/iraq_on_the_record/ | Iraq on the Record database, 3/16/2004 ]] ====== << terroristTiesQuotes >> ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) {{ duplicate_condoleezza_rice_29 }} September 15-20, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_147 false 1 ------ In closed sessions, administration officials are asked several times whether they have evidence of an imminent threat from Iraq against US citizens. US Representative Anna Eshoo, later tells the San Francisco Chronicle that the officials acknowledged they had no such evidence. &#8220;They said &#8216;no,&#8217; &#8221; she says, &#8220;Not &#8216;no, but&#8217; or &#8216;maybe,&#8217; but &#8216;no.&#8217; I was stunned. Not shocked. Not surprised. Stunned.&#8221; (( Anna Eshoo )) [[ http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/09/20/MN92230.DTL | San Francisco Chronicle, 9/20/02 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((+ Anna Eshoo )) September 15, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_628 false 1 ------ In an interview with the Wall Street Journal, Lawrence Lindsey says he believes the Bush administration's planned invasion of Iraq could cost between $100 and $200 billion. But he dismisses that such spending would significantly increase interest rates, add much to the federal debt, or cause a recession. Mitch Daniels, director of the Office of Management and Budget subsequently disputes the figure, saying it is &#8220;very, very high.&#8221; He suggests the total costs would run between $50-$60 billion. [[ http://www.wsjclassroomedition.com/wsjtoday/archive/02sep/02sep16_iraq.htm | Wall Street Journal, 9/16/02 ]] [[ http://www.webprowire.com/summaries/244422.html | Reuters, 9/18/02 ]] ====== << predictions >> ((+ Mitch Daniels )) ((+ Lawrence Lindsey )) September 16, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_191 false 1 ------ Iraqi Foreign Minister Naji Sabri meets with UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan and Arab League Secretary-General Amir Moussa and gives them a letter expressing Baghdad's willingness to readmit the UN weapons inspectors without conditions. The offer is made after Saddam Hussein convened an emergency meeting in Baghdad with his cabinet and the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC). (( Iraq's September 16, 2002 letter accepting the unconditional return of weapons inspectors )) [[ http://highmarkfunds.stockpoint.com/highmarkfunds/newspaper.asp?Mode=news&amp;Story=20020916/259w9255.xml | Associated Press, 9/16/02a ]] [[ http://www.jamiat.org.za/news/spring/sept17b.html | Independent, 9/17/02 ]] [[ http://www.mre.gov.br/acs/interclip2/Diario-WL/Setembro-02/materias/nytimes17d.htm | New York Times, 9/17/02 ]] ------ Iraq's letter is effectively an agreement to December 1999 UN Security Council Resolution 1284. [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/09.19B.bsh.scram.irq.htm | New York Times, 9/18/02 ]] ------ Kofi Annan tells reporters after the meeting, &#8220;I can confirm to you that I have received a letter from the Iraqi authorities conveying its decision to allow the return of the inspectors without conditions to continue their work and has also agreed that they are ready to start immediate discussions on the practical arrangements for the return of the inspectors to resume their work.&#8221; Annan credits the Arab League, which he says &#8220;played a key role&#8221; in influencing Saddam Hussein's decision to accept the inspectors, and suggests that Bush's speech also played a critical part in influencing Baghdad's decision. [[ http://www.un.org/apps/news/infocusnewsiraq.asp?NewsID=226&amp;sID=7 | UN, 9/16/02 ]] ------ UNMOVIC Chief Weapons Inspector Hans Blix also meets with Iraqi officials and it is reportedly agreed that weapons inspectors will return to Iraq on October 19. UNMOVIC spokesman Ewen Buchanan tells the BBC, &#8220;We are ready to discuss practical measures, such as helicopters, hotels, the installation of monitoring equipment and so on, which need to be put in place.&#8221; [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2263162.stm | BBC, 9/17/02 ]] ------ The Bush administration immediately rejects the offer, calling it &#8220;a tactical step by Iraq in hopes of avoiding strong UN Security Council action,&#8221; in a statement released by the deputy press secretary. [[ http://highmarkfunds.stockpoint.com/highmarkfunds/newspaper.asp?Mode=news&amp;Story=20020916/259w9255.xml | Associated Press, 9/16/02 ]] [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/09/20020916-6.html | White House, 9/16/2002 ]] ------ And Dan Bartlett, the White House communications director, tells reporters: &#8220;We've made it very clear that we are not in the business of negotiating with Saddam Hussein. We are working with the UN Security Council to determine the most effective way to reach our goal.&#8221; He then claims Iraq's offer is a tactic to give &#8220;false hope to the international community that [President Saddam] means business this time,&#8221; adding, &#8220;Unfortunately, his more than decade of experience shows you can put very little into his words or deeds.&#8221; Two days later Bush will tell reporters that Saddam's offer is &#8220;his latest ploy, his latest attempt not to be held accountable for defying the United Nations,&#8221; adding: &#8220;He's not going to fool anybody. We've seen him before. . . . We'll remind the world that, by defying resolutions, he's become more and more of a threat to world peace. [The world] must rise up and deal with this threat, and that's what we expect the Security Council to do.&#8221; [[ http://www.jamiat.org.za/news/spring/sept17b.html | Independent, 9/17/02 ]] [[ http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/09/19/1032054897471.html | Agence France Presse, 9/19/02 ]] ------ Later that night, Colin Powell and Condoleezza Rice reportedly hold a conference call with Kofi Annan and accuse him of taking matters into his own hands. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 285 ]] ------ Britain supports the US position and calls for a UN resolution backed with the threat of force. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2263162.stm | BBC, 9/17/03 ]] ------ Other nations react differently to the offer. For example, Russia's Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov, says: &#8220;It's important that, through our joint efforts, we have managed to put aside the threat of a war scenario around Iraq and return the process to a political channel ... It is essential in the coming days to resolve the issue of the inspectors' return. For this, no new [Security Council] resolutions are needed.&#8221; [[ http://www.jamiat.org.za/news/spring/sept17b.html | Independent, 9/17/02 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2263162.stm | BBC, 9/17/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Saddam Hussein )) ((+ Amir Moussa )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((+ Hans Blix )) ((+ Dan Bartlett )) ((+ Kofi Annan )) ((+ Colin Powell )) ((+ Naji Sabri )) ((+ Scott McClellan )) {{ statement_unnamed_senior_us_state_department_official_2 }} {{ statement_scott_mcclellan_2 }} {{ commentary_judith_kipper_2 }} {{ statement_jack_straw_3 }} {{ statement_gerhard_schroeder_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_senior_official_4 }} {{ statement_dan_bartlett_2 }} {{ commentary_ivo_daalder_2 }} {{ statement_george_w._bush_10 }} {{ commentary_michael_o?hanlon_3 }} {{ commentary_matthew_engel,_guardian_newspaper_2 }} {{ commentary_david_north,_world_socialist_web_site_2 }} September 16, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_192 false 1 ------ US Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld says that President Bush has not decided to go to war. [[ http://highmarkfunds.stockpoint.com/highmarkfunds/newspaper.asp?Mode=news&amp;Story=20020916/259w9255.xml | Associated Press, 9/16/02 ]] ====== << decision >> ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) ((- George W. Bush )) September 16, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1189 false 1 ------ Two days before the CIA is to issue an assessment (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1188 ]]) on Iraq's supposed links to terrorism, Pentagon officials working in the Office of Special Plans give a briefing directly to the White House; Vice-President Dick Cheney's chief of staff, Lewis Libby; and National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice's deputy, Stephen Hadley. The briefing says that there were &#8220;fundamental problems&#8221; with CIA intelligence-gathering methods and includes a detailed breakdown of the alleged April 2001 Prague meeting between Mohammed Atta and Iraqi diplomat Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani. [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2004/07/11/wsept11.xml&amp;sSheet=/news/2004/07/11/ixnewstop.html | Telegraph, 7/11/2004 ]] [[ http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5412317/site/newsweek | Newsweek, 7/19/2004 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> << officeOfSpecialPlans >> << pragueConnection >> ((+ Stephen Hadley )) ((+ Lewis Libby )) September 17, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_193 false 1 ------ The White House releases a detailed timeline depicting past Iraqi attempts to obstruct United Nations efforts, including Saddam's repeated refusals to provide inspectors access to sites they wanted to visit. [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/09/20020917-8.html | White House, 9/17/02 ]] [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/09.19B.bsh.scram.irq.htm | New York Times, 9/18/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> {{ commentary_kenneth_pollack_4 }} September 18, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_210 false 1 ------ Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld warns the House Armed Services Committee of the serious and imminent threat that Saddam Hussein poses to the West. He says: &#8220;No terrorist state poses a greater and more immediate threat to the security of our people and the stability of the world than the regime of Saddam Hussein.&#8221; He adds: &#8220;What has not changed is Iraq's drive to acquire those weapons of mass destruction, and the fact that every approach that the United Nations has taken to stop Iraq's drive has failed. This is a critical moment for our country and for the world. Our resolve is being put to the test. It is a test unfortunately the world's free nations have failed before in recent history with unfortunate consequences.&#8221; [[ http://www.defenselink.mil/speeches/2002/s20020918-secdef.html | US Department of Defense, 9/18/02 ]] [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/09/19/wirq219.xml | Telegraph, 9/19/02 ]] [[ http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/09/19/1032054897471.html | Agence France Presse, 9/19/02 ]] ------ The Secretary of Defense also says that Congress must authorize the President to use military force against Iraq before the Security Council votes on the issue. &#8220;Delaying a vote in the Congress would send a message that the US may be unprepared to take a stand, just as we are asking the international community to take a stand and as we are cautioning the Iraqi regime to consider its options,&#8221; argues Rumsfeld, adding, &#8220;Our job today&#8212;the President's, the Congress' and the United Nations'&#8212;is to ... anticipate vastly more lethal attacks before they happen and to make the right decision as to whether or not it's appropriate for this country to take action.... The goal is not inspections, the goal is disarmament.&#8221; [[ http://www.defenselink.mil/speeches/2002/s20020918-secdef.html | US Department of Defense, 9/18/02 ]] [[ http://www.seacoastonline.com/2002news/09192002/world/25186.htm | Associated Press, 9/19/02 ]] ------ He also tries to discredit Iraq's September 16 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_191 ]]) offer to admit UN inspectors without conditions. He says: &#8220;There's no doubt in my mind but that the inspection program that currently is on the books wouldn't work because it's so much weaker than the earlier one. The more inspectors that are in there, the less likely something is going to happen. The longer nothing happens, the more advanced their weapons programs go along.&#8221; [[ http://www.defenselink.mil/speeches/2002/s20020918-secdef.html | US Department of Defense, 9/18/02 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> << weaponsInspections >> << imminentThreatQuotes >> ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) September 19, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_209 false 1 ------ Iraqi foreign minister Naji Sabri tells the UN: &#8220;I hereby declare before you that Iraq is totally clear of all nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. Our country is ready to receive any scientific experts, accompanied by politicians you choose to represent any one of your countries, to tell us which places and scientific and industrial installations they would wish to see.&#8221; [[ http://www.intelmessages.org/Messages/National_Security/wwwboard/messages/1695.html | New York Times, 9/20/02 ]] ------ The Iraq minister also states that in pursuing its aggressive policy towards Iraq, the US is &#8220;acting on behalf of Zionism which has been killing the heroic people of Palestine, destroying their property, murdering their children,&#8221; adding that Washington intends to &#8220;control Middle East oil.&#8221; His words draw the applause of several UN diplomats. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/independent092002.htm | Independent, 9/20/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Naji Sabri )) September 19, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_196 false 1 ------ A group of nineteen House Democrats form a coalition against war in Iraq and draft a resolution advocating multilateral diplomacy. [[ http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/754009/posts | Washington Times, 9/20/02 ]] ------ Representative Barbara Lee of California sponsors a resolution advocating that &#8220;the United States ... work through the United Nations to seek to resolve the matter of ensuring that Iraq is not developing weapons of mass destruction, through mechanisms such as the resumption of weapons inspections, negotiation, enquiry, mediation, regional arrangements, and other peaceful means.&#8221; The resolution has twenty-six co-sponsors. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/uscongress091902.htm | H. Con. Res 473 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ Iraq's September 16, 2002 letter accepting the unconditional return of weapons inspectors )) {{ statement_barbara_lee_2 }} {{ statement_marcy_kaptur_2 }} {{ statement_jim_mcdermott_3 }} {{ statement_dennis_kucinich_2 }} September 19, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_194 false 1 ------ The White House delivers a draft of a strongly worded resolution to Congress authorizing the President to use &#8220;all appropriate means&#8221; against Iraq. The 20-paragraph draft includes provisions that would allow Bush to ignore the UN and &#8220;use all means that he determines to be appropriate, including force, in order to enforce&#8221; the UN's Security Council resolutions, &#8220;defend the national security interests of the United States against the threat posed by Iraq, and restore international peace and security in the region.&#8221; According to the Associated Press, &#8220;Three senior White House aides familiar with the draft said it would give Bush maximum flexibility to confront the threat posed by Iraqi weapons of mass destruction, including an explicit OK to use military force.&#8221; Although numerous congresspersons complain that the proposed wording of the resolution would provide Bush with a blank check to use military force anywhere in the Middle East and Persian Gulf, several senators&#8212;Democrats and Republicans alike&#8212;say that an amended version of the resolution would likely pass. (( Proposed Resolution to give Bush authority to use military force against Iraq )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0920-01.htm | Associated Press, 9/19/02b ]] [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-420322,00.html | Times, 9/19/02 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0919-07.htm | Independent, 9/19/02 ]] --- * --- The draft lists several allegations against Iraq, depicting the country as an imminent threat against the US and its citizens. It states that Iraq continues to &#8220;possess and develop a significant chemical and biological weapons capability, actively seeking a nuclear weapons capability, and supporting and harboring terrorist organizations, thereby continuing to threaten the national security interests of the United States and international peace and security.&#8221; It also claims that Iraq &#8220;continues to aid and harbor other international terrorist organizations,&#8221; including members of al-Qaeda. (( Proposed Resolution to give Bush authority to use military force against Iraq )) --- * --- The proposed resolution asserts that the use of military force against Iraq would constitute self-defense. It reads, &#8220;Whereas the United States has the inherent right, as acknowledged in the United Nations Charter, to use force in order to defend itself.&#8221; (( Proposed Resolution to give Bush authority to use military force against Iraq )) --- * --- The draft calls on Congress to authorize the President to use military force against Iraq. &#8220;The President is authorized to use all means that he determines to be appropriate, including force, in order to enforce the United Nations Security Council Resolutions referenced above, defend the national security interests of the United States against the threat posed by Iraq, and restore international peace and security in the region.&#8221; (( Proposed Resolution to give Bush authority to use military force against Iraq )) ====== << legalJustification >> {{ commentary_carl_levin_2 }} {{ commentary_trent_lott_2 }} {{ commentary_bruce_ackerman_2 }} {{ commentary_russell_d._feingold_2 }} {{ commentary_jim_mcdermott_2 }} {{ commentary_lloyd_doggett_3 }} {{ commentary_lloyd_doggett_2 }} {{ commentary_robert_c._byrd_2 }} {{ commentary_tom_daschle_2 }} {{ commentary_scott_l._silliman_2 }} September 19, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_195 false 1 ------ UN Chief Weapons Inspector Hans Blix tells the Security Council that he intends to position an advance weapons inspection team in Iraq by October 15. He explains: &#8220;We will select some sites that we think are interesting to go to in the early phases, so it's not like it takes two months before we can send any guys out there in the field. It will be much earlier than that.&#8221; [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/2269462.stm | BBC, 9/20/2002 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Hans Blix )) September 20, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_197 false 1 ------ White House and Pentagon officials publicly disclose that the Department of Defense has finished a highly detailed plan for attacking Iraq that was delivered to President Bush's desk in early September by Gen. Tommy R. Franks. White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer says, &#8220;The President has options now, and he has not made any decisions.&#8221; The New York Times interviews senior officials who explain that the plan includes specific details, including the &#8220;number of ground troops, combat aircraft and aircraft carrier battle groups that would be needed,&#8221; and the &#8220;detailed sequencing for the use of air, land, naval and Special Operations forces to attack thousands of Iraqi targets, from air-defense sites to command-and-control headquarters to fielded forces.&#8221; Officials also tell the Times that any attack would begin &#8220;with a lengthy air campaign led by B-2 bombers armed with 2,000-pound satellite-guided bombs to knock out Iraqi command and control headquarters and air defenses.&#8221; The principal goal of the air attacks, they say, &#8220;would be to sever most communications from Baghdad and isolate Saddam Hussein from his commanders in the rest of the country.&#8221; [[ http://www.elmandjra.org/NYTimes1.htm | New York Times, 9/21/02 ]] ------ The disclosure of this information notably comes only a few days after Iraq has offered to unconditionally admit weapons inspectors (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_191 ]]). ====== << decision >> ((- Thomas Franks )) ((+ Ari Fleischer )) ((- George W. Bush )) September 20, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_211 false 1 ------ The Bush administration makes it clear that it will prevent the UN inspectors from going to Iraq under the terms of the current UN resolution. Powell tells the House International Relations Committee, &#8220;If somebody tried to move the team in now [before a UN resolution authorizing the use of force is passed], we would find ways to thwart that.&#8221; [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/world/americas/2269462.stm | BBC, 9/20/02 ]] [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/09/21/wirq21.xml/ | Telegraph, 9/21/02 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/europe/09/29/europe.iraq/ | CNN, 9/29/02 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ Colin Powell )) September 20, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1831 false 1 ------ The White House submits its &#8220;National Security Strategy&#8221; to Congress. The 33-page document makes it clear that the ultimate objective of its national security policy is to &#8220;dissuade future military competition.&#8221; The US must therefore &#8220;build and maintain our defenses beyond challenge,&#8221; it says. &#8220;Our forces will be strong enough to dissuade potential adversaries from pursuing a military build-up in hopes of surpassing, or equaling, the power of the United States.&#8221; The use of military force will not be reserved solely for defense. There may be situations where the US should take preemptive action, it asserts. &#8220;To forestall or prevent such hostile acts by our adversaries, the United States will, if necessary, act preemptively.&#8221; (( Gerard Butt )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0921-01.htm | The Times, 9/21/2002 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ Bush administration )) September 21, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_198 false 1 ------ Iraqi Foreign Minister Naji Sabri reads the full text of a statement by Saddam Hussein before the UN secretariat-general. The statement condemns the Bush administration's attempts to provoke a war with Iraq and accuses the administration of working hand in hand with the hardline Zionists in the Israeli government [[ http://ww.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/hussein092102.htm | Text of Letter ]] ====== << motivesBehindWar >> September 23, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_199 false 1 ------ Three retired four-star generals testify before the Senate Armed Services Committee and warn Congress that a unilateral strike against Iraq without UN approval might limit aid from allies, create more recruits for al-Qaeda and subvert long-term US diplomatic and economic interests. A fourth general urges the committee to support the use of military force against Iraq. [[ http://www.mindfully.org/Reform/2002/Retired-Generals-Warn-Bush24sep02.htm | New York Times, 9/24/02 ]] ====== << predictions >> ((+ Amir Moussa )) ((+ Kofi Annan )) ((+ Naji Sabri )) ((+ Wesley Clark )) {{ statement_thomas_g._mcinerney_2 }} {{ statement_wesley_clark_3 }} {{ statement_john_m._shalikashvili_2 }} {{ statement_john_m._shalikashvili_3 }} {{ statement_joseph_hoar_2 }} {{ statement_joseph_hoar_3 }} September 23, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_22 false 1 ------ British education secretary Estelle Morris asks during a cabinet meeting what specifically had changed over the last few years&#8212;other than George Bush's coming to office&#8212;that made military action against Iraq necessary. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1005-01.htm | Sunday Times, 10/5/03 ]] [[ http://politics.guardian.co.uk/iraq/story/0,12956,1056762,00.html | Guardian, 10/6/03 ]] ====== << deception >> ((+ Estelle Morris )) September 23, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_47 false 1 ------ David Albright, a physicist who had investigated Iraq's nuclear weapons program following the 1991 Persian Gulf War as a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency's inspection team, concludes in a study that Iraq's attempt to import the tubes was not &#8220;evidence that Iraq [was] in possession of, or close to possessing, nuclear weapons&#8221; or that Iraq has an operating centrifuge plant. His assessment is based on several factors, including the fact that the tubes are made of an aluminum alloy that is ill-suited for welding. He notes that Iraq had used maraging steel and carbon fiber in its earlier attempts to make centrifuges (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1216 ]]). Albright also challenges the CIA's contention the tubes' anodized coating is an indication that they are meant to be used as rotors in a gas centrifuge. The nuclear physicist notes that the fact that the tubes are anodized actually supports the theory that they were meant to be used in rockets, not a centrifuge. He cites another expert who contended that an &#8220;anodized layer on the inside of the tube ... can result in hampering the operation of the centrifuge.&#8221; (( David Albright )) [[ http://www.isis-online.org/publications/iraq/aluminumtubes.html | Institute for Science and International Security, 9/23/2002 ]] ------ Though Albright is critical of the charges being made by the Bush administration against Iraq, concerning nuclear weapons, he is no Saddam sympathizer. He believes that Saddam Hussein has weapons of mass destruction and advocates a tough stance towards his regime. [[ http://www.nybooks.com/articles/16922 | New York Review of Books, 2/26/04 ]] ------ His report is widely dispersed and is reported in detail by The Washington Post on September 19, 2002. Several other newspapers also cover Albright's report. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A36348-2002Sep18.html | Washington Post, 9/19/02 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,807286,00.html | Guardian, 10/9/02 ]] [[ http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/10/12/MN186933.DTL | San Francisco Chronicle, 10/12/02 ]] ------ It is later revealed that scientists at the Energy Department secretly worked with Albright on the report. [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> ((+ David Albright )) September 24, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_46 false 1 ------ The British government releases its now-infamous dossier on Saddam's unconventional weapons capabilities. In the section discussing Iraq's alleged nuclear weapons program, the document notes: &#8220;[T]here is no definitive intelligence evidence that [the specialized aluminum] is destined for a nuclear program.&#8221; [[ http://www.number-10.gov.uk/output/Page275.asp | British Government, 9/24/02 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> September 24, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_86 false 1 ------ George Tenet briefs the Senate Intelligence Committee on the 2002 National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) on Iraq (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_7 ]]). In his summary of the document, he includes the allegation that Iraq attempted to obtain uranium from Niger. He mentions that there are some doubts about the reliability of the evidence, but he does not say that the CIA had sent former diplomat Joseph C. Wilson as an envoy to Niger in February (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_106 ]]) and that the former ambassador's conclusion had been that the claims were &#8220;bogus.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A46957-2003Jun11.html | The Washington Post, 6/12/03 ]] [[ http://abcnews.go.com/sections/wnt/World/iraq030616_uranium.html | ABC News, 6/16/03 ]] ====== << wmd >> << deception >> << africaUraniumClaim >> ((+ George Tenet )) ((- Joseph C. Wilson )) September 24, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_475 false 1 ------ The British government releases an official dossier consisting of multiple allegations that Iraq has and is developing weapons of mass destruction, including a claim that Iraq attempted to obtain uranium from Africa. It is believed that the claim is based on a 1999 visit to Niger by Iraqi diplomat Wissam al-Zahawie (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_94 ]]). But according to US intelligence officials, this claim is universally regarded within intelligence circles as unsubstantiated. In fact, prior to the dossier's release, US intelligence warned the British against making this allegation (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_113 ]]). In early February 2003, the UN's International Atomic Energy Agency will report that there is no evidence that Iraq had attempted to purchase uranium from Niger (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_93 ]]). Defending Britain's decision to include the claim in the September dossier, a British Foreign Office official will explain to the Independent in August 2003: &#8220;Niger has two main exports&#8212;uranium and chickens. The Iraqi delegation did not go to Niger for chickens.&#8221; But Al-Zahawie disputes this. &#8220;My only mission was to meet the President of Niger and invite him to visit Iraq,&#8221; he tells the Independent. &#8220;The invitation and the situation in Iraq resulting from the genocidal UN sanctions were all we talked about. I had no other instructions, and certainly none concerning the purchase of uranium.... I have been cleared by everyone else, including the US and the United Nations. I am surprised to hear there are still question marks over me in Britain. I am willing to cooperate with anyone who wants to see me and find out more.&#8221; (( Wissam al-Zahawie )) (( Unnamed US intelligence sources )) [[ http://psychoanalystsopposewar.org/resources_files/The_Niger_Timebomb.htm | Independent, 8/10/03a ]] [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?031027fa_fact | New Yorker, 10/20/03 ]] ====== << africaUraniumClaim >> ((+ Wissam al-Zahawie )) September 24, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_433 false 1 ------ Within &#8220;two hours and ten minutes&#8221; of the British dossier's publication, Iraqi government officials invite British journalists on a tour of the sites named in the document as suspected weapon sites. The journalists are permitted to choose which facilities, of those mentioned in the dossier, they want to visit. --- Al-Qa'qa complex --- The first site they visit is the al-Qa'qa complex, located 30 miles south of Baghdad, which according to the British government's paper has &#8220;been repaired&#8221; and is now &#8220;operational.&#8221; &#8220;Of particular concern are elements of the phosgene production plant,&#8221; states the dossier, which makes two claims. The first is that the substance, phosgene, is being produced at the facility and can be used &#8220;as a chemical agent or as a precursor for nerve agent.&#8221; The second claim is that the facility's phosgene production plants had been &#8220;dismantled under UNSCOM supervision, but have since been rebuilt.&#8221; [[ http://usinfo.state.gov/regional/nea/iraq/text/dossiertc.htm | British Government, 9/24/2002, pg. 20 ]] [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/middle_east/story.jsp?story=336464 | Independent 9/25/02 ]] ------ But both claims are wrong. Director-General Sinan Rasim Said concedes that the plants produce phosgene as a byproduct of centralit, a stabilizer for gunpowder (which is not illegal), but denies that it can be used &#8220;as a chemical agent or as a precursor for nerve agent,&#8221; as alleged in the British document. He explains to reporters that phosgene can &#8220;not be extracted from the manufacturing equipment, let alone be used for making nerve agents.&#8221; To support his claims, he says that during the Gulf War, the US had never attempted to destroy the phosgene plants &#8220;because they knew we can't make use of it.&#8221; Instead they had bombed the boiler room and the storage area, he says. Said also disputes the claim that UNSCOM had attempted to dismantle the facility's phosgene production plants. There was no reason to, he explains, because the plant was not in violation of any laws. He tells reporters that if the British had simply requested the relevant documents from the UN they would have seen that they were wrong. [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/middle_east/story.jsp?story=336464 | Independent, 9/25/02 ]] [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/middle_east/story.jsp?story=336464 | Independent, 9/25/02 ]] ------ Amir al Sa'adi, a senior Iraqi weapons expert, offers his own opinion as to why the facility was referred to in the dossier. He suggests that Blair singled out the plant &#8220;because it could produce propellant powder for weapons from pistols to artillery guns for Iraqi air defenses.&#8221; [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/middle_east/story.jsp?story=336464 | Independent, 9/25/02 ]] ------ UNMOVIC weapons inspectors will visit the site in February 2003 and find nothing. [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/02/03/sprj.irq.wraps/ | CNN, 2/3/03 ]] [[ http://www.austin360.com/aas/news/ap/ap_story.html/Intl/AP.V2503.AP-UN-Iraq.html | Associated Press, 2/14/03 ]] [[ http://news.ft.com/servlet/ContentServer?pagename=FT.com/StoryFT/FullStory&amp;c=StoryFT&amp;cid=1042491948440 | Financial Times, 2/14/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,895722,00.html | Guardian, 2/14/03b ]] --- Amariyah Sera --- The second site they visit is Amariyah Sera, a facility which the British say UNSCOM inspectors had concluded &#8220;was used to store biological agents, seed stocks and conduct biological warfare associated genetic research prior to the Gulf War.&#8221; [[ http://usinfo.state.gov/regional/nea/iraq/text/dossiertc.htm | British Government 9/24/2002, pg. 20 ]] [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/middle_east/story.jsp?story=336464 | Independent 9/25/02 ]] ------ It is also claimed by Downing Street that the facility &#8220;has now expanded its storage capacity,&#8221; implying that the expansion is related to biological weapons. [[ http://usinfo.state.gov/regional/nea/iraq/text/dossiertc.htm | British Government 9/24/2002, pg. 20 ]] [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/middle_east/story.jsp?story=336464 | Independent 9/25/02 ]] ------ But the facility's director, Karim Obeid, disputes the dossier's claim that UNSCOM had earlier determined the plant was used for genetic research and storing biological agents. He tells the Independent of London: &#8220;They were coming here ever since the Gulf War until they left, and they have never accused us of any of those things in that time. All our work was done with their supervision.&#8221; He says the facility is being used &#8220;for testing typhoid fever.&#8221; Moreover, he adds that he is morally opposed to biological warfare &#8220;both as a scientist and a human being.&#8221; [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/middle_east/story.jsp?story=336464 | Independent, 9/25/02 ]] ------ Obeid also explains that the storage capacity of the facility has been increased, as the dossier states, but that the additional rooms are not being used in a way that violates international law. A reporter from the Independent, who visits the additional rooms, reports that one of the added areas is &#8220;a large mostly empty room&#8221; which the director says is being used &#8220;to store solutions for blood tests, imported from the Melat pharmaceutical company in France,&#8221; while a second area is &#8220;stacked with empty bottles of various brands of vaccine.&#8221; [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/middle_east/story.jsp?story=336464 | Independent, 9/25/02 ]] ------ Weapons inspectors will visit the site on December 15, 16, and 22 and find no evidence of biological weapons. [[ http://www.un.org/apps/news/infocusnewsiraq.asp?NewsID=293&amp;sID=8 | UNMOVIC, 12/15/02 ]] [[ http://www.un.org/apps/news/infocusnewsiraq.asp?NewsID=295&amp;sID=8http://www.un.org/apps/news/infocusnewsiraq.asp?NewsID=293&amp;sID=8 | UNMOVIC, 12/16/02 ]] [[ http://www.un.org/apps/news/infocusnewsiraq.asp?NewsID=305&amp;sID=8 | UNMOVIC, 12/22/02 ]] [[ http://www.austin360.com/aas/news/ap/ap_story.html/Intl/AP.V2503.AP-UN-Iraq.html | Associated Press, 2/14/03 ]] [[ http://news.ft.com/servlet/ContentServer?pagename=FT.com/StoryFT/FullStory&amp;c=StoryFT&amp;cid=1042491948440 | Financial Times, 2/14/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,895722,00.html | Guardian, 2/14/03b ]] ====== << wmd >> ((+ Amir Hammudi al-Saadi )) ((+ Sinan Rasim Said )) ((+ Karim Obeid )) (September 24, 2002) complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_109 false 1 ------ Joe Wilson, who had been sent to Niger by the CIA in February 2002 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_106 ]]) and who had determined that the allegations that Iraq had sought to obtain uranium from Niger were false, contacts the CIA and advises the agency to inform the British about the intelligence that had been acquired during his mission to Niger. The London Independent later reports, &#8220;When he saw ... claims [that Iraq had attempted to procure uranium from an African country] in Britain's dossier on Iraq last September, he even went as far as telling CIA officials that they needed to alert their British counterparts to his investigation.&#8221; [[ http://www.arena.org.nz/iraqccc.htm | Independent, 6/29/03 ]] ====== << africaUraniumClaim >> ((+ Joseph C. Wilson )) September 25, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_201 false 1 ------ US Congressmen David Bonior and Jim McDermott head for Baghdad with the intention of convincing Iraq to admit the weapons inspectors unfettered access. The day before, Bonior explained: &#8220;We want to avoid war, and we will make our case as strong as we can to not only the Iraqi leadership, but the leadership here in this country&#8212;that this war is not necessary. [War] will destabilize, we believe, many parts of the world. It will result in much loss of life, and to the extent that we can raise our concerns and have them heard, we're anxious to do so.&#8221; CNN reported, &#8220;While in Iraq, the congressmen will also visit hospitals, food distribution sites and other similar locations to assess the humanitarian situation of the Iraqi citizens.&#8221; [[ http://www.cnn.com/2002/ALLPOLITICS/09/25/democrats.iraq.trip/ | CNN, 9/25/2002 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Jim McDermott )) ((+ Lloyd Doggett )) September 25, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_200 false 1 ------ During a White House meeting with Colombian President Alvaro Uribe, George Bush makes the claim that Saddam Hussein and Osama bin Laden work together. &#8220;The danger is, is that they work in concert,&#8221; he says in response to a question from a Reuters reporter. &#8220;The danger is, is that al-Qaeda becomes an extension of Saddam's madness and his hatred and his capacity to extend weapons of mass destruction around the world.&#8221; He continues: &#8220;I can't distinguish between the two, because they're both equally as bad, and equally as evil and equally as destructive.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/09/20020925-1.html | White House, 9/25/03a ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A3206-2002Sep25.html | Washington Post, 9/26/2002 ]] [[ http://www.ledger-enquirer.com/mld/ledgerenquirer/news/4150487.htm | Knight Ridder Newspapers, 9/25/2002 ]] ------ Later in the day, Bush's comments are downplayed by White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer, who says that Bush did not mean Osama bin Laden and Saddam Hussein are working together, but rather that there is the danger that they could work together. He explains, &#8220;Clearly, al-Qaeda is operating inside Iraq. In the shadowy world of terrorism, sometimes there is no precise way to have definitive information until it is too late.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/09/20020925-3.html | White House, 9/25/03b ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A3206-2002Sep25.html | Washington Post, 9/26/2002 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> {{ duplicate_george_w._bush_9 }} September 25, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_356 false 1 ------ In a paper titled, &#8220;The Road to Economic Prosperity for a Post-Saddam Iraq,&#8221; which is a part of the study, A Future of a Post-Saddam Iraq: A Blueprint for American Involvement, Ariel Cohen and Gerald P. O"Driscoll, argue for the complete neoliberalization of Iraq's trade relations and for the privatization of Iraq's industries. The document says that poverty in Iraq is a result of Saddam Hussein's mismanagement, namely Saddam's decision to nationalize certain industries; Iraq's war with Iran; the invasion of Kuwait; and Saddam's refusal to comply with the requirements for the suspension of UN sanctions. The paper's proposal for jumpstarting Iraq's economy focuses on privatization of Iraq's industries and several other neoliberal reforms. To complement this, the authors recommend using the &#8220;media and the educational system to explain the benefits of privatization and the changes to come in order to ensure broad public support.&#8221; The costs of reconstruction, they suggest, could be paid for with funds generated from the sale of Iraq's oil. &#8220;Iraq's vast oil reserves are more than ample to provide the funds needed to rebuild and boost economic growth,&#8221; the report says. (( The Road to Economic Prosperity for a Post-Saddam Iraq )) [[ http://www.heritage.org/Research/MiddleEast/bg1594.cfm | Heritage Foundation, 9/25/02 ]] [[ http://www.observer.co.uk/international/story/0,6903,825103,00.html | Observer, 11/3/02 ]] ====== << preWarPlanning >> ((+ Gerald P. O'Driscoll )) ((+ Ariel Cohen )) {{ excerpt_the_road_to_economic_prosperity_for_a_post-saddam_iraq_4 }} {{ excerpt_the_road_to_economic_prosperity_for_a_post-saddam_iraq_6 }} {{ excerpt_the_road_to_economic_prosperity_for_a_post-saddam_iraq_2 }} {{ excerpt_the_road_to_economic_prosperity_for_a_post-saddam_iraq_5 }} {{ excerpt_the_road_to_economic_prosperity_for_a_post-saddam_iraq_3 }} September 26, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_137 false 1 ------ Powell tells the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, &#8220;The world had to recognize that the potential connection between terrorists and weapons of mass destruction moved terrorism to a new level of threat. In fact, that nexus became the overriding security concern of our nation. It still is and it will continue to be our overriding concern for some years to come.&#8221; [[ http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/usandun/02092802.htm | US Department of State, 9/26/02 ]] ------ But Paul Anderson, spokesman for Sen. Bob Graham, D-Fla., chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee, tells reporters that Graham, who has access to highly classified reports, has seen no evidence that Iraq has ties to al-Qaeda. (( Paul Anderson )) [[ http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2002-09-26-iraq-alqaeda_x.htm | USA Today, 9/26/02 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((+ Paul Anderson )) ((- Bob Graham )) ((+ Colin Powell )) September 26, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq-86 false 1 ------ During the daily press &#8220;gaggle,&#8221; Ari Fleischer acknowledges there is no evidence that Iraq was involved in the September 11 attacks. [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/infocus/iraq/excerpts_sept26.html | White House, 9/26/02 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((+ Ari Fleischer )) September 26, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_184 false 1 ------ Rumsfeld claims the US government has &#8220;bulletproof&#8221; confirmation of ties between Baghdad and al-Qaeda members, including &#8220;solid evidence&#8221; that al Qaeda maintains a presence in Iraq. The allegation refers to Abu Mussab Al Zarqawi, a Jordanian-born Palestinian who is the founder of al-Tawhid, an organization whose aim is to kill Jews and install an Islamic regime in Jordan (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_185 ]]). No evidence ever surfaces to suggest that the group works with al-Qaeda. Rumsfeld's statement is based on intercepted telephone calls in which Al Zarqawi was overheard calling friends or relatives. But Knight Ridder Newspapers reports that according to US intelligence officials, &#8220;The intercepts provide no evidence that the suspected terrorist was working with the Iraqi regime or that he was working on a terrorist operation while he was in Iraq.&#8221; (( Unnamed US Intelligence Officials )) [[ http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/4234549.htm | Knight Ridder Newspapers, 10/7/02 ]] ------ Shortly after the Defense Secretary's allegations, an unnamed intelligence official tells the Guardian, &#8220;They are not the official guests of the Government,&#8221; adding that any members of militant Islamist organizations in the region are still &#8220;on the run.&#8221; [[ http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/08/21/1029114137295.html | Guardian, 8/22/02 ]] ====== << alZarqawi >> << terroristTies >> ((- Abu Mussab Al Zarqawi )) ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) {{ statement_unnamed_us_intelligence_officials_4 }} {{ statement_unnamed_us_official_4 }} Late September 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1227 false 1 ------ The CIA distributes a classified report on the case of the aluminum tubes to policymakers. The report, the agency's most detailed to date, acknowledges for the first time that &#8220;some in the intelligence community&#8221; have argued that the tubes were likely intended to be used in the production of conventional rockets, not gas centrifuges. [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> September 28, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_202 false 1 ------ The US and Britain present a jointly drafted UN resolution to Russia, China, and France that goes &#8220;far beyond anything previously agreed to by America's partners on the UN Security Council.&#8221; The draft resolution seeks to authorize the use of military action against Iraq in the event that Saddam's regime fails to comply with the new demands outlined in the draft resolution. The draft, which is not immediately made public, is reportedly three and a half single-space typed pages. [[ http://nucnews.net/nucnews/2002nn/0209nn/020928nn.htm#380 | New York Times, 9/28/02 ]] [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/09/29/wirq29.xml | Telegraph, 9/29/02 ]] --- * --- In its opening paragraph, the draft resolution summarizes how Iraq is in violation of numerous past United Nations resolutions. (( US and British Draft UN Resolution )) [[ http://nucnews.net/nucnews/2002nn/0209nn/020928nn.htm#380 | New York Times, 9/28/02 ]] --- * --- The draft resolution proposes giving Iraq seven days &#8220;to accept the resolution and declare all of its programs of weapons of mass destruction, and a further 23 days to open up the sites concerned and provide all documents to support the declaration.&#8221; (( US and British Draft UN Resolution )) [[ http://nucnews.net/nucnews/2002nn/0209nn/020928nn.htm#380 | New York Times, 9/28/02 ]] --- * --- Weapons inspectors would operate out of bases inside Iraq, where they would be under the protection of UN troops. UN military forces or those of a &#8220;member state&#8221; (presumably the US or Britain), would enforce &#8220;no-fly&#8221; and &#8220;no-drive&#8221; zones along the roads on the way to and around alleged weapons sites to be visited by the inspectors. This would discourage Iraqis from removing anything before inspections. &#8220;Diplomats at the UN said there was no doubt that US troops would play a leading role in any such enforcement, allowing the Pentagon to deploy forces inside Iraq even before hostilities got under way,&#8221; reports The Guardian. (( US and British Draft UN Resolution )) (( Unnamed UN Diplomats )) [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,803471,00.html | Guardian, 10/3/02 ]] [[ http://www.mre.gov.br/acs/interclip2/Diario-WL/Outubro-02/materias/nytimes02d.htm | New York Times, 10/2/02 ]] --- * --- The US-British draft resolution includes provisions that would demand that Iraq permit the free and unrestricted landing of aircraft, including unmanned spy planes. (( US and British Draft UN Resolution )) [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,803471,00.html | Guardian, 10/3/02 ]] --- * --- The UN inspections teams would be authorized to remove anyone it wishes to a location outside out of Iraq, along with his or her family, for interrogation. The stated reason for this would be to remove the person's fear of possible Iraqi government reprisals. (( US and British Draft UN Resolution )) [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,803471,00.html | Guardian, 10/3/02 ]] --- * --- The draft resolution would override the provisions of UN Resolution 1154, requiring inspectors to notify Iraqi authorities prior to inspecting presidential sites and to perform the inspections in the presence of Iraqi diplomats. That provision applies to eight such sites in Iraq, spanning about 11.5 square miles. (( US and British Draft UN Resolution )) [[ http://nucnews.net/nucnews/2002nn/0209nn/020928nn.htm#380 | New York Times, 9/28/02 ]] [[ http://archives.tcm.ie/irishexaminer/2002/10/01/story609907024.asp | Associated Press, 9/30/02 ]] --- * --- The document stipulates that errors in a &#8220;currently accurate, full and complete declaration of all aspects&#8221; of its programs to develop weapons of mass destruction or &#8220;failure by Iraq at any time to comply and cooperate fully&#8221; would constitute &#8220;a further material breach ... that authorizes member states to use all necessary means to restore international peace and security in the area,&#8221; which the New York Times notes is &#8220;a diplomatic euphemism for American and British military action to remove Mr. Hussein from power.&#8221; As one US official explains to the Times, &#8220;If we find anything in what they give us that is not true, that is the trigger. If they delay, obstruct or lie about anything they disclosed, then this will trigger action.&#8221; (( US and British Draft UN Resolution )) [[ http://nucnews.net/nucnews/2002nn/0209nn/020928nn.htm#380 | New York Times, 9/28/02 ]] [[ http://www.mre.gov.br/acs/interclip2/Diario-WL/Outubro-02/materias/nytimes02d.htm | New York Times, 10/2/02 ]] ------ The BBC reports that Russia, China, and France suspect &#8220;that the ultimatum is really designed to be turned down, leaving the way open for military operations during the December to February period.&#8221; [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/2288074.stm | BBC, 9/30/02 ]] --- * --- The draft resolution would also allow the permanent members of the UN Security Council to place their own nationals on the inspection teams. This is significant because the current inspections team, UNMOVIC, currently does not have any US officials in high positions. The reason for this is because the last UN inspections team, UNSCOM, had been sabotaged by US spies (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_297 ]]). (( US and British Draft UN Resolution )) [[ http://www.mre.gov.br/acs/interclip2/Diario-WL/Outubro-02/materias/nytimes02d.htm | New York Times, 10/2/02 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/world/middle_east/2289338.stm | BBC, 10/1/02 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0918-08.htm | Times, 9/18/02 ]] --- Reaction --- Iraq is infuriated by the draft resolution and calls it &#8220;unacceptable.&#8221; Iraqi Vice President Taha Yassin Ramadan states, &#8220;The position on the inspectors has been decided and any new measure intended to harm Iraq is unacceptable.&#8221; French President Jacques Chirac immediately expresses his opposition to the US-proposed draft resolution and seeks to form a coalition to prevent its passing. He explains that France favors the return of weapons inspectors to Iraq absent of any ultimatums because of &#8220;the seriousness of the decisions to be taken and the consequences.&#8221; He meets with Chinese premier Zhu Rongji and calls Russian President Vladimir V. Putin. Russia is also upset with the proposed draft resolution. &#8220;In its current form, this resolution cannot be implemented by its very nature,&#8221; a source tells Reuters. [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/09/29/wirq29.xml | Telegraph, 9/29/02 ]] [[ http://nucnews.net/nucnews/2002nn/0209nn/020928nn.htm#380 | New York Times, 9/28/02 ]] [[ http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/759548/posts | Reuters, 9/29/02 ]] [[ http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/09/29/1033283388011.html | Sydney Morning Herald, 9/30/02 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> << weaponsInspections >> {{ commentary_unnamed_european_diplomat_2 }} {{ statement_dominique_de_villepin_2 }} {{ commentary_john_pike_2 }} {{ statement_ari_fleischer_5 }} {{ statement_unnamed_russian_source_2 }} {{ statement_zhu_rongji_2 }} (September 28, 2002-November 8, 2002) complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_717 false 1 ------ During negotiations with the French over the wording of UN Resolution 1441, the US reportedly attempts to deceive the French with amateurish tricks. Vanity Fair magazine reports in April 2004: &#8220;According to a French diplomat, the US attempted various amateurish maneuvers. For example, they would have the French look at certain paragraphs that spoke to the issue of an automatic trigger; the French would insist on deletions, which the US would appear to accept; then the deletion would pop-up elsewhere in the text. &#8216;We didn't like it in paragraph four,&#8217; a French diplomat says, recalling the mind numbing dialogue. &#8216;We don't like it in paragraph two, either.&#8217; &#8221; (( Unnamed French diplomat )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 286-88 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> << legalJustification >> September 29, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_203 false 1 ------ Jane's Foreign Report reveals that Israeli forces have been operating within Iraq. Citing Israeli sources, it reports that the elite Sayeret Matkal commando unit was dispatched into Iraqi sovereign territory &#8220;to find and identify places used by, or likely to be used by, Iraqi Scud missile launchers.&#8221; The newsletter explains, &#8220;Our information is that neither Israel nor the United States have a clue about what, if anything, Saddam Hussein is hiding,&#8221; and that &#8220;It was this ignorance that persuaded the Israeli prime minister, Ariel Sharon, to assign the Sayeret Matkal to a job that is sensitive and dangerous.&#8221; [[ http://www.haaretzdaily.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=213473&amp;contrassID=1&amp;subContrassID=0&amp;sbSubContrassID=0 | Ha'aretz 9/29/02 ]] [[ http://www.converge.org.nz/pma/cra0930.htm | Jerusalem Post, 9/29/02 ]] [[ http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2002-11-03-israel-usat_x.htm | USA Today, 11/3/02 ]] ====== << wmd >> September 30, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_411 false 1 ------ The non-partisan Congressional Budget Office estimates that a &#8220;heavy ground war&#8221; with three months of fighting, followed by a five-year occupation force could cost more than $272 billion. [[ http://msnbc.msn.com/id/3072938/ | CNBC, 10/21/02 ]] [[ http://www.oakridger.com/stories/100102/new_1001020025.html | Associated Press, 10/1/02 ]] ====== << predictions >> September 30, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_204 false 1 ------ Iraqi and UN officials meet together with weapons inspectors to begin a two-day discussion on the resumption of weapons inspections in Iraq. &#8220;The Iraqis are being positive and businesslike and they are coming with a desire to reach an agreement,&#8221; says Muhammad ElBaradei, the director-general of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Mr. ElBaradei co-hosts the discussion with Hans Blix, the UN's chief weapons inspector. This effort to reach an agreement is independent to, and in conflict with, the US and British plan to introduce a tougher UN resolution that would allow for the inspections to be backed by the threat of military force. Notes the Times of London, &#8220;Such an agreement could be bad news for the United States and Britain by further complicating their efforts to win UN approval for a tough new resolution explicitly threatening military action if Iraq does impede the inspectors.&#8221; [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-432251,00.html | Times, 10/1/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Hans Blix )) ((+ Mohamed ElBaradei )) Early October 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_96 false 1 ------ Elisabetta Burba, a reporter for the Italian current affairs weekly Panorama, receives a phone call from Rocco Martino, an Italian security consultant. He tells her that he has some documents (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1611 ]]) that might interest her. Burba has obtained information from Martino before and she considers him to be a reliable source. (( Elisabetta Burba )) [[ http://www.talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/week_2003_10_26.html#002145 | Corriere della Sera, 7/17/03, cited in Talking Points Memo, 10/31/03 ]] [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/justify/2004/0802niger.htm | Financial Times, 8/2/2004 ]] ------ They meet at a bar in Rome and he gives her copies of the documents, totaling some 22 pages, mostly in French, and offers to give her the originals for a sum of ten thousand dollars. Burba tells her source that she needs to verify the authenticity of the documents before her employer will agree to purchase the documents. (( Elisabetta Burba )) [[ http://www.talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/week_2003_10_26.html#002145 | Corriere della Sera, date unknown, cited in Talking Points Memo, 10/31/03 ]] [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?031027fa_fact | New Yorker, 10/20/03 ]] [[ http://quickstart.clari.net/qs_se/webnews/wed/bi/Qus-iraq-niger-italy.Rt17_DlJ.html | Agence France Presse, 7/19/03 ]] [[ http://www.matamat.com/fullstory.php?gd=25&amp;cd=2003-07-19 | Reuters, 7/19/03 ]] ====== << africaUraniumClaim >> ((+ Elisabetta Burba )) Fall 2002-March 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_397 false 1 ------ US officials, advisors, and foreign policy experts suggest that a portion of the cost of the US military operation in Iraq, as well as the post-war reconstruction, could be funded with Iraq's oil wealth. [[ http://www.house.gov/schakowsky/iraqquotes_web.htm | Congressional Office of Jan Schakowsky, n.d. ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0116-10.htm | Financial Times, 1/16/04 ]] [[ http://www.sptimes.com/2003/04/03/Worldandnation/UN__US_could_clash_ov.shtml | St. Petersburg Times, 4/2/03 ]] [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030218-4.html | White House, 2/18/03 ]] ====== << motivesBehindWar >> {{ statement_the_road_to_economic_prosperity_for_a_post-saddam_iraq_6 }} {{ statement_richard_armitage_2 }} {{ statement_ari_fleischer_9 }} {{ statement_donald_rumsfeld_15 }} {{ statement_donald_rumsfeld_14 }} {{ statement_paul_wolfowitz_6 }} {{ statement_unnamed_us_official_5 }} Fall 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_347 false 1 ------ The Bush White House establishes a &#8220;high-level, interagency task force&#8221; charged with the task of &#8220;coordinating all Iraq war planning efforts and postwar initiatives.&#8221; The task force is headed by the Deputies Committee, which is made up of the &#8220;No. 2 officials at the Pentagon, Joint Chiefs of Staff, State Department, CIA, National Security Council, and vice president's office.&#8221; The committee&apos;s job is to review the work of other groups who have been involved in the planning of post-war Iraq, and provide recommendations to Bush&apos;s top advisors. The committee presumably draws on the work of the Pentagon&apos;s Office of Special Plans (OSP) (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_353 ]]) (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_78 ]]), Elliot Abrams&apos; group (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_350 ]]) (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_351 ]]) and the State Department&apos;s &#8220;Future of Iraq&#8221; project (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_349 ]]). Later accounts make clear that Abrams&apos; and the OSP&apos;s recommendations have much more influence. The Deputies Committee usually meets in the White House situation room. National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice keeps President Bush updated on the progress of the task force&apos;s work. In November, US News reports that a consensus is forming &#8220;at the highest levels of the Bush administration over how to run the country after Saddam and his regime are history.&#8221; (( Unnamed US government officials )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/usnews112502.htm | US News, 11/25/03 ]] [[ http://www.rense.com/general32/pretex.htm | Reuters, 11/25/03 ]] [[ http://lists.indymedia.org/pipermail/imc-uk/2002-November/001740.html | Financial Times, 11/4/2002 ]] --- Some Conclusions of the Deputies Committee, as reported by US News and World Report --- --- * --- The US should not create a provisional government or a government in exile. &#8220;We are not going to be in the business of choosing&#8221; who should lead Iraq, a senior official tells US News and World Report. (( Unnamed senior official )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/usnews112502.htm | US News 11/25/03 ]] --- * --- The invasion of Iraq will likely be followed by a lengthy occupation. This conclusion is passed on to Bush. &#8220;I have been with the president when he has been briefed about the need to have US forces there for an extended period of time,&#8221; a senior administration official will later tell US News and World Report. (( Unnamed senior administration official )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/usnews112502.htm | US News 11/25/03 ]] --- * --- During the first phase of the occupation, Iraq will be ruled by the military, probably a US general. The primary objective during this phase will be maintaining security and preventing the emergence of hostilities between the Shiites and Sunnis. Pentagon officials involved in planning this stage are reported to have reviewed the archived plans for the occupation of Germany and Japan. The second phase of the occupation will involve some sort of international civilian administration, with a diminished US military presence, and Iraqis will be given a larger role in the government. In the last phase, a constitution will be drafted, transferring power to a representative, multiethnic Iraqi government that commits to being free of weapons of mass destruction. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/usnews112502.htm | US News 11/25/03 ]] --- * --- Revenue generated from the sale of Iraq's oil will be used for the cost of reconstruction and for conducting humanitarian operations. Hardliners however want the funds to pay for the military costs of the invasion as well. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/usnews112502.htm | US News 11/25/03 ]] --- * --- No firm decisions are made about the what role, if any, Iraqi exiles affiliated with the Iraqi National Congress (INC) will play in post-Saddam Iraq. Pentagon hardliners and some top officials in the White House favor giving them a prominent role, while the CIA and State Department adamantly oppose their inclusion, arguing that the exiles cannot be trusted. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/usnews112502.htm | US News 11/25/03 ]] --- * --- Iraqis will not necessarily treat the invading American soldiers as &#8220;liberators.&#8221; Many Iraqis harbor a deep resentment against the US for the decades-long sanction policy. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/usnews112502.htm | US News, 11/25/03 ]] ====== << preWarPlanning >> ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ Ahmed Chalabi )) October 1, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_205 false 1 ------ Senators Richard Lugar and Joseph Biden circulate an alternative to Bush's draft congressional resolution, which the two senators explain, &#8220;helps the President attract strong bipartisan support in Congress.&#8221; Their proposed resolution focuses on the use of force against Iraq as opposed to the entire region and specifies that the disarmament of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction would be the reason for using military force. Bush rejects the suggested alternative outright, complaining, &#8220;I don't want to get a resolution which ties my hands,&#8221; instead insisting that Congress pass a resolution that &#8220;sends a clear signal that this country is determined to disarm Iraq and thereby bring peace to the world.&#8221; Bush says, &#8220;My question is, what's changed [since the Congressional resolution passed in 1998]? Why would Congress want to weaken a resolution?&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021001-2.html | White House, 10/1/02 ]] [[ http://www.oakridger.com/stories/100102/new_1001020025.html | Associated Press, 10/1/2002 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,802818,00.html | Guardian, 10/2/2002 ]] ------ Saddam, he continues, is &#8220;more of a threat four years later&#8221; and &#8220;[a]ll of us recognize that the military option is not the first choice, but disarming this man is, because he represents a true threat to the United States.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021001-2.html | White House, 10/1/02 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,802818,00.html | Guardian, 10/2/2002 ]] ====== << imminentThreatQuotes >> << legalJustification >> ((+ Richard Lugar )) ((+ Joseph Biden )) ((+ George W. Bush )) October 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1838 false 1 ------ Deutsche Bank publishes a report, titled, Baghdad Bazaar Big Oil in Iraq, which analyses the large stakes that certain countries and oil companies have in the United State's conflict with Iraq. It notes that the removal of Saddam Hussein would benefit US and British companies, while Russian, French, and Chinese companies would benefit from a peaceful outcome. Either way, companies from many different countries are positioning themselves for a role in Iraq's post-conflict oil industry, the report says. [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/oil/2002/1026energy.htm | New York Times, 10/26/2002 ]] [[ http://www.foe.co.uk/resource/press_releases/20030126184336.html | Friends of the Earth, 1/26/2003 ]] ====== << motivesBehindWar >> ((+ Deutsche Bank )) Early October 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_400 false 1 ------ Grant Aldonas, American undersecretary of commerce, tells a business forum that a war in Iraq &#8220;would open up this spigot on Iraqi oil, which certainly would have a profound effect in terms of the performance of the world economy for those countries that are manufacturers and oil consumers.&#8221; [[ http://www.msnbc.com/news/823985.asp?cp1=1 | MSNBC, 11/7/02 ]] [[ http://observer.guardian.co.uk/iraq/story/0,12239,882517,00.html | Guardian, 1/26/03 ]] [[ http://www.msnbc.com/news/823985.asp?cp1=1 | Christian Science Monitor, 10/16/02 ]] ====== << motivesBehindWar >> ((+ Grant Aldonas )) October 1, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_206 false 1 ------ After a two-day meeting, UN and Iraqi officials agree to resume weapons inspections according to the terms that have been outlined in previous UN resolutions. &#8220;Iraq and the United Nations agreed today that inspectors would be given unfettered access to a range of sites, including sensitive areas like the Defense Ministry and the headquarters of Saddam Hussein's Republican Guard,&#8221; reports the New York Times. Iraq agrees to &#8220;technical details covering transport, communications, security and accommodation for UN inspectors, except for flights by UN aircraft into the no-fly zones&#8221; and agree &#8220;to allow UN inspectors to open regional offices in Basra, the southern capital, and Mosul in the north,&#8221; reports the Times of London. UN Resolution 1154, which requires inspectors to warn Iraq before inspecting presidential sites and to conduct such inspections in the company of Iraqi diplomats, is not revoked as the Bush administration has insisted. The Iraqis also provide the UN with monitoring reports for suspect sites and items, covering the period between June 1998 and July 2002, as has been requested. Amir Al Sadi, the head of the Iraqi negotiation team, tells reporters, &#8220;We expect the advance party to arrive in Baghdad in about two weeks.&#8221; [[ http://www.firstcoastnews.com/news/2002-10-01/usw_uniraq.asp | Associated Press, 10/1/02 ]] [[ http://www.why-war.com/news/2002/10/01/iraqandu.html | New York Times, 10/1/02 ]] [[ http://www.mre.gov.br/acs/interclip2/Diario-WL/Setembro-02/materias/nytimes17d.htm | New York Times, 10/02/02 ]] [[ http://www.drumbeat.mlaterz.net/October%202002/US%20threatens%20to%20thwart%20inspections%20100102a.htm | Times, 10/2/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> {{ statement_colin_powell_11 }} {{ statement_colin_powell_10 }} {{ statement_colin_powell_9 }} {{ statement_hans_blix_7 }} {{ statement_george_w._bush_11 }} {{ statement_saddam_hussein_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_state_department_official_2 }} Fall 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_395 false 1 ------ Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld tells Fortune magazine, &#8220;If you [worry about just] the cost, the money, Iraq is a very different situation from Afghanistan ... Iraq has oil. They have financial resources.&#8221; [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0116-10.htm | Financial Times, 1/16/04 ]] ====== << preWarPlanning >> << motivesBehindWar >> ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) October 1, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_7 false 1 ------ The National Intelligence Council, a board of senior analysts who prepare reports on crucial national security issues, completes a National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) on Iraq. The purpose of an NIE is to provide policy-makers with an intelligence assessment that includes all available information on a specific issue so that they can make sound policy decisions. The formal document is supposed to be the result of a collaborative effort of the entire intelligence community and is supposed to be untainted by political interests. The decision to produce the assessment on Iraq followed criticisms that the administration had already decided to invade Iraq without having received&#8212;or even called for&#8212;an assessment from its multi-billion dollar intelligence apparatus on the supposed threat posed by Iraq. Congress wanted the NIE completed prior to voting on a bill authorizing the President to use force against Iraq and was formally requested by Senator Bob Graham. ------ NIEs such as this usually take months to prepare, however this document took a mere three weeks. The person in charge of preparing the document was weapons expert Robert Walpole. According to the Independent of London, Walpole has a track record of tailoring his work to support the preconceived conclusions of his superiors. &#8220;In 1998, he had come up with an estimate of the missile capabilities of various rogue states that managed to sound considerably more alarming than a previous CIA estimate issued three years earlier,&#8221; the newspaper will report. &#8220;On that occasion, he was acting at the behest of a congressional commission anxious to make the case for a missile defense system; the commission chairman was none other than Donald Rumsfeld ....&#8221; [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1109-12.htm | Independent, 11/3/03 ]] [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] --- Summary of NIE Conclusions --- After the document is completed, two different versions will be released. An abridged declassified version is posted on the CIA's website for the public, while the classified version is disseminated within the administration and to Congress (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_713 ]]). The two versions portray the threat posed by Saddam Hussein very differently. The classified version of the NIE on Iraq provides a far less alarmist view of the threat allegedly posed by Iraq than that which is presented in the public version of the document. According to US intelligence and congressional sources who read the classified document, the intelligence estimate contains &#8220;cautionary language about Iraq's connections with al-Qaeda and warnings about the reliability of conflicting reports by Iraqi defectors and captured al-Qaeda members about the ties.&#8221; And notably, the second paragraph of the &#8220;key judgment&#8221; section states that the estimate lacks &#8220;specific information&#8221; on Iraq's alleged arsenal of weapons of mass destruction. Though the document does say that Iraq probably has chemical and biological weapons, it also says that US intelligence analysts believe that Saddam Hussein would only launch an attack against the US if he felt a US invasion was inevitable. The intelligence estimate also concludes that Saddam would only provide terrorists with chemical or biological agents for use against the United States as a last resort in order to &#8220;exact vengeance by taking a large number of victims with him.&#8221; A senior intelligence official will later tell The Washington Post in June 2003: &#8220;There has always been an internal argument within the intelligence community about the connections between Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda. The NIE had alternative views.&#8221; The NIE also concludes that Iraq does not have nuclear weapons. The public version of the report&#8212;which is presented to Congress before it votes on a resolution conditionally authorizing Bush to use military force against Iraq&#8212;contains language that is far less qualified and nuanced than the classified version. (( Stuart Cohen )) (( US intelligence and congressional sources )) (( INR's alternative view in the 2002 National Intelligence Estimate on Iraq )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A19822-2003Jun21.html | Washington Post, 6/22/03 ]] [[ http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/s1000221.htm | Agence France Presse, 11/30/03 ]] --- Iraqi attempts to obtain uranium from Africa --- The document makes a reference to the allegation that Iraq has sought to procure uranium from Africa. &#8220;A foreign government service reported that as of early 2001, Niger planned to send several tons of &#8216;pure uranium&#8217; (probably yellowcake) to Iraq. As of early 2001, Niger and Iraq reportedly were still working out arrangements for this deal, which could be for up to 500 tons of yellowcake. We do not know the status of this arrangement. Reports indicate Iraq also has sought uranium ore from Somalia and possibly the Democratic Republic of the Congo.&#8221; But the alternative view&#8212;endorsed by the State Department's bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR)&#8212;says that it is doubtful Iraq sought to procure uranium from Africa. &#8220;(T)he claims of Iraqi pursuit of natural uranium in Africa are, in INR's assessment, highly dubious,&#8221; it reads. (( Wissam al-Zahawie )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/nie_iraq_wmd.pdf | US Government, 10/02 ]] [[ http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=1577&amp;fcategory_desc=Under%20Reported | Washington Post, 7/19/03 ]] --- Iraqi attempts to obtain aluminum tubes --- The document provides a very misleading assessment of the tubes case. For instance, it includes a chart which compares the dimensions of the aluminum tubes sought by Iraq with those that would be needed for a &#8220;Zippe-type&#8221; centrifuge. The comparison makes the two tubes appear similar. However, the chart fails to note that the aluminum tubes are an exact match to those used in Iraq's 81-millimeter rocket. The estimate also claims that the tubes are not suitable for rockets. The assertion ignores the fact that similar tubes are used in rockets from several countries, including the United States. [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] ------ In addition to the assessment's misleading statements about the tubes, there are interesting differences between the classified and declassified versions of the NIE with regard to the tubes. The declassified, public version of the NIE states: &#8220;Iraq's aggressive attempts to obtain proscribed high-strength aluminum tubes are of significant concern. All intelligence experts agree that Iraq is seeking nuclear weapons and that these tubes could be used in a centrifuge enrichment program. Most intelligence specialists assess this to be the intended use, but some believe that these tubes are probably intended for conventional weapons programs. Based on tubes of the size Iraq is trying to acquire, a few tens of thousands of centrifuges would be capable of producing enough highly enriched uranium for a couple of weapons per year.&#8221; However the classified version of the document presents a more nuanced assessment. In the main text of the document, it says that the Energy Department &#8220;agrees that reconstitution of the nuclear program is underway but assesses that the tubes probably are not part of the program.&#8221; At the bottom of the page, in a lengthy footnote by the State Department's INR, the alternative view states that the agency agrees with the DOE's assessment that the tubes are not meant for use in a gas centrifuge. The footnote reads: &#8220;In INR's view Iraq's efforts to acquire aluminum tubes is central to the argument that Baghdad is reconstituting its nuclear weapons program, but INR is not persuaded that the tubes in question are intended for use as centrifuge rotors. INR accepts the judgment of technical experts at the US Department of Energy (DOE) who have concluded that the tubes Iraq seeks to acquire are poorly suited for use in gas centrifuges to be used for uranium enrichment and finds unpersuasive the arguments advanced by others to make the case that they are intended for that purpose. INR considers it far more likely that the tubes are intended for another purpose, most likely the production of artillery rockets. The very large quantities being sought, the way the tubes were tested by the Iraqis, and the atypical lack of attention to operational security in the procurement efforts are among the factors, in addition to the DOE assessment, that lead INR to conclude that the tubes are not intended for use in Iraq's nuclear weapon program.&#8221; (( Wissam al-Zahawie )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/nie_iraq_wmd.pdf | US Government, 10/02 ]] [[ http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=1577&amp;fcategory_desc=Under%20Reported | Washington Post, 7/19/03 ]] [[ http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2003-07-31-nuclear-tubes-iraq-usat_x.htm | USA Today, 7/31/03 ]] --- Reconstituted nuclear weapons programs --- The intelligence estimate says that &#8220;most&#8221; of the US' six intelligence agencies believe there is &#8220;compelling evidence that Saddam [Hussein] is reconstituting a uranium enrichment effort for Baghdad's nuclear weapons program.&#8221; The classified version of the document includes the dissenting position of the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR) which states: &#8220;The activities we have detected do not, however, add up to a compelling case that Iraq is currently pursuing what INR would consider to be an integrated and comprehensive approach to acquire nuclear weapons. Iraq may be doing so, but INR considers the available evidence inadequate to support such a judgment. Lacking persuasive evidence that Baghdad has launched a coherent effort to reconstitute its nuclear weapons programs, INR is unwilling to ... project a timeline for the completion of activities it does not now see happening.&#8221; It is later learned that nuclear scientists in the Department of Energy's in-house intelligence office were also opposed to the NIE's conclusion and had wanted to endorse the State's alternative view. However, the person representing the DOE, Thomas Ryder, silenced the views of those within his department and inexplicably voted to support the position that Iraq had reconstituted its nuclear weapons program (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_33 ]]). The DOE's vote was seen as critical, since the department's assessment was supposed to represent the views of the government's nuclear experts. (( Wissam al-Zahawie )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/nie_iraq_wmd.pdf | US Government, 10/02 ]] [[ http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=1577&amp;fcategory_desc=Under%20Reported | Washington Post, 7/19/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0210-02.htm | Knight Ridder, 2/10/04 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0210-02.htm | Knight Ridder, 2/10/04 ]] --- Chemical and Biological Weapons --- The classified version of the estimate uses cautionary language to conclude that Iraq probably does have chemical and biological weapons. It states: &#8220;We judge Iraq has some lethal and incapacitating BW agents and is capable of quickly producing and weaponizing a variety of such agents, including anthrax, for delivery by bombs, missiles, aerial sprayers, and covert operatives.&#8221; But the document also highlights the belief that it is unlikely that Iraq has any intention to use these against the US. &#8220;... Baghdad for now appears to be drawing a line short of conducting terrorist attacks with conventional or CBW [Chemical/Biological Weapons] against the United States, fearing that exposure of Iraqi involvement would provide Washington with a stronger case for making war.&#8221; Iraq would probably only use such weapons against the United States if it &#8220;feared an attack that threatened the survival of the regime were imminent or unavoidable, or possibly for revenge.&#8221; (( 2002 National Intelligence Estimate on Iraq )) ------ The last two observations are conspicuously absent from the declassified, public version of the estimate, which reads only, &#8220;Iraq has some lethal and incapacitating BW agents and is capable of quickly producing and weaponizing a variety of such agents, including anthrax, for delivery by bombs, missiles, aerial sprayers, and covert operatives, including potentially against the US Homeland.&#8221; [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0210-02.htm | Knight Ridder, 2/10/04 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A20194-2004Feb6.html | Washington Post, 2/7/03 ]] --- Unmanned Aerial Vehicles --- The NIE claims that Iraq has unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) which can be used to deploy biological and chemical weapons. &#8220;Baghdad's UAVs&#8212;especially if used for delivery of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents&#8212;could threaten Iraq's neighbors, US forces in the Persian Gulf, and the United States if brought close to, or into, the US Homeland.&#8221; (( 2002 National Intelligence Estimate on Iraq )) ------ But this view is not held unanimously among the various intelligence agencies. Significantly, the Air Force's National Air and Space Intelligence Center disagrees with this assessment. The Center, which controls most of the American military's UAV fleet, says in a dissenting opinion that there is little evidence that Iraq's drones are related to the country's suspected biological weapons program. Current intelligence suggests that the drones are not capable of carrying much more than a camera and a video recorder. The Air Force believes that Iraq's unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are for reconnaissance, like its counterparts in the US. The dissenting opinion reads: &#8220;... The Director, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance, US Air Force, does not agree that Iraq is developing UAVs primarily intended to be delivery platforms for chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents. The small size of Iraq's new UAV strongly suggests a primary role of reconnaissance, although CBW delivery is an inherent capability.&#8221; (( US Government officials and scientists )) [[ http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/ssistory.mpl/special/iraq/2064387 | Associated Press, 8/24/03 ]] [[ http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=2755&amp;fcategory_desc=Under%20Reported | Washington Post, 9/26/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0210-02.htm | Knight Ridder, 2/10/04 ]] ------ This important statement is not included in the public version of the document. (( 2002 National Intelligence Estimate on Iraq )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0210-02.htm | Knight Ridder, 2/10/04 ]] ------ Bob Boyd, director of the Air Force Intelligence Analysis Agency, will tell reporters in August 2003 that his department thought the allegation in the NIE &#8220;was a little odd,&#8221; noting that Air Force assessments &#8220;all along&#8221; had said that reconnaissance, not weapons delivery, was the purpose of Iraq's drones. &#8220;Everything we discovered strengthened our conviction that the UAVs were to be used for reconnaissance,&#8221; he will explain. &#8220;What we were thinking was: Why would you purposefully design a vehicle to be an inefficient delivery means? Wouldn't it make more sense that they were purposefully designing it to be a decent reconnaissance UAV?&#8221; (( Bob Boyd )) [[ http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/ssistory.mpl/special/iraq/2064387 | Associated Press, 8/24/03 ]] [[ http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=2755&amp;fcategory_desc=Under%20Reported | Washington Post, 9/26/03 ]] ------ The NIE's conclusion is apparently also based on accounts from defectors and exiles as well as information suggesting that Iraq is attempting to obtain &#8220;commercially available route-planning software,&#8221; containing topographic data of the United States. According to the NIE, this data &#8220;could facilitate targeting of US sites.&#8221; But Air Force analysts were not convinced by the argument, noting that this sort of information could easily be retrieved from the Internet and other highly accessible sources. &#8220;We saw nothing sinister about the inclusion of the US maps in route-planning software,&#8221; Boyd will tell reporters. (( Bob Boyd )) [[ http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=2755&amp;fcategory_desc=Under%20Reported | Washington Post, 9/26/03 ]] ------ Analysts at the Pentagon's Missile Defense Agency are said to back the Air Force's National Air and Space Intelligence Center's position. (( US Government officials and scientists )) [[ http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/ssistory.mpl/special/iraq/2064387 | Associated Press, 8/24/03 ]] --- Aftermath --- After the completion of the National Intelligence Estimate, the Bush administration will continue to make allegations concerning Iraq's weapons capabilities and ties to terrorism, but will include none of the qualifications and nuances that are present in the classified version of the assessment. After excerpts from the classified version of the NIE are published in the press in July of 2003 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_476 ]]) and the public learns that the document's conclusions had actually been much less alarmist than the public version, administration officials will claim that neither Bush, Rice nor other top officials were informed about the alternative views expressed by the DOE, INR, and the Air Force intelligence agency. They will also assert that the dissenting views did not significantly undermine the overall conclusion of the NIE that Iraq was continuing its banned weapons program despite UN resolutions. [[ http://www.independent-media.tv/item.cfm?fmedia_id=1577&amp;fcategory_desc=Under%20Reported | Washington Post, 7/19/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A51224-2003Jul26.html | Washington Post, 7/27/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/07/19/international/worldspecial/19INTE.html | New York Times, 7/19/03 ]] ------ But this claim is later disputed in an article by The Washington Post, which reports: &#8220;One person who has worked with Rice describes as &#8216;inconceivable&#8217; the claims that she was not more actively involved. Indeed, subsequent to the July 18 briefing, another senior administration official said Rice had been briefed immediately on the NIE&#8212;including the doubts about Iraq's nuclear program&#8212;and had &#8216;skimmed&#8217; the document. The official said that within a couple of weeks, Rice &#8216;read it all.&#8217; &#8221; (( two unnamed administration officials )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A51224-2003Jul26.html | Washington Post, 7/27/03 ]] ------ Additionally, senior CIA analyst Stuart Cohen, the acting chairman of the National Intelligence Council at this time, who helped write the document, will tell the Agence France Presse, &#8220;Any reader would have had to read only as far as the second paragraph of the Key Judgments to know that as we said, &#8216;we lacked specific information on many key aspects of Iraq's WMD program.&#8217; &#8221; (( Michael Hayden )) [[ http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/s1000221.htm | Agence France Presse, 11/30/03 ]] ------ A Senate Intelligence Committee investigation will determine in July 2004 that &#8220;Most of the major key judgments in the Intelligence Community's October 2002 National Intelligence Estimate (NIE), Iraq's Continuing Programs for Weapons of Mass Destruction, either overstated, or were not supported by, the underlying intelligence reporting.&#8221; (( Senate Intelligence Report on Iraq, 7/2004 )) ====== << wmdQuotesGeneral >> << africaUraniumClaim >> << wmd >> << terroristTies >> << aluminumTubes >> << deception >> ((+ Bob Graham )) ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((+ Stuart Cohen )) ((+ Bob Boyd )) {{ duplicate_inr_s_alternative_view_in_the_2002_national_intelligence_estimate_on_iraq_4 }} {{ statement_unnamed_senior_administration_official_4 }} {{ statement_michael_o?hanlon_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_official_described_as_&#8220;close&#8221;_to_condoleezza_rice_2 }} {{ excerpt_inr_s_alternative_view_in_the_2002_national_intelligence_estimate_on_iraq_2 }} {{ duplicate_inr_s_alternative_view_in_the_2002_national_intelligence_estimate_on_iraq_6 }} {{ duplicate_inr_s_alternative_view_in_the_2002_national_intelligence_estimate_on_iraq_5 }} {{ duplicate_inr_s_alternative_view_in_the_2002_national_intelligence_estimate_on_iraq_3 }} {{ statement_greg_thielmann_21 }} {{ statement_entity_snippet_1 }} October 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_2023 false 1 ------ Vincent Cannistraro, the CIA's former head of counterintelligence, says, &#8220;Basically, cooked information is working its way into high-level pronouncements and there's a lot of unhappiness about it in intelligence, especially among analysts at the CIA.&#8221; [[ http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/10/09/1034061257034.html | Sydney Morning Herald, 10/10/2002 ]] ====== << deception >> ((+ Vince Cannistraro )) October 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_55 false 1 ------ Ahmed Chalabi, leader of the London-based Iraqi National Congress (INC) meets with the executives of &#8220;three US oil multinationals to negotiate the carve-up of Iraq's massive oil reserves post-Saddam.&#8221; Also in attendance are &#8220;leading oilmen, exiled Iraqis and lawyers.&#8221; The meeting, titled, &#8220;Invading Iraq: dangers and opportunities for the energy sector,&#8221; meets &#8220;behind the closed doors of the Royal Institute of International Affairs.&#8221; Several weeks after the meeting one delegate will tell the Guardian that the whole day could have been summarized with: &#8220;Who gets the oil?&#8221; The meeting is confirmed by INC spokesman Zaab Sethna. [[ http://www.observer.co.uk/international/story/0,6903,825103,00.html | Observer, 11/3/02 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,845167,00.html | Guardian, 11/22/02 ]] ====== << preWarPlanning >> ((+ Ahmed Chalabi )) (8:00pm) October 1, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_713 false 1 ------ The CIA delivers the classified version of its 90-page National Intelligence Estimate on Iraq (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_7 ]]) to Congress. It is available for viewing by Congresspersons under tight security in the offices of the Senate and House Intelligence Committees. Congress asks the CIA for a declassified version so that the members have something they can refer to during their debates on the Iraq war resolution. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A19822-2003Jun21?language=printer | Washington Post, 6/22/2003 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 281 ]] ====== << deception >> October 2, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_207 false 1 ------ The House and Senate draft a joint resolution authorizing the President to use military force against Iraq. The House bill is sponsored by Democrat Richard Gephardt, who meets with the President in the morning to discuss the compromise bill. Bush concedes on a few of Mr. Gephardt's requests. The resulting joint resolutions&#8212;HJ Res. 114 in the House and SJ Res. 46, in the Senate&#8212;give substantially more to President Bush than the other proposals that are under consideration such as the Biden-Lugar initiative and Barbara Lee's HR 473. Gephardt's resolution angers many fellow democrats. (( S.J. Res. 46 )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/nytimes100302.htm | New York Times, 10/3/02 ]] --- * --- The document alleges, among other things, that Iraq is harboring al-Qaeda operatives, is actively seeking and preparing to use weapons of mass destruction, had gassed its own people, had attempted to assassinate the President's father, and was in violation of past UN resolutions. (( S.J. Res. 46 )) --- * --- The document authorizes the President to use military force to &#8220;defend the national security of the United States against the continuing threat posed by Iraq; and ... enforce all relevant United Nations Security Council resolutions regarding Iraq.&#8221; (( S.J. Res. 46 )) --- * --- The document requires that the President, within 48 hours of exercising the use of military force, provide Congress with an explanation as to why diplomacy was insufficient to protect the United States or enforce United Nations resolutions. The resolution also requires the President to report to Congress every 60 days during the entire duration of the conflict. (( S.J. Res. 46 )) ====== << terroristTies >> << legalJustification >> October 2, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_146 false 1 ------ In a congressional closed-door hearing, Senator Levin asks a senior intelligence witness: &#8220;If (Saddam) didn't feel threatened, did not feel threatened, is it likely that he would initiate an attack using a weapon of mass destruction?&#8221; The intelligence witness responds that under those circumstances &#8220;the likelihood ... would be low.&#8221; But the probability of Saddam using such weapons would increase, the witness explains, if the US initiates an attack. (( Letter from CIA Director George Tenet to Bob Graham )) [[ http://www.fas.org/irp/news/2002/10/dci100702.html | Congressional Record, 10/7/02, Page S10154 ]] [[ http://www.cbc.ca/stories/2002/11/01/bushiraq021101 | CBC News 11/1/02 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((+ Carl Levin )) {{ excerpt_letter_from_cia_director_george_tenet_to_bob_graham_2 }} October 3, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_212 false 1 ------ Senator Robert Byrd speaks strongly against the Bush administration's drive towards war with Iraq during a debate over Senate Joint Resolution 46. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/byrd100302.htm | Byrd, 10/3/02 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ Robert C. Byrd )) October 3, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_208 false 1 ------ The US and Britain continue to demand that weapons inspectors not return to Iraq until after a stronger resolution&#8212;one that authorizes the use of force&#8212;is agreed upon by the National Security Council. Bush threatens to lead a coalition against Iraq if the UN Security Council fails to back him. During an address in Washington to Hispanic leaders, Bush says: &#8220;My intent, of course, is for the United Nations to do its job. I think it'll make it easier for us to keep the peace.... My intent is to put together a vast coalition of countries who understand the threat of Saddam Hussein. The military option is my last choice, not my first. It's my last choice.... The choice is up to the United Nations to show its resolve. The choice is up to Saddam Hussein to fulfill its word&#8212;his word. And if neither of them acts, the United States, in deliberate fashion, will lead a coalition to take away the world's worst weapons from one of the world's worst leaders.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021003-4.html | White House, 10/3/02 ]] [[ http://lists.econ.utah.edu/pipermail/rad-green/2002-October/000823.html | Reuters, 10/3/2002b ]] ------ But Russia, France, and China maintain their opposition to the US-British draft resolution which would pave the way for using military force against Iraq. Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Alexander Saltanov strongly disagrees that a tougher resolution is needed. And France remains insistent that any further resolutions against Iraq should be broken into two parts&#8212;one defining the terms of inspections, and a second outlining the consequences if Iraq does not comply. [[ http://lists.econ.utah.edu/pipermail/rad-green/2002-October/000823.html | Reuters, 10/3/2002b ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Richard Gephardt )) ((+ Robert C. Byrd )) ((+ Alexander Saltanov )) ((+ George W. Bush )) October 4, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_714 false 1 ------ The CIA releases a 25-page declassified version of its October 1 National Intelligence Estimate on Iraq and posts it on the agency's website for public viewing. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 281 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A19822-2003Jun21?language=printer | Washington Post, 6/22/2003 ]] ------ But the public version presents a very different assessment of the threat posed by Iraq than the original document (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_7 ]]). ====== << deception >> October 5, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_101 false 1 ------ The CIA sends a four-page memo to Bush administration officials, including Bush's deputy national security adviser, Stephen J. Hadley, and the chief speechwriter, Michael Gerson, expressing doubt over claims that Iraq had attempted to obtain uranium from Niger. On page 3 of the memo, the CIA says that the amount of uranium alleged to have been sought by Iraq is in &#8220;dispute.&#8221; Furthermore, notes the CIA, it is not even clear that the uranium could &#8220;be acquired from the source.&#8221; The agency also mentions that Iraq already had a supply of uranium. [[ http://truthout.org/docs_03/072403A.shtml | The Washington Post, 7/23/03 ]] ------ Stephen Hadley will later claim in July 2003 that he did not brief Condoleezza Rice on the memo. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A51224-2003Jul26.html | The Washington Post, 7/27/03 ]] ====== << africaUraniumClaim >> ((+ Michael Gerson )) ((+ Stephen Hadley )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) October 6, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_102 false 1 ------ The CIA sends a second memo in two days, warning the White House that there is little evidence behind the Africa-uranium claim. The memo also notes that the alleged purchase &#8220;was not particularly significant.&#8221; The memo's recipients include National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice and her deputy, Stephen Hadley. [[ http://truthout.org/docs_03/072403A.shtml | The Washington Post, 7/23/03 ]] ====== << africaUraniumClaim >> ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((+ Stephen Hadley )) October 7, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_145 false 1 ------ In a response letter to Senator Bob Graham of the Senate Intelligence Committee, CIA Director George Tenet says that US Intelligence's &#8220;understanding of the relationship between Iraq and al- Qaeda is evolving and is based on sources of varying reliability. Some of the information ... received comes from detainees, including some of high rank.&#8221; (( Letter from CIA Director George Tenet to Bob Graham )) [[ http://www.fas.org/irp/news/2002/10/dci100702.html | Congressional Record, 10/7/02, Page S10154 ]] [[ http://www.cbc.ca/stories/2002/11/01/bushiraq021101 | CBC News 11/1/02 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((- Bob Graham )) ((+ George Tenet )) October 7, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_118 false 1 ------ President George W. Bush says in a televised speech from Cincinnati's Museum Center: &#8220;The threat comes from Iraq. It arises directly from the Iraqi regime's own actions&#8212;its history of aggression, and its drive toward an arsenal of terror. Eleven years ago, as a condition for ending the Persian Gulf War, the Iraqi regime was required to destroy its weapons of mass destruction, to cease all development of such weapons, and to stop all support for terrorist groups. The Iraqi regime has violated all of those obligations. It possesses and produces chemical and biological weapons. It is seeking nuclear weapons. It has given shelter and support to terrorism, and practices terror against its own people. The entire world has witnessed Iraq's eleven-year history of defiance, deception and bad faith.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021007-8.html | White House, 10/7/02 ]] ------ Later on in the speech he adds: &#8220;We know that the regime has produced thousands of tons of chemical agents, including mustard gas, sarin nerve gas, VX nerve gas ... And surveillance photos reveal that the regime is rebuilding facilities that it had used to produce chemical and biological weapons.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021007-8.html | White House, 10/7/02 ]] ====== << ChemicalBiologicalQuotes >> << terroristTiesQuotes >> << nuclearQuotes >> ((+ George W. Bush )) {{ duplicate_george_w._bush_5 }} Before October 7, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_187 false 1 ------ During the trial of suspected terrorist Shadi Abdallah, it is learned that Abu Mussab Al Zarqawi, a Jordanian Muslim militant accused by the Bush administration of having ties to Osama bin Laden, is actually the founder of another Islamist group, al-Tawhid, which works &#8220;in opposition&#8221; to al-Qaeda (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_186 ]]). The aim of the group is to kill Jews and install an Islamic regime in Jordan. Abdallah recounts one instance where Zarqawi vetoed a proposal to share charity funds collected in Germany with al-Qaeda. According to Abdallah, Al Zarqawi's organization had also &#8220;competed&#8221; with al-Qaeda for new recruits. [[ http://truthout.org/docs_03/062703B.shtml | Newsweek, 6/25/03 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/independent020603.htm | Independent, 2/6/03 ]] ------ Details of the trial are passed on to US intelligence. Nonetheless, Bush will claim in a televised speech on October 7, 2002 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_36 ]]) that a &#8220;very senior al-Qaeda leader ... received medical treatment in Baghdad this year,&#8221; a reference to Al Zarqawi. And Colin Powell will similarly state on February 5, 2003 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_442 ]]) that &#8220;Iraq is harboring the network of Abu Mussab al-Zarqawi, an associate and collaborator of Osama bin Laden and his al-Qaeda lieutenants.&#8221; Both statements are made even though &#8220;US intelligence already had concluded that Zarqawi was not an al-Qaeda member ....&#8221; (( Unnamed US intelligence sources )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A19822-2003Jun21.html | Washington Post, 6/22/03 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/2730253.stm | BBC, 2/5/03 ]] [[ http://usinfo.state.gov/regional/nea/disarm/terrorism.htm | US Department of State, 2/5/02 ]] ====== << deception >> << alZarqawi >> << terroristTies >> ((+ Shadi Abdallah )) ((+ Abu Mussab Al Zarqawi )) {{ statement_unnamed_intelligence_analyst__2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_washington_terrorism_expert_2 }} October 7, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_213 false 1 ------ British Attorney-General Lord Goldsmith, Solicitor-General Harriet Harman and the Financial Times warn British Prime Minister Tony Blair that if his government pursues &#8220;a war against Iraq, Britain could be hauled before the International Court of Justice.&#8221; [[ http://www.casi.org.uk/discuss/2002/msg01776.html | IC Coventry, 10/7/2002 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ Harriet Harman )) ((+ Tony Blair )) ((+ Lord Peter Goldsmith )) October 7, 2002 or before complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_103 false 1 ------ CIA Director George Tenet argues &#8220;personally to White House officials, including deputy national security adviser Stephen Hadley,&#8221; that the Africa-uranium claim should not be included in Bush's October 7 speech because the allegation is based on only one source. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A48847-2003Jul12.html?nav=hptop_tb | The Washington Post, 7/13/2003 ]] [[ http://truthout.org/docs_03/072403A.shtml | The Washington Post, 7/23/03 ]] ------ As a result of Tenet's warning as well as warnings in two CIA memos dated October 5 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_101 ]]) and October 6 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_102 ]]), a passage referring to the Africa-uranium claim is removed from the draft of Bush's October 7 speech (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_36 ]]). The original text included the following: &#8220;The [Iraqi] regime has been caught attempting to purchase substantial amounts of uranium oxide from sources in Africa.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A31496-2003Aug7.html | The Washington Post, 8/8/03 ]] ------ Interestingly, the Africa-uranium claim will be included in Bush's January 28 State of the Union address, despite no new intelligence (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_92 ]]). ====== << africaUraniumClaim >> ((+ George Tenet )) {{ commentary_washington_post_2 }} {{ commentary_washington_post_3 }} October 7, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_36 false 1 ------ In a televised speech, Bush presents the administration's case that Saddam Hussein's regime is a threat to the security of the nation. The speech is widely criticized for including false and exaggerated statements. --- Iraq has attempted to purchase high-strength aluminum tubes and other equipment needed for gas centrifuges, which are used to enrich uranium for nuclear weapons --- Bush claims that a shipment of 3,000 aluminum tubes to Iraq, which were intercepted in Jordan by US authorities in July of 2001 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_41 ]]), had been destined for use in a uranium enrichment program. But by this time numerous experts and government scientists have already warned the administration against making this allegation. [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021007-8.html | White House, 10/7/02 ]] ------ Three weeks before Bush's speech, The Washington Post ran a story on the aluminum tubes. The article summarized a study by the Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS), disputing the administration's claim that the tubes were to be used for gas centrifuges. The report was authored by the institute's president and founder, David Albright, a respected nuclear physicist, who had investigated Iraq's nuclear weapons program after the First Gulf War as a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency's inspection team and who has spoken before Congress on numerous occasions. In his study, he concluded that Iraq's attempts to import the tubes &#8220;are not evidence that Iraq is in possession of, or close to possessing, nuclear weapons&#8221; and &#8220;do not provide evidence that Iraq has an operating centrifuge plant or when such a plant could be operational.&#8221; [[ http://www.isis-online.org/publications/iraq/aluminumtubes.html | Institute for Science and International Security, 10/9/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A36348-2002Sep18.html | Washington Post, 9/19/02 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,807286,00.html | Guardian, 10/9/02 ]] [[ http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/10/12/MN186933.DTL | San Francisco Chronicle, 10/12/02 ]] ------ Soon after the speech, David Albright tells The Guardian newspaper that there is still no evidence to substantiate that interpretation. As one unnamed specialist at the US Department of Energy explains to the newspaper, &#8220;I would just say there is not much support for that [nuclear] theory around here.&#8221; [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,807286,00.html | Guardian 10/9/02 ]] ------ The Washington Post article also reported that government experts on nuclear technology who disagreed with the White House view had told Mr. Albright that the administration expected them to remain silent. [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,807286,00.html | Washington Post 9/19/02 ]] [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/americas/story.jsp?story=335531 | Independent 9/22/02 ]] ------ Houston G. Wood III, a retired Oak Ridge physicist considered to be &#8220;among the most eminent living experts&#8221; on gas centrifuges reviewed the tube question in August 2001 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_44 ]]) and concluded at that time that it was very unlikely that the tubes had been imported to be used for centrifuges in a uranium enrichment program. He later tells The Washington Post in mid-2003 that &#8220;it would have been extremely difficult to make these tubes into centrifuges,&#8221; adding that it stretched &#8220;the imagination to come up with a way.&#8221; He also says that other centrifuge experts whom he knew shared his assessment of the tubes. (( Houston G. Wood III )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39500-2003Aug9.html | Washington Post, 8/10/03 ]] ------ In addition to the several outside experts who criticized the tubes allegation, analysts within the US intelligence community also doubted the claim. Less than a week before Bush's speech, the Energy Department and the State Department's intelligence branch, the INR, had appended a statement to a National Intelligence Estimate on Iraq disputing the theory (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_7 ]]). (( David Albright )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/nation/nationalsecurity/documents/nie_iraq_wmd.pdf | National Intelligence Estimate, 10/2002 ]] --- Saddam Hussein ordered his nuclear program to continue in 1998 --- Bush says that US intelligence has information that Saddam Hussein ordered his nuclear program to continue after inspectors left in 1998. &#8220;Before being barred from Iraq in 1998, the (UN) International Atomic Energy Agency dismantled extensive nuclear weapons-related facilities, including three uranium enrichment sites,&#8221; Bush charges. &#8220;That same year, information from a high-ranking Iraqi nuclear engineer who had defected revealed that despite his public promises, Saddam Hussein had ordered his nuclear program to continue.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021007-8.html | White House, 10/7/02 ]] [[ http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/10/12/MN186933.DTL | San Francisco Chronicle, 10/12/02 ]] ------ But Bush's &#8220;high-ranking&#8221; source turns out to be Khidir Kamza, who is considered by many to be an unreliable source. David Albright, president of the Institute for Science and International Security where Hamza worked as an analyst from 1997 to 1999, says that after Hamza defected &#8220;he went off the edge&#8221; and &#8220;started saying irresponsible things.&#8221; [[ http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/10/12/MN186933.DTL | San Francisco Chronicle, 10/12/02 ]] ------ And General Hussein Kamel, Saddam Hussein's son-in-law who was in charge of the dictator's former weapons program but who defected in 1995, told UNSCOM and IAEA inspectors, as well as US and British intelligence, that Khidhir Hamza was &#8220;a professional liar.&#8221; &#8220;He worked with us, but he was useless and always looking for promotions,&#8221; Kamel had explained. &#8220;He consulted with me but could not deliver anything. . . . He was even interrogated by a team before he left and was allowed to go.&#8221; (( UNSCOM report, S/1998/332, April 16, 1998 )) [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030512fa_fact | New Yorker, 5/5/03 ]] --- Iraq is developing drones that could deploy chemical and biological weapons --- The President claims that Iraq is developing drones, or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), which &#8220;could be used to disperse chemical or biological weapons across broad areas.&#8221; He goes so far as to say, &#8220;We're concerned that Iraq is exploring ways of using these UAVs for missions targeting the United States.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021007-8.html | White House, 10/7/02 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,807286,00.html | Guardian, 10/9/02 ]] ------ But this claim comes shortly after US intelligence agencies completed a National Intelligence Estimate on Iraq, in which Air Force intelligence had disputed the drone allegation (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_7 ]]). ------ Bush's drone allegation is quickly derided by experts and other sources. The Guardian of London reports two days later that according to US military experts, &#8220;Iraq had been converting eastern European trainer jets, known as L-29s, into drones, but ... that with a maximum range of a few hundred miles they were no threat to targets in the US.&#8221; (( Unnamed military experts )) [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,807286,00.html | Guardian, 10/9/02 ]] ------ And the San Francisco Chronicle will cite experts who say that &#8220;slow-moving unmanned aerial vehicles would likely be shot down as soon as they crossed Iraq's borders&#8221; because &#8220;Iraqi airspace is closely monitored by US and British planes and radar systems&#8221; . The report will also note, &#8220;It's also unclear how the vehicles would reach the US mainland&#8212;the nearest point is Maine, almost 5, 500 miles away&#8212;without being intercepted.&#8221; (( Unnamed experts )) [[ http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/10/12/MN186933.DTL | San Francisco Chronicle 10/12/02 ]] ------ Anthony Cordesman, a security analyst at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, will say he believes the drone allegation is unrealistic. In an interview with the San Francisco Chronicle, he says, &#8220;As a guesstimate, Iraq's present holdings of delivery systems and chemical and biological weapons seem most likely to be so limited in technology and operational lethality that they do not constrain US freedom of action or do much to intimidate Iraq's neighbors.&#8221; (( Anthony Cordesman )) [[ http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/10/12/MN186933.DTL | San Francisco Chronicle, 10/12/02 ]] ------ These criticisms of Bush's claim are validated after the US invasion of Iraq. Two US government scientists involved in the post-invasion hunt for weapons of mass destruction will tell the Associated Press in August 2003 that they inspected the drones and concluded that they were never a threat to the US. &#8220;We just looked at the UAVs and said, &#8216;There's nothing here. There's no room to put anything in here,&#8217; &#8221; one of the scientists will say. &#8220;The US scientists, weapons experts who spoke on condition of anonymity, reached their conclusions after studying the small aircraft and interviewing Iraqi missile experts, system designers and Gen. Ibrahim Hussein Ismail, the Iraqi head of the military facility where the UAVs were designed,&#8221; the Associated Press will explain in its report. (( Unnamed US government scientists )) [[ http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/ssistory.mpl/special/iraq/2064387 | Associated Press, 8/24/03 ]] --- Saddam Hussein could give terrorists weapons of mass destruction --- Bush asserts, &#8220;Iraq could decide on any given day to provide a biological or chemical weapon to a terrorist group or individual terrorists.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021007-8.html | White House, 10/7/02 ]] ------ But not only have numerous experts and inside sources disputed this theory (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_158 ]]), US intelligence's National Intelligence Estimate on Iraq&#8212;completed just one week before&#8212;concluded that this is an unlikely scenario (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_7 ]]). &#8220;Baghdad, for now, appears to be drawing a line short of conducting terrorist attacks with conventional or CBW against the United States,&#8221; the document clearly stated. &#8220;Should Saddam conclude that a US-led attack could no longer be deterred he probably would become much less constrained in adopting terrorist actions.&#8221; [[ http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/10/12/MN186933.DTL | San Francisco Chronicle, 9/12/03 ]] --- Iraq rebuilding facilities associated with production of biological and chemical weapons --- Bush claims that surveillance photos indicate that Iraq &#8220;is rebuilding facilities that it had used to produce chemical and biological weapons.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021007-8.html | White House, 10/7/02 ]] ------ On the following day, photos are published on the White House website showing that Iraq had repaired three sites damaged by US bombs&#8212;the Al Furat Manufacturing Facility, the Nassr Engineering Establishment Manufacturing Facility, and Fallujah II. [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021007-8.html | White House, 10/8/02 ]] ------ But no evidence is provided by the White House demonstrating that these sites have resumed activities related to the production of weapons of mass destruction. Iraqi authorities will give reporters a tour of the facilities on October 10 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_214 ]]). --- Iraq has trained al-Qaeda members in bomb-making and poisons and deadly gases --- Bush alleges that Iraq has trained al-Qaeda operatives &#8220;in bomb-making and poisons and deadly gases.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021007-8.html | White House, 10/7/02 ]] ------ The claim is based on a September 2002 CIA document which had warned that its sources were of &#8220;varying reliability&#8221; and that the claim had not yet been substantiated (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1213 ]]). The report's main source, Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi, an al-Qaeda operative who offered the information to CIA interrogators while in custody, later recounts the claim (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1214 ]]). (( Unnamed administration official )) [[ http://www.cnn.com/2002/US/09/25/us.iraq.alqaeda/ | CNN, 9/26/02 ]] [[ http://msnbc.msn.com/id/5305085/site/newsweek/ | Newsweek, 7/5/2004 ]] [[ http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article6587.htm | The New York Times, 7/31/2004 ]] ------ And earlier in the month, US intelligence services had concluded in their National Intelligence Estimate on Iraq that this allegation could not be confirmed. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/newsday101002.htm | Newsday, 10/10/02 ]] [[ http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2002/10/12/MN186933.DTL | San Francisco Chronicle, 10/12/02 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A19822-2003Jun21.html | Washington Post, 6/22/03 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2002/US/09/25/us.iraq.alqaeda/ | CNN, 9/26/02 ]] --- A very senior al-Qaeda leader received medical treatment in Baghdad --- Bush claims: &#8220;Some al-Qaeda leaders who fled Afghanistan went to Iraq. These include one very senior al-Qaeda leader who received medical treatment in Baghdad this year, and who has been associated with planning for chemical and biological attacks.&#8221; The allegation refers to Abu Mussab Al Zarqawi, a Jordanian-born Palestinian who is the founder of al-Tawhid, an organization whose aim is to kill Jews and install an Islamic regime in Jordan. No evidence ever surfaces to suggest that the group works with al-Qaeda. The allegation is partly based on intercepted telephone calls in which Al Zarqawi was overheard calling friends or relatives (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_185 ]]). But Knight Ridder Newspapers reports that according to US intelligence officials, &#8220;The intercepts provide no evidence that the suspected terrorist was working with the Iraqi regime or that he was working on a terrorist operation while he was in Iraq.&#8221; (( Umnamed US intelligence officials )) [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021007-8.html | White House, 10/7/02 ]] [[ http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/4234549.htm | Knight Ridder Newspapers, 10/7/02 ]] ====== << alZarqawi >> << terroristTiesQuotes >> << ChemicalBiologicalQuotes >> << nuclearQuotes >> << terroristTies >> << wmd >> << aluminumTubes >> << deception >> ((+ David Albright )) ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ Houston G. Wood III )) ((- Abu Mussab Al Zarqawi )) {{ commentary_greg_thielmann_22 }} October 8 and 11, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_216 false 1 ------ Chief UN inspector Hans Blix and Mohamed ElBaradei, the director-general of the UN International Atomic Energy Agency, send a letter to the Iraqi government which lists conclusions they had drawn from the October 1 meeting with Iraqi arms officials (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_206 ]]). The letter asks that Iraqi officials respond with a letter confirming these conclusions. But the inspectors' letter actually includes additional conditions not discussed during the October 1 meeting, &#8220;among them were the right of inspectors to conduct interviews and choose &#8216;the mode and location&#8217; for them as well as the possibility of flying U-2 spy planes over Iraq.&#8221; [[ http://www.intelmessages.org/Messages/National_Security/wwwboard/messages/1968.html | Reuters, 10/12/02 ]] ------ Iraqi officials respond to the request on October 11 with a letter signed by Amir Hammudi al-Saadi, an adviser to Saddam Hussein. The letter agrees only to the conditions that were agreed upon during the October 1 meeting. (( Iraqi letter to UN, Oct. 10, 2002 )) [[ http://www.intelmessages.org/Messages/National_Security/wwwboard/messages/1961.html | New York Times, 10/12/2002 ]] [[ http://www.intelmessages.org/Messages/National_Security/wwwboard/messages/1968.html | Reuters, 10/12/02 ]] ------ The Bush administration seizes on the Iraqi response, calling it another example of Iraq evasion. &#8220;We are not surprised that once again the Iraqis want to delay and deceive. ... We've had 16 resolutions and 11 years of playing this game, and it's time the Security Council takes action,&#8221; says Richard Grenell, spokesman for US Ambassador John Negroponte. [[ http://www.intelmessages.org/Messages/National_Security/wwwboard/messages/1961.html | New York Times, 10/12/2002 ]] [[ http://www.intelmessages.org/Messages/National_Security/wwwboard/messages/1968.html | Reuters, 10/12/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Amir Hammudi al-Saadi )) ((+ Mohamed ElBaradei )) ((+ Hans Blix )) October 8-9, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_97 false 1 ------ One day after receiving the Niger documents (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_96 ]]), Elisabetta Burba meets with her editors and expresses her concern that the documents might be fakes. She notes that the amount of uranium specified in the documents&#8212;500 tons&#8212;is very large. Moreover, the letters do not include details on how the uranium would be delivered. She proposes that she travel to Niger to determine the document's authenticity. (( Elisabetta Burba )) [[ http://www.talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/week_2003_10_26.html#002145 | Corriere della Sera, 7/19/03, cited in Talking Points Memo, 10/31/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0720-08.htm | Associated Press, 7/20/03 ]] ------ But Burba is instructed by the magazine's editor-in-chief, Carolo Rossella, who is &#8220;known for his ties to the Berlusconi government,&#8221; to hand them over to the American embassy in Rome for verification. (( Elisabetta Burba )) [[ http://www.talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/week_2003_10_26.html#002145 | Corriere della Sera, 7/19/03, cited in Talking Points Memo, 10/31/03 ]] [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?031027fa_fact | New Yorker, 10/20/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A17407-2003Jul19.html | The Washington Post, 7/20/03 ]] ====== << africaUraniumClaim >> ((+ Carlo Rossella )) ((+ Elisabetta Burba )) October 9-16, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_84 false 1 ------ Italian Panorama journalist Elisabetta Burba goes to the US Embassy in Rome and gives US officials copies of the Niger documents (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1611 ]]) that she had obtained two days before (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_96 ]]). [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?031027fa_fact | New Yorker, 10/20/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A17407-2003Jul19.html | The Washington Post, 7/20/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0720-08.htm | Associated Press, 7/20/03 ]] [[ http://quickstart.clari.net/qs_se/webnews/wed/bi/Qus-iraq-niger-italy.Rt17_DlJ.html | Agence France Presse, 7/19/03 ]] ------ The documents are then sent to Washington and distributed to the various intelligence agencies. The precise details are unclear, however, due to contradicting accounts. --- In Rome --- According to a senior US State Department official interviewed by the Agence France-Presse in July 2003, the documents are first vetted by &#8220;all the relevant agencies&#8221; in Rome before being sent to Washington. &#8220;[T]hey were immediately shared with all the appropriate agencies,&#8221; the sources will explain. &#8220;The embassy shared them with all the relevant agencies at post, and they were then shared again when they got back to Washington.&#8221; (( Unnamed US State Department official )) [[ http://www.inq7.net/wnw/2003/jul/19/wnw_2-1.htm | Agence France Presse, 9/19/03 ]] [[ http://www.themercury.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5936,6771366%255E25777,00.html | Mercury, 9/19/03 ]] ------ But an unnamed former CIA official will tell Seymour Hersh that the papers were not looked at in Rome. &#8220;The Embassy was alerted that the papers were coming and it passed them directly to Washington without even vetting them inside the Embassy.&#8221; (( Unnamed former CIA official )) [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?031027fa_fact | New Yorker, 10/20/03 ]] --- In Washington --- After the documents arrive in Washington, they are reviewed by the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR) and within days its analysts conclude that the papers might be fakes. On October 16, the INR distributes the documents to the CIA and several other US intelligence agencies with the caveat that the documents are of &#8220;dubious authenticity.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A17407-2003Jul19.html | The Washington Post, 7/20/03 ]] ------ Vince Cannistraro, former chief of counter-terrorism operations and analysis, will tell Seymour Hersh that the CIA did not immediately recognize that the documents were forged. (( Vince Cannistraro )) [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?031027fa_fact | New Yorker, 10/20/03 ]] ------ However, other sources will claim that like the INR, the CIA quickly saw that the documents were not authentic. A senior Central Intelligence Agency official will tell Knut Royce of Newsday that the CIA &#8220;had serious questions about [the claims] from day one.&#8221; The agency &#8220;had accounts of them [the letters] and that was close enough. We didn't take it that seriously to begin with. ... We didn't put a lot of stock in these reports from Niger. We didn't rush around to get the actual documents.&#8221; (( Unnamed Senior CIA official )) [[ http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/newsday/357154391.html?did=357154391&amp;FMT=ABS&amp;FMTS=FT | Newsday, 7/11/03 ]] ------ Likewise, a US intelligence official will tell the New York Times that CIA officials were always suspicious of the Niger documents. [[ http://www.propagandamatrix.com/cia_pressured_into_linking_iraq_terror.htm | New York Times 3/23/03 ]] ------ And Hersh&apos;s anonymous CIA source also says the papers were quickly assessed as fakes. &#8220;Everybody knew at every step of the way that they were false&#8212;until they got to the Pentagon, where they were believed.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A17407-2003Jul19.html | The Washington Post, 7/20/03 ]] ====== << africaUraniumClaim >> ((+ Vince Cannistraro )) ((+ Elisabetta Burba )) {{ statement_elisabetta_burba_2 }} October 9, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_402 false 1 ------ During his daily press briefing, White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer denies that oil is a motivating factor behind the drive for war with Iraq. He says, &#8220;It is not a factor. This is about preserving the peace and saving the lives of Americans.&#8221; [[ http://www.msnbc.com/news/823985.asp?cp1=1 | MSNBC, 11/7/02 ]] [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021009-3.html | White House, 10/9/02 ]] [[ http://www.nydailynews.com/news/story/25815p-24406c.htmlWASHINGTON | New York Daily News, 10/10/02 ]] ====== << motivesBehindWar >> ((+ Ari Fleischer )) After October 9, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_478 false 1 ------ Elisabetta Burba travels to Niger to investigate the documents (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1611 ]]) she received a few day earlier (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_96 ]]). In Niger, she quickly becomes convinced that the documents are not authentic. Seymour Hersh will later report: &#8220;She visited mines and the ports that any exports would pass through, spoke to European businessmen and officials informed about Niger's uranium industry, and found no trace of a sale. She also learned that the transport company and the bank mentioned in the papers were too small and too ill-equipped to handle such a transaction.&#8221; With all evidence indicating that the papers are bogus, Burba abandons the story. [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?031027fa_fact | New Yorker, 10/20/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A17407-2003Jul19.html | The Washington Post, 7/20/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0720-08.htm | Associated Press, 7/20/03 ]] ====== << africaUraniumClaim >> ((+ Elisabetta Burba )) October 10, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_486 false 1 ------ The House votes 296 to 133 in favor of HR Res. 114 in spite of significant opposition from their constituencies. Commenting on the passing of the resolution, The Washington Post reports: &#8220;Yesterday's debate often lacked the passion and unpredictability of the 1991 affair, when members sat late into the night listening attentively to a war of words. By contrast, the House chamber was largely empty most of yesterday: the arguments familiar, the outcome certain, the conclusion anticlimactic.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A6032-2002Oct10.html | Washington Post, 10/11/02 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> October 10, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_368 false 1 ------ In a speech during Middle East Institute's annual conference, retired Marine General Anthony Zinni, presents an extensive argument against the Bush administration's plans for invading Iraq. He makes several points. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/middleeastinstitute101002.htm | Middle East Institute, 10/10/02 ]] --- * --- In order for the planned military operation against Iraq to be successful it must have international support. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/middleeastinstitute101002.htm | Middle East Institute, 10/10/02 ]] --- * --- In order to ensure a quick war, the US must use overwhelming force. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/middleeastinstitute101002.htm | Middle East Institute, 10/10/02 ]] --- * --- Civilian casualties, collateral damage, and destruction of the infrastructure must be kept to a minimum. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/middleeastinstitute101002.htm | Middle East Institute, 10/10/02 ]] --- * --- Israeli involvement would create massive instability. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/middleeastinstitute101002.htm | Middle East Institute, 10/10/02 ]] --- * --- The invasion must not provoke a reaction from the Arab Street. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/middleeastinstitute101002.htm | Middle East Institute, 10/10/02 ]] --- * --- The transition to a post-Saddam Iraq will not be easy. He explains: &#8220;If we think there is a fast solution to changing the governance of Iraq, then we don't understand history, the nature of the country, the divisions, or the underneath-suppressed passions that could rise up. God help us if we think this transition will occur easily.&#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/middleeastinstitute101002.htm | Middle East Institute, 10/10/02 ]] --- * --- The burden of the war and post-war reconstruction must be shared. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/middleeastinstitute101002.htm | Middle East Institute, 10/10/02 ]] --- * --- It will not be possible to simply impose a democracy on Iraq. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/middleeastinstitute101002.htm | Middle East Institute, 10/10/02 ]] --- * --- Terrorism cannot be defeated by military means alone. He asks several questions that are rarely asked in public: &#8220;Why are young people flocking to these causes? Could the issues be political, economic and social? Could disenfranchisement or oppression be what drives them rather than the religious fanaticism that may be the core element to only a few? How do we cooperate to fix these problems? How do we help a part of the world that's trying to come to grips with modernity?&#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/middleeastinstitute101002.htm | Middle East Institute, 10/10/02 ]] --- * --- He questions whether an invasion is even necessary, instead suggesting that there are numerous other issues to deal with of higher priority. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/middleeastinstitute101002.htm | Middle East Institute, 10/10/02 ]] --- * --- Finally, he says that violence and war are not the solution. &#8220;Like those generals who were far greater than I am, I don't think that violence and war is the solution. There are times when you reluctantly, as a last resort, have to go to war. But as a general that has seen war, ... I will tell you that in my time, I never saw anything come out of fighting that was worth the fight.&#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/middleeastinstitute101002.htm | Middle East Institute, 10/10/02 ]] ====== << maintreamDissent >> ((+ Anthony Zinni )) {{ duplicate_anthony_zinni_3 }} {{ duplicate_anthony_zinni_4 }} October 10, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_214 false 1 ------ Iraqi Minister Abdul Tawab Mullah Hawaish, who is in charge of Iraq's weapons programs, invites reporters and members of the Bush administration to visit two of the alleged WMD sites, Furat and Nasser al-Azim, to which Bush had referred in his October 7 speech (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_36 ]]). Hawaish says, &#8220;The American administration are invited to inspect these sites. As I am responsible for the Iraqi weapons programs, I confirm here that we have no weapons of mass destruction and we have no intention to produce them.... I am saying here and now that we do not have weapons of mass destruction and we do not have programs to develop them.&#8221; [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/world/middle_east/2315989.stm | BBC, 10/10/02 ]] [[ http://www.namibian.com.na/2002/October/world/028C36E7AC.html | Reuters, 10/10/02 ]] ------ But the White House rejects the offer. Press Secretary Ari Fleischer says, &#8220;This is not up to Iraq, this is up to the UN.&#8221; [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/world/middle_east/2315989.stm | BBC, 10/10/2002 ]] ------ Reporters, however, accept the offer and tour the Nasser State Establishment, a facility that Iraq claims produces goods for civilian use as well as components for conventional weapons. [[ http://www.publicbroadcasting.net/wcpn/news.newsmain?action=article&amp;ARTICLE_ID=405081 | Reuters, 10/10/2002 ]] ====== << wmd >> ((+ Abdul Tawab Mullah Hawaish )) October 11, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_2025 false 1 ------ The Los Angeles Times reports that there is an escalating &#8220;war&#8221; between the Pentagon and the CIA over tying Iraq to al-Qaeda. [[ http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-cia11oct11.story | Los Angeles Times, 10/11/02 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> October 11, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_2024 false 1 ------ French and British officials deny that there is any link between al-Qaeda and Iraq. The British specifically deny any meeting between Mohamed Atta and Iraqi agents in the Czech Republic. They state that Iraq has purposely distanced itself from al-Qaeda, not embraced it. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/financialtimes100402.html | Financial Times, 10/4/2002 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/alqaida/story/0,12469,808905,00.html | Guardian, 10/10/2002 ]] ====== << pragueConnection >> << terroristTies >> October 11, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_215 false 1 ------ Senators vote 77 to 23 in favor of SJ Res. 46 at 1:15am despite significant opposition from their constituencies. (( S.J. Res. 46 )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A6032-2002Oct10.html | Washington Post, 10/11/02 ]] ------ Dissident Democrats Senators Carl Levin, Richard Durbin, Barbara Boxer, Robert Byrd, and Mark Dayton attempt to come up with an alternative, SJ Res. 45, but discussion on it is postponed indefinitely by a 75 to 25 vote. (( S.J. Res. 45 )) --- Sen. Carl Levin. SJ Res. 45 with amendments 4858-62 (rejected) --- &#8220;To authorize the use of the United States Armed Forces, pursuant to a new resolution of the United Nations Security Council, to destroy, remove, or render harmless Iraq's weapons of mass destruction, nuclear weapons-usable material, long-range ballistic missiles, and related facilities, and for other purposes.&#8221; (( S.J. Res. 45 with amendments 4858-62 )) --- Sen. Richard Durbin. SJ Res. 45 with amendments 4865 (rejected) --- To amend the authorization for the use of the Armed Forces to cover an imminent threat posed by Iraq's weapons of mass destruction rather than the continuing threat posed by Iraq. --- Sen. Barbara Boxer. SJ Res. 45 with amendments 4866-67 (not voted on) --- &#8220;In families with minor children where both parents serve on active duty in the Armed Forces or where both parents are members of the National Guard or Reserves, the Secretary of Defense shall make every effort to ensure that not more than one of the parents is deployed in combat.&#8221; --- Sen. Robert Byrd. SJ Res. 45 with amendments 4868 (rejected) --- To provide statutory construction that constitutional authorities remain unaffected and that no additional grant of authority is made to the President not directly related to the existing threat posed by Iraq. (( S.J. Res. 45 with amendments 4868-69 )) --- Sen. Robert Byrd. SJ Res. 45 with amendments 4869 (rejected) --- To provide a termination date for the authorization of the use of the Armed Forces of the United States, together with procedures for the extension of such date unless Congress disapproves the extension. (( S.J. Res. 45 with amendments 4868-69 )) --- Sen. Mark Dayton. S.J. Res. 45 with amendments 4870 (rejected) --- Allows the President to prepare for the deployment&#8212;not use&#8212;of the US Armed Forces. If he determines that the use of force is necessary to protect the US from an imminent threat posed by Iraq, he may request a declaration of war to be voted upon by Congress. (( S.J. Res. 45 with amendments 4870 )) ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ Barbara Boxer )) ((+ Mark Dayton )) ((+ Richard Durbin )) ((+ Robert C. Byrd )) ((+ Carl Levin )) October 15, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_217 false 1 ------ Hans Blix announces that he will wait for a decision on the proposed new UN resolution being pushed by the US and Britain prior to leading the inspection team to Iraq. The New York Times reports, &#8220;The chief of the United Nations weapons inspectors appealed to Iraq today to agree to arrangements for new inspections but said his weapons teams would only return to Iraq after the Security Council adopts a resolution giving them a new mandate.&#8221; [[ http://archives.econ.utah.edu/archives/marxism/2002w42/msg00087.htm | New York Times, 10/16/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Hans Blix )) October 17, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_218 false 1 ------ Opposition in the UN Security Council against the US-British-proposed draft remains strong in spite of US arm-twisting. France, China and Russia&#8212;who are all permanent members of the UN Security Council and who have veto power&#8212;remain steadfast in their opposition to the wording of the US-British draft resolution. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2331789.stm | BBC, 10/16/2002 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2333929.stm | BBC, 10/17/2002 ]] ------ Additionally, a debate held among members of the UN General Assembly reveals significant resentment over the US and British position. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2333929.stm | BBC, 10/17/2002 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> October 18, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_219 false 1 ------ The US and Britain announce that they will act without UN approval if the UN fails to pass a resolution authorizing the use of force. British Foreign Minister Jack Straw warns that the US and Britain will take military action against Iraq with or without UN approval. He says, &#8220;We reserve the right to act within international law in respect of the use of force which may or may not be covered by a new resolution. It is entirely appropriate for America, as for us, to reserve their position if the United Nations does not meet its responsibilities.&#8221; [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_politics/2339191.stm | BBC, 10/18/02a ]] [[ http://www.kbc.co.ke/story.asp?id=13707&amp;categoryid=2 | BBC, 10/18/2002b ]] ------ Additionally, the State Department announces that President Bush has the authority to use military force against Iraq in order to disarm it, even if the United Nations fails to back such an action. [[ http://www.montanaforum.com/rednews/2002/10/21/build/safety/q-statedept.php?nnn=6 | Associated Press, 10/19/2002 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> Before October 19, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_48 false 1 ------ Nuclear scientists working for the government who disagree with the administration's claim that the tubes were meant for a centrifuge program are instructed &#8220;to remain silent.&#8221; (( David Albright )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A36348-2002Sep18.html | Washington Post, 9/19/02 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,807286,00.html | Guardian, 10/9/02 ]] [[ http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/10/12/MN186933.DTL | San Francisco Chronicle, 10/12/02 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> October 20, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_220 false 1 ------ Iraq releases a statement saying that the weapons inspectors' failure to show up in Iraq on October 19 was &#8220;a breach of the agreement reached between Iraq and the United Nations secretary general on September 16.&#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/ap102002.html | Associated Press, 10/20/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> October 20, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_495 false 1 ------ While in Prague to attend to a Trilateral Commission meeting, Richard Perle is told &#8220;in person ... that the BIS now doubts that any such meeting between Atta and al-Ani in fact took place.&#8221; And an unnamed source with ties to the BIS tells UPI: &#8220;Quite simply, we think the source for this story may have invented the meeting that he reported. We can find no corroborative evidence for the meeting and the source has real credibility problems.&#8221; (( Unnamed source close to the BIS )) [[ http://www.upi.com/view.cfm?StoryID=20021020-092811-8185r | United Press International, 10/20/03 ]] ====== << pragueConnection >> << terroristTies >> ((- Mohammed Atta )) ((+ Richard Perle )) ((- Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani )) October 21, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_175 false 1 ------ Two articles by reporter James Risen on the &#8220;Prague Connection&#8221; are published in the New York Times. One article reveals that early in 2002 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_174 ]]), Czech president Vaclav Havel had informed Washington that there was no evidence to substantiate claims that 9/11 plotter Mohammed Atta had met with Iraqi diplomat Ahmad Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani in Prague in April 2001 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_163 ]]). The article also reveals that analysts in the Czech intelligence service had been furious with the Prime Minister for stovepiping unsubstantiated reports straight to Washington, before they had had the opportunity to investigate further. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/nyt102102.html | New York Times, 10/21/02 ]] ------ Risen's other article explains how rivalry within the BIS and problematic relations with Britain's MI6 had resulted in reporters receiving misinformation from sources with grievances and conflicting agendas. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/nyt102102b.html | New York Times, 10/21/02 ]] ------ His two articles seemingly put to rest the &#8220;Prague Connection&#8221; theory, though a November 2003 article in Slate by Edward Jay Epstein will note that many questions remain unanswered. [[ http://mason-west.com/Research/News/US/missinglink.php#slate | Slate, 11/19/03 ]] ====== << pragueConnection >> ((- Mohammed Atta )) ((- Vaclav Havel )) ((- Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani )) October 21, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_221 false 1 ------ US Ambassador to the UN John Negroponte provides the five permanent members of the UN Security Council with a revision of the UN draft resolution. (( Revised Draft of a US-British UN Resolution on Iraq )) [[ http://www.dawn.com/2002/10/22/int2.htm | Associated Press, 10/21/02 ]] [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/10/22/wun22.xml&amp;sSheet=/news/2002/10/22/ixnewstop.html | Telegraph, 10/22/02 ]] ------ The Bush administration makes it clear that it expects the UN Security Council to vote on this draft of the resolution soon and signals that US officials are losing their patience with other member states. At the daily White House press briefing, Secretary Ari Fleischer says, &#8220;It's coming down to the end. The United Nations does not have forever.&#8221; Similarly, State Department Spokesman Richard Boucher, states, &#8220;We're also making clear it is time to wrap this up.&#8221; [[ http://www.dawn.com/2002/10/22/int2.htm | Associated Press, 10/21/02 ]] [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/attack/2002/1022rusfr.htm | Associated Press, 10/21/02b ]] ------ George Bush will say the following day: &#8220;The UN can't make its mind up. If Saddam won't disarm, we will lead a coalition to disarm him for the sake of peace. [The United Nations] must resolve itself to be something more than the League of Nations, must resolve itself to be more than a debating society, must resolve itself to keep international peace.&#8221; Summing up US feelings, an unnamed official tells the New York Times that the administration's message to the other permanent members is, &#8220;You're either with us or against us.&#8221; [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/10/22/wun22.xml&amp;sSheet=/news/2002/10/22/ixnewstop.html | Telegraph, 10/22/02 ]] [[ http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/10/24/1035416936620.html | New York Times, 10/23/02 ]] [[ http://edition.cnn.com/2002/US/10/22/iraq.bush/ | CNN, 10/22/02 ]] --- * --- The revision drops the words &#8220;all necessary means,&#8221; stipulating in its place that Iraq's failure to abide by the new resolution would result in &#8220;serious consequences.&#8221; (( Revised Draft of a US-British UN Resolution on Iraq )) [[ http://www.dawn.com/2002/10/22/int2.htm | Associated Press, 10/21/02 ]] [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/attack/2002/1022rusfr.htm | Associated Press, 10/21/02b ]] [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/10/22/wun22.xml&amp;sSheet=/news/2002/10/22/ixnewstop.html | Telegraph, 10/22/02 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A2037-2002Oct22?language=printer | Washington Post, 10/22/02 ]] --- * --- The revision does not require that UN inspectors be accompanied by armed guards, a requirement in the earlier draft which many current and former UN inspectors opposed. (( Revised Draft of a US-British UN Resolution on Iraq )) [[ http://www.dawn.com/2002/10/22/int2.htm | Associated Press, 10/21/02 ]] [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/attack/2002/1022rusfr.htm | Associated Press, 10/21/02b ]] --- * --- A provision in the previous draft requiring that member states help the UN enforce &#8220;no-fly&#8221; and &#8220;no-drive&#8221; zones around the inspection sites remains in the draft resolution, but in brackets, suggesting that the US and Britain are willing to negotiate on this point. (( Revised Draft of a US-British UN Resolution on Iraq )) [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/attack/2002/1022rusfr.htm | Associated Press, 10/21/02b ]] [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/10/22/wun22.xml&amp;sSheet=/news/2002/10/22/ixnewstop.html | Telegraph, 10/22/02 ]] [[ http://www.economist.com/agenda/displayStory.cfm?story_id=1402410 | Economist, 10/23/02 ]] --- * --- The revision does not require that the five permanent members of the Security Council be permitted to appoint their own officials to the inspection teams. (( Revised Draft of a US-British UN Resolution on Iraq )) [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/10/22/wun22.xml&amp;sSheet=/news/2002/10/22/ixnewstop.html | Telegraph, 10/22/02 ]] [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/attack/2002/1022rusfr.htm | Associated Press, 10/21/02b ]] --- * --- The revision stipulates that Iraq must declare its weapons of mass destruction within 30 days of the resolution's passing, after which the weapons inspectors would have another 45 days to commence its work on disarmament. If Iraq does not meet the deadline, its failure to do so will be considered a &#8220;material breach&#8221; of the resolution. (( John Negroponte )) [[ http://www.economist.com/agenda/displayStory.cfm?story_id=1402410 | Economist, 10/23/02 ]] [[ http://abc.net.au/news/newsitems/s708394.htm | ABC News, 10/23/02 ]] --- * --- The revised draft still contains phrases that set a hair trigger for the implementation of &#8220;serious consequences.&#8221; The revision stipulates that further &#8220;false statements and omissions&#8221; by Iraq would amount to &#8220;a further material breach.&#8221; (( Revised Draft of a US-British UN Resolution on Iraq )) [[ http://www.economist.com/agenda/displayStory.cfm?story_id=1402410 | Economist, 10/23/02 ]] --- Reactions --- In spite of the revision, the oppositional stances of France, Russia, Mexico, and China remain unchanged. Bulgaria, Colombia, Norway, Singapore show some support for the revision. [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/10/22/wun22.xml&amp;sSheet=/news/2002/10/22/ixnewstop.html | Telegraph, 10/22/02 ]] [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/attack/2002/1022rusfr.htm | Associated Press, 10/21/02b ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/1028-01.htm | Times, 10/28/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> << legalJustification >> ((+ Richard A. Boucher )) ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ Ari Fleischer )) ((+ Revised Draft of a US-British UN Resolution on Iraq )) {{ statement_unnamed_senior_kremlin_official_2 }} {{ statement_igor_ivanov_3 }} {{ statement_dominique_de_villepin_4 }} {{ statement_igor_ivanov_2 }} {{ statement_dominique_de_villepin_3 }} {{ statement_sergei_lavrov_2 }} {{ statement_george_w._bush_12 }} October 22, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_222 false 1 ------ Russia formally rejects the revised draft. Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov states, &#8220;The American draft resolution ... does not answer the criteria which the Russian side laid out earlier and which it confirms today.&#8221; (( Igor Ivanov )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/reuters102202.htm | Reuters, 10/22/02 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ Igor Ivanov )) October 25, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_223 false 1 ------ Russia offers an alternative draft resolution to the US-British version, which drops Washington's toughest inspection terms and threat of &#8220;consequences&#8221; if Iraq refuses to comply. Russia's deputy UN ambassador, Gennadi M. Gatilov, criticizes the US-favored resolution, calling it &#8220;anti-Iraqi and aimed at possible military action against Iraq in case of any omissions or misunderstandings.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A20070-2002Oct26.html | Washington Post, 10/25/2002 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ Gennadi M. Gatilov )) October 26, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_224 false 1 ------ France circulates an alternative draft resolution to the US-British version that drops the assertion that Iraq is &#8220;in material breach&#8221; of Resolution 687 and changes the order of some paragraphs to provide a different emphasis. French Foreign Minister Dominique de Villepin tells reporters: &#8220;There is still work to be done, progress to be made and we have said so to our American friends for weeks.... If there is no breakthrough, we shall obviously officially submit our own document.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A20070-2002Oct26.html | Washington Post, 10/25/2002 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ Dominique de Villepin )) October 27, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_225 false 1 ------ President Bush attends a summit conference in Mexico and fails to secure a pledge of support from Mexican President Vicente Fox for the US-British draft resolution. President Vicente Fox says, &#8220;What we need to accomplish is a resolution that is satisfactory to all the parties there in the United Nations. We are listening and talking and we want to search for and do everything possible for a strong resolution.&#8221; [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/1028-01.htm | Times, 10/28/02 ]] ------ Mexican officials reportedly make &#8220;it clear that Mexico is siding with France in the debate at the United Nations.&#8221; Mexico's foreign minister, Jorge G. Caste?eda, says, &#8220;What we want is a resolution that is approved by all 15 or 14 members of the Security Council. We think that's more important for the United States' cause.&#8221; [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/attack/2002/1028mexico.htm | New York Times, 10/28/02 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ Vicente Fox )) ((+ Jorge G. Caste?eda )) October 30, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_403 false 1 ------ White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer denies that the US intends to control Iraq's oil reserves. He claims, &#8220;The only interest the United States has in the region is furthering the cause of peace and stability ... not his country's ability to generate oil.&#8221; Asked if the US would take over Iraq's oil fields in the event of a US invasion of Iraq, Fleischer explains, &#8220;No. The purpose of any plan the United States has is to make certain that Saddam Hussein complies with all UN resolutions.&#8221; Asked if the US would administer Iraq's oil fields after an invasion he said, &#8220;I think that it's impossible for anybody to speculate about anything and everything that could possibly happen under any military scenario. And I wouldn't even try to start guessing what the military may or may not do.&#8221; [[ http://www.msnbc.com/news/823985.asp?cp1=1 | MSNBC, 11/7/02 ]] [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021009-3.html | White House, 10/9/02 ]] ====== << motivesBehindWar >> ((+ Ari Fleischer )) October 30, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_144 false 1 ------ When asked about claims that Iraq has ties to al-Qaeda, British Foreign Minister Jack Straw responds: &#8220;It could well be the case that there were links, active links, between Al Qaeda and the Iraqi regime before Sept. 11. What I'm asked is if I've seen any evidence of that. And the answer is: I haven't.&#8221; [[ http://www.latimes.com/la-fg-noqaeda4nov04,0,4538810.story | Los Angeles Times, 11/4/02 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((+ Jack Straw )) {{ duplicate_jack_straw_2 }} October 31, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1229 false 1 ------ General Tommy Frank's full US battle plan, codenamed 1003V, is completed. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0929-03.htm | Independent, 9/29/2004 ]] ====== << decision >> ((+ Thomas Franks )) November 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_408 false 1 ------ Former US Diplomat Joseph Wilson warns in an interview with Knight Ridder that a post-Saddam occupation could turn into &#8220;a very, very nasty affair.&#8221; He explains: &#8220;There will be vengeful killings against the Sunnis, against the Tikritites [Hussein's clan], against the Ba'aths. There will be Shi'ia grabs in the south and probably Baghdad. There will be Kurdish grabs for power.... And in the middle of that will be an American occupation force.... This war is not going to be over when we get to Baghdad. In fact, the war will have just essentially begun.&#8221; [[ http://www.macon.com/mld/macon/news/politics/4440484.htm | Knight Ridder, 11/4/02 ]] ====== << predictions >> ((+ Joseph C. Wilson )) November 1, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_227 false 1 ------ The US announces that Ireland and Mauritius will vote in favor of the revised version of the US-British draft resolution, thus giving the US and Britain the required majority to pass their resolution. &#8220;We're done,&#8221; announces one US official. &#8220;We are confident that we have a majority, and we are looking to end the diplomatic process next week.&#8221; France and Russia, meanwhile standby their criticisms of the resolution. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/baltimoresun110202.htm | Baltimore Sun, 11/2/2002 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> November 2002-March 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_298 false 1 ------ The Bush administration and the United Nations disagree over how intrusive the inspections should be. The US wants the inspectors to be as aggressive as possible by visiting sensitive sites and demanding interviews with Iraqi scientists without the presence of minders. Hans Blix, on the other hand, advocates a more measured approach to achieving disarmament. He says that inspection team recruits should be &#8220;firm&#8221; with their Iraqi counterparts but never &#8220;angry and aggressive.&#8221; One of his aides tells The Washington Post in late November 2002: &#8220;We're not going to do in-your-face inspections. He [Blix] wants effective inspections. It's not our job to provoke, harm or humiliate.&#8221; The inspectors argue that it makes no sense&#8212;nor is logistically feasible&#8212;to begin the inspections process with intrusive inspections of Iraq's most sensitive sites. One UN official explains to The Washington Post, &#8220;If you only have 11 people, you cannot go to a big new site, but you can go check on a known monitoring site.&#8221; The Independent reports that inspectors &#8220;believe it would not only be counterproductive, but could damage the prospect of ascertaining whether President Saddam does indeed possess an arsenal of weapons of mass destruction.&#8221; (( US and UN officials )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A64597-2002Nov16.html | Washington Post, 11/17/02 ]] ------ In December, Washington calls for an increase in the UN inspectors' staff so that the UN's two agencies can conduct multiple simultaneous inspections each day. On December 4, White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer says, &#8220;We want to make certain that they [the inspections] are aggressive enough to be able to ascertain the facts in the face of an adversary who in the past did everything in his power to hide the facts.&#8221; [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2543697.stm | BBC, 12/4/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Hans Blix )) ((+ Ari Fleischer )) November 2002-March 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_300 false 1 ------ Top US officials and policy advisors make repeated statements warning that the US is ready to unilaterally invade Iraq if the UN fails to back the use of military force. ====== << legalJustification >> {{ statement_richard_perle_2 }} {{ statement_george_w._bush_14 }} {{ statement_colin_powell_16 }} {{ statement_andrew_card_2 }} {{ statement_colin_powell_12 }} {{ statement_john_negroponte_2 }} November 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1835 false 1 ------ The US Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) forecasts that in 2025, 51 percent of world oil production will come from OPEC. And two-thirds of OPEC's production will be coming from the Persian Gulf. According to EIA, OPEC production now accounts for 38 percent of global oil production. [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/oil/2002/1226need.htm | New York Times, 26, 2002 ]] ====== << motivesBehindWar >> November 2002-March 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_296 false 1 ------ The Bush administration disagrees with UN inspectors and the governments of other Security Council member states on how much time inspectors will need to complete their work. The Bush administration, eager to begin its planned invasion of Iraq before the end of March, opposes suggestions by inspectors that the process will require a year or more. Military planners are concerned that beginning an invasion after March could cause some of the heaviest fighting to occur during Iraq's blistering hot summer. The Washington Times reports: &#8220;US military planners are facing the prospect that weapons inspections in Iraq will drag on for months, pushing the Pentagon's timetable for action from the ideal weather of February to the blistering days of midsummer.... War designers see February as the best time to fight and have considered troop deployments around that date. A February campaign would capitalize on optimum weather in the desert region. A February date also would allow three months for the administration to complete a final war plan, line up support from allies, and deploy and alert the necessary combat units.&#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/wpost112902.htm | The Washington Times, 11/29/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> {{ statement_rolf_ekeus_3 }} {{ statement_mohamed_elbaradei_6 }} {{ statement_mohamed_elbaradei_7 }} {{ statement_mohamed_elbaradei_8 }} {{ statement_richard_a._boucher_3 }} {{ commentary_john_rothrock_2 }} {{ commentary_independent_2 }} {{ statement_hans_blix_8 }} November 2002-March 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_299 false 1 ------ The Bush administration disagrees with the United Nations and other member states over what precisely should qualify as a &#8220;material breach&#8221; of UN Resolution 1441. The UN and other nations believe that only serious violations should count. The US, however, takes the position that any violation, no matter how small, should be considered a material breach and thus sufficient cause for using military force against Iraq. The difference in opinion is acknowledged by UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, who says, &#8220;The US does seem ... to have a lower threshold than others may have&#8221; to justify the use of military force. He also says, &#8220;I think the discussion in the council made it clear we should be looking for something serious and meaningful, and not for excuses to do something.&#8221; President Bush, reflecting the stance of his hawkish advisors, says the Security Council should have &#8220;zero tolerance,&#8221; implying that even minor infractions could be considered a &#8220;material breach.&#8221; (( US and UN officials )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A64597-2002Nov16.html | Washington Post, 11/17/02 ]] ------ Colin Powell and Vice President Cheney contend that the delay of, or omissions and inaccuracies in, Iraq's early December declaration would constitute a breach. And Iraq is warned to this effect. During a dinner meeting on November 18, Hans Blix reminds a close aide to Saddam Hussein that a failure to meet the deadline would be considered by the United States to be a &#8220;material breach.&#8221; [[ http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2002/15395.htm | US Department of State 11/21/02 ]] [[ http://observer.guardian.co.uk/iraq/story/0,12239,856166,00.html | Observer, 12/8/02 ]] [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/politics/story.jsp?story=353927 | Independent, 11/20/02 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ Kofi Annan )) ((+ Dick Cheney )) ((+ George W. Bush )) November 2002-December 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_350 false 1 ------ Elliot Abrams leads one of a dozen administration working groups charged with drafting post-invasion plans. Involved in his group are adamant neoconservatives Joe Collins, a deputy assistant secretary at the Pentagon, and Robin Cleveland, a former aide to Republican Sen. Mitch McConnell of Kentucky. His working group is supposed to draft plans for rapid humanitarian planning. But critics in the State Department complain that it involves itself in the issue of post-Saddam politics and economic reconstruction. Abrams' group is backed by Paul Wolfowitz and the vice president's office. An ally of Secretary of State Colin Powell tells Inter Press Service, &#8220;This is a case of stealthy micromanagement by the Wolfowitz hawks&#8212;they use what bureaucratic vehicles are available to make their imprint on policy.&#8221; Additionally the group is very secretive. It refuses &#8220;to brief not only top State Department officials but also aides of Gen. Tommy Franks, the commanding officer of the US Central Command [CENTCOM], about what it is doing.&#8221; Instead it &#8220;stovepipes&#8221; its work to its contacts in the White House. Sources in the State Department and CIA believe that one of the group's apparent aims is reducing the influence of the State Department, CIA and the United Nations in post-Saddam Iraq. These critics also question &#8220;why a convicted felon [Abrams], pardoned or not, is being allowed to help shape policy.&#8221; Within the Pentagon, there is also resentment of Abrams' group. An unnamed Pentagon source says General Tommy Franks is being &#8220;left out of the loop.&#8221; A Defense official says, &#8220;CENTCOM is for the most part unaware of what Abrams is doing, but friction is developing and the military end of the equation feels that they are being mislead.&#8221; (( Unnamed US State Department Officials )) [[ http://www.insightmag.com/news/2002/12/10/National/Abrams.To.Be.macarthur.Of.Mesopotamia-333788.shtml | Insight, 11/26/02 ]] [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/oil/2002/1228divides.htm | Insight, 12/9/02 ]] ====== << preWarPlanning >> ((+ Elliott Abrams )) ((- Paul Wolfowitz )) ((+ Joe Collins )) ((- American Enterprise Institute )) November 2002-March 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_305 false 1 ------ Bush administration officials claim that the conclusion that needs to be drawn from reports by the UN weapons inspectors is whether or not Iraq is cooperating. ====== << legalJustification >> << weaponsInspections >> {{ statement_unnamed_bush_administration_official_4 }} {{ statement_unnamed_bush_administration_official_6 }} {{ statement_unnamed_bush_administration_official_5 }} November 2002-March 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_24 false 1 ------ The Bush administration fails to cooperate with the UN inspection regime in Iraq. Inspectors complain that Washington is refusing to provide them with the intelligence they need to do their work. What intelligence they do offer the inspectors, is usually of extremely poor quality. Administration officials deny they are refusing to provide the inspectors with needed intelligence. ------ CBS reports on January 18, 2003: &#8220;UN arms inspectors are privately complaining about the quality of US intelligence and accusing the United States of sending them on wild-goose chases.... The inspectors have become so frustrated trying to chase down unspecific or ambiguous US leads that they've begun to express that anger privately in no uncertain terms.... UN sources have told CBS News that American tips have lead to one dead end after another.&#8221; And whatever intelligence has been provided, reports CBS, has turned out to be &#8220;circumstantial, outdated or just plain wrong.&#8221; [[ http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/01/18/iraq/main537096.shtml | CBS News, 2/20/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> {{ statement_source_interviewed_by_cbs_news_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_intelligence_official_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_un_weapons_inspector_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_senior_administration_official_2 }} {{ statement_joern_siljeholm_2 }} {{ statement_hans_blix_5 }} {{ statement_mohamed_elbaradei_2 }} {{ statement_donald_rumsfeld_2 }} {{ statement_hans_blix_3 }} {{ statement_hans_blix_4 }} {{ statement_hans_blix_2 }} November 6, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_229 false 1 ------ The Bush administration presents the UN Security Council with a third draft for a tougher UN resolution aimed at &#8220;disarming&#8221; Saddam Hussein's regime. In one section the word &#8220;or&#8221; is replaced with &#8220;and,&#8221; and in another the phrase &#8220;restore international peace and security&#8221; is changed to &#8220;secure international peace and security.&#8221; France will agree to the new draft on November 7 and the resolution will be passed by the council unanimously on November 8 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_228 ]]) with only slight modifications. [[ http://www.cnn.com/2002/US/11/08/iraq.resolution/index.html | CNN, 11/8/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> November 8, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_228 false 1 ------ The UN Security Council unanimously votes 15-0 in favor of UN Resolution 1441, which stipulates that Iraq is required to readmit UN weapons inspectors under tougher terms than required by previous UN resolutions. The resolution does not give the US authority to use force against Iraq. The resolution makes it very clear that only the UN Security Council has the right to take punitive action against Iraq in the event of noncompliance. (( UN Resolution 1441 )) [[ http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2002/sc7564.doc.htm | United Nations, 11/8/02 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/views02/1114-03.htm | Zunes, 11/14/02 ]] ------ After the resolution is passed, top Bush administration officials make public statements threatening to use military force against Iraq if Saddam's regime does not comply with the resolution. George Bush, Colin Powell, John Negroponte, Andrew Card, and Ari Fleischer make statements asserting that the resolution does not prevent the US from using force. --- * --- A provision that would have authorized UN member states to use &#8220;all necessary means&#8221; to disarm Iraq is relocated to the preamble of the resolution where it presumably has no practical significance. [[ http://cndyorks.gn.apc.org/news/articles/iraq/usseeksvote.htm | New York Times, 11/6/02 ]] --- * --- A provision requiring that security guards accompany the inspectors is removed. [[ http://cndyorks.gn.apc.org/news/articles/iraq/usseeksvote.htm | New York Times, 11/6/02 ]] --- * --- The resolution requires Iraq to provide the UN with the names of all its weapons experts. (( UN Resolution 1441 )) [[ http://cndyorks.gn.apc.org/news/articles/iraq/usseeksvote.htm | New York Times, 11/6/02 ]] [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,4281-474550,00.html | Times, 11/9/02 ]] --- * --- The resolution states that weapons inspectors will be authorized to remove Iraqi scientists, as well as their families, from Iraq in order to interview them. An official later tells The Washington Post that the power to interview Iraqi scientists was &#8220;the most significant authority contained in the resolution&#8221; and &#8220;the one thing that is most likely to produce overt Iraqi opposition.&#8221; (( UN Resolution 1441 )) [[ http://cndyorks.gn.apc.org/news/articles/iraq/usseeksvote.htm | New York Times, 11/6/02 ]] [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,4281-474550,00.html | Times, 11/9/02 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,835091,00.html | Guardian, 11/7/02 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A42884-2002Dec11.html | The Washington Post, 12/12/02 ]] --- * --- The resolution overturns provisions of the previous Resolution 1154 that required UN inspectors to notify Baghdad before inspecting Saddam Hussein's presidential sites. Resolution 1154 had also required that inspections of those sensitive sites occur in the presence of diplomats. The new resolution demands that Iraq allow the inspectors &#8220;immediate, unimpeded, unconditional and unrestricted access&#8221; to any sites chosen by the inspectors. [[ http://cndyorks.gn.apc.org/news/articles/iraq/usseeksvote.htm | New York Times, 11/6/02 ]] [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,4281-474550,00.html | Times, 11/9/02 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,835091,00.html | Guardian, 11/7/02 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2002/US/11/08/iraq.resolution/index.html | CNN, 11/8/02 ]] ------ Unnamed diplomats and US officials tell USA Today that the US may attempt to claim that Iraq is engaged in a pattern of defiance and deceit if it hinders the inspectors in any way. (( Unnamed diplomats and US officials )) [[ http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2002-11-19-inspectors-usat_x.htm | USA Today 12/19/02 ]] --- * --- The resolution include a provision calling for &#8220;no-fly&#8221; and &#8220;no-drive&#8221; zones in the areas surrounding suspected weapons sites to prevent the Iraqis from removing evidence prior to or during inspections. (( UN Resolution 1441 )) [[ http://cndyorks.gn.apc.org/news/articles/iraq/usseeksvote.htm | New York Times, 11/6/02 ]] [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,4281-474550,00.html | Times, 11/9/02 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,835091,00.html | Guardian, 11/7/02 ]] --- * --- The final resolution includes statements stipulating that an Iraqi failure to comply with the terms of the resolution, including &#8220;false statements or omissions&#8221; in the weapons declaration it is required to submit, will &#8220;constitute a further material breach&#8221; of its obligations. Additional wording included in the same provision explains that any breach of the resolution will &#8220;be reported to the Council for assessment.&#8221; Also, towards the end of the resolution, it states that the chief weapons inspector should &#8220;report immediately to the Council any interference&#8221; by Iraq so that the Council can &#8220;convene immediately to consider the situation and the need for full compliance with all the relevant council resolutions in order to restore international peace and security.&#8221; (( UN Resolution 1441 )) [[ http://cndyorks.gn.apc.org/news/articles/iraq/usseeksvote.htm | New York Times, 11/6/02 ]] [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,4281-474550,00.html | Times, 11/9/02 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2002/US/11/08/iraq.resolution/index.html | CNN, 11/8/02 ]] --- * --- Paragraph 8 of UN Security Council Resolution 1441 states that Iraq &#8220;shall not take or threaten hostile acts directed against any representative or personnel of the United Nations or the IAEA or of any Member State taking action to uphold any Council resolution.&#8221; The US contends that this applies to the US- and British- patrolling of the &#8220;no-fly&#8221; zones that the two countries imposed shortly after the Gulf War. The &#8220;patrolling,&#8221; which has never been officially sanctioned by the UN and which is not recognized by Iraq, often includes aerial attacks on Iraqi sovereign territory. Iraq consistently fires on the attacking jets in self-defense. Other UN Security Council members explicitly oppose this interpretation of the resolution before its passage. (( UN Resolution 1441 )) [[ http://www.globalsecurity.org/org/news/2002/021112-iraq02.htm | Associated Press, 11/12/02 ]] [[ http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2002-11-15-us-iraq_x.htm | Associated Press, 11/15/02 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/ap111602.html | Associated Press, 11/16/02 ]] [[ http://www.upi.com/view.cfm?StoryID=20021115-064942-9002r | United Press International ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/wpost111602.htm | Washington Post, 11/16/02 ]] [[ http://www.miami.com/mld/miami/4530298.htm | Reuters, 11/15/02 ]] --- * --- The resolution gives Iraq seven days to announce whether or not it will comply with the resolution, and 30 days (December 8) to declare its chemical, biological, and nuclear-related capabilities&#8212;even those that are unrelated to weapons programs. 10 days after Iraq's acceptance of the terms, inspectors will send an advanced team to Baghdad, but will have a total of 45 days to begin the actual work. The inspection team will be required to provide the UN Security Council with a report 60 days (January 27) after the commencement of its work. (( UN Resolution 1441 )) [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/attack/2002/1113accept.htm | Associated Press, 11/16/02 ]] [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/attack/2002/1108vote.htm | Associated Press, 11/8/02 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,835091,00.html | Guardian, 11/7/02 ]] ------ Diplomats and US officials speaking off the record tell USA Today that the declaration due on December 8 represents a hidden trigger, explaining that any omissions will be considered a material breach and sufficient justification for war. (( Unnamed diplomats and US officials )) [[ http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2002-11-19-inspectors-usat_x.htm | USA Today 12/19/02 ]] --- * --- Syria requested that the resolution include a provision stating that Iraq's compliance with the terms would result in the lifting of sanctions. This provision was not included. [[ http://www.cnn.com/2002/US/11/08/iraq.resolution/index.html | CNN, 11/8/02 ]] --- * --- Syria requested that the resolution declare the entire Middle East a &#8220;nuclear-free and weapons of mass destruction-free zone.&#8221; This provision was not included. [[ http://www.cnn.com/2002/US/11/08/iraq.resolution/index.html | CNN, 11/8/02 ]] --- * --- France did not want the resolution to include any wording that might authorize the use of force. Instead it argued that the resolution should include only terms for tougher inspections. In the event of Iraqi noncompliance with the terms, France argued, a separate resolution should be agreed upon to decide what further action would be necessary. France lost its argument, and the new resolution includes a warning to Iraq &#8220;that it will face serious consequences&#8221; in the event of its failure to comply with the terms of the resolution. [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,835091,00.html | Guardian, 11/7/02 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Andrew Card )) ((+ Colin Powell )) ((+ John Negroponte )) ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ Ari Fleischer )) {{ statement_george_w._bush_15 }} {{ statement_george_w._bush_13 }} {{ statement_george_w._bush_14 }} {{ statement_john_negroponte_2 }} {{ statement_colin_powell_12 }} {{ statement_condoleezza_rice_6 }} {{ commentary_majorie_cohn_2 }} {{ statement_zhang_yishan_2 }} {{ commentary_times_of_london_2 }} {{ commentary_guardian_of_london_2 }} {{ statement_saudi_prince_turki_bin_faisal_3 }} {{ statement_kofi_annan_2 }} {{ statement_sergei_lavrov_3 }} {{ statement_andrew_card_2 }} {{ statement_jeremy_greenstock_2 }} {{ statement_jean-david_levitt_2 }} {{ statement_naji_sabri_2 }} November 12, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_230 false 1 ------ The Iraqi parliament votes unanimously to reject UN Resolution 1441. But since the parliament has no real authority, the final decision is left to Saddam Hussein, who has another three days to respond to the UN. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2447963.stm | BBC, 11/12/2002 ]] [[ http://www.intelmessages.org/Messages/National_Security/wwwboard/messages_02/2482.html | New York Times, 11/12/2002 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> November 13, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_232 false 1 ------ Bush reiterates the White Houses' interpretation of UN Resolution 1441: &#8220;I have told the United Nations we'll be glad to consult with them, but the resolution does not prevent us from doing what needs to be done, which is to hold Saddam Hussein into account. We hope that he disarms, we hope that he will listen to the world.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/11/20021113-1.html | White House, 11/13/02 ]] [[ http://www.montanaforum.com/rednews/2002/11/13/build/safety/q-resolution.php?nnn=2 | Associated Press, 11/13/02b ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ George W. Bush )) November 13, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_231 false 1 ------ Iraqi Ambassador to the UN Mohammed Al-Douri delivers a 9-page letter from Baghdad to UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan's office agreeing to comply with UN Resolution 1441&#8212;without conditions. According to the ambassador, &#8220;The letter says that Iraq accepts the resolution, and accepts the return of inspectors. There are no conditions, no reservations. We explained in the letter the whole Iraqi position saying that Iraq ... has not and will not have any mass destruction weapons, so we are not worried about the inspectors when they will be back.&#8221; [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/attack/2002/1113accept.htm | Associated Press, 11/13/02 ]] [[ http://www.montanaforum.com/rednews/2002/11/13/build/safety/q-resolution.php?nnn=2 | Associated Press, 11/13/02b ]] [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-480037,00.html | Times, 11/14/2002 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Mohammed Al-Douri )) November 14, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_310 false 1 ------ Colin Powell hints that the US might view Iraqi attempts to shoot down coalition aircraft in the so-called &#8220;no-fly&#8221; zone as a breach of UN Resolution 1441 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_228 ]]). &#8220;If they [Iraqis] were to take hostile acts against the United States or United Kingdom aircraft patrolling in the northern and (southern) no-fly zone, then I think we would have to look at that with great seriousness if they continue to do that,&#8221; he says after a meeting with Canadian Foreign Minister Bill Graham in Ottawa. [[ http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2002-11-14-iraq-warning_x.htm | Associated Press, 11/14/02 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A64597-2002Nov16.html | The Washington Post, 11/17/02 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ Colin Powell )) November 15, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_233 false 1 ------ US and British warplanes attack a radar installation in southern Iraq near Al Najaf about 85 miles southeast of Baghdad at around 2:50 EST after Iraqi air defenses fired on &#8220;coalition&#8221; aircraft that were patrolling the southern &#8220;no-fly&#8221; zone. This is the first such incident to have occurred after the passing of UN resolution 1441. The US- and British- imposed &#8220;no-fly&#8221; zones have never been recognized by the UN and the two countries' jurisdiction over the zones has no legal basis. Iraq has consistently regarded this &#8220;patrolling&#8221; as a violation of its airspace and as a threat to its security. US and British warplanes have attacked Iraqi targets more than forty times during the 2002. After the attacks, the Bush administration claims that Iraq's action was a violation of UN Resolution 1441. [[ http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2002-11-15-us-iraq_x.htm | Associated Press, 11/15/02 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/ap111602.html | Associated Press, 11/16/02 ]] [[ http://www.upi.com/view.cfm?StoryID=20021115-064942-9002r | United Press International, 11/15/02 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/wpost111602.htm | Washington Post, 11/16/02 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A64597-2002Nov16.html | Washington Post, 11/17/02 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> November 16, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_295 false 1 ------ Hans Blix says he cannot guarantee that there will be no spies on his team. &#8220;People have asked me, &#8216;Can you be absolutely sure we will have no spies in any of the member states?&#8217; and I said, &#8216;No, I don't think either the KGB or the CIA can give that absolute assurance.&#8217; &#8221; He adds that if he discovers any spies, he will dismiss them from the team. [[ http://www.khilafah.com/home/category.php?DocumentID=5582&amp;TagID=2 | Independent, 11/17/02 ]] ------ The concern stems from the fact that the previous inspection regime, UNSCOM, had been infiltrated by US and British spies. While much of the intelligence obtained was used to increase the effectiveness of the inspections, some of it was used to serve other interests. For example, some of the intelligence was &#8220;used to help identify and target Hussein's suspected hide-outs when US and British bombers launched the Desert Fox airstrikes in December 1998.&#8221; And some intelligence was even sent to Israel. (( Ake Sellstrom )) (( Rolf Ekeus )) (( Scott Ritter )) [[ http://globalresearch.ca/articles/RIT208A.html | Los Angeles Times, 6/19/02 ]] [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/us/0729ft.htm | Financial Times, 7/29/02 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0918-08.htm | The Times of London, 9/18/02 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/reuters100302.htm | Reuters, 10/3/02 ]] [[ http://www.latimes.com/la-fg-usiraq23oct23,0,4477844.story | Los Angeles Times, 10/23/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Hans Blix )) {{ statement_ake_sellstrom_2 }} {{ statement_rolf_ekeus_2 }} November 18, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_234 false 1 ------ A team of 26 UN inspectors arrive in Baghdad. On the tarmac of Saddam Hussein International Airport, UNMOVIC Weapons Inspection Chief Hans Blix tells reporters, &#8220;We have come here for one single reason and that is because the world wants to have assurances that there are no weapons of mass destruction in Iraq. The situation is tense at the moment, but there is a new opportunity and we are here to provide inspection which is credible... We hope we can all take that opportunity together.... There is a new opportunity and we hope that opportunity will be well-utilized so that we can get out of sanctions. And in the long term, we will have a zone free of weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East.&#8221; Hans Blix and Director of the International Atomic Energy Agency Mohamed ElBaradei then head to Baghdad where they meet with Iraqi Gen. Amir al-Saadi and Hussam Mohammed Amin, the head of the Iraqi National Monitoring Directorate. [[ http://www.intelmessages.org/Messages/National_Security/wwwboard/messages_02/2598.html | New York Times, 11/19/2002 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,842962,00.html | Guardian, 11/29/02 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/meast/11/18/iraq.inspectors/ | CNN, 11/19/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Mohamed ElBaradei )) ((+ Hussam Mohammad Amin )) ((+ Amir Hammudi al-Saadi )) ((+ Hans Blix )) November 18, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_235 false 1 ------ US and British warplanes attack sites northeast of Mosul after Iraqi defense forces fire anti-aircraft artillery at coalition aircraft patrolling the so-called &#8220;no-fly&#8221; zones. In a separate incident, warplanes attack two Iraqi air defense communications facilities and one air defense radar site in southern Iraq in Wassit and Dhi Oar after &#8220;Iraqi air defenses fired multiple surface-to-air missiles and anti-aircraft artillery at coalition aircraft.&#8221; [[ http://www.intelmessages.org/Messages/National_Security/wwwboard/messages_02/2598.html | New York Times, 11/19/2002 ]] [[ http://thescotsman.scotsman.com/index.cfm?id=1286212002 | Scotsman, 11/19/02 ]] [[ http://www.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,4057,5524262%255E1702,00.html | Associated Press, 11/20/02 ]] [[ http://www.timeenoughforlove.org/saved/ReutersAlertNetUNopposesUSstandOnIraqiNo- flyZoneViolation.htm | Reuters, 11/19/02 ]] ------ According to Iraqi authorities, four Iraqi civilians were wounded as a result of the attacks in southern Iraq. [[ http://www.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,4057,5524262%255E1702,00.html | Associated Press, 11/20/02 ]] ------ White House spokesperson Scott McClellan says in a press briefing, &#8220;The United States believes that firing upon our aircraft in the no-fly zone, or British aircraft, is a violation&#8212;it is a material breach.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/11/20021118-2.html | White House, 11/18/02 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/11/19/international/middleeast/19MILI.html | New York Times, 11/19/02 ]] ------ And Donald Rumsfeld, who is in Chile, says: &#8220;I do find it unacceptable that Iraq fires. It is for the President of the United States and the UN Security Council to make judgments about their view of Iraq's behavior over a period of time.&#8221; [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/11/19/international/middleeast/19MILI.html | New York Times, 11/19/02 ]] [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/11/19/wirq19.xml/ | Telegraph, 11/19/02 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0211/23/i_dl.00.html | CNN, 11/23/02 ]] ------ This is the second time the US has bombed Iraq since the passing of UN resolution 1441. The US will conduct at least 22 more aerial attacks on Iraq before the March 19, 2003 invasion. [[ http://www.ccmep.org/us_bombing_watch.html | Colorado Campaign for Middle East Peace ]] ------ UN officials disagree with Washington's assessment. Secretary-General Kofi Annan states, &#8220;Let me say that I don't think that the council will say this is in contravention of the resolution of the Security Council.&#8221; [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/politics/story.jsp?story=353926 | Independent, 11/20/02 ]] [[ http://www.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,4057,5524262%255E1702,00.html | Associated Press, 11/20/02 ]] [[ http://www.pww.org/article/view/2393/1/122/ | Peoples Weekly World News, 11/23/02 ]] [[ http://www.timeenoughforlove.org/saved/ReutersAlertNetUNopposesUSstandOnIraqiNo-flyZoneViolation.htm | Reuters, 11/19/02 ]] [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/nofly/2002/1119nofly.htm | Reuters, 11/19/02 ]] ------ Responding to Annan's remarks, Rumsfeld argues, &#8220;I don't know that he (Annan) necessarily reflects the UN, the center of gravity of the Security Council, on any particular issue at any particular time.... Whenever resolutions are passed, they tend to be compromises, and there tend to be calculated ambiguities written into them to gain votes. So it does not come as a surprise to me.... The United Nations sat there for years with 16 resolutions being violated. So, just as we've seen a pattern of behavior on the part of Saddam Hussein, we've seen a pattern of behavior on the part of the United Nations.&#8221; [[ http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Nov2002/t11202002_t1119sd.html | US Department of Defense, 11/19/02 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2002/US/11/19/rumsfeld.annan/ | CNN, 11/19/02 ]] ------ No comments supporting the US position are made by the British. [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/11/19/wirq19.xml/ | Telegraph, 11/19/02 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) ((+ Scott McClellan )) ((+ Kofi Annan )) {{ statement_unnamed_un_security_council_source_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_british_foreign_office_source_2 }} {{ statement_russian_foreign_ministry_2 }} November 20, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_309 false 1 ------ Richard Perle, a member of the Defense Policy Board, attends a meeting on global security with members of the British Parliament. At one point he argues that the weapons inspection team might be unable to find Saddam's arsenal of banned weapons because they are so well hidden. According to the London Mirror, he then states that the US would &#8220;attack Iraq even if UN inspectors fail to find weapons.&#8221; [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/1121-08.htm | Mirror, 11/21/02 ]] ------ Peter Kilfoyle, a former defense minister and Labour backbencher, tells the Mirror: &#8220;America is duping the world into believing it supports these inspections. President Bush intends to go to war even if inspectors find nothing. This make a mockery of the whole process and exposes America's real determination to bomb Iraq.&#8221; [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/1121-08.htm | Mirror, 11/21/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> << legalJustification >> ((+ Richard Perle )) ((+ Peter Kilfoyle )) November 20, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_308 false 1 ------ On the eve of a 2-day NATO summit in Prague, Czech Republic, President Bush says in an address to the Prague Atlantic Student Summit: &#8220;Saddam Hussein has been given a very short time to declare completely and truthfully his arsenal of terror. Should he again deny that this arsenal exists, he will have entered his final stage with a lie. And deception this time will not be tolerated. Delay and defiance will invite the severest of consequences. America's goal, the world's goal, is more than the return of inspectors to Iraq. Our goal is to secure the peace through the comprehensive and verified disarmament of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction. Voluntary or by force, that goal will be achieved.&#8221; [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/11/21/international/middleeast/21PREX.html | New York Times, 11/21/02 ]] [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/11/20021120-4.html | White House, 11/20/02 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> {{ duplicate_george_w._bush_17 }} November 21-22,2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_236 false 1 ------ A NATO summit is convened in Prague to welcome the Eastern European states of Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia, who will become members of the alliance in 2004. These seven countries, along with Albania, Croatia and Macedonia, release a statement, which says, &#8220;NATO allies stand united in their commitment to take effective action to assist and support the efforts of the UN to ensure full and immediate compliance by Iraq, without conditions or restrictions, with UN [Resolution] 1441.&#8221; The statement also says, &#8220;[W]e are prepared to contribute to an international coalition to enforce its provisions and the disarmament of Iraq.&#8221; Bruce Jackson, a former US Defense Department official who heads a Committee for the Liberation of Iraq, helps draft the statement. France also releases a statement, which is a bit less confrontational. A French official explains to the London Telegraph that the Eastern states' statement was &#8220;his [Bush's] own interpretation [of UN Resolution 1441] and we do not share it. On December 8, we will take note of what Iraq says it has ... and we will see if its behavior is consistent with its statement.&#8221; Germany remains opposed to the use of military force. German Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer tells reporters, &#8220;We are against military action. We don't support military action. We want the possibility not to become the reality.&#8221; [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0220-05.htm | Agence France Press, 11/20/02 ]] [[ http://www.intelmessages.org/Messages/National_Security/wwwboard/messages_02/2659.html | New York Times, 11/22/2002 ]] [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/11/22/wirq22.xml/ | Telegraph, 11/22/2002 ]] ------ On the night of November 21, in an interview with Dan Rather of CBS news, Powell also makes the US position clear. He says, &#8220;If the [December 8] declaration is patently false and everybody can see it. If he does not let the inspectors do their job, then the President is fully ready to take the necessary step, which is military force.&#8221; [[ http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2002/15395.htm | US Department of State, 11/21/02 ]] ------ Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld is also in town for the summit. Before he leaves Prague to meet with Slovak Prime Minister Mikulas Dzurinda in Slovakia, he says he will not believe Iraq if its declaration claims Iraq has no weapons of mass destruction. [[ http://courses.wcupa.edu/rbove/eco343/Compecon/Centeur/Slovakia/021121rumsf.txt | Associated Press, 11/22/02 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ Colin Powell )) ((+ Bruce Jackson )) ((+ Joschka Fischer )) November 22, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_237 false 1 ------ British Foreign Minister Jack Straw says that another UN resolution will be needed before taking military action against Iraq. Straw tells the BBC, &#8220;The most likely course of action, if military action is required&#8212;which it is not at the moment&#8212;is that we go to the security council, which is where there would be discussion. Our preference has always been for a further resolution for the Security Council, and that would then be put to the House of Commons for further endorsement, just as this original 1441 resolution is being put before the House for endorsement on Monday [Nov. 25].&#8221; [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/2502731.stm | BBC, 11/22/02 ]] [[ http://www.jang.com.pk/thenews/nov2002-daily/23-11-2002/world/w13.htm | The International News, 11/23/02 ]] ====== << alZarqawi >> ((+ Jack Straw )) November 23, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_238 false 1 ------ Iraqi Foreign Minister Naji Sabri complains in a letter to Secretary-General Kofi Annan that the US intends to use UN Resolution 1441 as a pretext to use military force against Iraq. In the letter, he analyzes several paragraphs in the UN resolution, demonstrating how they are based on assumptions and how the US plans to use some of the key provisions as a pretext for invading Iraq. (( November 23, 2002 Iraqi letter to UN )) [[ http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/1038175427413_13?s_name= | CTV News, 11/25/2002 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Naji Sabri )) November 25, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_240 false 1 ------ Iraq informs the Council that it might not be able to provide the UN with a complete declaration of its past and present civilian and military chemical, biological and nuclear programs as required by UN Resolution 1441 by the December 8 deadline. Hans Blix is sympathetic and the Russian UN ambassador suggests that the deadline should be extended. Iraqi officials also indicate they are not sure what exactly they are expected to include. According to The Washington Post, &#8220;Iraqi officials told Blix that they were uncertain whether the Security Council's terms required that they declare every single item produced in its commercial chemical industry, citing plastic slippers as an example.&#8221; Hans Blix indicates that he is also unsure. John D. Negroponte, the US ambassador to the United Nations, argues that no extension should be granted. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A38882-2002Nov25.html | Washington Post, 11/26/2002 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Sergei Lavrov )) ((+ John Negroponte )) ((+ Hans Blix )) November 25, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_239 false 1 ------ 18 international arms monitors, including 12 inspectors from the UN Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission and 8 from the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna, arrive in Baghdad with their cargo of high-tech sensors, computers and other gear. [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/11.27B.insp.iraq.htm | Associated Press, 11/25/2002 ]] [[ http://www.intelmessages.org/Messages/National_Security/wwwboard/messages_02/2727.html | New York Times, 11/25/2002 ]] [[ http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/794684/posts | Independent, 11/24/2002 ]] --- Make-up of Inspection Team --- ------ The complete roster of UN inspectors expected to participate in the inspections includes some 300 chemists, biologists, missile and ordnance experts and other specialists of UNMOVIC, as well as a few dozen engineers and physicists from the IAEA. Hans Blix of UNMOVIC will head the effort to search for chemical and biological weapons and Jacques Baute of the UN's International Atomic Energy Agency will lead the team seeking to determine if Iraq has reconstituted its nuclear weapons program. [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/11.27B.insp.iraq.htm | Associated Press, 11/25/2002 ]] --- Purpose of Inspections --- ------ The stated purpose of the inspections, according to the UN resolution, is to bring &#8220;to full and verified completion the disarmament process established by resolution 687 (1991) and subsequent resolutions of the Council.&#8221; (( UN Resolution 1441 )) ------ However, since the passing of the resolution the Bush administration has maintained that the purpose of inspections is much broader. For instance, US Secretary of State Donald Rumsfeld will claim in January that inspectors are not to act as &#8220;discoverers&#8221; trying to locate things. Rather the purpose of the inspections, according to Rumsfeld, is to determine whether Iraq is cooperating. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2683409.stm | BBC, 1/22/03 ]] --- Methods --- The inspectors will &#8220;revisit the previously monitored sites to check if the equipment installed [by the previous weapons inspectors] is still functional,&#8221; explains a UN spokesperson. &#8220;It will take some time to do that work. We can't rule out other activities, but it's quite likely we will start with that.&#8221; Inspectors also says that they will not immediately conduct &#8220;intrusive&#8221; inspections into Iraq's more sensitive areas. As an aide to Hans Blix explains to The Washington Post, &#8220;We're not going to do in-your-face inspections. He [Blix] wants effective inspections. It's not our job to provoke, harm or humiliate.&#8221; The inspections teams will also investigate new sites that the US and Britain allege are involved in the development of weapons of mass destruction. Inspectors will have the option to interview Iraqi scientists without the presence of Iraqi officials. The interviews may be conducted outside of Iraq. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A28128-2002Nov22.html | The Washington Post, 11/23/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) ((+ Hans Blix )) ((+ Jacques Bautes )) December 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_404 false 1 ------ RUPE publishes a special issue in their journal, Aspects of India's Economy, analyzing the true motives behind the United States&apos; plan to invade Iraq. The purpose for this special publication, according to RUPE, is that India (like Pakistan) has been placed within the US geo-strategic agenda for the Asian region. This has been done, among other things, by declaring India to be an important military ally, and by working for a US-India political/military axis against China. RUPE argues that this will heighten the military tension in a region occupied by nuclear powers. Therefore it is necessary to understand the true motives behind the US geo-political agenda, exemplified in the current move against Iraq, before uncritically exposing one's country to such risks. The report concludes that protecting the security of the US dollar is a primary motive behind the US's planned invasion of Iraq. [[ http://www.rupe-india.org/34/pillar.html | Research Unit for Political Economy,11/02 ]] ====== << motivesBehindWar >> ((+ Research Unit for Political Economy )) {{ commentary_research_unit_for_political_economy_2 }} {{ commentary_research_unit_for_political_economy_3 }} Early December 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_248 false 1 ------ The White House orders the CIA, the department of defense, and the State Department to develop an aggressive plan for UN weapons inspectors that would require Iraqi scientists to appear for questioning. &#8220;An intense argument is under way ... on almost all of the details of a protection program,&#8221; reports the New York Times. &#8220;Some American officials want the United Nations team to be aggressive in identifying scientists and demanding that they leave the country, perhaps without the scientists' permission.&#8221; The UN would either issue subpoenas to the scientists or the UN would &#8220;lure&#8221; the scientists with offers of asylum in another country. If it is decided that subpoenas are to be used, Iraqi scientists would be required to &#8220;appear on a certain date and time at a place outside of Iraq ... [and] Baghdad would be held responsible for seeing that they appear,&#8221; reports The Washington Post. Officials leak to the press that the Bush administration views the plan as the most likely way to provoke resistance from Baghdad. One official tells The Washington Post that if Iraqis &#8220;don't produce those people, I would say that's a demonstration of noncompliance and noncooperation.&#8221; The Washington Post reports that the inspections agencies, some allied governments, and UN officials are not pleased with the idea. They warn &#8220;that attempts to short-circuit the inspection process with a quickly conceived operation that could involve hundreds of Iraqis and their families could endanger lives while undermining both the inspections themselves and ongoing US intelligence operations in Iraq.&#8221; (( Unnamed US officials )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/nytimes120602.htm | New York Times, 12/6/02 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A42884-2002Dec11.html | The Washington Post, 12/12/02 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A47980-2002Dec12? language=printer | Washington Post 12/13/02 ]] ------ Hans Blix, who strongly disapproves of the recommendation, argues that the United Nations cannot abduct people against their will. &#8220;Do you really think any Iraqis are going to go for it?&#8221; he asks. &#8220;I mean how big is a family, do you take just the wife and children and parents? What about the extended family&#8212;the cousins? Do you leave them behind? And what if we're stopped on the way to the airport?&#8221; [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,855665,00.html | Guardian, 12/7/02 ]] ------ The next day he reaffirms his position, saying, &#8220;We are in nobody's pocket. ... We are not going to abduct anybody and we are not serving as a defection agency.&#8221; [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-505652,00.html | The Times of London, 12/7/02 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/12/07/international/middleeast/07NATI.html | New York Times, 12/7/02 ]] [[ http://www.upi.com/view.cfm?StoryID=20021206-061430-7965r | United Press International, 12/6/02 ]] ------ His view is &#8220;backed by most of the United Nations hierarchy and the State Department in Washington,&#8221; reports the New York Times. The Times quotes one US official, who disagrees with the idea. &#8220;Taking someone against their will is contrary to the whole United Nations concept,&#8221; the source says. &#8220;You'd fracture the UN consensus.&#8221; (( Unnamed US official )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/nytimes120602.htm | New York Times, 12/6/02 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,855665,00.html | Guardian, 12/7/02 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A42884-2002Dec11.html | The Washington Post, 12/12/02 ]] ------ Iraqi General Amir Saadi argues that the proposal is problematic under international law and expresses concern that Hans Blix would be pressured into providing a copy of Iraq's list of scientists to US intelligence. &#8220;This is a confidential list,&#8221; he says. &#8220;Will he make it public? Will he give it to other countries?&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A14953-2002Dec19?language=printer | The Washington Post, 12/20/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Hans Blix )) ((+ Amir Hammudi al-Saadi )) December 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_2 false 1 ------ Two months after the September 2002 Defense Intelligence Agency report (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1 ]]) &#8212;which found there was no conclusive evidence Iraq has chemical weapons&#8212;another secret document titled, &#8220;Iraq's Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Weapon and Missile Program: Progress, Prospects, and Potential Vulnerabilities,&#8221; is completed. It also says in very clear terms that there is no solid proof that Iraq has chemical weapons. ------ One passage from the report says, &#8220;No reliable information indicates whether Iraq is producing and stockpiling chemical weapons or where the country has or will establish its chemical agent production facility.&#8221; (( Iraq's Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Weapon and Missile Program: Progress, Prospects, and Potential Vulnerabilities )) [[ http://www.usnews.com/usnews/usinfo/press/intell.htm | US News and World Report, 6/13/03 ]] ====== << wmd >> {{ duplicate_iraq_s_nuclear,_biological_and_chemical_weapon_and_missile_program:_progress,_prospects,_ and_potential_vulnerabilities_2 }} End of December 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_267 false 1 ------ After examining more than 200 sites, UN weapons inspectors say that despite unfettered access to all Iraqi facilities, they have found no evidence of weapons of mass destruction or any programs aimed at developing such weapons. Several of the suspected weapons sites have been visited multiple times. Inspectors say that they have exhausted the leads provided by US intelligence and complain that Washington resists requests to provide them with more information. The San Francisco Chronicle reports: &#8220;UN spokesmen in Baghdad admit they have largely exhausted their list of possible weapons sites and must make repeat visits to stay busy. They have asked the United States to provide intelligence to help identify new sites. Although the Bush administration recently said it would share some secrets with the United Nations, it appears to have turned over little so far.&#8221; [[ http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2002/12/30/MN223238.DTL | San Francisco Chronicle, 12/30/02 ]] [[ http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/12/29/1040511258160.html | Agence France Presse, 12/30/02 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/1231-03.htm | Los Angeles Times, 12/31/01 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2617783.stm | BBC, 12/31/01 ]] [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/politics/story.jsp?story=365655&amp;dir=508&amp;host=3 | Independent, 1/1/03 ]] [[ http://www.nzherald.co.nz/storydisplay.cfm?storyID=3049546&amp;thesection=news&amp;thesubsection=world | New Zealand Herald, 1/1/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,867158,00.html | Guardian, 1/3/02 ]] ------ And an unnamed weapons inspector tells the Los Angeles Times: &#8220;We haven't found an iota of concealed material yet. Even private facilities which are not part of their state-run military industrial complex open up for us&#8212;like magic. ... We can't look for something which we don't know about. If the United States wants us to find something, they should open their intelligence file and share it with us so that we know where to go for it. .... By being silent, we may create the false illusion that we did uncover something. ... But I must say that if we were to publish a report now, we would have zilch to put in it.&#8221; [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/1231-03.htm | Los Angeles Times, 12/31/01 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2617783.stm | BBC, 12/31/01 ]] [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/politics/story.jsp?story=365655&amp;dir=508&amp;host=3 | Independent, 1/1/03 ]] [[ http://www.nzherald.co.nz/storydisplay.cfm?storyID=3049546&amp;thesection=news&amp;thesubsection=world | New Zealand Herald, 1/1/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,867158,00.html | Guardian, 1/3/02 ]] ------ The London Observer will report in early January, &#8220;Some of the inspectors are understood to be convinced that their mission has become a &#8216;set-up job&#8217; and America will attack Iraq regardless of what they find.&#8221; [[ http://observer.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,6903,868839,00.html | Observer, 1/5/02 ]] ====== << deception >> << wmd >> << weaponsInspections >> December 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_351 false 1 ------ Elliott Abrams drafts a proposal, in which he argues that the United States should take de facto control of Iraqi oil fields. The proposal is not well-received by moderates in the Bush administration who question the legality of the proposal, and who argue &#8220;that only a puppet Iraqi government would acquiesce to US supervision of the oil fields and that one so slavish to US interests risks becoming untenable with Iraqis,&#8221; reports Insight Magazine. Such a move would also lend credence to suspicions that the invasion is motivated by oil interests, the critics add. (( Unnamed Bush administration officials )) [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/oil/2002/1228divides.htm | Insight, 12/28/02 ]] ------ A similar recommendation was made in a paper published by the Heritage Foundation in late September (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_356 ]]). (( The Road to Economic Prosperity for a Post-Saddam Iraq )) [[ http://www.heritage.org/Research/MiddleEast/bg1594.cfm | Heritage Foundation, 9/25/02 ]] [[ http://www.observer.co.uk/international/story/0,6903,825103,00.html | Observer, 11/3/02 ]] ====== << preWarPlanning >> ((+ Elliott Abrams )) December 2002-March 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_311 false 1 ------ Critics argue that the Bush administration is attempting to use the inspections as a means of provoking resistance from Iraq so that Washington can claim it is in &#8220;further material breach.&#8221; The US would then cite this breach as justification for taking military action against Iraq. Critics also say that the administration's agenda conflicts with the aims of the inspectors and that the US is undermining the inspectors' work. ====== << weaponsInspections >> << legalJustification >> {{ commentary_peter_kilfoyle_2 }} {{ commentary_jeremy_brecher,_historian_2 }} {{ commentary_milan_rai_2 }} December 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_348 false 1 ------ Elliott Abrams, a special assistant to President George W. Bush on the National Security Council [NSC] is appointed to senior director for Near East and North African affairs within the NSC. Neoconservatives working at the Pentagon's Near East South Asia (NESA) desk worked hard to get Abrams appointed. &#8220;The day he got (the appointment), they were whooping and hollering, &#8216;We got him in, we got him in,&#8217;&#8221; Karen Kwiatkowski, a retired Air Force lieutenant colonel, tells Inter Press Service. Abrams, a controversial figure with close ties to Richard Perle and Douglas Feith, had been convicted of withholding information from Congress during the Iran-Contra scandal, though he was later pardoned by George W. Bush's father. [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/oil/2002/1228divides.htm | Insight, 12/9/02 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0807-02.htm | Inter Press Service, 8/7/03 ]] ====== << preWarPlanning >> ((+ Karen Kwiatkowski )) ((+ Elliott Abrams )) ((+ Richard Perle )) ((+ Douglas Feith )) December 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_723 false 1 ------ CIA Director George Tenet and his deputy John McLaughlin meet in the White House with President George Bush and Bush's top advisors for a &#8220;dress rehearsal&#8221; ahead of a public presentation alleging that Iraq has weapons of mass destruction. According to Bob Woodward's book, Plan of Attack, Bush is disappointed with Tenet and McLauglin's presentation, which is based on communications intercepts, satellite photos, diagrams and other intelligence. &#8220;Nice try,&#8221; Woodward's source will later recall Bush saying. &#8220;I don't think this quite&#8212;it's not something that Joe Public would understand or would gain a lot of confidence from.&#8221; Bush reportedly says to Tenet. &#8220;I've been told all this intelligence about having WMD, and this is the best we've got?&#8221; Tenet responds, &#8220;It's a slam dunk case.&#8221; Woodward's book will say that Bush then asked, &#8220;George, how confident are you?&#8221; To which the intelligence head responded, &#8220;Don't worry, it's a slam dunk.&#8221; (( Top officials interviewed by Washington Post editor Bob Woodward )) [[ http://msnbc.msn.com/id/4761041/ | Woodward, 2004 cited in Washington Post 4/17/2004 ]] ====== << deception >> ((+ George Tenet )) ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ John McLaughlin )) December 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_49 false 1 ------ Experts from US national laboratories inform the US Department of Energy that Iraq is producing tubes identical to the Italian-made Medusa 81 rockets, which are of the same dimensions and which are made of the same alloy as the tubes that were intercepted in Jordan in July 2001. (( Unnamed US intelligence, US administration, and/or UN inspectors )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39500-2003Aug9.html | Washington Post, 8/10/03 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> Early December, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_242 false 1 ------ The Bush administration attempts to delay a vote for the second time in nine days on a UN resolution extending Iraq's authority to sell oil for the next six months. John D. Negroponte, the US ambassador to the United Nations, argues that the resolution should add approximately 40 additional items to a list of items requiring UN approval prior to import. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A5724-2002Dec3.html | Washington Post, 12/4/02a ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2543697.stm | BBC 12/4/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> December 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1836 false 1 ------ John Brodman, the deputy assistant secretary of energy for international energy policy, tells the New York Times: &#8220;Our dependency on the Persian Gulf could take a slight dip before it goes up. But the basic geological fact of life is that 70 percent of the proven oil reserves are in the Middle East.&#8221; [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/oil/2002/1226need.htm | New York Times, 12/26/2002 ]] ====== << motivesBehindWar >> ((+ John Brodman )) December 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_2026 false 1 ------ A former senior official tells investigative reporter Seymour Hersh, &#8220;If it became known that [Rumsfeld] wanted [the Defense Intelligence Agency] to link the government of Tonga to 9/11, within a few months they would come up with sources who'd do it.&#8221; [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?021223fa_fact | New Yorker, 12/16/02 ]] ====== << deception >> December 2, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_243 false 1 ------ Bush administration officials launch what appears to be a concerted effort to discredit the inspections after press reports indicate that inspections are going well and that Iraq is cooperating. The Washington Post reports, &#8220;In speeches in London, Washington and Denver, Bush, Vice President Cheney and Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz sought to increase pressure on Hussein in advance of a Sunday deadline for the Iraqi leader to declare his inventory of weapons and missiles.&#8221; The paper adds, &#8220;The coordinated speeches ... seemed designed to preempt any positive sign from the UN inspection teams about Iraqi compliance and to set the stage for an early confrontation with Hussein.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A923-2002Dec2.html | Washington Post, 12/3/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ Dick Cheney )) {{ statement_paul_wolfowitz_5 }} {{ statement_ari_fleischer_6 }} {{ statement_dick_cheney_5 }} {{ statement_george_w._bush_16 }} December 2, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_244 false 1 ------ In a speech to the Air National Guard Senior Leadership Conference in Denver, Vice President Dick Cheney calls Saddam's government an &#8220;outlaw regime&#8221; and accuses the leader of &#8220;harboring terrorists and the instruments of terror,&#8221; asserting that his government &#8220;has had high-level contacts with al-Qaeda going back a decade and has provided training to al-Qaeda terrorists.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/12/20021202-4.html | White House, 12/2/02c ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A923-2002Dec2.html | Washington Post, 12/3/02 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((+ Dick Cheney )) {{ duplicate_dick_cheney_4 }} December 3, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_241 false 1 ------ Iraq reiterates its claim that it has no weapons of mass destruction in the country, foreshadowing the content of its formal declaration, which is due in five days. Responding to the statement, US Secretary of Defense says, &#8220;Any country on the face of the earth with an active intelligence program knows that Iraq has weapons of mass destruction.&#8221; And Bush says, &#8220;He [Saddam Hussein] says he won't have weapons of mass destruction; he's got them.&#8221; [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2543697.stm | BBC, 12/4/02 ]] ====== << wmd >> << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) {{ duplicate_donald_rumsfeld_11 }} December 3, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_245 false 1 ------ One day after Bush asserts that signs of Iraqi cooperation are so far &#8220;not encouraging,&#8221; UN Chief Weapons Inspector Hans Blix tells the Associated Press, &#8220;I think we have started in the manner we expected and we have not had any impediments in the visits of plants.&#8221; By this date, notes the Associated Press, &#8220;UN inspectors have reported unimpeded access and Iraqi cooperation&#8221; in &#8220;more than a dozen field missions.&#8221; [[ http://www.centredaily.com/mld/centredaily/news/4656146.htm | AP, 12/3/02 ]] [[ http://www.cpa.org.au/garchve5/1121iraq.html | Guardian, 12/11/02 ]] [[ http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,72011,00.html | Fox News, 12/3/02 ]] [[ http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/national/98315_iraq04.shtml | Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 12/3/02 ]] ------ Similarly, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan says, &#8220;It's only been a week and obviously the cooperation seems to be good, but this is not a one-week wonder. They have to sustain the cooperation and the effort and perform.&#8221; [[ http://www.seacoastonline.com/2002news/12042002/world/1416.htm | Associated Press, 12/3/02 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A5724-2002Dec3.html | Washington Post, 12/4/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Kofi Annan )) ((+ Hans Blix )) December 3, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_302 false 1 ------ In a news briefing, Donald Rumsfeld says, &#8220;You can't expect people to go into a country that is just enormous, with all that real estate and all that underground facilities and all of these people monitoring everything&#8212;everything anyone is doing&#8212;and expect them to engage in a discovery process and turn up something somebody is determined for them not to turn up. If you go back and look at the history of inspections in Iraq, the reality is that things have been found not by discovery, but through defectors ... and you get the kind of information that means the game is up.&#8221; [[ http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Dec2002/t12032002_t1203sd.html | US Department of Defense, 12/3/02 ]] [[ http://www.washtimes.com/upi-breaking/20021203-051000-8133r.htm | Washington Times, 12/4/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> December 4, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_246 false 1 ------ The White House calls for more aggressive inspections. White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer says, &#8220;We want to make certain that they [the inspections] are aggressive enough to be able to ascertain the facts in the face of an adversary who in the past did everything in his power to hide the facts.&#8221; The White House recommends increasing the UN inspectors' staff so that the two agencies can conduct multiple simultaneous inspections each day. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2543697.stm | BBC, 12/4/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Ari Fleischer )) December 4, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_253 false 1 ------ During the bill signing of the Dot Kids Implementation and Efficiency Act of 2002, Bush says of Saddam Hussein: &#8220;One of my concerns is that in the past he has shot at our airplanes. Anybody who shoots at US airplanes or British airplanes is not somebody who looks like he's interested in complying with disarmament.&#8221; He also chastises Saddam's questioning US motives (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_238 ]]). &#8220;He wrote letters, stinging rebukes, to what the UN did. He was very critical of the US and Britain. It didn't appear to be somebody that was that anxious to comply, but we've just started the process.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/kids/connection/20021204-1.html | White House, 12/4/02 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0212/04/asb.00.html | CNN, 12/4/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ George W. Bush )) December 5, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_247 false 1 ------ Demetrius Perricos, the Greek head of the team searching Iraq for chemical and biological weapons, criticizes Washington's efforts to influence the inspections. He says: &#8220;The people who sent us here are the international community, the United Nations. We're not serving the US. We're not serving the UK. We're not serving any individual nation.&#8221; He also questions why the Bush administration is refusing to share its intelligence with the inspectors. He explains: &#8220;What we're getting and what President Bush may be getting is very different, to put it mildly.&#8221; [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-504631,00.html | Times of London, 12/6/02 ]] ====== << deception >> << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Demetrius Perricos )) December 5, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_249 false 1 ------ Saddam Hussein announces that he will continue to permit intrusive inspections. Two days before, inspectors had arrived unannounced at Saddam's Sajoud palace and were given unfettered access to the site. Saddam says he hopes such visits will disprove US allegations that Iraq has weapons of mass destruction. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A16206-2002Dec5.html | Washington Post, 12/6/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Saddam Hussein )) December 5, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_131 false 1 ------ White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer says: &#8220;The president of the United States and the secretary of Defense would not assert as plainly and bluntly as they have that Iraq has weapons of mass destruction if it was not true, and if they did not have a solid basis for saying it.&#8221; When pressed for details, he adds: &#8220;President Bush has said Iraq has weapons of mass destruction. Tony Blair has said Iraq has weapons of mass destruction. Donald Rumsfeld has said Iraq has weapons of mass destruction. Richard Butler has said they do. The United Nations has said they do. The experts have said they do. Iraq says they don't. You can choose who you want to believe.&#8221; [[ http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/story.hts/front/1690282 | AP, 12/5/03 ]] [[ http://www.cbc.ca/stories/2002/12/05/iraq021205 | CBC News, 12/5/2002 ]] ====== << wmdQuotesGeneral >> ((- Tony Blair )) ((- Richard Butler )) ((+ Ari Fleischer )) ((- Donald Rumsfeld )) ((- George W. Bush )) {{ duplicate_ari_fleischer_2 }} December 6, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_250 false 1 ------ The UN Security Council decides that it will not release Iraq's declaration to any of the member states, once it is received. &#8220;UN experts would first scrutinize the document&#8212;expected to run to several thousand pages&#8212;to check that sensitive information is not made public,&#8221; explains the Times of London, adding, &#8220;That could take weeks.&#8221; [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-505652,00.html | The Times of London, 12/7/02 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/12/07/international/middleeast/07NATI.html | New York Times, 12/7/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> December 6, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_255 false 1 ------ UNMOVIC weapons inspection leader Hans Blix calls on the US to share its secret intelligence with inspectors. &#8220;Of course we would like to have as much information from any member state as to evidence they may have on weapons of mass destruction, and, in particular, sites,&#8221; he says. &#8220;Because we are inspectors, we can go to sites. They may be listening to what's going on and they may have lots of other sources of information. But we can go to the sites legitimately and legally.&#8221; Notes the New York Times: &#8220;On one hand, administration officials are pressing him to work faster and send out more inspectors to more places to undermine Baghdad's ability to conceal any hidden programs. At the same time, Washington has been holding back its intelligence, waiting to see what Iraq will say in its declaration.&#8221; [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/12/07/international/middleeast/07NATI.html | New York Times, 12/7/02 ]] ====== << decision >> << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Hans Blix )) December 7, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_251 false 1 ------ Iraq submits its declaration of military and civilian chemical, biological and nuclear capabilities to the UN one day early. It consists of 12 cd-roms and 43 spiral-bound volumes containing a total of 11,807 pages. General Hussam Amin, the officer in charge of Iraq's National Monitoring Directorate, tells reporters a few hours before the declaration is formally submitted: &#8220;We declared that Iraq is empty of weapons of mass destruction. I reiterate Iraq has no weapons of mass destruction. This declaration has some activities that are dual-use.&#8221; Lt. Gen. Amer al-Saadi, a senior adviser to Iraqi President Saddam Hussein, says the next day that Iraq's pre-1991 nuclear program may have been close to developing a nuclear bomb, but denies that Baghdad continued the program. Meanwhile, the Bush administration remains furious over the Security Councils' previous day ruling that no member state&#8212;including the US&#8212;will be permitted access to the report until after &#8220;sensitive information about weapons manufacture had been removed.&#8221; White House officials say they were &#8220;blind-sided&#8221; by the decision. [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/12/08/wirq08.xml/ | Telegraph, 12/8/02 ]] [[ http://www.observer.co.uk/iraq/story/0,12239,856166,00.html | Observer, 12/8/02 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/12/08/international/middleeast/08IRAQ.html | New York Times, 12/8/02 ]] [[ http://www.sunspot.net/news/nationworld/iraq/bal-te.iraq10dec10,0,1189127.story | Associated Press, 12/9/02b ]] --- Iraq's nuclear program --- Roughly 2,100 pages of the declaration include information on Iraq's former nuclear programs, including details on the sites and companies that were involved. [[ http://www.sunspot.net/news/nationworld/iraq/bal-te.iraq10dec10,0,1189127.story | Associated Press, 12/9/02b ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2560617.stm | BBC, 12/10/02 ]] --- Iraq's chemical programs --- It contains &#8220;several thousand pages,&#8221; beginning with a summary of Iraq's former chemical weapons program, specifically &#8220;research and development activities, the production of chemical agents, relations with companies and a terminated radiation bomb project.&#8221; [[ http://www.sunspot.net/news/nationworld/iraq/bal-te.iraq10dec10,0,1189127.story | Associated Press, 12/9/02b ]] --- The biological declaration --- This section is much shorter than the sections dealing with Iraq's nuclear and chemical programs. It includes &#8220;information on military institutions connected with the former biological weapons program, activities at the foot-and-mouth facility and a list of supporting documents.&#8221; [[ http://www.sunspot.net/news/nationworld/iraq/bal-te.iraq10dec10,0,1189127.story | Associated Press, 12/9/02b ]] --- The ballistic missile declaration --- This is the shortest section of Iraq's declaration totaling about 1,200 pages. It consists of a chronological summary of the country's ballistic missile program. [[ http://www.sunspot.net/news/nationworld/iraq/bal-te.iraq10dec10,0,1189127.story | Associated Press, 12/9/02b ]] --- Iraq's suppliers of chemical and biological agent precursors --- Iraq's declaration includes the names of 150 foreign companies, several of which are from the US, Britain, Germany and France. Germany allowed eighty companies to supply Iraq with materials that could be used in the production of weapons of mass destruction since 1975, while the US allowed 24 of its own businesses. Also included in the list are ten French businesses and several Swiss and Chinese companies. &#8220;From about 1975 onwards, these companies are shown to have supplied entire complexes, building elements, basic materials and technical know-how for Saddam Hussein's program to develop nuclear, chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction,&#8221; the Independent explains. &#8220;They also supplied rockets and complete conventional weapons systems.&#8221; [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/1218-06.htm | Independent, 12/18/02 ]] [[ http://reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=worldNews&amp;storyID=1876861 | Reuters, 12/10/02 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2560617.stm | BBC, 12/10/02 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/12/11/international/middleeast/11NATI.html?ex=1040627354&amp;ei=1&amp;en=86979a06798e7edb | New York Times, 12/12/02 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/1213-02.htm | Newsday, 12/13/02 ]] [[ http://onenews.nzoom.com/onenews_detail/0,1227,154790-1-9,00.html | Reuters, 12/10/02 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/wpost121102.htm | Washington Post, 12/11/02b ]] [[ http://www.boycottusa.org/news/news_latimes16Dec_02.htm | Los Angeles Times, 12/15/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Hussam Mohammad Amin )) ((+ Amir Hammudi al-Saadi )) December 7, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_254 false 1 ------ Demetrius Perricos, Greek head of an inspections team that searched for chemical and biological weapons in Iraq, makes it clear that the inspection teams are not tools of the US and Britain. He says: &#8220;This time we have the most advanced equipment available, and the new UN resolution means that we will not be camping somewhere, but knocking on doors. The Iraqis know that, and they also know that a &#8216;material breach&#8217; may lead to war. I think we shall get to the truth, and it is, of course, desirable that there is no war.... The people who sent us here are the international community and the UN. We are not serving the US and we are not serving the UK. The Iraqis would like us to be very light, the US would like us to be extremely severe. We think we are doing a proper job.&#8221; [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/middle_east/story.jsp?story=359571 | Independent, 12/8/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Demetrius Perricos )) December 8, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_252 false 1 ------ US Secretary of State Colin Powell successfully pressures the UN Security Council's president, Colombian ambassador to the United Nations Alfonso Valdivieso, to override the Council's December 6 decision (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_250 ]]) that no country be permitted access to an unabridged copy of Iraq's declaration. &#8220;The United States had initially accepted the argument Friday but then changed its mind over the weekend, holding consultations between capitals,&#8221; reports the Associated Press. &#8220;Eventually US officials instructed Colombian Ambassador Alfonso Valdivieso, the current Security Council president, to hand over the complete copy of the declaration, which to the astonishment of many in the UN halls, he did.&#8221; [[ http://www.sunspot.net/news/nationworld/iraq/bal-te.iraq10dec10,0,1189127.story | Associated Press, 12/9/02b ]] [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/unmovic/2002/1210copy.htm | New York Times, 12/10/02 ]] [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/attack/2002/1222strain.htm | New York Times 12/21/02 ]] ------ The Council president normally makes decisions only when there is a consensus of all 15 members. Notably, the US had promised Colombia a substantial increase in military aid less than a week beforehand. [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/unmovic/2002/1210copy.htm | New York Times, 12/10/02 ]] ------ Under the new &#8220;decision,&#8221; only those countries with &#8220;the expertise to assess the risk of proliferation and other sensitive information&#8221; will be permitted to access the documents. The only countries that are considered qualified according to this criteria are the five permanent members. The other 10 council members, including Syria, will only be allowed to view the declaration after translation, analysis and censorship of &#8220;sensitive material.&#8221; Syria and Norway are infuriated by the move. [[ http://www.sptimes.com/2002/12/09/Worldandnation/UN_opts_to_give_US_un.shtml | Associated Press, 12/9/02 ]] [[ http://www.sunspot.net/news/nationworld/iraq/bal-te.iraq10dec10,0,1189127.story | Associated Press, 12/9/02b ]] [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/unmovic/2002/1210copy.htm | New York Times, 12/10/02 ]] [[ http://209.157.64.200/focus/f-news/805109/posts | Washington Times, 12/12/02 ]] ------ The photocopying of the documents will be done exclusively by the US. UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan will later acknowledge that the job should have been delegated to a less partial party. [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-509168,00.html | Times of London, 12/10/02 ]] [[ http://209.157.64.200/focus/f-news/805109/posts | Washington Times, 12/12/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Kofi Annan )) ((+ Colin Powell )) ((+ Alfonso Valdivieso )) {{ commentary_hans_von_sponeck_2 }} December 9, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_257 false 1 ------ Disagreeing with statements made by US officials, Russia's Foreign Ministry says, &#8220;Iraq's timely submission of its declaration, parallel to its continued cooperation with the international weapons inspectors, confirms its commitment to act in compliance with Resolution 1441.&#8221; [[ http://www.moscowpost.com/p/6f/3ab701479f23.html?id=106bdbd | AP, 12/8/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> December 10, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_258 false 1 ------ Hans Blix completes an initial review of Iraq's December 7 declaration (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_251 ]]) and tells the UN Security Council that he will brief them as early as December 16. He says he plans to meet with representatives of the United States and the four other permanent members to decide what portions of the declaration need to be censored before being distributed to the other Security Council member states. Certain documents will be censored in order to prevent the details of Iraq's nuclear, chemical and biological weapons programs from falling into the wrong hands and being used as a virtual &#8220;cookbook&#8221; to build weapons of mass destruction. &#8220;He proposed that the most sensitive information should be purged from the text by inspectors, to ensure that it did not leak. To do otherwise would breach international treaties on weapons proliferation,&#8221; reports the London Telegraph. The US will play the dominant role in deciding what parts of the declaration need to be blacked out. The Washington Post reports, &#8220;Bush administration officials indicated today that they would tell Blix before the end of the week what elements of the report should remain confidential.&#8221; Blix recommends censoring sections dealing with designs for the production of nuclear weapons, plans for converting short-range missiles into long-range rockets, and a list of foreign companies that supplied Iraq with materials for its chemical, biological and nuclear weapons. (( Unnamed UN Security Council diplomats )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/wpost121102.htm | The Washington Post, 12/11/02b ]] [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/12/08/wirq08.xml/ | Telegraph, 12/8/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Hans Blix )) December 10, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_256 false 1 ------ The Guardian of London reports that according to unnamed sources in New York and London, &#8220;The US and Britain lack &#8216;killer&#8217; intelligence that will prove conclusively that Iraq has weapons of mass destruction.&#8221; The article quotes one source as saying, &#8220;If we had intelligence that there is a piece of weaponry at this map reference, we would tell the inspectors and they would be there like a shot.&#8221; (( Unnamed US and British officials )) [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,857147,00.html | Guardian, 12/10/02 ]] ====== << wmd >> << weaponsInspections >> December 11, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_259 false 1 ------ US Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security John R. Bolton meet with UN Security Council representatives to argue the Bush administration's case for tightening sanctions on Iraq. Several of the 38 changes that are favored by the Bush administration are aimed at preventing Iraq from acquiring new military equipment ? equipment that might be used in an attempt to defend itself in the event of a US and British invasion. Among such items are jammers to block satellite-positioning systems, ultra-wide-band radios and broadcast equipment. The US also wants to extend the import restrictions to several medicines that could be used as antidotes to chemical weapons agents, including atropine, pralidoxime and sodium nitrite. [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/12/12/international/middleeast/12NATI.html | New York Times, 12/12/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ John R. Bolton )) December 12, 2002-December 15, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1842 false 1 ------ An ABC News/Washington Post poll finds that 81 percent of Americans see &#8220;Iraq as a threat to the United States,&#8221; 64 percent &#8220;think that threat is a substantial one,&#8221; and 44 percent &#8220;see Iraq as an &#8216;immediate&#8217; danger.&#8221; The poll is conducted among a random national sample of 1,209 adults and the results have a 3 percent error margin. [[ http://abcnews.go.com/sections/world/DailyNews/iraqpoll021217.html | ABC News, 12/17/2002 ]] ====== << publicOpinion >> December 12, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_260 false 1 ------ The Bush administration claims that Iraq's December 7 declaration (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_251 ]]) was incomplete. [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/12/13/international/middleeast/13WEAP.html | New York Times, 12/13/02 ]] --- * --- It does not explain what happened to the 550 shells filled with mustard gas that the UNSCOM inspectors were never able to account for. [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/12/13/international/middleeast/13WEAP.html | New York Times, 12/13/02 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/12/23/international/middleeast/23INSP.html | New York Times, 12/23/02 ]] --- * --- It does not explain what happened to the 157 bombs filled with biological agents that the UNSCOM inspectors were never able to account for. [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/12/13/international/middleeast/13WEAP.html | New York Times, 12/13/02 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/12/23/international/middleeast/23INSP.html | New York Times, 12/23/02 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A11467-2002Dec19.html | Washington Post, 12/19/02 ]] --- * --- It does not explain &#8220;why Iraq was seeking to buy uranium in Africa in recent years, as well as high-technology materials that the United States and Britain have said were destined for a program to enrich uranium.&#8221; [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/12/13/international/middleeast/13WEAP.html | New York Times, 12/13/02 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/12/23/international/middleeast/23INSP.html | New York Times, 12/23/02 ]] --- * --- It does not explain what happened to the 3,000 tons of chemical precursors and 360 tons of actual chemical warfare agents that the UNSCOM inspectors were never able to account for. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2590265.stm | BBC, 12/19/02 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A11467-2002Dec19.html | Washington Post, 12/19/02 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/12/23/international/middleeast/23INSP.html | New York Times, 12/23/02 ]] --- * --- It failed to provide evidence for Iraq's claim that It had destroyed 1.5 tons of VX nerve gas. The 1999 UNSCOM report had stated, &#8220;According to Iraq, 1.5 tons of VX were discarded unilaterally by dumping on the ground. Traces of one VX-degradation product and a chemical known as a VX-stabilizer were found in the samples taken from the VX dump sites. A quantified assessment is not possible.&#8221; [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2590265.stm | BBC, 12/19/02 ]] ------ Gen. Amir Saadi will explain that the VX gas was indeed accounted for in the December 7 declaration. He says that Iraq had unsuccessfully attempted in April 1990 to produce VX but that the material had degraded quickly and, as a result, the experiment was abandoned. &#8220;No production was achieved; no VX was produced,&#8221; he says. [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/12/23/international/middleeast/23INSP.html | New York Times, 12/23/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Amir Hammudi al-Saadi )) December 13, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_352 false 1 ------ Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz receives a draft report by the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessment which, according to a source interviewed by Newsday, recommends that &#8220;the cost of the occupation, the cost for the military administration and providing for a provisional administration, all of that would come out of Iraqi oil.&#8221; The report was commissioned by Andrew Marshall, the Pentagon's influential director of Net Assessment. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0110-01.htm | Newsday, 1/10/03 ]] ------ This contradicts a report titled, Potential Costs of a War with Iraq and Its Post War Occupation, which is published by the Center two months later on February 25, 2003. It notes that &#8220;given the enormity of Iraq's reconstruction requirements and the size of its foreign debt, if the Bush Administration's goal is to turn Iraq into a stable, pro-US democracy, it would probably prove counterproductive to use Iraqi oil revenues to reimburse DoD for its costs.&#8221; [[ http://www.csbaonline.org/4Publications/Archive/B.20030225.Potential_Costs_of/B.20030225.Potential_Costs_of.htm | Potential Costs of a War with Iraq and Its Post War Occupation, 2/5/03 ]] ====== << preWarPlanning >> ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) ((+ Andrew Marshall )) December 16, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1823 false 1 ------ The New York Times reports that the Defense Department &#8220;is considering issuing a secret directive to the American military to conduct covert operations aimed at influencing public opinion and policy makers in friendly and neutral countries&#8221; in order to stem the tide of anti-Americanism. The Pentagon has considered several tactics it may employ to improve America's image abroad. For example, the Times explains that the Pentagon &#8220;might pay journalists to write stories favorable to American policies,&#8221; or hire &#8220;outside contractors without obvious ties to the Pentagon to organize rallies in support of American policies.&#8221; Another idea would be to set &#8220;up schools with secret American financing to teach a moderate Islamic position laced with sympathetic depictions of how the religion is practiced in America.&#8221; Several official sources interviewed by the Times opposed the plans. One military officer tells the newspaper: &#8220;We have the assets and the capabilities and the training to go into friendly and neutral nations to influence public opinion. We could do it and get away with it. That doesn't mean we should.&#8221; Retired Adm. Dennis C. Blair, a former commander of American forces in the Pacific, says that it probably wouldn't be very effective. &#8220;Running ops against your allies doesn't work very well.... I've seen it tried a few times, and it generally is not very effective,&#8221; he says. (( Unnamed senior Pentagon and administration officials )) [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/12.17B.penta.prop.htm | New York Times, 12/16/2002 ]] ------ The White House defends the program. &#8220;The president has the expectation that any program that is created in his administration will be based on facts, and that's what he would expect to be carried out in any program that is created in any entity of the government,&#8221; White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer says. [[ www.iht.com/articles/80665.html | New York Times, 12/17/2002 ]] ====== << propaganda >> ((+ Ari Fleischer )) ((+ Dennis C. Blair )) December 19, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_263 false 1 ------ A senior British security source suggests to the London Independent that US officials are &#8220;talking up&#8221; the evidence they say they have against Iraq. &#8220;We know [of] material which is unaccounted for,&#8221; says the source. &#8220;But we have not got a definite site, a grid reference, where we can say Saddam is hiding it. If the US administration does indeed have that kind of specifics, it has not been passed on to us. The main problem is known to us all. After all, it was Paul Wolfowitz the hawkish deputy US Defense Secretary who said, &#8216;Iraq isn't a country where we've had human intelligence for years.&#8217; &#8221; (( Unnamed senior source )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/1220-06.htm | Independent, 12/20/02 ]] ====== << deception >> December 19, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_261 false 1 ------ Secretary of State Colin Powell and US ambassador to the UN John Negroponte say that the Bush administration considers Iraq to be in &#8220;material breach&#8221; of UN Resolution 1441, citing deliberate omissions and falsehoods in Iraq's 12,000 page December 7 declaration (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_251 ]]). Powell calls the declaration &#8220;a catalogue of recycled information and flagrant omissions,&#8221; adding that it &#8220;totally fails to meet the resolution's requirements.&#8221; He says the omissions &#8220;constitute another material breach.&#8221; [[ http://montanaforum.com/rednews/2002/12/19/build/safety/q-violation.php?nnn=3 | Associated Press, 12/19/02 ]] [[ http://www.augustachronicle.com/stories/012503/ira_violation.shtml | Associated Press, 12/19/02b ]] [[ http://breakingnews.iol.ie/news/story.asp?j=57491698&amp;p=5749z4x4 | Ireland Online, 12/19/02 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A11467-2002Dec19.html | Washington Post, 12/19/02 ]] ------ But the administration's conclusion is made before the Arabic sections of the declaration have even been translated. Blix says that there are 500 or 600 pages that still need to be translated and that it is too early to provide a complete assessment. He adds that the Bush administration's statements about a &#8220;material breach&#8221; are baseless allegations. [[ http://www.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0212/19/bn.02.html | CNN, 12/19/02 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/straittimes122002.htm | The Strait Times, 12/20/02 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> << weaponsInspections >> ((+ John Negroponte )) ((+ Hans Blix )) ((+ Colin Powell )) {{ commentary_sunday_herald_2 }} December 19, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_262 false 1 ------ The non-permanent members of the UN Security Council receive the edited version of Iraq's December 7 declaration (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_251 ]]). Almost 8,500 pages of the original 12,000 supplied by Baghdad are removed or blacked out, including sections on the designs for the production of nuclear weapons, plans for converting short-range missiles into long-range rockets, and a list of foreign countries and companies that provided Iraq with the materials used in Iraq's former chemical, biological and nuclear weapons programs. The reason offered by UN Chief Weapons Inspector Hans Blix for removing the names of the suppliers is that if he &#8220;were to give the names publicly, then they would never get another foreign supplier to give them any information.&#8221; Some of the non-permanent members of the UN Security Council are upset by the extensive editing of the documents. &#8220;How are we to judge this on such short notice, and with so many black lines running through it?&#8221; asks one annoyed envoy. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/straittimes122002.htm | The Strait Times, 12/20/02 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A11467-2002Dec19.html | Washington Post, 12/19/02 ]] [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/30195 | Sunday Herald, 12/22/02 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/1213-02.htm | Newsday, 12/13/02 ]] [[ http://www.casi.org.uk/discuss/2002/msg02280.html | New York Times, 12/12/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Hans Blix )) {{ commentary_unnamed_source_in_new_york_2 }} December 19, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_87 false 1 ------ The State Department publishes a fact sheet titled, &#8220;Illustrative Examples of Omissions From the Iraqi Declaration to the United Nations Security Council,&#8221; which states that in its December 2003 declaration to the UN, Iraq &#8220;ignores [its] efforts to procure uranium from Niger.&#8221; [[ http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2002/16118.htm | US Department of State, 12/19/03 ]] [[ http://www.mail-archive.com/marxist-leninist-list@lists.econ.utah.edu/msg03645.html | Associated Press, 6/12/03 ]] [[ http://www.charleston.net/stories/071403/ter_14intel.shtml | Associated Press, 7/14/03 ]] ------ But at this time, there is no evidence that Iraq had in fact sought to obtain uranium from Niger. Prior to the fact sheet's publication, the CIA had warned the State Department about this and recommended that the phrase be removed&#8212;advice the State Department chose to ignore. (( Unnamed US Intelligence Officials )) [[ http://www.mail-archive.com/marxist-leninist-list@lists.econ.utah.edu/msg03645.html | Associated Press, 6/12/03 ]] ====== << deception >> << wmd >> << africaUraniumClaim >> {{ duplicate_illustrative_examples_of_omissions_from_the_iraqi_declaration_to_the_united_nations_security_council_2 }} December 20-21, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_398 false 1 ------ The Oil and Energy Working Group, one of 17 such groups working under the US State Department's &#8220;Future of Iraq&#8221; project (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_349 ]]), meets to discuss plans for the oil industry in a post-Saddam Iraq. People who are likely members of this group include Ahmed Chalabi of the Iraqi National Congress, Sharif Ali Bin al Hussein of the Iraqi National Congress; recently defected personnel from Iraq's Ministry of Petroleum; the former Iraqi head of military intelligence; Sheikh Yamani, the former Oil Minister of Saudi Arabia; and unnamed representatives from the US Energy Department. The responsibilities of this working group include: (1) developing plans for restoring the petroleum sector in order to increase oil exports to partially pay for a possible US military occupation government. (2) reconsidering Iraq's continued membership in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and &#8220;whether it should be allowed to produce as much as possible or be limited by an OPEC quota.&#8221; (3) &#8220;consider[ing] whether to honor contracts made between the Hussein government and foreign oil companies, including the US $3.5 billion project to be carried out by Russian interests to redevelop Iraq's oilfields.&#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/oilandgasinternational103002.htm | Oil and Gas International, 10/30/2002 ]] [[ http://www.observer.co.uk/international/story/0,6903,825103,00.html | Observer, 11/3/02 ]] [[ http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2002/16119.htm | US Department of State, 12/19/02 ]] ====== << preWarPlanning >> << motivesBehindWar >> ((+ Ahmed Chalabi )) ((+ Sheikh Yamani )) December 20, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_264 false 1 ------ UNMOVIC chief weapons inspector Hans Blix criticizes the US and British governments for failing to provide inspectors with the intelligence they need to locate Iraq's alleged arsenal of banned weapons. Blix states, &#8220;If the UK and the US are convinced and they say they have evidence, then one would expect they would be able to tell us where is this stuff.&#8221; When asked if he is receiving enough cooperation from Western intelligence agencies, he answers, &#8220;Not yet. We get some, but we don't get all we need.&#8221; In response, US and British intelligence claim they will provide UN inspectors with higher quality intelligence. One official tells the New York Times, &#8220;We are going to give them one piece of information at a time, given strategically at the right moment.&#8221; Another official explains that the reason for this is because, &#8220;Based on our historical experience with UNSCOM, they had a very difficult time keeping information from falling into Iraqi hands.&#8221; (( Unnamed administration officials )) [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/unmovic/2002/1221data.htm | New, York Times 12/21/2002 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/1221-07.htm | Independent, 12/21/02 ]] [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/middle_east/story.jsp?story=363679&amp;dir=75&amp;host=3 | Independent, 12/22/02 ]] ====== << wmd >> << deception >> << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Hans Blix )) December 22, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_265 false 1 ------ Iraq announces that it will permit UN inspectors to interview Iraqi scientists without government officials present. At a news conference in Baghdad, Amir al-Saadi, an adviser to Saddam, invites the US to send CIA agents into Iraq to lead inspectors to the alleged weapons sites. Gen. Amir Saadi says, &#8220;We do not even have any objection if the CIA sent somebody with the inspectors to show them the suspected sites.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A27239-2002Dec22.html | The Washington Post, 12/23/02 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/nbcnews122202.htm | NBC News, 12/22/02 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/12/23/international/middleeast/23INSP.html | New York Times, 12/23/02 ]] ------ The Bush administration dismisses Baghdad's offer as a &#8220;stunt.&#8221; [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,864913,00.html | Guardian, 12/23/02 ]] [[ http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2002-12-22-iraq-photos_x.htm | USA Today, 12/22/02 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A31456-2002Dec23?language=printer | Washington Post, 12/24/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Amir Hammudi al-Saadi )) December 24, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_266 false 1 ------ UN weapons inspectors interview Sabah Abdel-Nour, a British-trained specialist in materials technology who is working as a professor at Baghdad's University of Technology. He later tells reporters that he answered all of the inspectors' questions, had nothing to hide, and had no reason to leave the country. &#8220;I told them everything we know clearly and in detail ... I don't have anything to say outside the country more than what I said here.&#8221; It is the first publicly acknowledged interview with an Iraqi scientist. [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2002/12/25/international/middleeast/25BAGH.html | New York Times 12/25/02b ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Sabah Abdel-Nour )) December 28, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_268 false 1 ------ Iraq provides the United Nations with the names of more than 400 scientists who are involved in Iraq's weapons programs. One of the provisions of UN Security Council Resolution 1441 is that Iraq must supply the names of all of its weapons experts (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_228 ]]). [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2611809.stm | BBC, 12/28/02 ]] [[ http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/12/29/1040511258160.html | Agence France Press, 12/29/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> Late December, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_269 false 1 ------ Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld signs a directive, ordering the deployment of an additional 50,000 reinforcements to the gulf region. The order includes some 4,000 soldiers from the Third Infantry Division, who are specialists in desert warfare. Orders to deploy or prepare for deployment are also given to several naval ships and Air Force squadrons. [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/01/international/middleeast/01MILI.html | New York Times, 1/1/03 ]] [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-529849,00.html | Times, 1/2/03 ]] ------ Military &#8220;experts&#8221; tell the Guardian of London that given the amount of resources that have so far been allocated in preparation for invading Iraq, it is very unlikely that war can be avoided. An unnamed source from the neoconservative Project for a New American Century tells the newspaper, &#8220;It's very hard for a country to mobilize for war, and not to go for war without a very serious reason. If you signal to the world that you're serious, and you don't do anything, then you're saying you're not a serious country.&#8221; (( Unnamed source from the Project for a New American Century )) [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,866919,00.html | Guardian, 12/31/01 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) December 30, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_270 false 1 ------ The UN Security Council approves some of the US' and Britain's suggestions for tightening sanctions on Iraq. Among the items added to the list of banned and restricted goods are certain types of communications equipment, speed boats, heavy trucks, and antibiotics. The US, assisted by its British ally, argued that the items could be used for military purposes. Critics note that the restrictions would further harm Iraq's economy and its healthcare infrastructure. [[ http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,74183,00.html | Associated Press, 12/30/02 ]] [[ http://famulus.msnbc.com/FamulusIntl/ap01-02-003834.asp?reg=MIDEAST | MSNBC, 1/2/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> December 31, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_271 false 1 ------ United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan says in an interview with Israel's Army Radio that Saddam's government is cooperating with UN weapons inspectors and that he sees no reason for the use of force against Iraq. &#8220;Iraq is cooperating and they [inspectors] are able to do their work in an unimpeded manner and therefore I don't see an argument for a military action now,&#8221; the secretary-general says. &#8220;They may give an interim report before the [January] 27 [deadline] and I really do not see any basis for an action until then, particularly as they are able to carry out their work in an unimpeded manner.&#8221; The Independent of London call his remarks &#8220;a blunt warning to Britain and the United States that they will need clear evidence of clandestine weapons programs in Iraq to win support from other nations for any military campaign against Saddam Hussein this winter.&#8221; [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2617783.stm | BBC, 12/31/01 ]] [[ http://www.dw-world.de/english/0,3367,1429_W_736308,00.html | Deutsche Welle, 1/1/03 ]] [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/politics/story.jsp?story=365655&amp;dir=508&amp;host=3 | Independent, 1/1/03 ]] [[ http://www.nzherald.co.nz/storydisplay.cfm?storyID=3049546&amp;thesection=news&amp;thesubsection=world | New Zealand Herald, 1/1/03 ]] [[ http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/printstory.hts/world/1719829 | Reuters, 12/31/01 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Kofi Annan )) January 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_358 false 1 ------ The Office of Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance is created by the Pentagon to direct the post-war administration of Iraq. Its head, retired army general Jay Garner, reports to Gen. Tommy R. Franks of the US Central Command. The Office is later renamed the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA). David Kay, a senior fellow at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies and a former UN weapons inspector, had initially been selected to head the office, but he declined the invitation. Associates of Kay tell the New York Times that Kay felt the new agency seemed relatively uninterested in the task of promoting democracy. [[ http://www.drumbeat.mlaterz.net/Jan%20Feb%202003/US%20reviews%20plan%20to%20rebuild%20Iraq%20022203a.htm | New York Times, 2/23/03 ]] [[ http://mtpartymc.org/News%20Archives/iraqi_shadow_government_cools_it.htm | New York Times, 4/2/03 ]] ====== << preWarPlanning >> ((+ Jay Garner )) ((+ Thomas Franks )) ((+ David Kay )) Mid-February 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_321 false 1 ------ Washington considers a plan to convince dovish Security Council members of the need to use military force against Iraq. Unnamed administration officials tell the New York Times that Washington intends to test the willingness of Iraq to disarm by imposing new demands. Under the administration's plan, Iraq would be required to (1) permit overflights by American, European and Russian surveillance aircraft; (2) allow weapons inspectors to interview Iraqi scientists without the presence of government &#8220;minders&#8221; ; and (3) destroy all the equipment associated with its Al Samoud II missile program. At the same time these new demands are made, Washington would present a draft for a second resolution to the United Nations which would declare Iraq in violation of past UN resolutions and promise &#8220;serious consequences&#8221; if Iraq does not mend its ways. Then if Iraq fails to meet the new demands, the Bush administration hopes that Security Council doves would support the new resolution. (( Unnamed administration officials )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/nyt021603.htm | New York Times, 2/16/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> << legalJustification >> Early 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_3 false 1 ------ The US Defense Intelligence Agency [DIA] concludes early in 2003 that the intelligence being provided by dissidents supplied by the Iraqi National Congress is of little value. ------ The New York Times reports that an internal DIA study has found that &#8220;dissidents invented or exaggerated their credentials as people with direct knowledge of the Iraqi government and its suspected unconventional weapons program.&#8221; (( Unnamed US officials )) [[ http://www.globalexchange.org/countries/iraq/1101.html | New York Times, 9/29/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0930-06.htm | Independent, 9/30/03 ]] ------ Unnamed officials interviewed by the Times say the defectors have been considered by the Defense Intelligence Agency to be dubious sources from the start. It is believed that the dissidents' motivation for talking has been money and their opposition to Saddam Hussein. The Times' sources say &#8220;they would not speculate on whether the defectors had knowingly provided false information and, if so, what their motivation might have been.&#8221; (( Unnamed US officials )) [[ http://www.globalexchange.org/countries/iraq/1101.html | New York Times, 9/29/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0930-06.htm | Independent, 9/30/03 ]] ------ The document reveals that more than $1 million was paid to Chalabi's group for information about Saddam Hussein's alleged banned weapons programs. (( Unnamed US officials )) [[ http://www.globalexchange.org/countries/iraq/1101.html | New York Times, 9/29/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0930-06.htm | Independent, 9/30/03 ]] ====== << deception >> ((+ Ahmed Chalabi )) ((+ Iraqi National Congress (INC) )) Mid January 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_155 false 1 ------ The British Defense Intelligence Staff Agency (DIS) completes a classified study which concludes that Saddam Hussein and Bin Laden's earlier attempts to collaborate had &#8220;foundered&#8221; due to ideological differences. The report says: &#8220;While there have been contacts between al-Qaeda and the regime in the past, it is assessed that any fledgling relationship foundered due to mistrust and incompatible ideology.&#8221; Osama bin Laden's objectives, notes the report, are &#8220;in ideological conflict with present day Iraq.&#8221; The top secret report is sent to Prime Minister Tony Blair and other senior members of his government. (( Unnamed British Intelligence Staff document )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/independent020603.htm | Independent, 2/6/03 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/2727471.stm | BBC, 2/5/03 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((+ Tony Blair )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- Saddam Hussein )) {{ statement_unnamed_inside_source_3 }} Early January 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_669 false 1 ------ According to Bob Woodward's book, Plan of Attack, National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice visits George Bush's ranch in Crawford, Texas. Bush tells her: &#8220;We're not winning. Time is not on our side here. Probably going to have to, we're going to have to go to war.&#8221; [[ http://www.trivalleyherald.com/Stories/0,1413,86~10669~2090341,00.html | Woodward, 2004 cited in The Washington Post, 4/17/2004 ]] ------ When the contents of Woodward's book are reported in mid-April 2004, many people interpret Bush's statement as a decision to go to war. But Rice will deny that that was the case. &#8220;... I just want it to be understood: That was not a decision to go to war,&#8221; she will say. &#8220;The decision to go to war is in March. The president is saying in that conversation, I think the chances are that this is not going to work out any other way. We're going to have to go to war.&#8221; [[ http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/national/apwashington_story.asp?category=1152&amp;slug=Iraq%20Woodward%20Book | Woodward, 2004 cited in Associated Press, 4/17/2004 ]] ====== << decision >> ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) Mid-January 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_461 false 1 ------ In an interview with Time magazine, former US Secretary of Treasury Paul O'Neill says he never saw or heard of any real evidence that Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction. &#8220;In the 23 months I was there, I never saw anything that I would characterize as evidence of weapons of mass destruction,&#8221; he explains. &#8220;There were allegations and assertions by people.... But I've been around a hell of a long time, and I know the difference between evidence and assertions and illusions or allusions and conclusions that one could draw from a set of assumptions. To me there is a difference between real evidence and everything else. And I never saw anything in the intelligence that I would characterize as real evidence.&#8221; [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0111-01.htm | Time, 1/11/03 ]] ====== << deception >> << wmd >> ((+ Paul O?Neill )) Mid-December 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1105 false 1 ------ The existence of a June 2002 memo&#8212;revealing that intelligence from the INC was being sent directly to the offices of Dick Cheney and William Luti&#8212;is reported in the December 15 issue of Newsweek magazine, which also reports that Francis Brooke, a DC lobbyist for the INC, admits having supplied Cheney's office with information pertaining to Iraq's alleged arsenal of weapons of mass destruction and Saddam's supposed ties to terrorists. (( Francis Brooke )) (( Memo )) [[ http://msnbc.msn.com/id/3660169/ | Newsweek, 12/15/03 ]] ------ Furthermore, he acknowedges that the information provided by the INC was driven by an agenda. &#8220;I told them [the INC], as their campaign manager, &#8216;Go get me a terrorist and some WMD, because that's what the Bush administration is interested in.&#8217; &#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 230 ]] ------ Brooke had previously worked for the Rendon Group, &#8220;a shadowy CIA-connected public-relations firm.&#8221; [[ http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html | Mother Jones, 1/04 ]] ------ However, an unnamed Cheney aid interviewed by the same magazine flatly denies that his boss' office had received raw intelligence on Iraq. (( Unnamed staff aid of Dick Cheney's office )) [[ http://msnbc.msn.com/id/3660169/ | Newsweek, 12/15/03 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> << wmd >> << deception >> << officeOfSpecialPlans >> ((+ Dick Cheney )) ((+ Francis Brooke )) ((+ William Luti )) Mid-February 2003-March 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_340 false 1 ------ The Bush administration quietly sends US diplomats to meet with the top officials of several UN Security Council member states in an attempt to influence their vote on any future resolutions on Iraq. A US diplomat tells the Associated Press, &#8220;The order from the White House was to use &#8216;all diplomatic means necessary,&#8217; and that really means everything.&#8221; --- Mexico --- Undersecretary of State Marc Grossman and Kim Holmes, the assistant secretary of state for international organizations, are sent to Mexico City, where they encounter stiff resistance. The American diplomats reportedly warn Mexican officials, &#8220;Any country that doesn't go along with us will be paying a very heavy price.&#8221; Henry Kissinger also makes a trip to Mexico warning its officials that the Bush administration would be &#8220;very unhappy&#8221; if Mexico opposes the US at the UN. Towards the end of the month, US Ambassador Tony Garza says that Congress might attempt to punish Mexico economically if it fails to support the US position at the UN. (( Unnamed Mexican diplomat )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0224-01.htm | Associated Press, 2/24/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A19057-2003Feb28.html | The Washington Post, 3/1/03 ]] ------ A Mexican diplomat describes the pressure as &#8220;very intense&#8221; and adds that &#8220;the warnings are real&#8221; and having an impact on Mexican President Vincent Fox. Spanish Prime Minister Jose Maria Aznar also visits Mexico, but fails to get its support for a second resolution. (( Unnamed Mexican diplomat )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0224-01.htm | Associated Press, 2/24/03 ]] ------ Mexico proves to be one of the most difficult countries to win over to the US side because there is &#8220;little the Bush administration [can] use to scare or entice Mexico now since it does not receive US aid and the one thing it had wanted most&#8212;legalizing the status of undocumented Mexicans in the United States&#8212;was taken off the table more than one year ago.&#8221; Additionally, the Mexican congress, its news media, and 75% of the Mexican population are strongly opposed to an invasion of Iraq. Even more threatening to US hopes for a second resolution is a pact between Mexico and Chile. The two governments agreed that each will abstain if the US, Britain, France, Russia and China fail to come to an agreement. Commenting on the deal, a Chilean diplomat tells the Associated Press, &#8220;We're just not going to be used or bought off by either side.&#8221; But James R. Jones, a former US ambassador to Mexico, predicts that Fox will likely capitulate to Mexican business interests, which are dependent on a close relationship with the US. &#8220;If Mexico is not going to be good neighbors politically, it's going to hurt them economically,&#8221; he says. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0224-01.htm | Associated Press, 2/24/03 ]] [[ http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2003-02-26-us-mexico-iraq_x.htm | Associated Press, 2/26/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A19057-2003Feb28.html | The Washington Post, 3/1/03 ]] --- Angola, Guinea and Cameroon --- On February 24, US Assistant Secretary of State Walter Kansteiner meets with Angola's President Jose Eduardo dos Santos in Luanda. Speaking of Angola's relationship with the US, Angolan Ambassador Ismael Gaspar Martins tells the Associated Press, &#8220;For a long time now, we have been asking for help to rebuild our country after years of war,&#8221; and adds, &#8220;No one is tying the request to support on Iraq but it is all happening at the same time.&#8221; A US diplomat tells the news service, &#8220;In Africa, the message is simple: time is running out and we think they should support us.&#8221; [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0224-01.htm | Associated Press, 2/24/03 ]] ------ A major issue for Guinea and Cameroon is the Africa Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA), which gives African exporters preferential access to American markets. The act stipulates that beneficiaries must not &#8220;engage in activities that undermine US national security or foreign policy interests.&#8221; Angola is not currently eligible for the benefits provided under AGOA because of political corruption and its poor human rights record. But the US is considering overlooking these abuses in exchange for supporting its policy on Iraq. [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-603357,00.html | Times, 3/8/03 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ Marc Grossman )) ((+ Kim Holmes )) ((+ Jose Maria Aznar )) ((+ Walter Kansteiner )) ((+ Henry A. Kissinger )) ((+ Jose Eduardo dos Santos )) ((+ James R. Jones )) January 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_354 false 1 ------ President George W. Bush meets with Iraqi exiles. According to a former senior White House official, after the meeting, Bush decides that the exiles will not be put in power in post-Saddam Iraq. &#8220;The future of this country ... is not going to be charted by people who sat out the sonofabitch (Saddam) in London or Cambridge, Massachusetts,&#8221; Bush is said to have stated. This effectively kills the Pentagon's plan to create an Iraqi-government-in-exile which was to include the Ahmed Chalabi, the president of the Iraqi National Congress (INC). [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0712-05.htm | Knight Ridder, 7/12/03 ]] ====== << preWarPlanning >> ((+ George W. Bush )) ((- Ahmed Chalabi )) January 2003-March 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_316 false 1 ------ Officials in the Bush administration debate whether or not they will seek a second UN resolution prior to invading Iraq. The debate centers on the issue of whether or not France and &#8220;other reluctant allies&#8221; will give in to US demands. The New York Times reports on January 17 that officials plan &#8220;to confront France, Germany and other skeptics of military action against Iraq by demanding that they agree publicly that Iraq had defied the United Nations Security Council.&#8221; Some officials believe that these nations can eventually be won over using a variety of incentives, including promises of contracts in post-Saddam Iraq. Other officials, however, believe that France will never submit to the US request, and are of the opinion that the US should &#8220;not bother to seek a second resolution condemning Iraq and authorizing the use of force.&#8221; (( Unnamed Bush administration officials )) [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/23/international/middleeast/23IRAQ.html | New York Times, 1/23/03 ]] ------ Though the existence of this debate is a matter of the public record by mid-January, what is not known at this time is that some of those involved are probably obtaining their information from a &#8220;dirty-tricks&#8221; surveillance campaign that the intelligence services of the US, Britain, and possibly Australian, are conducting on the UN delegates of other UN Security Council members states (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_334 ]]). ====== << US-BritishSpyingOnUN >> << legalJustification >> January 2003-March 17, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_27 false 1 ------ The CIA provides Centcom with intelligence for the purpose of planning targets in Iraq. But Centcom sources later tell Newsweek the intelligence was extremely poor. ------ It &#8220;was crap,&#8221; a Centcom planner later tells Newsweek. Another source tells the magazine that the sites the agency suggests for targeting are for the most part the same ones that were bombed during the First Gulf War. While the CIA has satellite photos of the buildings to be targeted, it turns out they know little about them. &#8220;What was inside the structures was another matter,&#8221; says the source. &#8220;We asked, &#8216;Well, what agents are in these buildings? Because we need to know.&#8217; And the answer was, &#8216;We don't know.&#8217; &#8221; (( Unnamed Centcom planner )) [[ http://www.mayanmajix.com/art099.html | Newsweek, 6/9/03 ]] ====== << deception >> {{ duplicate_unnamed_centcom_military_strategist/planner_2 }} After mid-April 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_32 false 1 ------ After it becomes apparent that there are no weapons of mass destruction in Iraq that could have posed a serious threat to the United States or Britain, people close to the administration begin to acknowledge, through direct and indirect statements, that there were other reasons for invading Iraq, which were not disclosed to the public before the invasion. ------ For example, ABC News reports on April 25, 2003 that &#8220;officials .. privately acknowledge the White House had another reason for war&#8212;a global show of American power and democracy.&#8221; According to one official interviewed by ABC, the weapons of mass destruction argument was used for the sole purpose of obtaining legal justification for war from the United Nations and securing support from the American public. The primary reason for the invasion, according to the officials, was that it was believed that the Middle East would produce more terrorists if the US did nothing. Their theory was that &#8220;young Arabs, angry about their lives and without hope, would always [be] looking for someone to hate&#8212;and that someone would always be Israel and the United States.&#8221; According to these ideologues, only regime change and the imposition of a western-styled, pro-Israeli and pro-US government would provide a solution. (( Unnamed US official )) [[ http://abcnews.go.com/sections/nightline/US/globalshow_030425.html | ABC News, 4/25/03 ]] ====== << motivesBehindWar >> << deception >> {{ statement_paul_wolfowitz_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_bush_administration_officials_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_senior_official_in_dick_cheney_s_office_2 }} {{ statement_ahmed_chalabi_3 }} January 2, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_272 false 1 ------ UN inspection teams have so far completed 237 visits to suspected weapons sites since the inspections began 5 weeks ago. Lt. Gen. Hussam Muhammad Amin, the chief Iraqi liaison to the UN inspectors, says: &#8220;The inspectors did not find any prohibited activities nor any prohibited items in those 230 sites visited up until now. .. All those activities proved that the Iraqi declarations are credible and the American allegations and claims are baseless.... The American administration is trying to create some pretexts to attack Iraq, to exercise their aggression against Iraq.&#8221; [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/03/international/middleeast/03INSP.html | New York Times, 1/3/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A2174-2003Jan2?language=printer | The Washington Post, 1/2/03 ]] [[ http://famulus.msnbc.com/FamulusIntl/ap01-02-003834.asp?reg=MIDEAST | MSNBC, 1/2/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Hussam Mohammad Amin )) January 3, 2003-January 6, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1841 false 1 ------ A poll conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates among 1,204 adults indicates widespread misperception regarding Iraq. The poll finds that almost 25 percent believe the Bush administration has &#8220;publicly released evidence tying Iraq to the planning and funding of the September 11 attacks, and more than 1 in 3 respondents didn't know or refused to answer.&#8221; [[ http://www.realcities.com/mld/krwashington/4920860.htm | Knight Ridder, 1/12/2003 ]] ------ 44 percent of those polled believe that &#8220;most&#8221; or &#8220;some&#8221; of the September 11 terrorist hijackers were Iraqi citizens and only 17 percent know that none of the hijackers were Iraqis. [[ http://www.editorandpublisher.com/eandp/news/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1848576 | Editor and Publisher, 3/26/2003 ]] ------ The margin of error is estimated to be 3 percent. [[ http://www.realcities.com/mld/krwashington/4920860.htm | Knight Ridder, 1/12/2003 ]] ====== << publicOpinion >> January 6, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_273 false 1 ------ Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency Mohamed ElBaradei says that his inspections teams have yet to find a &#8220;smoking gun.&#8221; &#8220;I think we need still a few months before we can reach that conclusion,&#8221; he says. &#8220;We haven't seen a smoking gun, but we still have a lot of work to do before we come to the conclusion that Iraq is clean.&#8221; [[ http://apnews.excite.com/article/20030107/D7OD235G0.html | Associated Press, 1/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/01/06/sproject.irq.inspections/index.html | CNN, 1/6/03 ]] [[ http://www.dailytelegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/01/08/nirq108.xml&amp;sSheet=/news/2003/01/08/ixnewstop.html | Telegraph, 1/8/03 ]] [[ http://www.thestar.com/NASApp/cs/ContentServer?pagename=thestar/Layout/Article_Type1&amp;c=Article&amp;cid=1035776355159&amp;call_pageid=968332188492&amp;col=968793972154 | Toronto Star, 1/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.thescotsman.co.uk/index.cfm?id=18262003 | Scotsman, 1/7/03 ]] ------ Melissa Fleming, an IAEA spokeswoman, adds that it is &#8220;too early to draw sweeping or final conclusions.&#8221; She also says that laboratory tests of air and earth samples have also provided inspectors with &#8220;nothing significant&#8221; that would lead them &#8220;to draw conclusions that they have been building a nuclear program.&#8221; [[ http://apnews.excite.com/article/20030107/D7OD235G0.html | Associated Press, 1/7/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Mohamed ElBaradei )) ((+ Melissa Fleming )) January 7, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_274 false 1 ------ Developing nations, led by South Africa, demand that the UN weapons inspectors' January 27 report be presented in public rather than during a closed-door meeting. In a letter to the UN Security Council, South Africa's ambassador Dumisani Kumalo says that the entire UN membership would benefit from &#8220;receiving a first-hand account of this important report.&#8221; [[ http://www.paksearch.com/br2003/Jan/8/Developing%20nations%20want%20open%20UN.htm | Reuters, 1/7/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Dumisani Kumalo )) January 7, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_126 false 1 ------ At a press briefing, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld says, &#8220;There is no doubt in my mind but that they currently have chemical and biological weapons.&#8221; [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/uslatest/story/0,1282,-2302299,00.html | AP, 1/7/03b ]] ====== << ChemicalBiologicalQuotes >> ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) {{ duplicate_donald_rumsfeld_7 }} January 8, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_275 false 1 ------ Britain urges the Bush administration to hold off its planned invasion of Iraq. A senior Whitehall source tells the Telegraph of London, &#8220;The Prime Minister has made it clear that, unless there is a smoking gun, the inspectors have to be given time to keep searching.&#8221; Britain's softening on its position towards Iraq is attributed to the acknowledgement among its ministers and senior officials that there is no legal case for using military action against Iraq. (( Unnamed senior Whitehall source )) [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/01/09/nirq09.xml/ | Telegraph, 1/9/03 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ Tony Blair )) January 9, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_50 false 1 ------ The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) submits a preliminary report to the UN Security Council on the results of the inspections so far. The report says: &#8220;To date, no new information of significance has emerged regarding Iraq's past nuclear program (pre-1991) or with regard to Iraq activities during the period between 1991 and 1998.... [N]o evidence of ongoing prohibited nuclear or nuclear-related activities has been detected, although not all of the laboratory results of sample analysis are yet available.&#8221; (( International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) preliminary report to the UN Security Council )) [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/10/international/middleeast/10ALUM.html | New York Times, 1/10/03 ]] [[ http://abcnews.go.com/wire/World/reuters20030109_360.html | Reuters, 1/9/03 ]] [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/politics/story.jsp?story=367938 | Independent, 1/10/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,871980,00.html | Guardian, 1/10/03 ]] ------ It also states that Washington's claim that the tubes were meant for a centrifuge is highly unlikely. In one section of the report, its authors write: &#8220;While the matter is still under investigation and further verification is foreseen, the IAEA's analysis to date indicates that the specifications of the aluminum tubes sought by Iraq in 2001 and 2002 appear to be consistent with reverse engineering of rockets. While it would be possible to modify such tubes for the manufacture of centrifuges, they are not directly suitable for it.&#8221; (( International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) preliminary report to the UN Security Council )) [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/10/international/middleeast/10ALUM.html | New York Times, 1/10/03 ]] [[ http://abcnews.go.com/wire/World/reuters20030109_360.html | Reuters, 1/9/03 ]] [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/politics/story.jsp?story=367938 | Independent, 1/10/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,871980,00.html | Guardian, 1/10/03 ]] ------ The IAEA preliminary conclusion on the tubes stems from a visit by inspectors to a metal fabrication factory in Nasser where they had found 13,000 completed rockets, all produced from 7075-T6 aluminum tubes. Iraqi engineers working at the facility explained that they had been seeking more aluminum tubes at the time US authorities intercepted the July 2001 shipment (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_41 ]]) because their supply was low. The engineers provided additional information which supported the view that the tubes were not meant for use in a gas centrifuge. They told the inspectors that the rigid specifications for the tubes were intended to improve the rocket's accuracy without requiring any major changes to the design. Documents reviewed by the inspectors confirmed the Iraqi engineers' account. It was also explained that the tubes, which were stored outside, were anodized so they would not corrode. Inspectors confirmed this also. [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> << wmd >> << weaponsInspections >> {{ duplicate_international_atomic_energy_agency_(iaea)_preliminary_report_to_the_un_security_council_3 }} {{ duplicate_international_atomic_energy_agency_(iaea)_preliminary_report_to_the_un_security_council_4 }} {{ duplicate_international_atomic_energy_agency_(iaea)_preliminary_report_to_the_un_security_council_2 }} January 9, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_276 false 1 ------ UNMOVIC inspectors say they have yet to uncover evidence indicating that Iraq has resumed its production of weapons of mass destruction. After providing the UN Security Council with a summary of the inspectors' findings, Hans Blix tells reporters in New York, &#8220;We have now been there for some two months and been covering the country in ever wider sweeps and we haven't found any smoking guns.&#8221; [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,871980,00.html | Guardian, 1/10/03 ]] ------ But Ari Fleischer, the White House press secretary, insists that the absence of evidence is of little concern, asserting, &#8220;The problem with guns that are hidden is you can't see their smoke. We know for a fact that there are weapons there.&#8221; And John Negroponte, the US ambassador to the UN, accuses Iraq of &#8220;legalistic&#8221; cooperation, claiming that it needs to act proactively. He also says, &#8220;There is still no evidence that Iraq has fundamentally changed its approach from one of deceit to a genuine attempt to be forthcoming.&#8221; [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,871980,00.html | Guardian, 1/10/03 ]] ------ Colin Powell also seems undaunted by Blix's remarks. &#8220;The lack of a smoking gun does not mean that there's not one there,&#8221; he says, &#8220;If the international community sees that Saddam Hussein is not cooperating in a way that would not allow you to determine the truth of the matter, then he is in violation of the UN resolution [1441]...You don't really have to have a smoking gun.&#8221; [[ http://www.news24.com/News24/World/0,1113,2-10_1305655,00.html | News24, 1/10/03 ]] ------ Sir Jeremy Greenstock, the British ambassador to the UN, echoes views from Washington, asserting that the &#8220;passive cooperation of Iraq has been good in terms of access and other procedural issues,&#8221; and adds, &#8220;But proactive cooperation has not been forthcoming&#8212;the kind of cooperation needed to clear up the remaining questions in the inspectors' minds.&#8221; [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,871980,00.html | Guardian, 1/10/03 ]] ====== << wmd >> << wmdQuotesGeneral >> << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Colin Powell )) ((+ Jeremy Greenstock )) ((+ Ari Fleischer )) ((+ John Negroponte )) ((+ Hans Blix )) January 9, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_480 false 1 ------ US officials and advisors reject British suggestions&#8212;revealed the previous day&#8212;that the war be put off (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_275 ]]). Richard Perle, chairman of the Defense Policy Board, says that the Bush administration is under no obligation to abandon its war plans on account of opposition from the UN Security Council. He says, &#8220;I'm assuming that we will not get a consensus on the Security Council but it may be possible to get it.... It would be a great mistake to become dependent on it and take the view that we can't act separately.... That would be an abrogation of the President's responsibility.... If there's no change in Saddam's attitude I think there'll be a reluctance to continue this without a clear indication that our patience will be rewarded by a UN Security Council consensus.... A consensus would be a useful thing and I think we'd be willing to wait a little longer to get it but not a long time.... We might be acting without a resolution from the UN authorizing it but I think the administration can make a strong case that Saddam's defiance of a variety of resolutions passed previously could be understood to justify military action.&#8221; [[ http://news.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/01/10/wirq110.xml | Telegraph, 1/10/03 ]] ------ And John Negroponte, the American Ambassador to the UN, also dismisses widespread objections to US aggression, asserting that any instances of Iraqi non-cooperation will &#8220;constitute further material breach,&#8221; regardless of what the UN ultimately decides. [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-538437,00.html | The Times, 1/10/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A35529-2003Jan9.html | Washington Post, 1/10/03 ]] [[ http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?click_id=3&amp;art_id=vn20030110054033847C469950&amp;set_id=1 | Reuters, 1/10/03 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ Richard Perle )) ((+ John Negroponte )) January 9, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_414 false 1 ------ A UN report, titled, World Economic Situation and Prospects 2003, observes that tensions over an imminent war in the Middle East are &#8220;having a negative impact on global economic growth through the higher price of oil, rising economic uncertainty and the decrease in business and consumer confidence that they have generated,&#8221; and that therefore &#8220;an escalation of conflict in that area would only have damaging effects.&#8221; The report notes that despite the two-year economic slowdown, &#8220;stock prices remain[ed] high relative to traditional benchmarks,&#8221; suggesting that continued stagnation in the major equity markets could &#8220;send the global economy into a tailspin.&#8221; [[ http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=5831&amp;Cr=world&amp;Cr1=economy | UN, 1/9/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A36633-2003Jan10?language=printer | Associated Press 1/10/03 ]] ====== << predictions >> January 9, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_132 false 1 ------ White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer asserts during his daily press briefing, &#8220;We know for a fact that there are weapons there.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/01/20030109-8.html | White House, 1/9/2003 ]] ====== << wmdQuotesGeneral >> ((+ Ari Fleischer )) {{ duplicate_ari_fleischer_3 }} January 11, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_51 false 1 ------ Mohamed ElBaradei, director-general of the UN's International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), tells reporters during a press conference: &#8220;I think it's difficult for Iraq to hide a complete nuclear-weapons program. They might be hiding some computer studies or R. and D. on one single centrifuge. These are not enough to make weapons. There were reports from different member states that Iraq was importing aluminum tubes for enrichment, that they were importing uranium from Africa. Our provisional conclusion is that these tubes were for rockets and not for centrifuges. They deny they have imported any uranium since 1991.&#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/time011203.htm | Time, 1/12/02 ]] ====== << wmd >> << aluminumTubes >> ((+ Mohamed ElBaradei )) {{ duplicate_mohamed_elbaradei_3 }} January 11, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_25 false 1 ------ Following press reports that the Bush administration has begun supplying inspectors with intelligence, director-general of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Mohamed ElBaradei tells reporters that the inspection teams need &#8220;more actionable information&#8221; and that the US is still refusing to provide &#8220;specific intelligence about where to go and where to inspect.&#8221; He adds that &#8220;the inspections process will intensify to allow the inspections to speedup&#8221; if the Bush administration cooperates with inspectors. He also suggests that he does not think Iraq has a nuclear weapons program. He says: &#8220;I think it's difficult for Iraq to hide a complete nuclear-weapons program. They might be hiding some computer studies or R. and D. on one single centrifuge. These are not enough to make weapons.&#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/time011203.htm | Time, 1/12/03 ]] [[ http://canada.com/national/story.asp?id=2725267E-8B53-410A-B93A-9B5666E0BBD1 | Montreal Gazette, 1/11/03 ]] [[ http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/01/11/1041990138358.html | Sun-Herald, 1/12/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A40285-2003Jan10.html | The Washington Post, 1/12/03 ]] ------ Richard A. Boucher, a spokesperson for the State Department, contests ElBaradei's contention that inspectors have been given little to go on, saying, &#8220;I can certainly say that they're getting the best we've got, and that we are sharing information with the inspectors that they can use, and based on their ability to use it.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A40285-2003Jan10.html | The Washington Post, 1/12/03 ]] ====== << wmd >> << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Richard A. Boucher )) ((+ Mohamed ElBaradei )) {{ duplicate_richard_a._boucher_2 }} {{ excerpt_mohamed_elbaradei_2 }} January 13, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_277 false 1 ------ Both Hans Blix and Mohamed ElBaradei say they need several more months before they can determine whether or not Saddam Hussein still has an illegal weapons program. ElBaradei says the inspectors &#8220;still need a few months to achieve our mission,&#8221; but adds that Baghdad must supply more documents to verify its claim that Iraq no longer is developing weapons of mass destruction. ElBaradei also hints at his concern that the US might end the inspections by invading the country. He says, &#8220;It could be that one day they will say, &#8216;Move aside boys, we are coming in.&#8217; &#8221; [[ http://www.austin360.com/aas/news/ap/ap_story.html/Intl/AP.V1942.AP-UN-Iraq-Inspect.html | Associated Press, 11/13/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Hans Blix )) ((+ Mohamed ElBaradei )) January 13, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_668 false 1 ------ US President George Bush and Secretary of State Colin Powell meet alone in the Oval Office for twelve minutes. According to Woodward's book, Plan of Attack, Bush says, &#8220;The inspections are not getting us there.... I really think I'm going to have to do this,&#8221; adding that he was firm in his decision. Powell responds, &#8220;You're sure? ... You understand the consequences.... You know that you're going to be owning this place?&#8221; Bush indicates that he understands the implications and asks, &#8220;Are you with me on this? ... I think I have to do this. I want you with me.&#8221; Powell responds: &#8220;I'll do the best I can. ... Yes, sir, I will support you. I'm with you, Mr. President.&#8221; Woodward will also say in his book that Bush had never&#8212;ever&#8212;asked his Secretary of State for his advice on the matter of Iraq. &#8220;In all the discussions, meetings, chats and back-and-forth, in Powell's grueling duels with Rumsfeld and Defense, the president had never once asked Powell, Would you do this? What's your overall advice? The bottom line?&#8221; Woodward will write. (( Top officials interviewed by Washington Post editor Bob Woodward )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A19691-2004Apr17?language=printer | Woodward, 2004 cited in Washington Post 4/18/2004 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2004/04/17/international/middleeast/17BOOK.html | Woodward, 2004 cited in New York Times, 4/17/2004 ]] ====== << decision >> ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ Colin Powell )) January 14, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_279 false 1 ------ UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan expresses optimism that the Iraq conflict could be resolved peacefully. In stark contrast to Bush's statements, Annan says that Saddam's level of cooperation has improved since the UNSCOM inspections of the late nineties and therefore there is reason to hope that war can be avoided. He also states very clearly that it is premature to discuss whether or not the use of military force will be needed. &#8220;I am both optimistic and hopeful that if we handle the situation right, and the pressure on the Iraqi leadership is maintained and the inspectors continue to work as aggressively as they are doing, we may be able to disarm Iraq peacefully,&#8221; he says. [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/15/international/middleeast/15NATI.html | New York Times, 1/15/03a ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A57078-2003Jan14.html | Washington Post, 1/15/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Kofi Annan )) January 14, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_281 false 1 ------ A disagreement arises among UN Security Council members over the weapons inspections schedule. UN Resolution 1441 specifies that after 60 days, the inspectors must report to the Council on the progress of inspections. But the resolution provides no instructions for how the inspections are to proceed after this date. The resolution also fails to explain what is to happen if no weapons of mass destruction are found. Hans Blix believes that after the 60 day report&#8212;due January 27&#8212;his team should revert to the terms contained within 1999 UN Resolution 1284. According to the provisions of this agreement, an additional report would be due in late March, which would contain a list of disarmament requirements that Iraq would have to satisfy prior to the lifting of sanctions. &#8220;The 1999 resolution spells out steps, which, in theory, could lead to a suspension of sanctions as early as July,&#8221; reports Reuters. Bush administration officials strongly disagree with Hans Blix's approach, fearing that it would subvert US plans to provoke a military confrontation with Iraq. The Washington Post reports, &#8220;[Blix's] plan risks undermining the administration's strategy to ratchet up the pressure for a decision on whether to go to war later this month and it raises the prospect that Security Council members, including some US allies, would use it as an excuse to put off a decision until March, at the earliest.&#8221; Other countries&#8212;including France, Britain, Russia, France, China and Syria&#8212;see no problem with the timetable being advocated by Hans Blix. &#8220;The Council's resolutions shouldn't be flouted, they should be respected,&#8221; says Fayssal Mekdad, Syria's deputy UN ambassador. (( UN Resolution 1284 )) [[ http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/01/15/1042520672187.html | Sydney Morning Herald, 1/16/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A63336-2003Jan15.html | Washington Post, 1/16/03 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/nyt011603.htm | New York Times, 1/16/03 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/reuters011603.htm | Reuters, 1/16/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Hans Blix )) ((+ Fayssal Mekdad )) {{ commentary_unnamed_administration_official_3 }} January 14,2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_280 false 1 ------ British Foreign Minister Jack Straw tells the BBC that prior to using force against Iraq, there should be a second Security Council resolution. He also says that there should be &#8220;a substantive vote in the House of Commons before action takes place.&#8221; [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/15/international/middleeast/15PREX.html | New York Times, 1/15/03b ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Jack Straw )) January 14, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_278 false 1 ------ Before his meeting with Polish President Alexander Kwasniewski, Bush tells reporters that he does not support an extension for the inspections. &#8220;I am sick and tired of games and deception, and that is my view on timetables,&#8221; he says. &#8220;The United Nations has spoken with one voice. He's been given 11 years to disarm, and we have given him one last chance.&#8221; [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/15/international/middleeast/15PREX.html | New York Times, 1/15/03b ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A57078-2003Jan14.html | Washington Post, 1/15/03 ]] [[ http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/01/15/1042520672187.html | Sydney Morning Herald, 1/16/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ George W. Bush )) January 15, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_282 false 1 ------ US National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice flies to New York City to meet with Hans Blix. She attempts to discourage him from his plans to revert to the provisions of UN Resolution 1284 after his January 27 report to the UN Security Council&#8212;the last update required by UN Resolution 1441. She also attempts to persuade him to press ahead with plans to aggressively interview Iraqi scientists. [[ http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/01/15/1042520672187.html | Sydney Morning Herald, 1/16/03 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/nyt011603.htm | New York Times, 1/16/03 ]] ------ At a Council luncheon, US ambassador to the UN John Negroponte attempts to convince delegates of the other member states that the inspections timetable should not be based on the 1999 resolution. But they disagree, seeing no reason to ignore the process outlined in Resolution 1284. A few days later, the London Observer reports, &#8220;US officials have made it clear that they will try to foil further reports and say that an accumulation of evidence of military activity in Iraq will be enough for Saddam to be in material breach of the orders to Saddam to disarm.&#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/nyt011603b.htm | Reuters, 1/16/03b ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/17/international/middleeast/17IRAQ.html | New York Times, 1/17/03 ]] [[ http://www.observer.co.uk/iraq/story/0,12239,877819,00.html | Observer, 1/19/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ John Negroponte )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((+ Hans Blix )) January 16, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_314 false 1 ------ Conducting its first raid of a private home, that of Faleh Hassan, a specialist in laser equipment who was once associated with Iraq's nuclear program, UN inspectors discover 3,000 documents containing information that some initial reports say is related to Iraq's former nuclear weapons program. [[ http://observer.guardian.co.uk/iraq/story/0,12239,877713,00.html | Observer, 1/20/03 ]] [[ http://www.dailytelegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/01/19/wirq19.xml | Telegraph, 1/18/03 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/2673023.stm | BBC, 1/19/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A11547-2003Jan18.html | Associated Press, 1/18/03 ]] [[ http://www.un.org/News/dh/iraq/elbaradei27jan03.htm | IAEA, 1/27/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/28/international/middleeast/28INTE.html | New York Times, 1/28/03 ]] ------ Mohamed ElBaradei, director-general of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), is bothered by the discovery, saying, &#8220;We haven't received these original documents before and that's precisely the point we have been emphasizing, Iraq should be pro-active. We shouldn't have to find these on our own. Why should these documents be in a private home? Why are they not giving them to us?&#8221; [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/20/international/middleeast/20IRAQ.html | New York Times, 1/20/03 ]] [[ http://www.thedailystar.net/dailystarnews/200301/20/n3012013.htm | Agence France Presse, 1/20/03 ]] ------ But Hassan denies that the documents are related to Iraq's former nuclear weapons program. He later explains to reporters: &#8220;The inspectors put their hands on personal documents which have nothing to do with the former [nuclear] program. We did research on laser isotopic separation, and in 1988 we reached the conclusion that this technology was very difficult given our infrastructure, so the decision was taken to abandon that approach.&#8221; He adds that he is ready to go through the documents with ElBaradei, &#8220;page by page, line by line and even word by word to prove that everything they found is in alignment with what we declared in 1991.&#8221; [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2673023.stm | BBC, 1/19/03 ]] [[ http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2003-01-18-iraq-papers_x.htm | Associated Press, 1/18/03 ]] ------ After the discovery of the documents, Hassan accompanies inspectors to a field where they inspect what appears to be a man-made mound. The field is part of a farm Hassan sold in 1996. While at the farm, a female American inspector offers to arrange a trip outside of Iraq for him and his wife, so his wife can undergo treatment for kidney stones, diabetes and high blood pressure. The Iraqi scientist is angered by the offer and later refers to the woman's tactics as &#8220;mafia-like behavior.&#8221; Recalling the incident he will also tell reporters, &#8220;We would rather live as beggars in our country than live as kings abroad,&#8221; also saying, &#8220;Never, never will I leave my country.&#8221; [[ http://observer.guardian.co.uk/iraq/story/0,12239,877713,00.html | Observer, 1/20/03 ]] [[ http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2003-01-18-iraq-papers_x.htm | Associated Press, 1/18/03 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/2672825.stm | BBC, 1/18/03 ]] ------ Hassan then goes with inspectors to a hotel in Baghdad where he spends most of the night arguing over whether he will be permitted to keep copies of the documents. [[ http://observer.guardian.co.uk/iraq/story/0,12239,877713,00.html | Observer, 1/20/03 ]] ------ Three weeks later in the inspectors' February 14 update to the UN Security Council (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_320 ]]), ElBaradei will say: &#8220;While the documents have provided some additional details about Iraq's laser enrichment development efforts, they refer to activities or sites already known to the IAEA and appear to be the personal files of the scientist in whose home they were found. Nothing contained in the documents alters the conclusions previously drawn by the IAEA concerning the extent of Iraq's laser enrichment program.&#8221; [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,896137,00.html | Guardian, 2/15/03b ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/middle_east/2761261.stm | BBC, 2/17/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Mohamed ElBaradei )) ((+ Faleh Hassan )) January 16, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_283 false 1 ------ State Department spokesman Richard Boucher warns that Washington will not wait for the inspections to end before taking military action. Boucher states, &#8220;There's no point in continuing forever, going on, if Iraq is not cooperating.&#8221; [[ http://abcnews.go.com/wire/Politics/ap20030116_1897.html | Associated Press, 1/16/03 ]] [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/01/19/wirq219.xml | Telegraph, 1/19/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Richard A. Boucher )) January 16, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_284 false 1 ------ UN weapons inspectors discover a cache of 12 warheads designed to carry chemical warfare agents in the Ukhaider Ammunition Storage Area located about 80 miles [120km] south of Baghdad. News of the discovery is announced immediately. According to officials, the warheads were not included in Iraq's December 7 declaration to the UN (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_251 ]]). [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A1307-2003Jan16?language=printer | Washington Post, 1/16/03 ]] [[ http://www.stuff.co.nz/stuff/0,2106,2198276a12,00.html | Reuters, 1/17/03 ]] [[ http://www.nzherald.co.nz/latestnewsstory.cfm?storyID=3051855&amp;thesection=news&amp;thesubsection=world | Reuters, 1/17/03b ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/17/international/middleeast/17IRAQ.html | New York Times, 1/17/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/18/international/middleeast/18IRAQ.html | New York Times, 1/18/03 ]] [[ http://www.hindustantimes.com/news/181_141046,0005.htm | Press Trust of India, 1/18/03 ]] ------ The warheads&#8212;meant for 120 mm rockets with a range of 11-22 miles&#8212;are in perfect condition. Though they seem to be configured for Sarin gas, they are empty and have no trace of chemical weapons. [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/17/international/middleeast/17IRAQ.html | New York Times, 1/17/03 ]] [[ http://www.globalsecurity.org/org/news/2003/030118-iraq04.htm | Newsday, 1/18/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A1307-2003Jan16?language=printer | Washington Post, 1/16/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A15557-2003Jan19.html | Washington Post, 1/20/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/31/international/middleeast/31BLIX.html | New York Times, 1/31/2003 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/01/29/sprj.irq.un.rockets.reut/ | Reuters, 1/29/03 ]] [[ http://www.stuff.co.nz/stuff/0,2106,2198276a12,00.html | Reuters, 1/17/03 ]] [[ http://www.nzherald.co.nz/latestnewsstory.cfm?storyID=3051855&amp;thesection=news&amp;thesubsection=world | Reuters, 1/17/03b ]] ------ Iraqi officials call their failure to include information about this cache in Iraq's December 7 declaration an oversight and promise to check if they have any other old warheads in storage. General Hussam Mohammed Amin, head of Iraq's weapons-monitoring directorate and the chief liaison to UN inspectors, says the warheads were imported in 1986 and therefore are too old to be of any use. &#8220;These are 122 mm rockets with an empty warhead. There are no chemical or biological agents or weapons of mass destruction,&#8221; he explains. &#8220;These rockets are expired ... they were in closed wooden boxes ... that we had forgotten about,&#8221; he adds. &#8220;It doesn't represent anything. It's not dangerous.&#8221; He refers to the discovery as a mere &#8220;storm in a teacup.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A1307-2003Jan16?language=printer | Washington Post, 1/16/03 ]] [[ http://abcnews.go.com/wire/World/ap20030119_1308.html | Associated Press, 1/19/02 ]] [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/politics/story.jsp?story=370977 | Independent 1/20/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/19/international/middleeast/19cnd-dipl.html?ex=1044022157&amp;ei=1&amp;en=9ca8beb9f83a4eeb | New York Times, 1/20/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A15557-2003Jan19.html | Washington Post, 1/20/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/17/international/middleeast/17IRAQ.html | New York Times, 1/17/03 ]] [[ http://www.stuff.co.nz/stuff/0,2106,2198276a12,00.html | Reuters, 1/17/03 ]] [[ http://www.nzherald.co.nz/latestnewsstory.cfm?storyID=3051855&amp;thesection=news&amp;thesubsection=world | Reuters, 1/17/03b ]] ------ The Bush administration considers the discovery significant. White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer says: &#8220;The President views this as troubling and serious.... What the world wants to know is if Saddam Hussein has disarmed. Possession of chemical warheads is not a good indication that the man has disarmed.&#8221; Ari disputes the notion that empty warheads do not represent a threat. &#8220;Putting chemical weapons into a chemical warhead is done at the last minute,&#8221; he notes. However officials from other countries seem to disagree. A French diplomat tells reporters, &#8220;I have only one thing to say&#8212;empty.&#8221; [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/18/international/middleeast/18IRAQ.html | New York Times, 1/17/03 ]] ------ The inspectors feel that the discovery is &#8220;evidence that their search was beginning to yield results and should be given more time to work,&#8221; reports the New York Times. [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/18/international/middleeast/18IRAQ.html | New York Times, 1/17/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Hussam Mohammad Amin )) ((+ Ari Fleischer )) {{ commentary_raymond_zilinskas_2 }} {{ commentary_raymond_zilinskas_3 }} {{ statement_unnamed_french_diplomat_2 }} {{ statement_statement_of_principles,_6/3/97_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_un_official_2 }} {{ commentary_washington_post_4 }} {{ statement_ari_fleischer_7 }} {{ statement_unnamed_administration_official_2 }} January 17-19, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_286 false 1 ------ Citing inspectors' discovery of 12 empty &#8220;warheads&#8221; (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_284 ]]) and documents related to a failed nuclear program's attempt at laser enrichment of uranium (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_96 ]]), critics of the Bush administration's planned invasion argue that the inspections are working and that they should continue under the terms of 1999 UN Resolution 1284. They contend that if Iraq still possesses illegal weapons that it can be peacefully and effectively disarmed by the inspections process, thus making the argument for war moot. But the Bush administration argues instead that the inspection process has demonstrated that Saddam Hussein is not willing to disarm. This debate occurs as weapons inspectors are preparing their January 27 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_292 ]]) update on inspections, as required by UN Resolution 1441 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_228 ]]). Washington is hoping that the report will demonstrate that Iraq is not cooperating, so that they can use it to justify using military force against Iraq. [[ http://www.iht.com/articles/83858.html | International Herald Tribune, 1/20/03 ]] [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/012103B.us.go.un.no.htm | New York Times, 1/19/03 ]] [[ http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2003/16753.htm | US Department of State, 1/19/03 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/ap011603.htm | Associated Press, 1/15/03 ]] [[ http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/ssistory.mpl/special/iraq/1741246 | New York Times, 1/17/03 ]] ------ The New York Times reports that according to unnamed US officials, &#8220;[I]n spite of the wish by Blix and his colleague Mohamed ElBaradei, the head of the International Atomic Energy Agency, to continue the inspection process, the United States would move quickly to force an early conclusion by the Security Council.&#8221; (( Unnamed US officials )) [[ http://www.sltrib.com/2003/Jan/01192003/nation_w/21639.asp | New York Times, 1/20/02 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((- Mohamed ElBaradei )) ((- Hans Blix )) {{ statement_mohamed_elbaradei_9 }} {{ statement_colin_powell_18 }} {{ statement_donald_rumsfeld_13 }} {{ statement_jacques_chirac_2 }} January 17, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_416 false 1 ------ Mahmoud al-Zahar, a senior member of Hamas, warns, &#8220;If Iraq is attacked... all American targets will be open targets for every Muslim, Arab or Palestinian. Any attack against Iraq will be answered by resistance everywhere and American interests everywhere will be targeted. We say that all American targets will be open targets to every Muslim, Arab, or Palestinian.&#8221; [[ http://www.haaretzdaily.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=253359 | Ha'aretz, 1/17/03 ]] ====== << predictions >> ((+ Mahmoud al-Zahar )) January 19, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_285 false 1 ------ Top Bush administration officials appear to suggest that war can be avoided if Saddam Hussein steps down. Donald Rumsfeld, speaking on ABC's &#8220;This Week&#8221; says, &#8220;I ... personally would recommend that some provision be made so that the senior leadership in that country and their families could be provided haven in some other country, and I think that that would be a fair trade to avoid a war.&#8221; He also says that if Saddam goes into exile he might be granted immunity from prosecution for war crimes. Similarly, Colin Powell says on CNN, &#8220;I think the Iraqi people would be a lot better off, and this whole situation would be resolved, if Saddam Hussein ... his sons and the top leadership of the regime would leave.&#8221; [[ http://abcnews.go.com/wire/World/ap20030119_1308.html | ABC, 1/19/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/19/international/middleeast/19cnd-dipl.html | New York Times, 1/20/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/20/international/middleeast/20DIPL.html | New York Times, 1/20/03b ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0301/19/le.00.html | CNN, 1/19/03 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0301/20/tl.00.html | CNN, 1/20/03 ]] [[ http://www.prolog.net/webnews/wed/du/Qus-iraq-rumsfeld.RVL6_DJJ.html | Agence France Presse, 1/19/03 ]] ------ It is not clear, however, if Rumsfeld and Powell's comments are sincere, or if they are just trying to appear as though they are providing Saddam Hussein with an alternative to military confrontation. Their comments are seemingly contradicted by National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice who says on NBC's &#8220;Meet the Press&#8221; , &#8220;I ... think that it is unlikely that this man is going to come down in any other way than to be forced.&#8221; [[ http://www.iht.com/articles/83858.html | International Herald Tribune, 1/20/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/19/international/middleeast/19cnd-dipl.html?ex=1044022157&amp;ei=1&amp;en=9ca8beb9f83a4eeb | New York Times, 1/20/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/20/international/middleeast/20DIPL.html | New York Times, 1/20/03b ]] [[ Fox News, 1/19/03 | http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,75993,00.html ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) ((+ Colin Powell )) January 19, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_412 false 1 ------ Appearing on Fox News, Donald Rumsfeld, responding to a question, says, &#8220;... the Office of Management and Budget, has come up come up [sic] with a number that's something under $50 billion for the cost. How much of that would be the US burden, and how much would be other countries, is an open question.&#8221; [[ http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Jan2003/t01212003_t019sdstakeoutfox.html | US Department of Defense, 10/21/02 ]] ====== << predictions >> ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) January 19, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_8 false 1 ------ Iraq reports to Hans Blix that they have discovered four additional empty 122mm warheads of the same type discovered by inspectors on January 16 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_284 ]]). [[ http://abcnews.go.com/wire/World/ap20030119_1308.html | Associated Press, 1/19/03 ]] [[ http://abcnews.go.com/wire/World/ap20030119_1308.html | Associated Press, 1/19/02 ]] [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/politics/story.jsp?story=370977 | Independent, 1/20/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/19/international/middleeast/19cnd-dipl.html?ex=1044022157&amp;ei=1&amp;en=9ca8beb9f83a4eeb | New York Times, 1/20/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A15557-2003Jan19.html | Washington Post, 1/20/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((- Hans Blix )) {{ statement_veteran_intelligence_professionals_for_sanity_2 }} January 19, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_287 false 1 ------ During a meeting with foreign ministers from 13 of the 15 Security Council member states, US Secretary of State Colin Powell encounters strong resistance to the Bush administration's view that the inspections are not working and that Iraq is not cooperating. Russia, China, France and Germany all express their satisfaction with how the inspections are proceeding and say that their preference is that the inspectors be permitted to continue their work. Only Britain appears willing to provide support for Washington's position, reiterating the American stance that Saddam is running out of time. French Foreign Minister Dominique de Villepin is the most vocal in his opposition to the Bush administration's attempt to rationalize the need for war. In an interview, he says the UN should remain &#8220;on the path of cooperation&#8221; and that France will never &#8220;associate [itself] with military intervention ... not supported by the international community.&#8221; He adds,"We think that military intervention would be the worst possible solution.' Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov also disagrees with the Bush administration's insistence that military force will be needed, explaining: &#8220;Terrorism is far from being crushed. We must be careful not to take unilateral steps that might threaten the unity of the entire [anti-]terrorism coalition. In this context we are strictly in favor of a political settlement of the situation revolving around Iraq.&#8221; Germany's Joschka Fischer similarly states: &#8220;Iraq has complied fully with all relevant resolutions and cooperated very closely with the UN team on the ground. We think things are moving in the right direction, based on the efforts of the inspection team, and [they] should have all the time which is needed.&#8221; The Bush administration remains unconvinced by these arguments. Powell tells reporters: &#8220;We cannot fail to take the action that may be necessary because we are afraid of what others might do. We cannot be shocked into impotence because we are afraid of the difficult choices that are ahead of us.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A19221-2003Jan20.html | Washington Post 1/20/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/21/international/middleeast/21IRAQ.html | New York Times 1/20/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Igor Ivanov )) ((+ Joschka Fischer )) ((+ Dominique de Villepin )) ((+ Colin Powell )) January 20-21, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_288 false 1 ------ Bush and his advisors respond to statements made the previous day by Russian, French, Chinese, and German ministers expressing satisfaction with the weapons inspection process. Bush says: &#8220;He's not disarming. As a matter of fact, it appears to be a rerun of a bad movie. He is delaying, he is deceiving, he is asking for time. He's playing hide-and-seek with inspectors. ... It's clear to me now that he is not disarming. And, surely, our friends have learned lessons from the past. Surely we have learned how this man deceives and delays. ... This business about more time&#8212;how much time do we need to see clearly that he's not disarming? As I said, this looks like a rerun of a bad movie and I'm not interested in watching it.&#8221; US Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage also refutes the notion that Saddam is cooperating with inspectors. &#8220;Our other options are just about exhausted at this point,&#8221; he asserts &#8220;This regime has very little time left to undo the legacy of 12 years. There is no sign, there is not one sign that the regime has any intent to comply fully.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/01/20030121-2.html | White House, 1/21/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A23983-2003Jan21.html | Washington Post, 1/21/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A24736-2003Jan21.html | Washington Post, 1/22/03b ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/22/international/middleeast/22PREX.html | New York Times 1/22/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Richard Armitage )) ((+ George W. Bush )) January 21, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1820 false 1 ------ President George Bush signs an executive order formally creating the Office of Global Communications (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1819 ]]) to coordinate efforts among various federal agencies to &#8220;disseminate truthful, accurate and effective messages about the American people and their government&#8221; to audiences around the world. [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/01/20030121-3.htmlGovt Release | White House, 1/21/2003 ]] [[ http://www.iraqfoundation.org/news/2003/ajan/22_iraqis.html | New York Times, 1/22/2003 ]] ------ The office has actually been in existence since before July 2002 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1819 ]]). ------ Its first publication is also released on this day. Titled, &#8220;Apparatus of Lies,&#8221; the 32-page white paper argues that Iraq is using a carefully calibrated system of propaganda and disinformation to gain international support for the regime and to hide development of its weapons of mass destruction programs. In its executive summary, it states that Iraq?s foreign relations consist primarily of &#8220;a highly developed, well disciplined, and expertly organized program designed to win support for the Iraqi regime through outright deceit.&#8221; It goes on to say that the &#8220;elaborate program is one of the regime's most potent weapons for advancing its political, military, and diplomatic objectives. In their disinformation and propaganda campaigns, the Iraqis use elaborate ruses and obvious falsehoods, covert actions and false on-the-record statements, and sophisticated preparation and spontaneous exploitation of opportunities. Many of the techniques are not new, but this regime exploits them more aggressively and effectively&#8212;and to more harmful effect&#8212;than any other regime in power today.&#8221; (( Apparatus of Lies )) ====== << propaganda >> ((+ Office of Global Communications )) ((+ George W. Bush )) January 22, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_143 false 1 ------ The United Nations panel in charge of monitoring sanctions against the al-Qaeda network says it has found no evidence of collaboration between al-Qaeda and Iraq. The panel's chairman, Michael Chandler, tells the Agence France Presse (AFP) in an interview, &#8220;We don't have anything yet, and no-one has been able to produce anything.&#8221; [[ http://news.ninemsn.com.au/World/story_45195.asp | Agence France Press 1/22/03 ]] ------ Six months later, Mr. Chandler will reaffirm this, telling the Associated Press, &#8220;Nothing has come to our notice that would indicate links between Iraq and al-Qaeda.&#8221; Abaza Hassan, a committee investigator who will also be interviewed by the news agency, will say, &#8220;It had never come to our knowledge before Powell's speech and we never received any information from the United States for us to even follow-up on.&#8221; [[ http://www.sunherald.com/mld/sunherald/news/breaking_news/6176302.htm | Associated Press, 6/26/03 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((+ Abaza Hassanr )) ((+ Michael Chandler )) {{ duplicate_michael_chandler_2 }} January 22, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_290 false 1 ------ NATO denies a request from the Bush administration for military aid because many countries feel that neither the weapons inspections nor other means of diplomacy have yet been given an adequate test. The Bush administration wants permission to use NATO AWACS radar planes and Patriot air-defense batteries to protect Turkey, NATO ships in the eastern Mediterranean, as well as NATO personnel for protecting American bases in Europe and possibly the Gulf. [[ http://www.iht.com/articles/84323.html | International Herald Tribune, 1/23/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> Around January 22, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_53 false 1 ------ Sometime after Joe T.'s presentation to IAEA scientists, US analysts collect and photograph tubes in Iraq that are &#8220;virtually identical&#8221; to the Medusa tubes made in Italy. The tubes even have a stamped logo of the rocket's Italian manufacturer and the words, &#8220;81mm rocket.&#8221; This is reported by The Washington Post on January 24: &#8220;The quantity and specifications of the tubes&#8212;narrow, silver cylinders measuring 81 millimeters in diameter and about a meter in length&#8212;made them ill-suited to enrich uranium without extensive modification, the experts said. But they are a perfect fit for a well-documented 81mm conventional rocket program in place for two decades. Iraq imported the same aluminum tubes for rockets in the 1980s. The new tubes it tried to purchase actually bear an inscription that includes the word &#8216;rocket,&#8217; according to one official who examined them.&#8221; (( Unnamed US intelligence, US administration, and/or UN inspectors )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A35249-2003Jan23.html | Washington Post, 1/24/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39500-2003Aug9.html | Washington Post, 8/10/03 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> ((+ Joe T. )) January 22, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_52 false 1 ------ CIA agent Joe T. travels to Vienna, Austria, where he attempts to convince IAEA nuclear scientists they were wrong to conclude that the aluminum tubes imported by Iraq, but intercepted in Jordan, were not meant to be used as rotors in a centrifuge program. The thrust of his argument is that the tubes' dimensions are overly precise and that they are made of a special aluminum alloy that is &#8220;excessively strong.&#8221; (( Unnamed US intelligence, US administration, and/or UN inspectors )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39500-2003Aug9.html | Washington Post, 8/10/03 ]] ------ But the presentation is not convincing. &#8220;Everybody was embarrassed when he came and made this presentation, embarrassed and disgusted,&#8221; one participant later recalls to the New York Times. &#8220;We were going insane, thinking, &#8216;Where is he coming from?&#8217;&#8221; [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> ((+ Joe T. )) January 22, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_289 false 1 ------ During a joint press conference, French President Jacques Chirac and German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder announce that they intend to work together to oppose the Bush administration's plan to invade Iraq. Schroeder says to a crowd of hundreds of French and German students in Berlin, &#8220;We are both of the opinion... that one can never accept it when it is said that war is unavoidable.&#8221; [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2683409.stm | BBC, 1/22/03 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2687403.stm | BBC, 1/23/03 ]] ------ Back in Washington, a reporter asks Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld if he thinks the actions of France and Germany would leave the United States without European support. To this Rumsfeld, responds: &#8220;Now, you're thinking of Europe as Germany and France. I don't. I think that's old Europe. If you look at the entire NATO Europe today, the center of gravity is shifting to the east.... Germany has been a problem, and France has been a problem.... But you look at vast numbers of other countries in Europe. They're not with France and Germany on this, they're with the United States.&#8221; [[ http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Jan2003/t01232003_t0122sdfpc.html | Department of Defense, 1/22/03 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2687403.stm | BBC, 1/23/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Jacques Chirac )) ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) ((+ Gerhard Schroeder )) January 23, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_99 false 1 ------ In a report titled, &#8220;What Does Disarmament Look Like?&#8221; the White House says that Iraq failed to explain its &#8220;efforts to procure uranium from abroad for its nuclear weapons program&#8221; in its December 2002 declaration to the UN. (( What Does Disarmament Look Like? )) [[ http://usinfo.state.gov/regional/nea/iraq/text2003/0123rpt.htm | US President, 1/23/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A31496-2003Aug7.html | The Washington Post, 8/8/03 ]] ====== << nuclearQuotes >> << africaUraniumClaim >> January 23, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_291 false 1 ------ Unilateralist comments from the Bush administration, especially Rumsfeld's reference to France and Germany as &#8220;old Europe,&#8221; further antagonize the already tense relationship between the two continents. Following these comments, France, Germany, Russia, and China reiterate their opposition to the Bush administration unilateralist approach. Washington, in turn, responds with veiled threats that countries opposing the war will have little influence in the post-Saddam Iraq. [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-553261,00.html | Times of London, 1/24/03 ]] [[ http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml;jsessionid=1J43HMXBT5RDYCRBAEOCFFA?type=worldNews&amp;storyID=2096939 | Reuters, 1/23/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A35249-2003Jan23.html | Washington Post, 1/24/03 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2687403.stm | BBC, 1/24/03 ]] [[ http://breaking.examiner.ie/2003/01/23/story85475.html | Irish Examiner, 1/23/03 ]] [[ http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2003-01-23-europeans-usat_x.htm | USA Today, 12/23/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> January 23, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_315 false 1 ------ The New York Times publishes an op-ed piece written by Condoleezza Rice, titled, &#8220;Why we know Iraq is Lying,&#8221; in which the National Security Council advisor writes that &#8220;Iraq has filed a false declaration to the United Nations that amounts to a 12,200-page lie,&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/01/20030123-1.html | New York Times, 1/23/03 ]] ------ citing among other things, its failure &#8220;to account for or explain Iraq's efforts to get uranium from abroad.&#8221; [[ http://usinfo.state.gov/regional/nea/iraq/press/0123rice.htm | New York Times, 1/23/03 ]] ------ She says that Iraq has reneged on its commitment to disarm itself of its alleged arsenal of weapons of mass destruction. Instead of full cooperation and transparency, Iraq has &#8220;a high-level political commitment to maintain and conceal its weapons,&#8221; she claims. Iraq is maintaining &#8220;institutions whose sole purpose is to thwart the work of the inspectors,&#8221; she adds, asserting that the country is not allowing inspectors &#8220;immediate, unimpeded, unrestricted access&#8221; to the &#8220;facilities and people&#8221; involved in its alleged weapons program. [[ http://usinfo.state.gov/regional/nea/iraq/press/0123rice.htm | New York Times, 1/23/03 ]] ====== << wmdQuotesGeneral >> << weaponsInspections >> << africaUraniumClaim >> << nuclearQuotes >> ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) A day or two days before January 28 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_115 false 1 ------ Robert G. Joseph, director for nonproliferation at the National Security Council (NSC), telephones senior CIA official Alan Foley and argues that the Africa-uranium claim should be included in Bush's upcoming State of the Union address. When Foley warns that the allegation has little evidence to support it, Mr. Joseph instead requests that the speech include a remark saying that the British had learned that Iraq was seeking uranium in Africa, leaving out the bit about Niger and the exact quantity of uranium that was allegedly sought. (( Two unnamed senior administration officials interviewed by Time )) (( Alan Foley )) [[ http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/PIN307A.html | The Washington Post, 7/17/2003 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/07/18/international/worldspecial/18INTE.html | New York Times, 7/17/2003 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/07/18/international/worldspecial/18INTE.html | New York Times, 7/17/2003 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A51224-2003Jul26.html | The Washington Post, 7/27/2003 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/time072103.htm | Time Magazine, 7/21/2003 ]] ------ Joseph claims he does not recall the discussion and White House communications director Dan Bartlett calls Foley's version of events a &#8220;conspiracy theory.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A51224-2003Jul26.html | The Washington Post, 7/27/03 ]] ====== << africaUraniumClaim >> ((+ Alan Foley )) ((+ Dan Bartlett )) ((+ Robert G. Joseph )) January 23, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_88 false 1 ------ Criticizing Iraq's December 2003 declaration to the UN, Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz says in a speech before the Council on Foreign Relations: &#8220;There is no mention of Iraqi efforts to procure uranium from abroad.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A31496-2003Aug7.html | The Washington Post, 8/8/03 ]] ====== << africaUraniumClaim >> ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) January 27, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_293 false 1 ------ President Bush receives a letter signed by more than 120 members of the House of Representatives urging him &#8220;to use the opportunity provided in the upcoming State of the Union Address to offer assurances both to the American people and the international community that the United States remains committed to the diplomatic approach and comprehensive inspections process agreed to in the UN Security Council.&#8221; The letter is written by Representatives Sherrod Brown and Ron Kind. In it they argue that Bush should &#8220;sufficiently weigh future decisions regarding Iraq on the assessment given by UNMOVIC/IAEA, including additional inspection time and resources as appropriate.&#8221; The letter emphasizes: &#8220;Your commitment to working through the UN Security Council and your vocal support for Resolution 1441 are critical to UNMOVIC/IAEA's eventual success.&#8221; The anti-war organization, moveon.org, plays a large role in influencing the representatives' decision to sign the letter. The group had helped coordinate hundreds of visits by concerned citizens to the offices of their congresspersons demanding that they sign the letter. [[ http://www.thenation.com/thebeat/index.mhtml?bid=1&amp;pid=338 | The Nation, 1/27/03 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ Sherrod Brown )) ((+ Move-On [.org] )) ((+ Ron Kind )) January 27, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_292 false 1 ------ UNMOVIC Chief Weapons Inspector Hans Blix and IAEA Chief Weapons Inspector Mohamed ElBaradei present their long-anticipated reports on the progress of weapons inspections to the UN Security Council. Blix's assessment is notably more critical than the IAEA report by Mohamed ElBaradei. Blix tells the UN Security Council that while the Iraqi government has passively cooperated with the weapons inspectors: &#8220;Unlike South Africa, which decided on its own to eliminate its nuclear weapons and welcomed inspection as a means of creating confidence in its disarmament, Iraq appears not to have come to a genuine acceptance&#8212;not even today&#8212;of the disarmament, which was demanded of it and which it needs to carry out to win the confidence of the world and to live in peace.&#8221; Additionally, Blix reports that it is still too early to determine whether or not Iraq has or is developing weapons of mass destruction, noting that Iraq has still not answered several questions concerning unaccounted-for weapons. [[ http://www.un.org/apps/news/infocusnewsiraq.asp?NewsID=354&amp;sID=6 | UNMOVIC, 1/27/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A52423-2003Jan27.html | Washington Post, 1/28/03 ]] [[ http://www.dw-world.de/english/0,3367,1429_W_765158,00.html | Deutsche Welle, 1/27/03 ]] [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-557671,00.html | Times of London, 1/28/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/28/international/middleeast/28INTE.html | New York Times, 1/28/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/28/international/middleeast/28IRAQ.html | New York Times, 1/27/03b ]] --- Hans Blix's report --- --- * --- Iraq has refused to permit overflights by American U2 surveillance planes. Iraq said that it would allow the overflights only if the UN promised to demand an end to the almost daily bombings by US and British war planes in the so-called &#8220;no-fly&#8221; zones. Iraq worries that if fighter jets and U2 planes are flying over Iraq at the same time, Iraq might inadvertently shoot at the surveillance planes, thinking they are fighter jets. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A52423-2003Jan27.html | Washington Post, 1/28/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/28/international/middleeast/28IRAQ.html | New York Times, 1/27/03b ]] [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-557671,00.html | Times of London, 1/28/03 ]] --- * --- Iraq has not provided an adequate declaration of its prior production of nerve agent VX. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A52423-2003Jan27.html | Washington Post, 1/28/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/28/international/middleeast/28IRAQ.html | New York Times, 1/27/03b ]] [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-557671,00.html | Times of London, 1/28/03 ]] --- * --- Inspectors have found a &#8220;laboratory quantity&#8221; of thiodiglycol, a precursor of mustard gas. [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/28/international/middleeast/28IRAQ.html | New York Times, 1/27/03b ]] --- * --- 1,000 tons of chemical agents from the Iraq-Iran War remain unaccounted for. [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/28/international/middleeast/28IRAQ.html | New York Times, 1/27/03b ]] --- * --- 6,500 missing chemical rockets remain unaccounted for. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A52423-2003Jan27.html | Washington Post, 1/28/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/28/international/middleeast/28IRAQ.html | New York Times, 1/27/03b ]] [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-557671,00.html | Times of London, 1/28/03 ]] --- * --- Iraq has not provided evidence to substantiate its claim that it destroyed 8,500 liters of anthrax [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A52423-2003Jan27.html | Washington Post, 1/28/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/28/international/middleeast/28IRAQ.html | New York Times, 1/27/03b ]] [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-557671,00.html | Times of London, 1/28/03 ]] --- * --- 650kg of bacterial growth media remain unaccounted for. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A52423-2003Jan27.html | Washington Post, 1/28/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/28/international/middleeast/28IRAQ.html | New York Times, 1/27/03b ]] [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-557671,00.html | Times of London, 1/28/03 ]] --- * --- Iraq has been developing Al Samoud 2 and Al Fatah missiles with a range beyond the 150km limit. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A52423-2003Jan27.html | Washington Post, 1/28/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/28/international/middleeast/28IRAQ.html | New York Times, 1/27/03b ]] [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-557671,00.html | Times of London, 1/28/03 ]] --- * --- 380 rocket engines were smuggled into Iraq the previous month with chemicals used for missile propellants and control systems. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A52423-2003Jan27.html | Washington Post, 1/28/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/28/international/middleeast/28IRAQ.html | New York Times, 1/27/03b ]] [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-557671,00.html | Times of London, 1/28/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/1231-03.htm | Los Angeles Times, 12/31/01 ]] --- * --- Iraq had provided the names of only 400 of the estimated 3,500 Iraqi scientists. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A52423-2003Jan27.html | Washington Post, 1/28/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/28/international/middleeast/28IRAQ.html | New York Times 1/27/03b ]] [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-557671,00.html | Times of London, 1/28/03 ]] ------ Iraqi scientists are refusing private interviews with UN inspectors. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A52423-2003Jan27.html | Washington Post, 1/28/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/28/international/middleeast/28IRAQ.html | New York Times, 1/27/03b ]] [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-557671,00.html | Times of London, 1/28/03 ]] --- ElBaradei's report to the UN --- --- * --- The International Atomic Energy Agency's inspection team has failed to uncover any evidence implicating Saddam's regime in the development of nuclear weapons. He tells the Council: &#8220;We have to date found no evidence that Iraq has revived its nuclear weapon program since the elimination of the program in the 1990's. ... No prohibited nuclear activities have been identified during these inspections.&#8221; [[ http://www.un.org/News/dh/iraq/elbaradei27jan03.htm | IAEI, 1/27/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A52423-2003Jan27.html | Washington Post, 1/28/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/28/international/middleeast/28INTE.html | New York Times, 1/28/03 ]] --- * --- The International Atomic Energy Agency's inspection team is close to completing weapons inspections in Iraq. He says: &#8220;We should be able within the next few months to provide credible assurance that Iraq has no nuclear weapons program. These few months would be a valuable investment in peace because they could help us avoid war.&#8221; He adds: &#8220;[T]he presence of international inspectors in Iraq today continues to serve as an effective deterrent to and insurance against the resumption&#8221; of secret weapons programs. [[ http://www.un.org/News/dh/iraq/elbaradei27jan03.htm | IAEI, 1/27/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/28/international/middleeast/28IRAQ.html | New York Times, 1/27/03b ]] [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-557671,00.html | Times of London, 1/28/03 ]] --- * --- The aluminum tubes that Iraq attempted to import were not related to uranium enrichment. ElBaradei states: &#8220;IAEA inspectors have inspected the relevant rocket production and storage sites, taken tube samples, interviewed relevant Iraqi personnel, and reviewed procurement contracts and related documents. From our analysis to date it appears that the aluminum tubes would be consistent with the purpose stated by Iraq and, unless modified, would not be suitable for manufacturing centrifuges....&#8221; [[ http://www.un.org/News/dh/iraq/elbaradei27jan03.htm | IAEI, 1/27/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A52423-2003Jan27.html | Washington Post, 1/28/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/28/international/middleeast/28IRAQ.html | New York Times, 1/27/03b ]] [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-557671,00.html | Times of London, 1/28/03 ]] --- * --- The IAEA is investigating concerns that Iraq has attempted to obtain magnets that could be used in a gas centrifuge program. &#8220;Iraq presented detailed information on a project to construct a facility to produce magnets for the Iraqi missile program, as well as for industrial applications, and that Iraq had prepared a solicitation of offers, but that the project had been delayed due to &#8216;financial credit arrangements&#8217; . Preliminary investigations indicate that the specifications contained in the offer solicitation are consistent with those required for the declared intended uses. However, the IAEA will continue to investigate the matter ....&#8221; [[ http://www.un.org/News/dh/iraq/elbaradei27jan03.htm | IAEI, 1/27/03 ]] --- Response --- Responses to the two presentations are predictable. The US and Britain see no hope for Iraqi cooperation and peaceful disarmament, whereas other nations feel Blix and ElBaradei's reports demonstrate that the inspections are working and that the use of military force is not necessary. [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/28/international/middleeast/28IRAQ.html | New York Times, 1/27/03b ]] [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-557671,00.html | Times of London, 1/28/03 ]] [[ http://asia.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=worldNews&amp;storyID=2119357 | Reuters, 1/27/03 ]] ====== << wmd >> << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Hans Blix )) ((+ Mohamed ElBaradei )) {{ statement_yuri_fedotov_2 }} {{ statement_jeremy_greenstock_3 }} {{ statement_zhang_yishan_3 }} {{ statement_jean-marc_de_la_sabli?re_2 }} {{ statement_gunter_pleuger_2 }} {{ duplicate_mohamed_elbaradei_11 }} {{ statement_john_negroponte_4 }} {{ statement_sergei_lavrov_4 }} {{ statement_joschka_fischer_2 }} {{ statement_gerhard_schroeder_3 }} {{ statement_colin_powell_13 }} {{ statement_john_negroponte_3 }} {{ statement_colin_powell_15 }} {{ statement_colin_powell_14 }} January 28, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_119 false 1 ------ In his 2003 State of the Union address, President George W. Bush accuses Iraq of having enough material &#8220;to produce over 25,000 liters of anthrax&#8212;enough doses to kill several million people ... more than 38,000 liters of botulinum toxin&#8212;enough to subject millions of people to death by respiratory failure ... as much as 500 tons of sarin, mustard and VX nerve agent.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/onpolitics/transcripts/bushtext_012803.html | Washington Post, 1/28/03 ]] ====== << ChemicalBiologicalQuotes >> ((+ George W. Bush )) {{ duplicate_george_w._bush_6 }} January 28, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_30 false 1 ------ In his State of the Union address, President George W. Bush states: &#8220;Iraqi intelligence officers are posing as the scientists inspectors are supposed to interview. Real scientists have been coached by Iraqi officials on what to say.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/onpolitics/transcripts/bushtext_012803.html | US President 1/28/03 ]] ------ But Hans Blix, the chief UNMOVIC weapons inspector, tells the New York Times in an interview that he knows of no evidence supporting that claim. [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/31/international/middleeast/31BLIX.html | New York Times 1/31/2003 ]] ====== << deception >> ((+ Hans Blix )) January 28, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_89 false 1 ------ A White House report to Congress titled, &#8220;A report on matters relevant to the authorization for use of military force against Iraq,&#8221; complains that Iraq did not report in its December 2002 declaration to the UN that it had attempted &#8220;to acquire uranium and the means to enrich it.&#8221; (( A report on matters relevant to the authorization for use of military force against Iraq )) [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/uspresident012803.pdf | US President, 1/28/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A31496-2003Aug7.html | The Washington Post, 8/8/03 ]] ====== << nuclearQuotes >> << africaUraniumClaim >> {{ duplicate_a_report_on_matters_relevant_to_the_authorization_for_use_of_military_force_against_iraq_2 }} Late January 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_456 false 1 ------ British officials order translators and analysts working at the British Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) to cooperate with a US surveillance operation (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_334 ]]), which is targeting diplomats from the &#8220;swing nations&#8221; on the Security Council&#8212;Chile, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Angola, Guinea and Pakistan. China, too, is likely a target of the mission. The espionage operation is &#8220;designed to help smooth the way for a second UN resolution authorizing war in Iraq.&#8221; (( Unnamed sources close to the intelligence services )) [[ http://observer.guardian.co.uk/politics/story/0,6903,1143550,00.html | The Observer, 2/8/04 ]] ------ The surveillance campaign is likely known to the director-general of GCHQ, David Pepper, and Jack Straw, the Foreign Secretary, &#8220;who has overall responsibility for GCHQ.&#8221; [[ http://observer.guardian.co.uk/politics/story/0,6903,1143550,00.html | The Observer, 2/8/04 ]] ------ The operation reportedly causes &#8220;significant disquiet in the intelligence community on both sides of the Atlantic.&#8221; [[ http://observer.guardian.co.uk/politics/story/0,6903,1143550,00.html | The Observer, 2/8/04 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> << US-BritishSpyingOnUN >> ((+ David Pepper )) ((+ Jack Straw )) January 28, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_29 false 1 ------ Powell tells reporters after the UN inspectors' January 27 interim report: &#8220;The inspectors have also told us that they have evidence that Iraq has moved or hidden items at sites just prior to inspection visits. That's what the inspectors say, not what Americans say, not what American intelligence says; but we certainly corroborate all of that. But this is information from the inspectors.&#8221; [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/28/international/middleeast/28PTEX.html | US Secretary of State 1/28/03 ]] ------ But Hans Blix, the chief UNMOVIC weapons inspector, tells the New York Times a few days later that UN weapons inspectors had experienced no such incidents. [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/31/international/middleeast/31BLIX.html | New York Times 1/31/2003 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Colin Powell )) January 28, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_92 false 1 ------ Bush says in his State of the Union address, &#8220;The British government has learned that Saddam Hussein recently sought significant quantities of uranium from Africa. Saddam Hussein has not credibly explained these activities.... He clearly has much to hide.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/01/20030128-19.html | US President, 1/28/03 ]] [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/attack/2003/0605niger.htm | Independent, 6/5/03 ]] [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/response/disarm.html | White House website ]] ------ The British allegation cited by Bush concerns a widely dismissed SISMI [Italian intelligence] report (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_95 ]]) on a 1999 trip (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_94 ]]) to Niger made by Wissam al-Zahawie, Iraq's former ambassador to the Vatican. But according to al-Zahawie, both the US and UN had long ago established that there was no secret motive behind the trip.(see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_475 ]]) Months after the speech, with evidence mounting that the statement was completely false, the administration will retract this claim (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_476 ]]). (( Wissam al-Zahawie )) [[ http://psychoanalystsopposewar.org/resources_files/The_Niger_Timebomb.htm | Independent, 8/10/03a ]] ====== << nuclearQuotes >> << africaUraniumClaim >> ((+ Colin Powell )) {{ statement_joseph_c._wilson_6 }} {{ commentary_seymour_hersh_3 }} {{ commentary_washington_post_3 }} {{ commentary_washington_post_2 }} {{ duplicate_george_w._bush_3 }} January 28, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_152 false 1 ------ Knight Ridder Newspapers reports: &#8220;US officials and private analysts said Bush's suggestion that Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein might give such weapons to terrorists&#8212;and the implication that the risk of American retaliation can no longer deter him&#8212;stretches the analysis of US intelligence agencies to, and perhaps beyond, the limit.&#8221; The newspaper's sources also say that &#8220;there was no evidence that Iraq and al-Qaeda had cooperated on terrorist operations and no evidence of any Iraqi role in the Sept. 11 attacks.&#8221; (( Unnamed US official )) [[ http://www.bayarea.com/mld/mercurynews/news/politics/5052710.htm | Knight Ridder, 1/28/03 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((- Saddam Hussein )) January 29, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_91 false 1 ------ Donald Rumsfeld says at the beginning of a press conference that Saddam's &#8220;regime has the design for a nuclear weapon; it was working on several different methods of enriching uranium, and recently was discovered seeking significant quantities of uranium from Africa.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A31496-2003Aug7.html | The Washington Post, 8/8/03 ]] ====== << nuclearQuotes >> << africaUraniumClaim >> ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) {{ statement_donald_rumsfeld_4 }} January 29, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_700 false 1 ------ US Secretary of State Colin Powell gives his chief of staff, Larry Wilkerson, a 48-page report from the White House on Iraq's arsenal of banned weapons. The dossier&#8212;written in the office of Dick Cheney under the guidance of his two hawkish aids, Lewis &#8220;Scooter&#8221; Libby and John Hannah&#8212;is meant to serve as the basis for Powell's upcoming speech to the UN (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_442 ]]). Powell, skeptical of the report's data, instructs Wilkerson to have it looked over by the CIA. The analysts at the agency will quickly determine that the documents are based on unreliable sources (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_701 ]]). [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004 ]] ====== << deception >> ((+ Lewis Libby )) ((+ Colin Powell )) ((+ John Hannah )) ((+ Larry Wilkerson )) January 29, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_153 false 1 ------ Igor Ivanov, the Russian foreign minister, says during a visit to Bulgaria that neither his country nor any other has evidence of ties between Iraq and al-Qaeda. &#8220;So far, neither Russia nor any other country has information about Iraq's ties with al-Qaeda.&#8221; he says. &#8220;Nobody has provided us with such information.... If we receive such information we will analyze it. Statements made so far are not backed by concrete documents and concrete facts.&#8221; [[ http://reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=worldNews&amp;storyID=2140181 | Reuters, 1/30/03 ]] [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/unmovic/2003/0201blixrepl.htm | Sydney Morning Herald, 2/1/2003 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((+ Igor Ivanov )) January 30, 2003-January 31, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_701 false 1 ------ Colin Powell's chief of staff, Larry Wilkerson, meets with other State staffers and CIA analysts at the agency's Langley headquarters in a conference room down the hall from George Tenet's office to review two White House reports on Iraq's alleged illegal activities. The two dossiers are meant to serve as the basis for Powell's upcoming speech at the UN (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_442 ]]). One of the reports&#8212;a 48-page dossier that had been provided to Powell's office a few days earlier (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_700 ]]) &#8212;deals with Iraq's supposed arsenal of weapons of mass destruction while the other, slightly more recent report totaling some 45 pages, addresses the issue of Iraq's history of human rights violations and its alleged ties to terrorism. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 230 ]] ------ Shortly after the CIA analysts begin their review of the documents, the decision is made to scrap them and start from scratch. &#8220;They suspect much of it originated with the Iraqi National Congress (INC) and its chief, Ahmed Chalabi,&#8221; Vanity Fair magazine will later report. Powell's staff was also &#8220;convinced that much of it had been funneled directly to Cheney by a tiny separate intelligence unit set up by Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld.&#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 230 ]] ------ A senior source later tells US News and World Report that the documents had included &#8220;unsubstantiated assertions.&#8221; According to several administration officials, Powell's team &#8220;tried to follow ... [the] 45-page White House script,&#8221; but &#8220;there were too many problems&#8212;some assertions, for instance, were not supported by solid or adequate sourcing&#8212;Indeed, some of the damning information simply could not be proved.&#8221; (( Unnamed senior source )) [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/unmovic/2003/0609conseq.htm | US News and World Report, 6/9/03 ]] ------ One item in the White House's original draft alleged that Iraq had obtained software from an Australian company that would provide Iraqis with sensitive information about US topography. The hawks' argument was that Iraqis, using that knowledge, could one day attack the US with biological or chemical weapons deployed from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). But when Powell's intelligence team investigated the issue, it became &#8220;clear that the information was not ironclad.&#8221; (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_7 ]]) (( Unnamed senior source )) [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/unmovic/2003/0609conseq.htm | US News and World Report, 6/9/03 ]] ------ Summing it up, one official will later explain, &#8220;We were so appalled at what had arrived from the White House.&#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 230. ]] ====== << deception >> ((+ Colin Powell )) ((+ Larry Wilkerson )) ((- Ahmed Chalabi )) January 31, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_177 false 1 ------ During a joint press conference with President George Bush and British Prime Minister Blair at the White House, the two leaders are asked by a reporter, &#8220;One question for you both. Do you believe that there is a link between Saddam Hussein, a direct link, and the men who attacked on September the 11th?&#8221; Bush answers succinctly, &#8220;I can't make that claim.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/01/20030131-23.html | US President, 1/31/2003 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ Tony Blair )) January 31, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_334 false 1 ------ Frank Koza, chief of staff in the &#8220;Regional Targets&#8221; division of the US National Security Agency (NSA), which &#8220;spies on countries that are viewed as strategically important for United States interests,&#8221; emails a memo to senior NSA officials and the intelligence officials of certain unspecified foreign governments. The memo calls for the surveillance of the New York City homes and offices of UN delegates from countries such as Angola, Cameroon, Chile, Bulgaria, Guinea and Pakistan. According to The Observer, the memo suggests that the surveillance operation should include the &#8220;interception of ... [their] home and office telephones and the emails....&#8221; The memo discusses the need to learn how the member states would vote on future resolutions submitted to the UN Security Council by the US and Britain. It refers to the importance of learning and understanding the &#8220;policies,&#8221; &#8220;negotiating positions,&#8221; &#8220;alliances&#8221; and &#8220;dependencies&#8221; &#8212;the &#8220;whole gamut of information that could give US policymakers an edge in obtaining results favorable to US goals or to head off surprises.&#8221; Intelligence resulting from the surveillance would be used for the United States' &#8220;QRC,&#8221; or Quick Response Capability, &#8220;against&#8221; the key delegations. In an interview with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, London Observer reporter Martin Bright, who helps expose the operation, will say that he believes the US motive for extending surveillance to the homes of UN delegates might have been to obtain incriminating personal information&#8212; &#8220;information which could be used against those delegates.&#8221; The spy operation is requested by US National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice. Other Bush administration officials, however, reportedly oppose the operation because of fears that its discovery could result in serious consequences. According to Professor John Quigley of Ohio University, &#8220;While the bugging of foreign diplomats at the UN is permissible under the US Foreign Intelligence Services Act, it is a breach of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations.&#8221; US intelligence experts interviewed by The Observer say that an operation like this would have been known to Donald Rumsfeld, CIA director George Tenet and NSA Chief General Michael Hayden. (( January 31, 2003 NSA Memo )) [[ http://www.observer.co.uk/international/story/0,6903,905899,00.html | The Observer, 3/2/03 ]] [[ http://www.abc.net.au/lateline/s800897.htm | Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 3/6/03 ]] [[ http://www.observer.co.uk/iraq/story/0,12239,910657,00.html | The Observer, 3/9/03 ]] ====== << US-BritishSpyingOnUN >> << legalJustification >> ((- Michael Hayden )) ((+ Frank Koza )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((- Donald Rumsfeld )) ((- George Tenet )) {{ commentary_james_bamford_2 }} {{ commentary_unnamed_third_world_diplomat_2 }} {{ commentary_munir_akram_2 }} February 1, 2003-February 4, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_31 false 1 ------ On February 1, Secretary of State Colin Powell begins rehearsing for his February 5 presentation to the UN Security Council (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_442 ]]) in which he will argue that Iraq represents a serious and imminent threat to the US. Powell is assisted by members of his staff, including his chief of staff, Larry Wilkerson, and Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage. [[ http://us.gq.com/plus/content/?040429plco_01 | Gentlemen's Quarterly (GQ), 4/29/2004 ]] [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/unmovic/2003/0609conseq.htm | US News and World Report, 6/9/2003 ]] ------ Several other officials drop in during the pre-speech sessions, including George Tenet, Condoleezza Rice, Lewis Libby, and CIA deputy director John McLaughlin. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 230 ]] ------ Cheney's staff continues to pressure Powell to include several unsubstantiated and dubious allegations. For example, the group insists that Powell &#8220;link Iraq directly to the 9/11 terrorist attacks on New York and Washington&#8221; and include the widely discredited allegation (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_175 ]]) that Mohammed Atta had met in Prague with an Iraqi intelligence officer (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_163 ]]). [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 230. ]] [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/unmovic/2003/0609conseq.htm | US News and World Report, 6/9/2003 ]] ------ But Powell and his staff reject a good portion of the hawks' material. At one point, during one of the rehearsals, Powell says, &#8220;I'm not reading this. This is bullshit.&#8221; [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/unmovic/2003/0609conseq.htm | US News and World Report, 6/9/03 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 230 ]] ------ &#8220;[W]e fought tooth and nail with other members of the administration to scrub it and get the crap out,&#8221; Larry Wilkerson, Powell's Chief of Staff later tells GQ. [[ http://us.gq.com/plus/content/?040429plco_01 | Gentlemen's Quarterly (GQ), 4/29/2004 ]] ====== << deception >> ((+ Larry Wilkerson )) ((+ Richard Armitage )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((+ John McLaughlin )) ((+ Lewis Libby )) ((+ George Tenet )) ((+ Colin Powell )) February 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1843 false 1 ------ A CNN/Time poll discovers that 76 percent of Americans believe Saddam Hussein provides assistance to al-Qaeda. [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/03/11/Iraq.Qaeda.link/ | CNN, 3/11/2003 ]] ====== << publicOpinion >> February 2003-March 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_489 false 1 ------ The British join the US (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_340 ]]) in a campaign to pressure UN Security Council members to commit to voting in favor of a second UN resolution. &#8220;[E]normous pressure was brought to bear,&#8221; British cabinet member Claire Short will later tell the BBC, who cites as an example the efforts of Valerie Amos. According to Short, Amos &#8220;went round Africa with people from our intelligence services trying to press them&#8221; to support a second resolution. &#8220;I had to make sure that we didn't promise a misuse of aid in a way that would be illegal,&#8221; she added. (( Claire Short )) (( Valerie Anne Amos )) [[ BBC, 2/26/04 | http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/3489372.stm ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ Valerie Anne Amos )) ((+ Claire Short )) February 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_335 false 1 ------ The January 31 National Security Agency (NSA) memo, written by a &#8220;Frank Koza,&#8221; calling for the surveillance of UN diplomats (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_334 ]]) is leaked to The Observer by 29-year-old Katherine Gun, a British intelligence employee working for the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) as a translator. She will later be arrested on March 8 and charged with violating Britain's Official Secrets Act, though her case will eventually be dismissed. Two of the newspaper's reporters confirm Frank Koza's identity with a call to the NSA. The Observer later explains: &#8220;The NSA main switchboard put The Observer through to extension 6727 at the agency which was answered by an assistant, who confirmed it was Koza's office. However, when The Observer asked to talk to Koza about the surveillance of diplomatic missions at the United Nations, it was then told &#8216;You have reached the wrong number.&#8217; On protesting that the assistant had just said this was Koza's extension, the assistant repeated that it was an erroneous extension, and hung up.&#8221; The Observer also shows the memo to three former intelligence operatives who deem the language and content of the memo authentic. Additionally, Matthew M. Aid, a historian whose area of expertise is intelligence and who is writing a book on the NSA, will later tell the Baltimore Sun that he recognizes the name &#8220;Koza&#8221; as that of a &#8220;senior operational manager&#8221; at the NSA. [[ http://www.observer.co.uk/international/story/0,6903,905899,00.html | Observer, 3/2/03 ]] [[ http://www.observer.co.uk/iraq/story/0,12239,910657,00.html | The Observer, 3/9/03 ]] [[ http://www.sunspot.net/news/nationworld/iraq/bal-te.md.nsa04mar04,0,7914034.story | Baltimore Sun, 3/4/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0127-03.htm | Guardian, 1/27/04 ]] ====== << US-BritishSpyingOnUN >> ((+ Katherine Gun )) ((+ Frank Koza )) February 2003-March 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_488 false 1 ------ The US and British conduct a spy operation targeting UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan and other top UN officials. But news of this will not surface until February 2004. &#8220;[T]he UK ... was ... spying on Kofi Annan's office and getting reports from him about what was going on,&#8221; former British cabinet member Claire Short will tell BBC Radio 4's Today. When asked to elaborate, she says, &#8220;Well I know&#8212;I've seen transcripts of Kofi Annan's conversations.&#8221; (( Claire Short )) [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/3489372.stm | BBC, 2/26/04 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0226-01.htm | Independent, 2/26/04 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2004/02/27/international/europe/27BRIT.html | New York Times, 2/27/04 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,1158301,00.html | Guardian, 2/28/04 ]] ------ And in an interview with The Guardian one day later, Hans Blix will say that he believes he too was bugged. (( Hans Blix )) [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,1158301,00.html | Guardian, 2/28/04 ]] ------ Under international treaties, it is illegal for member states to spy on UN offices. [[ http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/02/27/1077676969778.html | Sydney Morning Herald, 2/28/04 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2004/02/27/international/europe/27BRIT.html | New York Times, 2/27/04 ]] ====== << US-BritishSpyingOnUN >> ((+ Claire Short )) ((+ Kofi Annan )) ((+ Hans Blix )) Early February 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1814 false 1 ------ An unnamed Justice Department official tells the New York Times that the FBI has been baffled by the administration's claims of links between Iraq and al-Qaeda. &#8220;We've been looking at this hard for more than a year and you know what, we just don't think it's there,&#8221; the official says. (( Unnamed government official )) [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/attack/2003/0202splitat.htm | New York Times, 2/3/03 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> February 3-4, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_443 false 1 ------ In advance of Colin Powell's February 5 presentation to the UN, the Independent reports on February 3 that according to security sources in London, Powell will attempt to link Iraq to al-Qaeda. But the sources say that intelligence analysts in both Washington and London do not believe such links exist. (( Unnamed British intelligence sources )) [[ February 3. http://news.independent.co.uk/world/middle_east/story.jsp?story=375403 | Independent, 2/3/03 ]] ------ This is followed by a report the next day in the London Telegraph, reporting that the Bush administration's insistence of a link between al-Zarqawi, Ansar al-Islam and Saddam Hussein &#8220;has infuriated many within the United States intelligence community.&#8221; The report cites one unnamed US intelligence source who says, &#8220;The intelligence is practically non-existent,&#8221; and explains that the claim is largely based on information provided by Kurdish groups which are enemies of Ansar al-Islam. &#8220;It is impossible to support the bald conclusions being made by the White House and the Pentagon given the poor quantity and quality of the intelligence available. There is uproar within the intelligence community on all of these points, but the Bush White House has quashed dissent.&#8221; (( Unnamed US and British intelligence sources )) [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/02/04/wirq04.xml/ | Telegraph, 2/4/03 ]] ------ The Telegraph predicts that &#8220;if Mr. Powell tries to prove the link between Iraq and al-Qaeda, the whole thing could fall apart,&#8221; explaining that the veto-wielding Security Council members, &#8220;France, Russia and China ... all have powerful intelligence services and their own material on al-Qaeda and they will know better than to accept the flimsy evidence of a spurious link with Baghdad.&#8221; [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/02/04/wirq04.xml/ | Telegraph, 2/4/03 ]] ====== << alZarqawi >> << terroristTies >> << legalJustification >> ((+ Colin Powell )) ((- Saddam Hussein )) ((- Abu Mussab Al Zarqawi )) February 3, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_444 false 1 ------ Colin Powell says that his upcoming presentation to the UN will include &#8220;no smoking gun.&#8221; Rather it will be &#8220;a straightforward and compelling demonstration that Saddam is concealing evidence of weapons of mass destruction, while preserving the weapons,&#8221; he says. [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/02/04/wirq04.xml/ | Telegraph, 2/4/03 ]] ====== << wmd >> << legalJustification >> ((+ Colin Powell )) February 3, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_479 false 1 ------ In a memo to Secretary of State Colin Powell, the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR) warns him against making certain claims in his presentation to the UN Security Council about the aluminum tubes Iraq attempted to import in July 2001 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_41 ]]). The CIA had been arguing that the tubes were made to meet specfiications that far exceeded that for comparable rockets used by the US. But INR's memo explains that the claim is untrue. &#8220;In fact, the most comparable US system is a tactical rocket&#8212;the US Mark 66 air-launched 70-millimeter rocket&#8212;that uses the same, high-grade (7075-T6) aluminum, and that has specifications with similar tolerances.&#8221; Powell will ignore the memo's advice. [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/justify/2003/0729powell.htm | Financial Times, 7/29/03 ]] [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/100304A.shtml | New York Times, 10/3/2004 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> ((+ Colin Powell )) February 4, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_417 false 1 ------ The Australian reports, &#8220;The US is understood to estimate the prospect of terrorism will rise by about 75 per cent if it launches military action against the regime of Iraqi President Saddam Hussein.&#8221; (( Unnamed US officials )) [[ http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/printpage/0,5942,5932244,00.html | Australian, 2/4/03 ]] ====== << predictions >> (11:00 p.m.) February 4, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_704 false 1 ------ CIA terrorism specialist Phil Mudd visits Colin Powell's hotel suite at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City to review the terrorism section of the speech Powell will make to the UN the next morning. After Mudd reads the section, he says, &#8220;Looks fine.&#8221; After leaving the hotel, he will inform George Tenet that Powell's team had trimmed the section on Iraq's alleged ties to terrorism. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 230 ]] ====== << deception >> ((+ Phil Mudd )) ((+ George Tenet )) February 5, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1824 false 1 ------ The Australian Senate passes a vote of no-confidence against Prime Minister John Howard and his conservative Liberal/National coalition for deploying troops to the Persian Gulf to support America's anticipated invasion against Iraq. &#8220;The prime minister has made a unilateral decision and sent 2,000 of our defense personnel off to a war undeclared in the northern hemisphere without any cogent explanation of his actions,&#8221; argues the Labor Party's leader in the Senate, John Faulkner. Seventy-six percent of Australians oppose a US-led invasion of Iraq. Fifty-seven percent say they would support one only if it has UN backing. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/2727551.stm | BBC, 2/5/2003 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ John Faulkner )) Before February 5, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1191 false 1 ------ An unnamed Pentagon analyst warns a top CIA official in an email that one of the allegations Powell is planning to make in his February 5 presentation to the UN is based on intelligence from a single informant of dubious reliability. The analyst&#8212;who was the only member of US intelligence to interview the source&#8212;said it wasn't even certain if the informant, known as &#8220;Curve Ball,&#8221; was &#8220;who he said he was.&#8221; [[ http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5412317/site/newsweek | Newsweek, 7/19/2004 ]] ------ The CIA official quickly responded to the analyst's warning: &#8220;Let's keep in mind the fact that this war's going to happen regardless of what Curve Ball said or didn't say,&#8221; he wrote. &#8220;The Powers That Be probably aren't terribly interested in whether Curve Ball knows what he's talking about.&#8221; [[ http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5412317/site/newsweek | Newsweek, 7/19/2004 ]] ====== << deception >> << decision >> February 5, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_355 false 1 ------ The US Department of Defense wires Turkey a 10-page document containing answers to a list of 51 questions that had been given to the US ambassador in Ankara by the Turkish government. Lt. Col. Karen Kwiatkowski, who saw the list, will later recall: &#8220;The questions addressed things like after-war security arrangements, refugees, border control, stability in the Kurdish north, and occupation plans. But every third answer was either &#8216;To be determined&#8217; or &#8216;We're working on that&#8217; or &#8216;This scenario is unlikely.&#8217; At one point, an answer included the &#8216;fact&#8217; that the United States military would physically secure the geographic border of Iraq.&#8221; Commenting on this last answer, Kwiatkowski notes, &#8220;Curious, I checked the length of the physical border of Iraq. Then I checked out the length of our own border with Mexico. Given our exceptional success in securing our own desert borders, I found this statement interesting.&#8221; [[ http://amconmag.com/12_1_03/feature.html | American Conservative, 12/1/03 ]] ====== << preWarPlanning >> ((+ Karen Kwiatkowski )) February 5, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_104 false 1 ------ After months of delay, the US State Department provides the UN's International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) with the Niger documents (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1611 ]]). The State Department includes the following caveat with the documents: &#8220;We cannot confirm these reports and have questions regarding some specific claims.&#8221; French nuclear scientist Jacques Bautes, head of the UN Iraq Nuclear Verification office, quickly determines they are fakes. [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/politics/story.jsp?story=423258 | Independent, 7/10/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A17407-2003Jul19.html | The Washington Post, 7/20/03 ]] ------ Several months later, Melissa Fleming, a spokeswoman for the IAEA, will describe to reporters the ease with which the documents' authenticity was determined. &#8220;These were blatant forgeries. We were able to determine that they were forgeries very quickly.&#8221; [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/attack/2003/0605niger.htm | Independent, 6/5/03 ]] ------ When Jacques Bautes asks for an explanation from the US, there is no response. &#8220;What do you have to say? They had nothing to say,&#8221; Baute will later say in an interview with Seymour Hersh. [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030331fa_fact1 | New Yorker, 3/31/03 ]] ------ There are numerous indications that the documents are forgeries. --- * --- Several of the names and titles of officials mentioned in the documents are incorrect. For example, one of the letters is purportedly signed by Niger's President Tandja Mamadou. The signature is said to be an obvious forgery. An unnamed IAEA official will tell Reuters, &#8220;It doesn't even look close to the signature of the president. I'm not a (handwriting) expert but when I looked at it my jaw dropped.&#8221; (( Unnamed senior official from the IAEA )) [[ http://www.bayarea.com/mld/cctimes/news/6079211.htm | Knight Ridder, 6/13/03 ]] [[ http://truthout.org/docs_03/032803G.shtml | Reuters, 3/26/03 ]] [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030331fa_fact1 | New Yorker, 3/31/03 ]] [[ http://truthout.org/docs_03/032803G.shtml | Reuters, 3/26/03 ]] [[ http://www.globeandmail.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20030308.wxnuke0308/BNStory/International | Globe and Mail, 3/8/03 ]] ------ Another, dated October 10, 2000, is signed &#8220;Alle Elhadj Habibou&#8221; &#8212;Niger's foreign minister who had not been in office since 1989. (( Unnamed senior official from the IAEA )) [[ http://truthout.org/docs_03/032803G.shtml | Reuters, 3/26/03 ]] [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030331fa_fact1 | New Yorker, 3/31/03 ]] ------ The signature of one document is signed by a Niger official who had left his position ten years earlier. [[ http://www.bayarea.com/mld/cctimes/news/6079211.htm | Knight Ridder, 6/13/03 ]] ------ Another letter includes the forged signature and seal of Wissam al-Zahawie, Iraq's former ambassador to the Vatican. When Mr. Al-Zahawie is interviewed by the IAEA, he informs the agency that it was standard procedure for all diplomatic notes to be initialed and sealed, while letters were only to be signed&#8212;with no seal. He explains that correspondences were never both signed and sealed. (( Wissam al-Zahawie )) [[ http://psychoanalystsopposewar.org/resources_files/The_Niger_Timebomb.htm | Independent, 8/10/03a ]] --- * --- In addition to problems with signatures and seals, there are other problems as well. One letter is on the wrong letterhead. [[ http://www.bayarea.com/mld/cctimes/news/6079211.htm | Knight Ridder, 6/13/03 ]] ------ The &#8220;letterhead was out of date and referred to Niger's &#8216;Supreme Military Council&#8217; from the pre-1999 era&#8212;which would be like calling Russia the Soviet Union,&#8221; reports Reuters (( Unnamed senior official from the IAEA )) [[ http://truthout.org/docs_03/032803G.shtml | Reuters, 3/26/03 ]] --- * --- Yet another letter, purported to be from the president of Niger, refers to his authority under the country's obsolete 1965 constitution. (( Unnamed senior official from the IAEA )) [[ http://truthout.org/docs_03/032803G.shtml | Reuters, 3/26/03 ]] --- * --- Also, in some letters, French words are misspelled and dates do not match the day of the week. [[ http://www.bayarea.com/mld/mercurynews/news/5418901.htm | Mercury News, 3/18/03 ]] --- * --- The IAEA also points out that the amount of uranium which Iraq is purportedly interested in purchasing is unrealistic. Seymour Hersh, writing for the New Yorker, explains: &#8220;The large quantity of uranium involved should have been another warning sign. Niger's &#8216;yellow cake&#8217; comes from two uranium mines controlled by a French company, with its entire output pre-sold to nuclear power companies in France, Japan, and Spain. &#8216;Five hundred tons can't be siphoned off without anyone noticing,&#8217; ... [an] IAEA official told me.&#8221; (( Unnamed senior official from the IAEA )) [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030331fa_fact1 | New Yorker, 3/31/03 ]] ------ The identity of the person or group responsible for creating the forged documents is never uncovered, though quoted sources and knowledgeable observers offer suggestions. According to some unnamed sources, a con artist eager to make money was behind the documents. (( Unnamed sources )) [[ http://www.globeandmail.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20030308.wxnuke0308/BNStory/International | Globe and Mail, 3/8/03 ]] [[ http://www.townhall.com/columnists/robertnovak/rn20030714.shtml | Novak, 7/14/03 ]] ------ In a memo to President Bush, an organization of former intelligence officers calling themselves the Veteran Intelligence Professionals for Sanity suggest the possibility that &#8220;amateur intelligence operatives in the Pentagon basement and/or at 10 Downing Street&#8221; were involved in fabricating the forged documents. (( Veteran Intelligence Professionals for Sanity )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0319-08.htm | Veteran Intelligence Professionals, 3/28/03 ]] ------ In October 2003, a former high-level intelligence official tells Seymour Hersh that disgruntled former CIA operatives had fabricated the documents themselves in 2002 hoping that when the letters were exposed as fakes the administration's case for war would be discredited. (( former high-level intelligence official )) [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?031027fa_fact | New Yorker, 10/20/03 ]] ------ Several months before hand, Hersh had suggested the possibility that the documents had been the product of a British propaganda program, revealed later as Operation Mass Appeal. [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?031027fa_fact | New Yorker, 10/20/03 ]] ------ It is also speculated that Iraqi exiles may have had a hand in the forged letters. [[ http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030331fa_fact1 | New Yorker, 3/31/03 ]] ------ Still another source suggests to investigative journalist Robert Dreyfuss that the creators of the documents might have been the group of &#8220;Israelis close to the Lukid party&#8221; who were supplying the Office of Special Plans with intelligence (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_78 ]]). (( Unnamed former official )) [[ http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml?i=20030707&amp;s=dreyfuss | The Nation, 7/7/03 ]] ====== << africaUraniumClaim >> ((- Alle Elhadj Habibou )) ((+ Veteran Intelligence Professionals for Sanity )) ((+ Jacques Bautes )) ((- Tandja Mamadou )) ((+ Mohamed ElBaradei )) ((+ Wissam al-Zahawie )) {{ statement_unnamed_former_high-level_intelligence_official__2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_official_from_the_international_atomic_energy_agency_2 }} {{ statement_unnamed_official_from_the_international_atomic_energy_agency_4 }} {{ statement_hans_blix_6 }} {{ statement_unnamed_official_from_the_international_atomic_energy_agency_6 }} {{ statement_unnamed_official_from_the_international_atomic_energy_agency_5 }} {{ statement_unnamed_official_from_the_international_atomic_energy_agency_3 }} February 5, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1131 false 1 ------ When asked on Larry King Live, CNN, if there is a clear connection between Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda, Rice replies:&#8220;There is no question in my mind about the al-Qaeda connection. It is a connection that has unfolded, that we're learning more about as we are able to take the testimony of detainees, people who were high up in the al-Qaeda organization. And what emerges is a picture of a Saddam Hussein who became impressed with what al-Qaeda did after it bombed our embassies in 1998 in Kenya and Tanzania, began to give them assistance in chemical and biological weapons, something that they were having trouble achieving on their own, that harbored a terrorist network under this man Zarqawi, despite the fact that Saddam Hussein was told that Zarqawi was there.&#8221; [[ http://www.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0302/05/lkl.00.html | CNN, 2/15/2003 ]] [[ http://www.house.gov/reform/min/features/iraq_on_the_record/ | Iraq on the Record database, 3/16/2004 ]] ====== << terroristTiesQuotes >> ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) {{ duplicate_condoleezza_rice_28 }} 2:00 a.m. February 5, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_702 false 1 ------ Director of Central Intelligence George Tenet calls Colin Powell's hotel room at the Waldorf-Astoria hotel in New York City. Powell's chief of staff, Larry Wilkerson picks up the phone. Tenet says that he is concerned that too much has been cut from Powell's speech and tells Wilkerson that he wants to take one last look at the final draft. A copy of the speech is quickly sent to Tenet who is staying at another hotel. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 230-31 ]] ====== << deception >> ((+ Larry Wilkerson )) ((+ Lewis Libby )) ((+ George Tenet )) (10:00 a.m.) February 5, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_703 false 1 ------ Dick Cheney's chief of staff, Lewis &#8220;Scooter&#8221; Libby, attempts to telephone Colin Powell's chief of staff, Larry Wilkerson, in order to persuade Powell to link Saddam Hussein to al-Qaeda and include the widely discredited claim (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_175 ]]) that Mohammed Atta had met in Prague with an Iraqi intelligence officer in April 2001 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_163 ]]). Wilkerson refuses to take the call. &#8220;Scooter,&#8221; one State Department aide later explains to Vanity Fair magazine, &#8220;wasn't happy.&#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 232 ]] ====== << deception >> << pragueConnection >> << terroristTies >> ((+ Lewis Libby )) ((+ Larry Wilkerson )) ((- Colin Powell )) 10:30 a.m. February 5, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_442 false 1 ------ US Secretary of State Colin Powell presents the Bush administration's case against Saddam to the UN Security Council, in advance of an expected vote on a second resolution that the US and Britain hope will provide the justification to use military force against Iraq. [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030205-1.html | The White House, 2/6/03 ]] ------ At the insistence of Powell, CIA Director George Tenet is seated directly behind him to the right. &#8220;It was theater, a device to signal to the world that Powell was relying on the CIA to make his case that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction,&#8221; Vanity Fair magazine will later explain. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 232 ]] ------ In his speech before the Council, Powell makes the case that Iraq is in further material breach of past UN resolutions, specifically the most recent one, UN Resolution 1441. Sources cited in Powell's presentation include defectors, informants, communication intercepts, procurement records, photographs, and detainees. [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030205-1.html | The White House, 2/6/03 ]] ------ Most of the allegations made by Powell are later demonstrated to be false. &#8220;The defectors and other sources went unidentified,&#8221; the Associated Press will later report. &#8220;The audiotapes were uncorroborated, as were the photo interpretations. No other supporting documents were presented. Little was independently verifiable.&#8221; [[ http://www.theolympian.com/home/news/20030810/frontpage/72455_Printer.shtml | Associated Press, 8/9/03 ]] --- Iraq's December 7 declaration was inaccurate --- Powell contends that Iraq's December 7 declaration was not complete. According to UN Resolution 1441 the document was supposed to be a &#8220;currently accurate, full and complete declaration of all aspects&#8221; of its programs to develop weapons of mass destruction. But Saddam has not done this, says Powell, who explains that Iraq has yet to provide sufficient evidence that it destroyed its previously declared stock of 8,500 liters of anthrax, as it claimed in the declaration. Furthermore, notes the Secretary of State, UNSCOM inspectors had previously estimated that Iraq possessed the raw materials to produce as much as 25,000 liters of the virus. [[ http://www.vcsun.org/~battias/911/20030300/20030206.iraq.alQ.no%2310673A.txt | New York Times, 2/5/03 ]] [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030205-1.html | The White House, 2/6/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A31744-2003Feb5?language=printer | Washington Post, 2/6/03d ]] --- Iraq has ties to al Qaeda --- Powell repeats earlier claims that Saddam Hussein's government has ties to al-Qaeda. Powell focuses on the cases of the militant Islamic group Ansar-al-Islam and Abu Musab Zarqawi, a Jordanian-born Palestinian, who had received medical treatment in Baghdad during the summer of 2002 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_185 ]]). [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030205-1.html | The White House, 2/6/03 ]] ------ However, just days before Powell's speech, US and British intelligence officials&#8212;speaking on condition of anonymity&#8212;told the press that the administration's allegations of Iraqi-al-Qaeda ties were based on information provided by Kurdish groups, who, as enemies of Ansar-al-Islam, should not be considered reliable. Furthermore, these sources unequivocally stated that intelligence analysts on both sides of the Atlantic remained unconvinced of the purported links between Iraq and al-Qaeda (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_443 ]]). [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/middle_east/story.jsp?story=375403 | Independent, 2/3/03 ]] [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/02/04/wirq04.xml/ | Telegraph, 2/4/03 ]] ------ Powell also claims that Iraq provided &#8220;chemical or biological weapons training for two al-Qaeda associates beginning in December 2000.&#8221; The claim is based on a September 2002 CIA document which had warned that its sources were of &#8220;varying reliability&#8221; and that the claim was not substantiated (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1213 ]]). The report's main source, Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi, an al-Qaeda operative who offered the information to CIA interrogators while in custody, later recounts the claim (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1214 ]]). (( Unnamed administration official )) [[ http://www.cnn.com/2002/US/09/25/us.iraq.alqaeda/ | CNN, 9/26/02 ]] [[ http://msnbc.msn.com/id/5305085/site/newsweek/ | Newsweek, 7/5/2004 ]] [[ http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article6587.htm | The New York Times, 7/31/2004 ]] ------ Senior US officials will admit to the New York Times and Washington Post after the presentation that the administration was not claiming that Saddam Hussein is &#8220;exercising operational control&#8221; of al-Qaeda. (( Unnamed senior US officials )) (( Unnamed senior US State Department officials )) [[ http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/ssistory.mpl/special/iraq/1767136 | New York Times, 2/6/03b ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A38235-2003Feb6.html | Washington Post, 2/7/03 ]] --- Iraq has missiles capable of flying up to 1,200 kilometers --- Describing a photo of the al-Rafah weapons site, Powell says: &#8220;As part of this effort, another little piece of evidence, Iraq has built an engine test stand that is larger than anything it has ever had. Notice the dramatic difference in size between the test stand on the left, the old one, and the new one on the right. Note the large exhaust vent. This is where the flame from the engine comes out. The exhaust vent on the right test stand is five times longer than the one on the left. The one of the left is used for short-range missiles. The one on the right is clearly intended for long-range missiles that can fly 1,200 kilometers. This photograph was taken in April of 2002. Since then, the test stand has been finished and a roof has been put over it so it will be harder for satellites to see what's going on underneath the test stand.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030205-1.html | The White House, 2/6/03 ]] [[ http://www.vcsun.org/~battias/911/20030300/20030206.iraq.alQ.no%2310673A.txt | New York Times, 2/5/03 ]] ------ But according to the Associated Press, &#8220;... UN missile experts have reported inspecting al-Rafah at least five times since inspections resumed Nov. 27, have studied the specifications of the new test stand, regularly monitor tests at the installation, and thus far have reported no concerns.&#8221; [[ http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/news/archive/2003/02/07/international1107EST0556.DTL | Associated Press, 2/7/03 ]] ------ Similarly, Reuters quotes Ali Jassem, an Iraqi official, who explains that the large stand referred to in Powell's speech is not yet in operation and that its larger size is due to the fact that it will be testing engines horizontally. [[ http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml;jsessionid=442NLNJNEXPJGCRBAELCFEY?type=worldNews&amp;storyID=2188616 | Reuters, 2/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,896137,00.html | Guardian, 2/15/03 ]] ------ Several days later, Blix will report to the UN that &#8220;so far, the test stand has not been associated with a proscribed activity.&#8221; [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,896137,00.html | Guardian, 2/15/03b ]] --- Iraqis attempted to hide evidence from inspectors --- Powell shows the UN Security Council satellite shots depicting what he claims are chemical weapons bunkers and convoys of Iraqi cargo trucks preparing to transport ballistic missile components from a weapons site just two days before the arrival of inspectors. &#8220;We saw this kind of housecleaning at close to 30 sites,&#8221; Powell explains. &#8220;We must ask ourselves: Why would Iraq suddenly move equipment of this nature before inspections if they were anxious to demonstrate what they had or did not have?&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030205-1.html | The White House, 2/6/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A32103-2003Feb5.html | Washington Post, 2/6/03 ]] ------ But the photos are interpreted differently by others. An unnamed UN official and German UN Inspector Peter Franck say the trucks in the photos are actually fire engines. [[ http://www.bayarea.com/mld/mercurynews/news/5418901.htm | Mercury News, 3/18/03 ]] [[ http://www.spacewar.com/2003/030606085746.acogtyhg.html | Agence France Presse, 6/6/03 ]] ------ Another series of photos&#8212;taken during the spring and summer of 2002&#8212;show that Iraqis have removed a layer of topsoil from the al-Musayyib chemical complex. This piece of evidence, combined with information provided by an unnamed source, leads Powell to draw the following conclusion: &#8220;The Iraqis literally removed the crust of the earth from large portions of this site in order to conceal chemical weapons evidence that would be there from years of chemical weapons activity.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030205-1.html | The White House, 2/6/03 ]] [[ http:/www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A32125-2003Feb5?language=printer | Washington Post, 2/6/03h ]] ------ Showing another series of pictures&#8212;one taken on November 10 (before inspections) and one taken on December 22&#8212;Powell says that a guard station and decontamination truck were removed prior to the arrival of inspectors. Powell does not explain how he knows that the truck in the photograph was a decontamination truck. [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030205-1.html | The White House, 2/6/03 ]] [[ http:/www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A32125-2003Feb5?language=printer | Washington Post, 2/6/03h ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A32202-2003Feb5.html | Washington Post, 2/6/03 ]] --- Communication intercepts demonstrate Iraqi attempts to conceal information from inspectors --- Powell plays recordings of three conversations intercepted by US Intelligence&#8212;one on November 26, another on January 30, and a third, a &#8220;few weeks&#8221; before. The conversations suggest that the Iraqis were attempting to hide evidence from inspectors. [[ http://www.vcsun.org/~battias/911/20030300/20030206.iraq.alQ.no%2310673A.txt | New York Times, 2/5/03 ]] [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030205-1.html | The White House, 2/6/03 ]] [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-567934,00.html | Times, 2/6/03 ]] [[ http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/02/06/1044498914535.html | Sydney Morning Herald, 2/7/03 ]] ------ Senior administration officials concede to The Washington Post that it was not known &#8220;what military items were discussed in the intercepts.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A134-2003Feb12.html | Washington Post, 2/13/03 ]] ------ Some critics argue that the intercepts were presented out of context and open to interpretation. [[ http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/02/06/1044498914535.html | Sydney Morning Herald, 2/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/02/09/1044725663093.html | Sydney Morning Herald, 2/9/03 ]] ------ Others note that the conversations were translated from Arabic by US translators and were not analyzed or verified by an independent specialist. [[ http://www.newsday.com/news/local/longisland/columnists/ny-nybres063118829feb06,0,1080808.column?coll=ny-li-columnists | Newsday, 2/6/03 ]] --- Biological weapons factories --- Colin Powell says that US intelligence has &#8220;firsthand descriptions&#8221; that Iraq has 18 mobile biological weapons factories mounted on trucks and railroad cars. Information about the mobile weapons labs are based on the testimonies of four sources&#8212;a defected Iraqi chemical engineer who claims to have supervised one of these facilities, an Iraqi civil engineer (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_430 ]]), a source in &#8220;a position to know,&#8221; and a defected Iraqi major (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_484 ]]). Powell says that the mobile units are capable of producing enough dry biological agent in a single month to kill several thousand people. He shows computer-generated diagrams and pictures based on the sources' descriptions of the facilities. Colin Powell says that according to the chemical engineer, during the late 1990s, Iraq's biological weapons scientists would often begin the production of pathogens on Thursday nights and complete the process on Fridays in order to evade UNSCOM inspectors whom Iraq believed would not conduct inspections on the Muslim holy day. [[ http://www.vcsun.org/~battias/911/20030300/20030206.iraq.alQ.no%2310673A.txt | New York Times, 2/5/03 ]] [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030205-1.html | The White House, 2/6/03 ]] [[ http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L08351098 | Reuters, 2/8/02 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A31744-2003Feb5?language=printer | Washington Post 2/5/03d ]] ------ Responding to the allegation, Iraqi officials will concede that they do in fact have mobile labs, but insist that they are not used for the development of weapons. According to the Iraqis, the mobile labs are used for food analysis for disease outbreaks, mobile field hospitals, a military field bakery, food and medicine refrigeration trucks, a mobile military morgue and mobile ice making trucks. [[ http://abcnews.go.com/sections/wnt/World/iraq_WMD030521.html | ABC News, 5/21/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,889135,00.html | Guardian, 2/5/03 ]] ------ Iraq's explanation is consistent with earlier assessments of the UN weapons inspectors. Before Powell's presentation, Hans Blix had dismissed suggestions that the Iraqis were using mobile biological weapons labs, reporting that inspections of two alleged mobile labs had turned up nothing. &#8220;Two food-testing trucks have been inspected and nothing has been found,&#8221; Blix said. And Ewen Buchanan, spokesman for the UN Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission, said, &#8220;The outline and characteristics of these trucks that we inspected were all consistent with the declared purposes.&#8221; [[ http://truthout.org/docs_02/020603A.htm | The Guardian, 2/5/03 ]] [[ http://abcnews.go.com/sections/wnt/World/iraq_WMD030521.html | ABC News, 5/21/03 ]] ------ Powell's case is further damaged when it is later learned that one of the sources Powell cited, the Iraqi major, had been earlier judged unreliable by intelligence agents at the Defense Intelligence Agency (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_484 ]]). In May 2002, the analysts had issued a &#8220;fabricator notice&#8221; on the informant, noting that he had been &#8220;coached by Iraqi National Congress&#8221; (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_473 ]]). ------ But the main source for the claim had been an Iraqi defector known as &#8220;Curve Ball,&#8221; who turned out to be the brother of a top aide to Ahmed Chalabi. The source claimed to be a chemical engineer who had helped design and build the mobile labs. His information was passed to Washington through Germany's intelligence service, the Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND), which had been introduced to the source by the Iraqi National Congress (INC). In passing along the information, the BND noted that there were &#8220;various problems with the source.&#8221; And only one member of the US intelligence community had actually met with the person&#8212;an unnamed Pentagon analyst who determined the man was an alcoholic and of dubious reliability. Yet both the DIA and the CIA validated the information. (( Unnamed Pentagon analyst )) (( Unnamed senior German security official )) (( Unnamed current and former US intelligence officials )) (( Unnamed senior US officials )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0822-12.htm | Veteran Intelligence Professionals for Sanity, 08/22/03 ]] [[ http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4711076/ | Newsweek, 4/19/2004 ]] [[ http://www.charlotte.com/mld/observer/news/8351497.htm?1c | Knight Ridder, 4/4/2004 ]] [[ http://www.dfw.com/mld/dfw/news/8298026.htm?1c | Knight Ridder, 3/28/2004 ]] [[ http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5412317/site/newsweek | Newsweek, 7/19/2004 ]] ------ In addition to the inspectors' assessments and the dubious nature of the sources Powell cited, there are numerous other problems with the mobile factories claim. ------ Raymond Zilinskas, a microbiologist and former UN weapons inspector, argues that significant amounts of pathogens such as anthrax, could not be produced in the short span of time suggested in Powell's speech. &#8220;You normally would require 36 to 48 hours just to do the fermentation .... The short processing time seems suspicious to me.&#8221; He also says: &#8220;The only reason you would have mobile labs is to avoid inspectors, because everything about them is difficult. We know it is possible to build them&#8212;the United States developed mobile production plants, including one designed for an airplane&#8212;but it's a big hassle. That's why this strikes me as a bit far-fetched.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A31744-2003Feb5?language=printer | Washington Post, 2/5/03d ]] ------ After the Powell's speech, Blix will say in his March 7 report to the UN that his inspectors found no evidence of mobile weapons labs (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_329 ]]). [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/03/07/sprj.irq.un.transcript.blix/index.html | UNMOVIC, 3/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.outlookindia.com/pti_news.asp?id=125547 | Agence France Presse, 3/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/03/07/sprj.irq.main/index.html | CNN, 3/7/03 ]] [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/politics/story.jsp?story=384955 | Blix, 3/7/03 ]] --- Iraq is developing unmanned drones capable of deliverying weapons of mass destruction --- Powell asserts that Iraq has flight-tested an unmanned drone capable of flying up to 310 miles and is working on a liquid-fueled ballistic missile with a range of 745 miles. He plays a video of an Iraqi F-1 Mirage jet dispersing &#8220;simulated anthrax.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030205-1.html | The White House, 2/6/03 ]] [[ http://www.vcsun.org/~battias/911/20030300/20030206.iraq.alQ.no%2310673A.txt | New York Times, 2/5/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A31968-2003Feb5?language=printer | Washington Post, 2/5/03f ]] ------ But the Associated Press will later report that the video was made prior to the 1991 Gulf War. Apparently, three of the four spray tanks shown in the film had been destroyed during the 1991 military intervention. [[ http://www.theolympian.com/home/news/20030810/frontpage/72455_Printer.shtml | Associated Press, 8/9/03 ]] --- Imported Aluminum tubes were meant for centrifuge --- Powell argues that the aluminum tubes which Iraq had attempted to import in July 2001 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_41 ]]) were meant to be used in a nuclear weapons program and not for artillery rockets as experts from the US Energy Department, the INR, and the IAEA have been arguing (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_479 ]]) (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_51 ]]) (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_43 ]]) (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_292 ]]). To support the administration's case, he cites unusually precise specifications and high tolerances for heat and stress. &#8220;It strikes me as quite odd that these tubes are manufactured to a tolerance that far exceeds US requirements for comparable rockets,&#8221; he says. &#8220;Maybe Iraqis just manufacture their conventional weapons to a higher standard than we do, but I don't think so.&#8221; Powell also suggests that because the tubes were &#8220;anodized,&#8221; it was unlikely that they had been designed for conventional use. [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030205-1.html | The White House, 2/6/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A32110-2003Feb5?language=printer | Washington Post, 2/5/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A59403-2003Mar7.html | Washington Post, 3/8/03 ]] ------ Powell does not mention that numerous US nuclear scientists have dismissed this claim (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_43 ]]) (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_47 ]]) (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_49 ]]). [[ http://www.isis-online.org/publications/iraq/aluminumtubes.html | Institute for Science and International Security, 10/9/03 ]] ------ Powell also fails to say that Iraq has rockets identical to the Italian Medusa 81 mm rockets, which are of the same dimensions and made of the same alloy as the 3,000 tubes that were intercepted in July 2001 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_53 ]]). [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39500-2003Aug9.html | Washington Post, 8/10/03 ]] ------ This had been reported just two weeks earlier by the Washington Post. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A35249-2003Jan23.html | Washington Post, 1/24/03 ]] ------ Moreover, just two days before, Powell was explicitly warned by the US State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research not to cite the aluminum tubes as evidence that Iraq is pursuing nuclear weapons (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_479 ]]). [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/justify/2003/0729powell.htm | Financial Times, 7/29/03 ]] --- Iraq attempted to acquire magnets for use in a gas centrifuge program --- Powell says: &#8220;We ... have intelligence from multiple sources that Iraq is attempting to acquire magnets and high-speed balancing machines. Both items can be used in a gas centrifuge program to enrich uranium. In 1999 and 2000, Iraqi officials negotiated with firms in Romania, India, Russia and Slovenia for the purchase of a magnet production plant. Iraq wanted the plant to produce magnets weighing 20 to 30 grams. That's the same weight as the magnets used in Iraq's gas centrifuge program before the Gulf War.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030205-1.html | The White House, 2/6/03 ]] [[ http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/02/06/1044318707058.html | New York Times, 2/5/03 ]] [[ http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/ssistory.mpl/special/iraq/1767136 | New York Times, 2/6/03b ]] ------ Investigation by the UN's International Atomic Energy Agency [IAEA] will demonstrate that the magnets have a dual use. IAEA Director Mohamed ElBaradei said a little more than a week before, on January 27, in his report to the Security Council: &#8220;Iraq presented detailed information on a project to construct a facility to produce magnets for the Iraqi missile program, as well as for industrial applications, and that Iraq had prepared a solicitation of offers, but that the project had been delayed due to &#8216;financial credit arrangements&#8217; . Preliminary investigations indicate that the specifications contained in the offer solicitation are consistent with those required for the declared intended uses. However, the IAEA will continue to investigate the matter ....&#8221; (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_292 ]]) (( Letter dated January, 27 2003 from the Secretary-General addressed to the President of the Security Council )) ------ On March 7, ElBaradei will provide an additional update: &#8220;The IAEA has verified that previously acquired magnets have been used for missile guidance systems, industrial machinery, electricity meters and field telephones. Through visits to research and production sites, reviews of engineering drawings and analyses of sample magnets, IAEA experts familiar with the use of such magnets in centrifuge enrichment have verified that none of the magnets that Iraq has declared could be used directly for a centrifuge magnetic bearing.&#8221; (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_329 ]]) [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/03/07/sprj.irq.un.transcript.elbaradei/ | CNN, 3/7/03 ]] --- Iraq attempted to purchase machines to balance centrifuge rotors --- Powell states: &#8220;Intercepted communications from mid-2000 through last summer show that Iraq front companies sought to buy machines that can be used to balance gas centrifuge rotors. One of these companies also had been involved in a failed effort in 2001 to smuggle aluminum tubes into Iraq.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030205-1.html | The White House, 2/6/03 ]] [[ http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/02/06/1044318707058.html | New York Times, 2/5/03 ]] [[ http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/ssistory.mpl/special/iraq/1767136 | New York Times, 2/6/03b ]] --- Powell cites the documents removed from the home of Iraqi scientist Faleh Hassan --- Powell cites the documents that had been found on January 16, 2003 by inspectors with the help of US intelligence at the Baghdad home of Faleh Hassan, a nuclear scientist. Powell asserts that the papers are a &#8220;dramatic confirmation&#8221; that Saddam Hussein is concealing evidence and not cooperating with the inspections. The 3,000 documents contained information relating to the laser enrichment of uranium (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_314 ]]). [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030205-1.html | The White House, 2/6/03 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/2673023.stm | Hassan, 1/19/03 ]] [[ http://www.dailytelegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/01/19/wirq19.xml | Telegraph, 1/18/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A11547-2003Jan18.html | Associated Press, 1/18/03 ]] ------ A little more than a week later, in the inspectors' February 14 update to the UN Security Council (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_320 ]]), ElBaradei will say, &#8220;While the documents have provided some additional details about Iraq's laser enrichment development efforts, they refer to activities or sites already known to the IAEA and appear to be the personal files of the scientist in whose home they were found. Nothing contained in the documents alters the conclusions previously drawn by the IAEA concerning the extent of Iraq's laser enrichment program.&#8221; [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,896137,00.html | Guardian, 2/15/03b ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/middle_east/2761261.stm | BBC, 2/17/03 ]] [[ http://www.theolympian.com/home/news/20030810/frontpage/72455_Printer.shtml | Associated Press, 8/9/03 ]] --- Iraq is hiding missiles in the desert --- Powell says that according to unidentified sources, the Iraqis have hidden rocket launchers and warheads containing biological weapons in the western desert. He further contends that these caches of weapons are hidden in palm groves and moved to different locations on a weekly basis. [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030205-1.html | The White House, 2/6/03 ]] ------ It will later be suggested that this claim was &#8220;lifted whole from an Iraqi general's written account of hiding missiles in the 1991 war.&#8221; [[ http://www.theolympian.com/home/news/20030810/frontpage/72455_Printer.shtml | Associated Press, 8/9/03 ]] --- Iraq a few dozen scud missiles --- Powell also says that according to unnamed &#8220;intelligence sources,&#8221; Iraq has a few dozen Scud-type missiles. [[ http://www.theolympian.com/home/news/20030810/frontpage/72455_Printer.shtml | Associated Press, 8/9/03 ]] --- Iraq has weapons of mass destruction --- Secretary of State Colin Powell states unequivocally: &#8220;We ... have satellite photos that indicate that banned materials have recently been moved from a number of Iraqi weapons of mass destruction facilities. There can be no doubt that Saddam Hussein has biological weapons and the capability to rapidly produce more, many more.&#8221; Elsewhere in his speech he says: &#8220;We know that Saddam Hussein is determined to keep his weapons of mass destruction, is determined to make more.&#8221; [[ http://usinfo.state.gov/regional/nea/disarm/intro.htm | US Department of State, 2/5/03 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/02/05/sprj.irq.powell.transcript.10/ | CNN, 2/5/03 ]] --- Reaction --- The speech does little to change minds on the Security Council. France, Russia, and China remain opposed to the idea of a new resolution that would pave the way for the US to invade Iraq. These countries say that Powell's speech demonstrates that inspections are working and must be allowed to continue. &#8220;Immediately after Powell spoke, the foreign ministers of France, Russia and China&#8212;all of which hold veto power&#8212;rejected the need for imminent military action and instead said the solution was more inspections,&#8221; reports The Washington Post. But governments who have been supportive of the United States' aggressive stance remain firmly behind Washington. [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A38226-2003Feb6.html | Washington Post, 2/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A32202-2003Feb5.html | Washington Post, 2/6/03 ]] ------ The press' response to Powell's evidence is also mixed. The Times of London, a relatively conservative daily newspaper, describes Powell's presentation as a &#8220;few smudgy satellite photographs, a teaspoon of talcum powder, some Lego-style drawings of sinister trucks and trains, a picture of an American U2 spy plane, several mugshots of Arabic men and a script that required a suspension of mistrust by the world's doves.&#8221; [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-567934,00.html | Times, 2/6/03 ]] ------ The Washington Post opinion pages, however, are filled with praises for the speech. [[ http://www.nybooks.com/articles/16922 | New York Review of Books, 2/26/04 ]] ------ The editorial proclaims that after the presentation, it is &#8220;hard to imagine how anyone could doubt that Iraq possesses weapons of mass destruction.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A32515-2003Feb5?language=printer | The Washington Post, 2/6/04 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> << ChemicalBiologicalQuotes >> << nuclearQuotes >> << wmd >> << weaponsInspections >> << alZarqawi >> << terroristTiesQuotes >> << deception >> ((+ Iraqi National Congress (INC) )) ((- Saddam Hussein )) ((+ Raymond Zilinskas )) ((- Abu Mussab Al Zarqawi )) ((+ Hans Blix )) ((+ Colin Powell )) ((- Faleh Hassan )) ((+ Mohamed ElBaradei )) {{ statement_joern_siljeholm_3 }} {{ duplicate_colin_powell_6 }} {{ statement_dominique_de_villepin_9 }} {{ statement_unnamed_senior_administration_official_5 }} {{ statement_judith_yaphe_3 }} {{ statement_peter_franck_2 }} {{ statement_dominique_de_villepin_10 }} {{ statement_igor_ivanov_7 }} {{ statement_jean-pierre_raffarin_2 }} {{ statement_scott_ritter_15 }} {{ statement_steve_allinson_2 }} {{ statement_greg_thielmann_19 }} {{ commentary_washington_post_5 }} {{ statement_colin_powell_30 }} {{ statement_hans_blix_9 }} {{ statement_kelly_motz_2 }} {{ statement_mohamed_elbaradei_10 }} {{ statement_vladimir_lukin_2 }} {{ statement_luis_ernesto_derbez_2 }} {{ statement_gary_milhollin_2 }} {{ statement_bill_graham_2 }} {{ statement_bela_anda_2 }} {{ statement_ulla_sandbaek_2 }} {{ statement_joschka_fischer_5 }} February 11, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_160 false 1 ------ The Arab satellite TV channel Al Jazeera broadcasts a tape of a voice alleged to be that of Osama Bin Laden. The 16-minute long tape is in Arabic and calls on the Iraqi people to resist US aggression. It also encourages suicide attacks. [[ http://www.jihadunspun.com/intheatre_internal.php?article=44739&amp;list=/home.php&amp; | BBC, 2/12/03 ]] [[ http://www.jihadunspun.com/intheatre_internal.php?article=44740&amp;list=/home.php&amp; | Associated Press, 2/12/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/02/12/international/middleeast/12POLI.html | New York Times, 2/12/03 ]] [[ http://reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=topNews&amp;storyID=2210085 | Reuters, 2/11/03 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/02/11/binladen.excerpts/index.html | CNN, 2/11/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A59736-2003Feb11.html | AP, 2/11/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A59551-2003Feb11.html | Washington Post, 11/12/03 ]] [[ http://www.canada.com/news/story.asp?id=4F96E985-D42E-4A82-AF21-E6DEC045879B | AP, 2/11/03b ]] ------ Bush administration officials attempt to capitalize on the tape's discovery claiming that it represents solid evidence of ties between Osama Bin Laden and Saddam Hussein. US Secretary of State Colin Powell refers to the purported link as a &#8220;partnership.&#8221; And Powell's spokesperson, Richard Boucher says that the recording proves &#8220;that bin Laden and Saddam Hussein seem to find common ground.&#8221; [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/02/12/international/middleeast/12POLI.html | New York Times, 2/12/03 ]] [[ http://reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=topNews&amp;storyID=2210085 | Reuters, 2/11/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A59551-2003Feb11.html | Washington Post, 11/12/03 ]] ------ But a senior editor for Al-Jazeera says the tape offers no evidence of ties between al-Qaeda and Saddam Hussein. &#8220;When you hear it, it doesn't prove any relation between bin Laden or Al Qaeda group and the Iraqi regime,&#8221; he argues. [[ http://abc.net.au/news/newsitems/s782947.htm | ABC News, 2/12/03 ]] ------ Several news reports also challenge Powell and Boucher's interpretation. For example, CNN reveals that the voice had criticized Saddam's regime, declaring that &#8220;the socialists and the rulers [had] lost their legitimacy a long time ago, and the socialists are infidels regardless of where they are, whether in Baghdad or in Aden.&#8221; [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/02/11/binladen.excerpts/index.html | CNN, 2/11/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/02/12/international/middleeast/12TAPE.html | New York Times, 11/12/03b ]] ------ Similarly, a report published by Reuters notes that the voice &#8220;did not express support for Iraqi President Saddam Hussein&#8212;it said Muslims should support the Iraqi people rather than the country's government.&#8221; [[ http://reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=topNews&amp;storyID=2210085 | Reuters, 2/11/03 ]] ------ And in a story posted&#8212;but later pulled&#8212;by MSNBC, it is actually reported that the voice &#8220;called on Iraqis to rise up and oust Iraq President Saddam Hussein.&#8221; [[ ../../images/conspiracy.JPG | MSNBC, 2/11/03 ]] ------ MSNBC later says it pulled the story because the statement was presumably based on an unconfirmed translation. An editor for anti-war.com challenged these claims. [[ http://www.antiwar.com/justin/j021203.html | Anti-war.com, 2/11/03 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((+ Richard A. Boucher )) ((+ Colin Powell )) ((- Saddam Hussein )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) February 12, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_317 false 1 ------ A UN panel&#8212;consisting of missile experts from the United States, Britain, France, Ukraine, Germany and China&#8212;unanimously concludes that Iraq's Al Samoud 2 conventional missile program is in violation of UN resolutions because its range exceeds restrictions imposed in 1991 after the Gulf War. While admitting that the Al Samoud missiles exceed the 150 km limit in test runs&#8212;by a mere 33km&#8212;Iraqi officials insist that they would be incapable of traveling more than 150 km when laden with conventional explosives and guidance equipment. Iraq has more than 100 of these missiles [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A216-2003Feb12.html | The Washington Post, 2/13/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,894628,00.html | Guardian, 2/13/03b ]] ------ Douglas Richardson, the editor of Jane's Missiles and Rockets, says that the &#8220;violation&#8221; is comparable to driving 36mph in a 30mph zone. [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,894628,00.html | Guardian, 2/13/03b ]] [[ http://www.upi.com/view.cfm?StoryID=20030213-120019-4928r | UPI, 2/13/03 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/2812705.stm | BBC, 3/3/02 ]] ------ Iraq is ordered to begin destroying the missiles by March 1 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_319 ]]), which it agrees to do on February 27 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_318 ]]). [[ http://www.abcnews.go.com/wire/World/ap20030228_1661.html | ABC News, 2/28/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/01/international/middleeast/01IRAQ.html | New York Times, 3/1/03 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/2806795.stm | BBC, 1/28/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> February 12, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1825 false 1 ------ A BBC poll finds that 90 percent of Britain?s oppose British participation in a war against Iraq without a UN resolution and 45 percent oppose an invasion of Iraq under any conditions. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/2751471.stm | BBC article ]] ====== << legalJustification >> February 12, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_26 false 1 ------ Democratic Senators on the Senate Armed Services Committee accuse CIA Director George J. Tenet of sabotaging the weapons inspections by refusing to supply the inspectors with the intelligence they need to do their work. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0214-08.htm | Independent 2/14/03 ]] ------ Senator Carl M. Levin tells The Washington Post that according to declassified letters he has obtained from the CIA, dated Jan. 24 and Jan. 28, the agency has not provided inspectors with information about a &quot;large number of sites of significant value.&quot; Furthermore, the senator charges, the letters contradict on-the-record statements made by Tenet who on February 11 claimed that the US had provided inspectors with all the information it had concerning &quot;high value and moderate value sites.&quot; Commenting on this, he says, &#8220;When they've taken the position that inspections are useless, they are bound to fail,&#8221; adding, &#8220;We have undermined the inspectors since the beginning.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A216-2003Feb12.html | Washington Post, 2/13/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0214-08.htm | Independent 2/14/03 ]] ------ Tenet will later acknowledge to Senator Levin&#8212;after the US invasion of Iraq&#8212;that his comments were not entirely accurate. [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2004/02/21/politics/21WEAP.html | New York Times, 2/21/04 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ George Tenet )) ((+ Carl Levin )) February 14, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_320 false 1 ------ UNMOVIC Chief Weapons Inspector Hans Blix and IAEA Director-General Mohamed ElBaradei present an update to the UN Security Council on the progress of weapons inspections in Iraq. The content of their presentation includes no evidence to substantiate US and British claims that Iraq poses a serious threat to the US or Europe. After the report is presented, the majority of the UN Security Council members feel that the use of military force will not be needed to effectively disarm Iraq. [[ http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&amp;DS=S/PV.4707&amp;Lang=E | United Nations, 2/14/03 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/financialtimes021403.htm | Financial Times, 2/14/03 ]] --- UNMOVIC report by Hans Blix --- --- * --- After conducting some 400 inspections at over 300 Iraqi sites since December 2002, the inspection teams still have not found any evidence that Iraq has weapons of mass destruction or that Iraq has programs to develop such weapons. [[ http://www.austin360.com/aas/news/ap/ap_story.html/Intl/AP.V2503.AP-UN-Iraq.html | Associated Press, 2/14/03 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/financialtimes021403.htm | Financial Times, 2/14/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,895722,00.html | Guardian, 2/14/03b ]] [[ http://commondreams.org/headlines03/0215-03.htm | Interpress News Service, 2/15/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldlatest/story/0,1280,-2405456,00.html | AP, 2/14/03 ]] --- * --- The inspectors are unaware of any reliable evidence that the Iraqis have had advanced knowledge of the timing and locations of weapons inspections. &#8220;In no case have we seen convincing evidence that the Iraqi side knew in advance that the inspectors were coming,&#8221; Blix says. [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,895722,00.html | Guardian, 2/14/03b ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,896137,00.html | Guardian, 2/15/03b ]] [[ http://asia.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=politicsNews&amp;storyID=2231289 | Reuters, 2/14/03b ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/financialtimes021403.htm | Financial Times, 2/14/03 ]] [[ http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/02/15/1044927819765.html | Associated Press, 2/14/03 ]] --- * --- The Iraqi government agreed to reduce the number of &#8220;minders&#8221; present in interviews with Iraqi scientists. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/financialtimes021403.htm | Financial Times, 2/14/03 ]] --- * --- The UNMOVIC weapons inspection teams have begun destroying Iraq's declared arsenal of mustard gas. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/financialtimes021403.htm | Financial Times, 2/14/03 ]] --- * --- South Africa has made an agreement with Iraq to assist it in its disarmament efforts. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/financialtimes021403.htm | Financial Times, 2/14/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,895722,00.html | Guardian, 2/14/03b ]] --- * --- Several proscribed weapons and other items remain unaccounted for, including more than 1,000 tons of chemical agents. Blix explains that if they do not exist, Iraq needs to provide him with credible evidence that they have been destroyed. &#8220;Another matter and one of great significance is that many proscribed weapons and items are not accounted for. One must not jump to the conclusion that they exist. However, that possibility is also not excluded. If they exist, they should be presented for destruction. If they do not exist, credible evidence to that effect should be presented.&#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/financialtimes021403.htm | Financial Times, 2/14/03 ]] [[ http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/02/15/1044927819765.html | Associated Press, 2/14/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,895722,00.html | Guardian, 2/14/03b ]] --- * --- Based on the data contained in Iraq's declaration of arms, experts have concluded that two varieties of Iraq's Al Samoud II missile systems are capable of exceeding the 150km range limit that was imposed on Iraq in 1991 after the First Gulf War (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_317 ]]). But contrary to what Powell recently stated in his February 5 presentation to the UN, test stands located at the Al Rafah facility have not been associated with the testing of missiles with the ranges Powell suggested (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_442 ]]). [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/financialtimes021403.htm | Financial Times, 2/14/03 ]] [[ http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/02/15/1044927819765.html | Associated Press, 2/14/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,896137,00.html | Guardian, 2/15/03b ]] --- * --- More interviews with Iraqi scientists, especially ones involved in its former biological weapons programs, are needed. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/financialtimes021403.htm | Financial Times, 2/14/03 ]] --- * --- Recent private interviews with Iraqi scientists have been helpful to weapons inspectors. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/financialtimes021403.htm | Financial Times, 2/14/03 ]] --- * --- The amount of intelligence being supplied by foreign agencies have recently increased and the new information is helping inspectors. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/financialtimes021403.htm | Financial Times, 2/14/03 ]] --- * --- Blix challenges the conclusions made by Powell in his February 5 presentation (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_442 ]]) to the UN with regard to US satellite pictures showing the movement of trucks and supplies at suspected weapons sites prior to inspections. He says, &#8220;The reported movement of munitions at the site could just as easily have been a routine activity as a movement of proscribed munitions in anticipation of an imminent inspection.&#8221; [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/financialtimes021403.htm | Financial Times, 2/14/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,895722,00.html | Guardian, 2/14/03b ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,896137,00.html | Guardian, 2/15/03b ]] [[ http://asia.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=politicsNews&amp;storyID=2231289 | Reuters, 2/14/03b ]] [[ http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/02/15/1044927819765.html | Associated Press, 2/14/03 ]] --- * --- Iraq produced a list of 83 people who it says participated in the destruction of large quantities of anthrax and VX precursors in 1991. [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/financialtimes021403.htm | Financial Times, 2/14/03 ]] --- * --- Inspections are increasing inspectors' knowledge of Iraqi arms. [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,895722,00.html | Guardian, 2/14/03b ]] --- International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) report by Mohamed ElBaradei --- --- * --- ElBaradei's team has found no evidence of an illegal nuclear weapons program. &#8220;We have to date found no evidence of ongoing prohibited nuclear or nuclear related activities in Iraq.&#8221; [[ http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/news/iraq/un/ebsp2003n005.htm | IAEI, 2/14/03 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/financialtimes021403.htm | Financial Times, 2/14/03 ]] --- * --- Iraqi officials have provided IAEA inspectors with immediate access to all sites it has sought to examine. [[ http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/news/iraq/un/ebsp2003n005.htm | IAEI, 2/14/03 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/financialtimes021403.htm | Financial Times, 2/14/03 ]] --- * --- The IAEA is still investigating why Iraq attempted to import aluminum tubes during the summer of 2002. The agency is awaiting an explanation from Iraq as to why the tubes&#8212;alleged by Iraq to have been destined for a conventional weapons artillery program&#8212;were fabricated according to such high quality specifications. [[ http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/news/iraq/un/ebsp2003n005.htm | IAEI, 2/14/03 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/financialtimes021403.htm | Financial Times, 2/14/03 ]] --- * --- Referring to the documents that had been discovered in the home of Faleh Hassan (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_314 ]]), Mohamed ElBaradei states: &#8220;While the documents have provided some additional details about Iraq's laser enrichment development efforts, they refer to activities or sites already known to the IAEA and appear to be the personal files of the scientist in whose home they were found. Nothing contained in the documents alters the conclusions previously drawn by the IAEA concerning the extent of Iraq's laser enrichment program&#8221; . [[ http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/news/iraq/un/ebsp2003n005.htm | IAEI, 2/14/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,896137,00.html | Guardian, 2/15/03b ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/middle_east/2761261.stm | BBC, 2/17/03 ]] --- Reaction --- After the two reports, most UN Security Council members say they believe inspections are working and that the use of military force is unnecessary. Dominique de Villepin, the French foreign minister, says: &#8220;There is an alternative to war: disarming Iraq through inspections. [War] would be so fraught with risk for the people, the region and international stability that it should be envisaged only as a last resort. ... We must give priority to disarmament by peaceful means.&#8221; His comments are followed by a huge applause. &#8220;French Foreign Minister Dominique de Villepin's impassioned speech seeking more time for inspections elicited rare applause from diplomats in the chamber,&#8221; reports the Associated Press. By contrast, the more hawkish remarks of US Secretary of State Colin Powell&#8212;who was said to have appeared &#8220;annoyed&#8221; during parts of Blix's report&#8212; &#8220;did not receive any applause.&#8221; Powell, in his response to the report, had stated: &#8220;We cannot wait for one of these terrible weapons to turn up in our cities.... More inspections&#8212;I am sorry&#8212;are not the answer.... The threat of force must remain.&#8221; After the reports, Germany, Syria, Chile, Mexico, Russia, France and Pakistan, favor continuing the inspections while Spain and Bulgaria back the US and British position. [[ http://commondreams.org/headlines03/0215-03.htm | Interpress News Service, 2/15/03 ]] [[ http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2003/17763.htm | US Department of State, 2/14/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldlatest/story/0,1280,-2405456,00.html | Associated Press, 2/14/03 ]] [[ http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,78639,00.html | Fox News, 2/15/03 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> << wmd >> << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Mohamed ElBaradei )) ((+ Colin Powell )) ((+ Hans Blix )) ((+ Dominique de Villepin )) {{ statement_joschka_fischer_4 }} {{ duplicate_mohamed_elbaradei_12 }} {{ statement_igor_ivanov_6 }} {{ statement_igor_ivanov_5 }} {{ statement_joschka_fischer_3 }} {{ statement_igor_ivanov_4 }} {{ commentary_robin_cook_s_diary_8 }} {{ statement_dominique_de_villepin_8 }} {{ statement_mohamed_muzaffar_al-adhami_3 }} {{ statement_mohamed_muzaffar_al-adhami_2 }} {{ statement_mohamed_muzaffar_al-adhami_4 }} {{ statement_tang_jiaxuan_2 }} {{ statement_tang_jiaxuan_4 }} {{ statement_tang_jiaxuan_3 }} {{ statement_colin_powell_24 }} {{ statement_colin_powell_22 }} {{ statement_colin_powell_19 }} {{ statement_dominique_de_villepin_5 }} {{ statement_colin_powell_20 }} {{ statement_colin_powell_21 }} {{ statement_dominique_de_villepin_7 }} {{ statement_colin_powell_23 }} {{ statement_dominique_de_villepin_6 }} February 14, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1214 false 1 ------ The CIA sends a memo to top Bush administration officials informing them that Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi, an al-Qaeda operative being held in custody by the CIA, has recanted his claim that Iraq provided training in poisons and gases to members of al-Qaeda (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1213 ]]). [[ http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article6587.htm | The New York Times, 7/31/2004 ]] ------ The claim has already been used in speeches by both President George Bush (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_36 ]]) and Secretary of State Colin Powell (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_442 ]]). ====== << wmd >> ((+ Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi )) ((- George W. Bush )) ((- Colin Powell )) February 16, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_410 false 1 ------ The New York Times publishes an op-ed authored by Gordon Adams, the White House's senior defense budget official from 1993 to 1997 and professor of international affairs at George Washington University, and Steve Kosiak, director of budget studies at the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments. They provide several estimates on the cost of invading and occupying Iraq. A worst-case scenario, they conclude could cost as much as $682 billion over five years. [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/02/15/opinion/15CHAR.html | New York Times, 2/16/03 ]] --- Estimated Military Deployment, Combat and Redeployment Costs --- It would cost the US $17 billion for an invasion that involves 150,000 troops for one month. This figure could be as high as $79 billion, however, if the fighting continues for six months and requires as many as 350,000 troops. [[ http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2003/02/14/opinion/15ADAMS-GRAPH.html | New York Times, 2/16/03b ]] --- Estimated Costs of a 5-year Military Occupation --- They estimate that the lowest a 5-year occupation would cost would be $26 billion. This figure assumes that 50,000 troops would be needed the first year, 25,000 troops the second year, and 12,500 troops for the remaining 3 years. In a worst-case scenario, the US would have to keep 150,000 troops in Iraq for the first year, scaling it down over the next four years to 70,000 troops at a total cost of $105 billion. [[ http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2003/02/14/opinion/15ADAMS-GRAPH.html | New York Times, 2/16/03b ]] --- Humanitarian Assistance --- If the US provides humanitarian assistance for only the first year, the estimated cost would be between $1 and $3 billion. However, this figure could be as high as $10 billion, if assistance is needed for up to four years. [[ http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2003/02/14/opinion/15ADAMS-GRAPH.html | New York Times, 2/16/03b ]] --- Recovery/Reconstruction --- They estimated that reconstruction would cost between $10 and $105 billion. [[ http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2003/02/14/opinion/15ADAMS-GRAPH.html | New York Times, 2/16/03b ]] --- Debt/Claims/Reparations --- Iraq might have to pay as much as $361 billion in debts, claims and reparations to Kuwait. [[ http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2003/02/14/opinion/15ADAMS-GRAPH.html | New York Times, 2/16/03b ]] --- Aid to Allies --- They estimate that the US will spend between $6 and $10 billion in aid to allies as a result of the decision to invade Iraq. [[ http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2003/02/14/opinion/15ADAMS-GRAPH.html | New York Times, 2/16/03b ]] ====== << predictions >> ((+ Steve Kosiak )) ((+ Gordon Adams )) February 16, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1130 false 1 ------ Asked for concrete evidence that Hussein has links to al-Qaeda, National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice points to the presence of terrorist operatives allegedly being hosted in Iraq. &#8220;Well, we are, of course, continually learning more about these links between Iraq and al-Qaeda, and there is evidence that Secretary Powell did not have the time to talk about. But the core of the story is there in what Secretary Powell talked about. This poisons network with at least two dozen of its operatives operating in Baghdad, a man who is spreading poisons now throughout Europe and into Russia, a man who got medical care in Baghdad despite the fact that the Iraqis were asked to turn him over, training in biological and chemical weapons.&#8221; [[ http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,78723,00.html | Fox News, 2/16/2003 ]] [[ http://www.house.gov/reform/min/features/iraq_on_the_record/ | Iraq on the Record database, 3/16/2004 ]] ====== << terroristTiesQuotes >> ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) {{ duplicate_condoleezza_rice_27 }} February 18, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_392 false 1 ------ Ari Fleischer says during his daily press briefing: &#8220;Iraq, unlike Afghanistan, is a rather wealthy country. Iraq has tremendous resources that belong to the Iraqi people. And so there are a variety of means that Iraq has to be able to shoulder much of the burden for their own reconstruction [sic].&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030218-4.html | White House, 2/18/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0116-10.htm | Financial Times, 1/16/04 ]] ====== << preWarPlanning >> << motivesBehindWar >> ((+ Ari Fleischer )) February 20, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_325 false 1 ------ Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov says that the US and Britain are pressuring inspectors &#8220;to discontinue their operations in Iraq ... or to pressure them into coming up with assessments that would justify the use of force.&#8221; [[ http://www.fortwayne.com/mld/fortwayne/news/local/5223666.htm | Associated Press, 2/20/03 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Igor Ivanov )) February 20, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1844 false 1 ------ A Pew Research Center/Council on Foreign Relations survey finds that nearly two-thirds of those polled believe that UN weapons inspectors have &#8220;found proof that Iraq is trying to hide weapons of mass destruction&#8221; even though neither Hans Blix nor Mohamed ElBaradei have ever reported this. 57 percent believe that Saddam Hussein helped the 9/11 hijackers. [[ http://www.editorandpublisher.com/eandp/news/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1848576 | Editor and Publisher, 3/26/2003 ]] ====== << publicOpinion >> February 20, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_20 false 1 ------ British Foreign Minister Robin Cook is personally given an intelligence briefing by John Scarlett, head of the British joint intelligence committee. Cook later says in his diary that Scarlett's summary was &#8220;shorn of the political slant with which No 10 encumbers any intelligence assessment.&#8221; After the meeting with Scarlett, Cook concludes that &#8220;Saddam probably does not have weapons of mass destruction in the sense of weapons that could be used against large-scale civilian targets.&#8221; (( Robin Cook's diary )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1005-01.htm | Sunday Times, 10/5/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1005-01.htm | Guardian, 10/6/03 ]] ====== << deception >> << wmd >> ((+ Robin Cook )) ((+ John Scarlett )) February 21, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_324 false 1 ------ Chief UN weapons inspector Hans Blix informs Iraq in a letter delivered to UN ambassador Mohammed Al-Douri that it must begin destroying its Al Samoud 2 missiles and all &#8220;associated equipment&#8221; by March 1. [[ http://www.wpxi.com/iraq/1999952/detail.html | Cox News Service, 2/24/03 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/02/24/sprj.irq.iraq.missiles/ | CNN, 2/24/03 ]] [[ http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,79283,00.html | Associated Press, 2/22/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Mohammed Al-Douri )) ((+ Hans Blix )) February 22, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_226 false 1 ------ The chief weapons inspector for the UN's International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Mohamed ElBaradei, says that Iraq has &#8220;cooperated increasingly well ... in recent days.&#8221; He adds that, in his opinion, there is no reason to &#8220;give up hope.&#8221; He explains that Iraqi officials have provided the inspectors with unrestricted access to all sites as well as Saddam's palaces. &#8220;There is a UN clock,&#8221; he says, &#8220;which is ticking, and a Franco-German one. And above all there are the American clocks&#8212;they work differently. So long as we can report progress, I see no reason why we should break off inspections.&#8221; [[ http://ap.tbo.com/ap/breaking/MGAQIOBOHCD.html | Associated Press, 2/22/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Mohamed ElBaradei )) February 22 or 23, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_341 false 1 ------ President Bush telephones Mexican President Vicente Fox to discuss Mexico's stance on Iraq. Shortly after the phone call, the Mexican government issues a 2-page policy directive backing Bush's policy on Iraq. It states that its position is that Iraq must disarm immediately and makes no mention of the weapons inspections. &#8220;Nothing is more urgent, no time can be lost in achieving this objective,&#8221; it says. The last point of the directive notes the importance of Mexico's relationship with the United States and the need to have a policy based on Mexico's national interests. &#8220;We know that this issue is of critical importance to the United States and to the Bush administration,&#8221; the directive also says. [[ http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2003-02-26-us-mexico-iraq_x.htm | Associated Press, 2/26/03 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ Vicente Fox )) ((+ George W. Bush )) February 23, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1139 false 1 ------ At a town hall meeting with Iraqi-Americans in Dearborn, Michigan, Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz, explains: &#8220;First-and this is really the overarching principle-the United States seeks to liberate Iraq, not occupy Iraq.... If the President should decide to use force, let me assure you again that the United States would be committed to liberating the people of Iraq, not becoming an occupation force.&#8221; [[ http://www.pentagon.gov/speeches/2003/sp20030223-depsecdef0042.html | US Department of Defense, 2/23/2003 ]] ====== << democracyRhetoricQuotes >> ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) {{ duplicate_paul_wolfowitz_8 }} February 24, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_332 false 1 ------ The United States, Britain and Spain submit a draft to the UN Security Council for a second resolution declaring Iraq in &#8220;further material breach&#8221; of previous UN resolutions. The draft claims that the declaration Iraq submitted to the UN Security Council on December 7, 2002 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_251 ]]) contained &#8220;false statements and omissions&#8221; and that Iraq &#8220;has failed to comply with, and cooperate fully in the implementation of&#8221; UN Resolution 1441. Meanwhile France, Russia and Germany field an alternative plan aimed at achieving peaceful disarmament with more rigorous inspections over a period of five months. China expresses support for the alternative plan despite efforts by Powell to convince its government to support the more aggressive proposal. (( US/UK/Spain Draft Resolution, February 24, 2003 )) [[ http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,79386,00.html | Fox News, 2/24/03 ]] ------ At this point, it seems that only Bulgaria will support the American-British-Spanish resolution. Eleven of the fifteen council members have indicated that they favor allowing the inspectors to continue their work. Fox News suggests that the US may be able to convince some countries&#8212;like Angola, Guinea and Cameroon&#8212;to support the resolution since &#8220;there is the possibility that supporting the resolution may reap financial benefits from the United States.&#8221; [[ http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,79386,00.html | Fox News, 2/24/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> << legalJustification >> February 24, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_301 false 1 ------ An unnamed senior UN diplomat tells The Washington Post that he had been told by US officials: &#8220;You are not going to decide whether there is war in Iraq or not. That decision is ours, and we have already made it. It is already final. The only question now is whether the council will go along with it or not.&#8221; (( Unnamed (non-US) senior U.N diplomat )) [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A62438-2003Feb24.html | The Washington Post, 2/25/03 ]] ====== << decision >> February 27, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_318 false 1 ------ Iraq agrees to destroy all the equipment associated with its Al Samoud missile program, including warheads, SA-2 missile engines, machinery to produce missile motors, fuel, launchers, testing equipment, components as well as all software and documentation. The UN had earlier concluded that the missile program was in violation of UN resolutions because the range of the missiles exceeds the 150km limit imposed in 1991 after the Gulf War (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_317 ]]). ------ Responding to news of Iraq's decision, White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer dismisses any suggestion that it is an example of Iraqi cooperation. Instead he describes it as &#8220;deception.&#8221; He says, &#8220;This is the deception the president predicted. We do expect that they will destroy at least some of their missiles.&#8221; He also says that Iraq's actions is &#8220;propaganda, wrapped in a lie, inside a falsehood.&#8221; And Donald Rumsfeld offers a similar interpretation of Iraq's actions. He says: &#8220;I don't see a change in the pattern at all. You know, this is exactly what's been going to for years.... They refuse to cooperate, don't cooperate, drag it out, wait until someone finally nails them with one little piece of the whole puzzle and refuse to do anything about it and then finally when they see the pressure building, they say well, maybe we'll do some of that.&#8221; Bush similarly states: &#8220;The discussion about these rockets is part of [Saddam's] campaign of deception. See, he'll say, &#8216;I'm not going to destroy the rockets,&#8217; and then he'll have a change of mind this weekend and destroy the rockets and say, &#8216;I've disarmed.&#8217; &#8221; And Powell says: &#8220;I think it's just more indication of the reality that we have been trying to convey to the world, that Saddam Hussein is trying to string it out, trying to divert attention, trying to pretend he is cooperating when he is not cooperating, try[ing] to use process as an excuse for not cooperating and not complying with the will of the international community.&#8221; [[ http://www.abcnews.go.com/wire/World/ap20030228_1661.html | ABC News, 2/28/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/01/international/middleeast/01IRAQ.html | New York Times, 3/1/03 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/2806795.stm | BBC, 1/28/03 ]] [[ http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,79763,00.html | Fox News, 2/28/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) ((+ Demetrius Perricos )) ((+ Richard Perle )) ((+ Colin Powell )) Late February 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_364 false 1 ------ Tony McPeak, a retired four-star general who headed the US Air Force during Desert Storm, criticizes the Bush administration's failure to stabilize Afghanistan and build a multilateral coalition to disarm Iraq. He says Bush should start over. &#8220;The world would breathe a sigh of relief, and we'd go back and do it right,&#8221; the former general says. &#8220;I mean, the world would fall in love with this guy. It's not that hard to fix.&#8221; [[ http://www.calpundit.com/archives/000500.html | Associated Press, 2/25/03 ]] ====== << maintreamDissent >> ((+ Tony McPeak )) {{ duplicate_tony_mcpeak_2 }} Late February 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_373 false 1 ------ John Brady Kiesling, a career diplomat of 20 years, resigns from his post as a political counselor at the United States Embassy in Athens, citing his opposition to the administration's Iraq policy. In his faxed letter to Colin Powell&#8212;a copy of which is obtained by the New York Times&#8212;Kiesling writes, &#8220;Our fervent pursuit of war with Iraq is driving us to squander the international legitimacy that has been America's most potent weapon of both offense and defense since the days of Woodrow Wilson.&#8221; Asked by the New York Times, how others in the State Department feel about Bush's plans to invade Iraq, he explains: &#8220;No one of my colleagues is comfortable with our policy. Everyone is moving ahead with it as good and loyal. The State Department is loaded with people who want to play the team game&#8212;we have a very strong premium on loyalty.&#8221; After Kiesling's resignation, two more US diplomats will resign, John Brown, PhD. (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_374 ]]), and Mary Wright (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_375 ]]). (( John Brady Kiesling's letter of resignation to Colin Powell )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0227-01.htm | New York Times, 2/27/03 ]] ====== << maintreamDissent >> ((+ John Brady Kiesling )) February 28, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_333 false 1 ------ Chief UN weapons inspector Hans Blix's 12th quarterly report is circulated among UN Security Council members. The report will be presented orally to the Council on March 7 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_329 ]]). The report does not provide any evidence to support the US and British claim that Iraq has weapons of mass destruction or that is has any programs to develop such weapons. Blix does however say the Iraqis could do more to assist his team's work. [[ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/02/28/wirq28.xml | Telegraph, 2/28/03 ]] [[ http://www.drumbeat.mlaterz.net/Jan%20Feb%202003/Blix%20to%20Iraq%20-%20Do%20More%20022803a.htm | Associated Press, 2/28/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,905372,00.html | Guardian, 3/1/03 ]] ====== << wmd >> << weaponsInspections >> ((+ Hans Blix )) Late February 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_54 false 1 ------ By this time, Iraq's argument that the tubes were meant for conventional rockets, not for a centrifuge, is considered by UN experts to be &#8220;air tight.&#8221; (( Unnamed US intelligence, US administration, and/or UN inspectors )) [[ http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/01/18/iraq/main537096.shtml | CBS News, 2/20/03 ]] [[ http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/allnews/page.cfm?objectid=12665854&amp;method=full&amp;siteid=50143 | Mirror, 2/22/03 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> February 28, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_342 false 1 ------ US special envoy to Latin America Otto Reich meets with Chilean President Ricardo Lagos of Santiago to discuss Chile's position on the US-British-Spanish UN draft resolution declaring Iraq in further material breach of past UN resolutions. Prior to the meeting, Chile had been openly against the passing of another resolution. But after Reich's visit, the president says that force should be used against Iraq if it does not comply with the UN, but &#8220;by a broad coalition of countries.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A19057-2003Feb28.html | The Washington Post, 3/1/03 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ Otto Juan Reich )) ((+ Ricardo Lagos )) March 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_497 false 1 ------ According to Robin Cook, Tony Blair says, &#8220;Left to himself, Bush would have gone to war in January. No, not January, but back in September.&#8221; (( Robin Cook's diary )) [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/politics/story.jsp?story=450373 | Independent, 10/6/03 ]] ====== << decision >> ((+ Robin Cook )) March 1, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_319 false 1 ------ Iraq begins destroying equipment associated with its Al Samoud Weapons program which the UN had determined was in violation of UN resolutions since the range of the missiles exceeds the 150km limit imposed in 1991 after the Gulf War (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_317 ]]). [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/2812705.stm | BBC, 3/12/03 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/03/09/sprj.irq.missiles1130/ | CNN, 3/9/03 ]] ====== << wmd >> << weaponsInspections >> Between March 2003 and June 25, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_2017 false 1 ------ US officials admit that Khalid Shaikh Mohammed and Abu Zubaida have said in interrogations that bin Laden vetoed a long-term relationship with Saddam because he did not want to be in Hussein's debt. [[ http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/unmovic/2003/0625distorted.htm | Newsweek, 6/25/2003 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((+ Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((+ Abu Zubaida )) Before March 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_357 false 1 ------ The US trains between seven and eight hundred Iraqi exiles at the Taszar military base in Hungary. At the base, dubbed &#8220;Camp Freedom,&#8221; the exiles, or &#8220;Free Iraqi Forces&#8221; (FIF), are taught both survival skills and support functions. Most of those trained are believed to be supporters of INC president Ahmed Chalabi. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2811267.stm | BBC, 4/1/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldlatest/story/0,1280,-2524628,00.html | AP, 4/1/03 ]] [[ http://reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=focusIraqNews&amp;storyID=2524262 | Reuters, 4/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0712-05.htm | Knight Ridder, 7/12/03 ]] ====== << preWarPlanning >> ((- Ahmed Chalabi )) March 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_455 false 1 ------ Diplomats from 6 UN Security Council member-states secretly meet one night to write an alternative resolution to the US-British-Spanish draft (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_332 ]]). The compromise resolution would give UN weapons inspectors additional time to complete their work. But the next morning, a US diplomat contacts the Mexicans and tells them not to proceed with the alternative draft. Former Mexican Ambassador to the UN Aguilar Zinser will tell the Associated Press almost a year later: &#8220;Only the people in that room knew what that document said. Early the next morning, I received a call from a US diplomat saying the United States found that text totally unacceptable.&#8221; (( Adolfo Aguilar Zinser )) [[ http://observer.guardian.co.uk/iraq/story/0,12239,1148622,00.html | The Observer, 2/15/04 ]] [[ http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/news/archive/2004/02/12/international2334EST0901.DTL | Associated Press, 2/12/04 ]] ------ &#8220;'When they [the US] found out, they said, &#8216;You should know that we don't like the idea and we don't like you to promote it.&#8217; &#8221; Zinser will also tell The Observer. [[ http://observer.guardian.co.uk/iraq/story/0,12239,1148622,00.html | The Observer, 2/15/04 ]] ------ Aguilar Zinser believes that US knowledge of the secret initiative meant that the meeting had been under surveillance. &#8220;It was very obvious to the countries involved in the discussion on Iraq that we were being observed and that our communications were probably being tapped,&#8221; Aguilar Zinser will later explain to the Associated Press. &#8220;The information was being gathered to benefit the United States.&#8221; (( Adolfo Aguilar Zinser )) [[ http://observer.guardian.co.uk/iraq/story/0,12239,1148622,00.html | The Observer, 2/15/04 ]] [[ http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/news/archive/2004/02/12/international2334EST0901.DTL | Associated Press, 2/12/04 ]] ------ Chile will make similar claims, saying that its UN mission telephones were under surveillance. [[ http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/news/archive/2004/02/12/international2334EST0901.DTL | Associated Press, 2/12/04 ]] ====== << US-BritishSpyingOnUN >> << legalJustification >> ((+ Adolfo Aguilar Zinser )) March 2, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_336 false 1 ------ The Observer breaks the Koza memo (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_334 ]]) story. Neither the US State Department nor the White House denies the authenticity of the leaked memo. White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer tells reporters, &#8220;As a matter of long-standing policy, the administration never comments on anything involving any people involved in intelligence.&#8221; And Patrick Weadon, speaking for the NSA, says, &#8220;At this point, we're not issuing a statement.&#8221; [[ http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/03/03/1046540137073.html | The Sydney Morning Herald, 3/4/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37250-2003Mar3.html | Washington Post, 3/4/03 ]] [[ http://www.sunspot.net/news/nationworld/iraq/bal-te.md.nsa04mar04,0,7914034.story | Baltimore Sun, 3/4/03 ]] ------ The intended victims of the operation are deeply angered by the memo. President Ricardo Lagos demands an immediate explanation from the US and Chile's ambassador to Britain Mariano Fern?ndez explains to The Observer, &#8220;We cannot understand why the United States was spying on Chile. We were very surprised. Relations have been good with America since the time of George Bush Senior.&#8221; [[ http://www.observer.co.uk/iraq/story/0,12239,910657,00.html | The Observer, 3/9/03 ]] ------ Martin Bright, one of the reporters who helped break the story, later tells the Australian Broadcasting Corporation that the exposed operation has &#8220;caused an enormous diplomatic rift between the Chileans and the Americans and the UK.&#8221; He says he believes that the leaked memo is partially responsible for Chile's increasingly defiant stance at the UN. The UN quickly begins a top-level investigation of the spy operation. [[ http://www.abc.net.au/lateline/s800897.htm | Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 3/6/03 ]] [[ http://www.observer.co.uk/iraq/story/0,12239,910657,00.html | The Observer, 3/9/03 ]] ------ The Observer notes that the leaked memo could make it more difficult for the US to obtain UN authorization to wage war on Iraq. [[ http://www.observer.co.uk/international/story/0,6903,905899,00.html | The Observer, 3/2/03 ]] ------ The US media networks largely ignore the story. Though NBC, CNN, and Fox News Channel all arrange for interviews with Martin Bright soon after the story is broken, all three quickly cancel. In an interview with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Bright explains, &#8220;It happened with NBC, Fox TV and CNN, who appeared very excited about the story to the extent of sending cars to my house to get me into the studio, and at the last minute, were told by their American desks to drop the story.&#8221; [[ http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2003/03/04/spy/ | Salon, 3/3/03 ]] [[ http://www.abc.net.au/lateline/s800897.htm | Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 3/6/03 ]] ====== << US-BritishSpyingOnUN >> ((+ Ari Fleischer )) ((+ Patrick Weadon )) ((+ Britain Mariano Fern?ndez )) ((+ Ricardo Lagos )) March 4, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_630 false 1 ------ Powell tells Russia's ORT television station, &#8220;We would prefer not to have a war. Nobody wants war.&#8221; [[ http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/arms/03030404.htm | US Department of State, 3/4/03 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> March 5, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_35 false 1 ------ Robin Cook meets with Tony Blair and has the &#8220;most revealing&#8221; discussion about Saddam's alleged weapons arsenal. During the exchange Blair essentially acknowledges that Saddam does not have weapons of mass destruction that could be used against his enemies like the US or Britain. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1005-01.htm | Times, 10/5/03 ]] ------ Cook says to Blair: &#8220;It's clear from the private briefing I have had that Saddam has no weapons of mass destruction in a sense of weapons that could strike at strategic cities. But he probably does have several thousand battlefield chemical munitions. Do you never worry that he might use them against British troops?&#8221; Blair responds, &#8220;Yes, but all the effort he has had to put into concealment makes it difficult for him to assemble them quickly for use.&#8221; (( Robin Cook's diary )) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1005-01.htm | Times, 10/5/03 ]] ====== << wmd >> ((+ Robin Cook )) ((+ Tony Blair )) ((+ John Scarlett )) {{ duplicate_robin_cook_s_diary_2 }} March 6, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_330 false 1 ------ During a televised national press conference, President Bush states that the US will call for a vote in the UN Security Council, regardless of the anticipated vote. A reporter asks, &#8220;[T]he Security Council faces a vote next week on a resolution implicitly authorizing an attack on Iraq. Will you call for a vote on that resolution, even if you aren't sure you have the vote?&#8221; Bush responds: &#8220;No matter what the whip count is, we're calling for the vote. We want to see people stand up and say what their opinion is about Saddam Hussein and the utility of the United Nations Security Council. And so, you bet. It's time for people to show their cards, to let the world know where they stand when it comes to Saddam.&#8221; But 11 days later, Bush will announce that the US will not call for a vote, saying, &#8220;The United Nations Security Council has not lived up to its responsibilities, so we will rise to ours.&#8221; The decision is made not to seek a second resolution when it becomes apparent that it would not pass. [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/03/20030306-8.html | White House, 3/6/03 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/ALLPOLITICS/03/07/sprj.irq.us.reax/ | CNN, 3/6/03 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> << weaponsInspections >> ((+ George W. Bush )) March 7, 2003-March 9, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1845 false 1 ------ A New York Times/CBS News Poll reveals that 45 percent of those polled believe that &#8220;Saddam Hussein was personally involved in the September 11 terrorist attacks.&#8221; [[ http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/03/18/opinion/polls/main544511.shtml | CBS News, 3/10/2003 ]] [[ http://www.editorandpublisher.com/eandp/news/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1848576 | Editor and Publisher, 3/26/2003 ]] ====== << publicOpinion >> March 7, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_329 false 1 ------ UNMOVIC chief arms inspector Hans Blix provides a quarterly report to the UN Security Council on the progress of inspections in Iraq, as required by UN Security Resolution 1284 (1999). It is the twelfth such report since UNMOVIC's inception. Blix's report to the Council does not contain any evidence to support US and British claims that Iraq has weapons of mass destruction or the programs to develop such weapons. IAEA director-general Mohamed ElBaradei also reports to the Council and says there are no signs that Iraq has reconstituted its nuclear weapons program. [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/03/07/sprj.irq.un.transcript.blix/index.html | UNMOVIC, 3/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/03/07/sprj.irq.main/index.html | CNN, 3/7/03 ]] --- UNMOVIC report by Hans Blix --- --- * --- There is no evidence that Iraq has mobile biological weapons factories, as was recently alleged by Colin Powell in his February 5 presentation (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_442 ]]) to the UN. &#8220;Several inspections have taken place ... in relation to mobile production facilities,&#8221; Blix says. &#8220;No evidence of proscribed activities has so far been found.&#8221; He further explained that his inspectors had examined numerous mobile facilities and large containers with seed processing equipment. [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/03/07/sprj.irq.un.transcript.blix/index.html | UNMOVIC, 3/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.outlookindia.com/pti_news.asp?id=125547 | Agence France Presse, 3/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/03/07/sprj.irq.main/index.html | CNN, 3/7/03 ]] [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/politics/story.jsp?story=384955 | Blix, 3/7/03 ]] --- * --- The Iraqi government has increased its cooperation with inspectors since the end of January. It is attempting to quantify the biological and chemical weapons that it says were destroyed in 1991. [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/03/07/sprj.irq.un.transcript.blix/index.html | UNMOVIC, 3/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/03/07/sprj.irq.main/index.html | CNN, 3/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.latimes.com/la-030703uniraq_wr,0,743373.story | Los Angeles Times, 3/7/03 ]] [[ http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/national/apmideast_story.asp?category=1107&amp;slug=UN+Iraq+Report | Associated Press, 3/7/03 ]] --- * --- Iraq's destruction of several Al Samoud II missiles represents a real step towards disarmament. &#8220;The destruction undertaken constitutes a substantial measure of disarmament,&#8221; he says. &#8220;We are not watching the destruction of toothpicks. Lethal weapons are being destroyed.&#8221; [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/03/07/sprj.irq.un.transcript.blix/index.html | UNMOVIC, 3/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.latimes.com/la-030703uniraq_wr,0,743373.story | Los Angeles Times, 3/7/03 ]] [[ http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/national/apmideast_story.asp?category=1107&amp;slug=UN+Iraq+Report | Associated Press, 3/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/08/international/middleeast/08IRAQ.html | New York Times, 3/8/03 ]] --- * --- Blix says that the UN inspectors needed a few more months to finish their work. &#8220;Even with a proactive Iraqi attitude induced by continued outside pressure, it will still take some time to verify sites and items, analyze documents, interview relevant persons and draw conclusions,&#8221; he says, concluding, &#8220;It will not take years, nor weeks, but months.&#8221; [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/03/07/sprj.irq.un.transcript.blix/index.html | UNMOVIC, 3/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.latimes.com/la-030703uniraq_wr,0,743373.story | Los Angeles Times, 3/7/03 ]] [[ http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/national/apmideast_story.asp?category=1107&amp;slug=UN+Iraq+Report | Associated Press, 3/7/03 ]] --- * --- Iraqi scientists have recently accepted inspectors' requests to be interviewed without &#8220;minders.&#8221; &#8220;Since we started requesting interviews, 38 individuals were asked for private interviews, of which 10 accepted under our terms, seven during the past week,&#8221; Blix explains. [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/03/07/sprj.irq.main/index.html | CNN, 3/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/03/07/sprj.irq.un.transcript.blix/index.html | UNMOVIC, 3/7/03 ]] --- * --- Some Iraqi scientists have agreed to interviews without &#8220;minders&#8221; &#8212;but more cooperation is needed. He says, &#8220;While the Iraqi side seems to have encouraged interviewees not to request the presence of Iraqi officials or the taping of the interviews, conditions ensuring the absence of undue influences are difficult to attain inside Iraq.&#8221; [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/03/07/sprj.irq.un.transcript.blix/index.html | UNMOVIC, 3/7/03 ]] ------ Iraq needs to turn over more documents. &#8220;Iraq, with a highly developed administrative system, should be able to provide more documentary evidence about its proscribed weapons. Only a few new such documents have come to light so far and been handed over since we began.&#8221; [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/03/07/sprj.irq.un.transcript.blix/index.html | UNMOVIC, 3/7/03 ]] ------ There is no evidence of underground weapons facilities. Blix says: &#8220;There have been reports, denied by Iraq, that proscribed activities are conducted underground. Iraq should provide information on underground structures suitable for the production or storage of weapons of mass destruction. During inspections of declared or undeclared facilities, inspectors examined building structures for any possible underground facilities. In addition, ground-penetrating radar was used in several locations. No underground facilities for chemical or biological production or storage were found.&#8221; [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/03/07/sprj.irq.un.transcript.blix/index.html | UNMOVIC, 3/7/03 ]] --- IAEA report by Mohamed ElBaradei --- --- * --- There is no evidence that the aluminum tubes imported by Iraq in July 2001 were meant for a nuclear weapons program. ElBaradei says: &#8220;Extensive field investigation and document analysis have failed to uncover any evidence that Iraq intended to use these 81mm tubes for any project other than the reverse engineering of rockets. ... Moreover, even had Iraq pursued such a plan, it would have encountered practical difficulties in manufacturing centrifuges out of the aluminum tubes in question.&#8221; [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/03/07/sprj.irq.un.transcript.elbaradei/index.html | IAEA, 3/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.latimes.com/la-030703uniraq_wr,0,743373.story | Los Angeles Times, 3/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A59403-2003Mar7.html | The Washington Post, 3/8/03 ]] [[ http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/national/apmideast_story.asp?category=1107&amp;slug=UN+Iraq+Report | Associated Press, 3/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/03/07/sprj.irq.main/index.html | CNN, 3/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/08/international/middleeast/08IRAQ.html | New York Times, 3/8/03 ]] [[ http://dailynews.att.net/cgi-bin/news?e=pri&amp;dt=030307&amp;cat=news&amp;st=newsiraqunelbaradeidc | Reuters, 3/7/03 ]] --- * --- There is no evidence that Iraq tried to obtain uranium from Niger. Documents provided to the International Atomic Energy Agency by the US were determined to be forgeries. The documents were a collection of letters between an Iraqi diplomat and senior Niger officials discussing Iraq's interest in procuring a large amount of uranium oxide (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_96 ]]). &#8220;Based on thorough analysis, the IAEA has concluded, with the concurrence of outside experts, that documents which formed the basis for the reports of recent uranium transactions between Iraq and Niger are in fact not authentic,&#8221; ElBaradei explains. &#8220;We have therefore concluded that these specific allegations are unfounded.&#8221; (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_93 ]]) [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/03/07/sprj.irq.un.transcript.elbaradei/index.html | IAEA, 3/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.latimes.com/la-030703uniraq_wr,0,743373.story | Los Angeles Times, 3/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A59403-2003Mar7.html | The Washington Post, 3/8/03 ]] [[ http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/national/apmideast_story.asp?category=1107&amp;slug=UN+Iraq+Report | Associated Press, 3/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/03/07/sprj.irq.main/index.html | CNN, 3/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/08/international/middleeast/08IRAQ.html | New York Times, 3/8/03 ]] [[ http://dailynews.att.net/cgi-bin/news?e=pri&amp;dt=030307&amp;cat=news&amp;st=newsiraqunelbaradeidc | Reuters, 3/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.globeandmail.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20030308.wxnuke0308/BNStory/International | Globe and Mail, 3/8/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,910113,00.html | Guardian, 3/8/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldlatest/story/0,1280,-2464783,00.html | Associated Press, 3/8/03 ]] --- * --- The IAEA has yet to come across evidence of a nuclear weapons program. &#8220;After three months of intrusive inspections, we have to date found no evidence or plausible indication of the revival of a nuclear weapons program in Iraq,&#8221; ElBaradei states. &#8220;[T]here is no indication of resumed nuclear activities in those buildings that were identified through the use of satellite imagery as being reconstructed or newly erected since 1998, nor any indication of nuclear-related prohibited activities at any inspected sites.&#8221; [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/03/07/sprj.irq.un.transcript.elbaradei/index.html | IAEA, 3/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.latimes.com/la-030703uniraq_wr,0,743373.story | Los Angeles Times, 3/7/03 ]] [[ http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/national/apmideast_story.asp?category=1107&amp;slug=UN+Iraq+Report | Associated Press, 3/7/03 ]] [[ http://www.globeandmail.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20030308.wxnuke0308/BNStory/International | Globe and Mail, 3/8/03 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldlatest/story/0,1280,-2464783,00.html | Associated Press, 3/8/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A59403-2003Mar7.html | The Washington Post, 3/8/03 ]] --- * --- In a direct response to allegations made by Colin Powell on February 5 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_442 ]]) related to the attempted procurement of magnets that could be used in a gas centrifuge, ElBaradei, says: &#8220;The IAEA has verified that previously acquired magnets have been used for missile guidance systems, industrial machinery, electricity meters and field telephones. Through visits to research and production sites, reviews of engineering drawings and analyses of sample magnets, IAEA experts familiar with the use of such magnets in centrifuge enrichment have verified that none of the magnets that Iraq has declared could be used directly for a centrifuge magnetic bearing.&#8221; [[ ttp://www.cnn.com/2003/US/03/07/sprj.irq.un.transcript.elbaradei/index.html | IAEA, 3/7/03 ]] --- * --- Iraq's industrial capacity &#8220;has deteriorated&#8221; at the inspected sites because of lack of maintenance and funds. [[ ttp://www.cnn.com/2003/US/03/07/sprj.irq.un.transcript.elbaradei/index.html | IAEA, 3/7/03 ]] --- Reaction --- Both sides claim that the reports give further support to each of their respective stances on the issue of Iraqi disarmament. French Foreign Minister Dominique de Villepin tells the Council that the reports &#8220;testify to the progress&#8221; of the inspections. He states that France will not support another resolution because &#8220;we cannot accept any ultimatum, any automatic use of force.&#8221; Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov says that the reports demonstrate that inspections have been &#8220;fruitful.&#8221; The Bush administration does not alter its position, despite statements by the two inspectors that Iraq is cooperating with inspections and complying with demands to disarm. Colin Powell, responding to the inspectors' reports, reiterates the administration's position that the inspections are not working and that Saddam is not cooperating. &#8220;We must not walk away,&#8221; Powell says. &#8220;We must not find ourselves here this coming November with the pressure removed and with Iraq once again marching down the merry path to weapons of mass destruction, threatening the region, threatening the world.&#8221; He claims that Iraq's behavior is a &#8220;a catalog still of noncooperation&#8221; and repeats the administration's allegation that the &#8220;Iraq regime continues to possess and conceal some of the most lethal weapons ever devised.&#8221; Back at the White House, Ari Fleischer tells reporters, &#8220;As the president has said, if the United Nations will not disarm Saddam Hussein, it will be another international organization, a coalition of the willing that will be made up of numerous nations that will disarm Saddam Hussein.&#8221; [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/ALLPOLITICS/03/07/sprj.irq.us.reax/ | CNN, 3/6/03 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/03/07/sprj.irq.main/ | CNN, 3/7/02 ]] [[ http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2003/18458.htm | US Department of State, 3/7/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> << aluminumTubes >> << wmd >> << weaponsInspections >> << aluminumTubes >> ((+ Colin Powell )) ((+ Mohamed ElBaradei )) ((+ Ari Fleischer )) ((+ Igor Ivanov )) ((+ Dominique de Villepin )) ((+ Hans Blix )) {{ duplicate_mohamed_elbaradei_13 }} {{ statement_dick_cheney_6 }} {{ duplicate_mohamed_elbaradei_5 }} March 7, 2003-July 7, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_111 false 1 ------ After the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports that the Niger documents (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1611 ]]) are not authentic (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_329 ]]), the US and British governments stand behind their claim that Iraq had sought uranium from an African country. The two countries maintain that they have additional evidence&#8212;from multiple sources&#8212;but do not elaborate. Pressed by journalists and inspectors to reveal their evidence, the two governments refuse. The IAEA tells Reuters that when it asked the US and Britain whether or not they have additional evidence that Iraq had tried to procure uranium, the answer was &#8220;no.&#8221; [[ http://truthout.org/docs_03/032803G.shtml | Reuters, 3/26/03 ]] ------ Additionally, an informed UN official tells The Washington Post that the US and Britain were repeatedly asked for more information. Neither government, the official explains, &#8220;ever indicated that they had any information on any other country.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A9011-2003Mar22.html | The Washington Post, 3/22/03 ]] ------ An unnamed Western diplomat tells the Independent: &#8220;Despite requests, the British Government has provided no such evidence. Senior officials at the agency think it is involved in an information black-out.&#8221; (( Unnamed Western diplomat )) [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/world/politics/story.jsp?story=425056 | Independent, 7/17/03 ]] ------ The British will hold to their story even after top US officials admit (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_476 ]]) that Bush should not have included the claim in his State of the Union speech.(see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_92 ]]) [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0720-01.htm | Independent, 7/20/03 ]] [[ http://www.nytimes.com/2003/07/08/international/worldspecial/08PREX.html | New York Times, 7/8/03 ]] ====== << deception >> << africaUraniumClaim >> ((+ Jacques Bautes )) {{ commentary_seymour_hersh_3 }} {{ duplicate_unnamed_western_diplomat_2 }} March 7, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_331 false 1 ------ UN diplomats debate the text of an amendment to the American-British-Spanish draft resolution that will give Iraq a March 17 deadline to disarm. The amendment, submitted by the British, demands that Iraq demonstrate &#8220;full, unconditional, immediate and active cooperation in accordance with its disarmament obligations.&#8221; Notably, the resolution does not provide any specific means for the UN to measure Iraqi compliance, thus requiring that any judgment concerning Iraq's level of cooperation be arbitrary. [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/03/07/sprj.irq.main/ | CNN, 3/7/02 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,910069,00.html | Guardian, 3/8/03 ]] ------ A diplomat tells CNN, that he has &#8220;a better chance of getting a date with Julia Roberts than Iraq has of complying in 10 days.&#8221; [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/03/07/sprj.irq.main/ | CNN, 3/7/02 ]] ------ There is significant opposition to the text of this draft and a diplomat tells CNN that the resolution will likely be defeated by a landslide. France, Russia, and China believe that the inspections should be given more time. France's Foreign minister says he will veto the resolution. &#8220;We cannot accept an ultimatum as long as the inspectors are reporting cooperation,&#8221; he says, adding: &#8220;That would mean war. By imposing a deadline of a few days, would we be reduced to seeking a pretext for war? France will not allow a resolution to pass that authorizes the automatic use of force.&#8221; [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/03/07/sprj.irq.main/ | CNN, 3/7/02 ]] [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,910069,00.html | Guardian, 3/8/03 ]] ====== << weaponsInspections >> << legalJustification >> ((+ Dominique de Villepin )) March 9, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1129 false 1 ------ National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice goes on to speculate on CBS Face the Nation that Hussein may eventually decide to &#8220;enlist&#8221; al-Qaeda to attack the United States. &#8220;Now the al-Qaida is an organization that's quite disbursed and&#8212;and quite widespread in its effects, but it clearly has had links to the Iraqis, not to mention Iraqi links to all kinds of other terrorists. And what we do not want is the day when Saddam Hussein decides that he's had enough of dealing with sanctions, enough of dealing with, quote, unquote, &#8216;containment,&#8217; enough of dealing with America, and it's time to end it on his terms, by transferring one of these weapons, just a little vial of something, to a terrorist for blackmail or for worse.&#8221; [[ http://cbsnews.cbsig.net/stories/2003/03/10/ftn/main543395.shtml | CBS, 3/9/2003 ]] [[ http://www.house.gov/reform/min/features/iraq_on_the_record/ | Iraq on the Record database, 3/16/2004 ]] ====== << terroristTiesQuotes >> ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) {{ duplicate_condoleezza_rice_26 }} March 10, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_374 false 1 ------ John Brown, PhD.&#8212;a career US diplomat of 22 years, who has served in London, Prague, Krakow, Kiev, Belgrade and Moscow&#8212;submits his letter of resignation to Secretary of State Colin Powell. &#8220;I am joining my colleague John Brady Kiesling in submitting my resignation from the Foreign Service&#8212;effective immediately&#8212;because I cannot in good conscience support President Bush's war plans against Iraq,&#8221; he says, noting, &#8220;Throughout the globe, the United States is becoming associated with the unjustified use of force. ... The President's disregard for views in other nations, borne out by his neglect of public diplomacy, is giving birth to an anti-American century.&#8221; His resignation follows that of Kiesling two weeks earlier (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_373 ]]) and precedes that of Mary Wright a week later (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_375 ]]). (( John Brown's letter of resignation to Colin Powell )) ====== << maintreamDissent >> ((+ John Brown )) March 14, 2003-March 15, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1846 false 1 ------ 51 percent of the respondents to a CNN/USA Today/Gallup poll believe that Saddam Hussein was personally involved in the September 11 terrorist attacks. 32 percent of those supporting an attack say that Saddam's alleged support of terrorists is the &#8220;main reason&#8221; for endorsing invasion. Another 43 percent indicate that it is &#8220;one reason.&#8221; [[ http://www.editorandpublisher.com/eandp/news/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1848576 | Editor and Publisher, 3/26/2003 ]] ====== << publicOpinion >> March 16, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_122 false 1 ------ During an appearance on NBC's &#8220;Meet The Press&#8221; , Vice President Dick Cheney says: &#8220;He's had years to get good at it and we believe [Saddam Hussein] ... has, in fact, reconstituted nuclear weapons. I think Mr. ElBaradei [the director of the UN's International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)] frankly is wrong.&#8221; [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/print35264 | Sunday Herald, 7/13/03 ]] ====== << nuclearQuotes >> ((+ Dick Cheney )) {{ duplicate_dick_cheney_3 }} March 17, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_120 false 1 ------ In his March 17, 2003 speech to the nation, shortly before the US officially begins its invasion of Iraq, President George W. Bush says: &#8220;Intelligence gathered by this and other governments leaves no doubt that the Iraq regime continues to possess and conceal some of the most lethal weapons ever devised.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/03/20030317-7.html | US President, 3/17/03 ]] ====== << wmdQuotesGeneral >> ((+ George W. Bush )) {{ duplicate_george_w._bush_7 }} March 17, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_490 false 1 ------ British Attorney General Lord Goldsmith issues a statement that the use of force against Iraq would be legal, citing three UN resolutions. But a month earlier, Goldsmith warned British Prime Minister Tony Blair that an invasion could be illegal without a second UN resolution. [[ http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/national/apeurope_story.asp?category=1103&amp;slug=Britain%20Iraq | Associated Press, 2/28/04 ]] [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3519367.stm | BBC, 2/29/04 ]] [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/40318 | Sunday Herald, 2/29/04 ]] [[ http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/politics/story.jsp?story=496269 | Independent, 2/29/04 ]] ------ It is later revealed that his change in opinion was a result of pressure from top British officials after senior British military officers had warned Downing Street that they would not participate in the war unless they were certain that neither they nor their men could eventually be tried for war crimes. [[ http://observer.guardian.co.uk/politics/story/0,6903,1158801,00.html | The Observer, 2/29/04 ]] ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ Lord Peter Goldsmith )) March 18, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_2016 false 1 ------ Bush sends a letter to Congress justifying the invasion of Iraq. First, he has determined that further diplomacy will not protect the US. Second, he is &#8220;continuing to take the necessary actions against international terrorists and terrorist organizations, including those nations, organizations, or persons who planned, authorized, committed, or aided the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/03/20030319-1.html | White House, 3/18/2003 ]] ------ This mimics language from a bill passed by Congress in October 2002, which granted Bush the power to declare war against Iraq if a link with the 9/11 attacks is shown and several other conditions are met. [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021002-2.html | White House, 10/2/2002 ]] ------ But there is no evidence linking Iraq to the 9/11 attacks, a simple fact that even Bush has acknowledged (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_177 ]]). ====== << legalJustification >> ((+ George W. Bush )) March 19, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1215 false 1 ------ The US begins its official invasion of Iraq. The attack begins with an attempted &#8220;decapitation attack&#8221; aimed at killing Saddam Hussein and other top Iraqi officials that fails. [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/03/19/sprj.irq.main/ | CNN, 3/20/2003 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/03/19/sprj.irq.war.bush/ | CNN, 3/20/2003 (B) ]] ------ Other countries, known collectively as the &#8220;coalition of the willing,&#8221; lend various degrees of support to the invasion. The group includes Britain, Australia, Poland, and several second- and third- world countries that had been pressured by the US to support the invasion. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/2862343.stm | BBC, 3/18/2003 ]] ====== << decision >> << weaponsInspections >> << legalJustification >> Before March 19, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_108 false 1 ------ According to a senior intelligence official interviewed by ABC News, &#8220;The CIA conducted more than 20 briefings on the Hill and elsewhere in the run-up to the war and in none of those did we offer up the yellowcake allegations.&#8221; (( Senior US intelligence official )) [[ http://abcnews.go.com/sections/wnt/World/iraq030616_uranium.html | ABC News, 6/16/03 ]] ====== << deception >> << africaUraniumClaim >> {{ duplicate_senior_us_intelligence_official_2 }} Before March 19, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_425 false 1 ------ Numerous US and British, current and former, intelligence, military, and other government officials who have inside knowledge say that there is no evidence that Saddam Hussein's regime has chemical or biological weapons or that he is currently developing them. ====== << wmd >> {{ statement_colin_powell_26 }} {{ statement_anthony_cordesman_2 }} {{ statement_colin_powell_27 }} {{ statement_unnamed_us_official_6 }} {{ statement_meir_stieglitz_2 }} {{ statement_colin_powell_28 }} {{ statement_condoleezza_rice_7 }} {{ statement_unnamed_senior_us_government_official_3 }} {{ statement_scott_ritter_21 }} {{ statement_unnamed_senior_us_government_official_2 }} March 19, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_375 false 1 ------ Mary Wright, the second highest-ranking diplomat at the US embassy in Ulan Bator, Mongolia, resigns from her post after serving 15 years at the State Department. In her letter of resignation she derides the administration for snubbing America's allies. &#8220;In our press military action now, we have created deep chasms in the international community and in important international organizations. Our policies have alienated many of our allies and created ill will in much of the world.... I feel obligated morally and professionally to set out my very deep and firm concerns on these policies and to resign from government service as I cannot defend or implement them.&#8221; She also warns that the Bush administration has set a precedent that will ultimately make Americans less safe. &#8220;I believe the administration's policies are making the world a more dangerous, not a safer place.... This preemptive attack policy will ... provide justification for individuals and groups to &#8216;preemptively attack&#8217; America and American citizens,&#8221; she says. Her resignation follows that of John Brady Kiesling (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_373 ]]) and John Brown (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_374 ]]). (( Mary Wright's letter of resignation to Colin Powell )) [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/2892259.stm | BBC, 3/27/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0321-06.htm | Reuters 3/21/03 ]] ====== << maintreamDissent >> ((+ Mary Wright )) After March 19, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_426 false 1 ------ Numerous US and British, current and former, intelligence, military, and other government officials who have inside knowledge continue to refute claims made by the Bush administration that Saddam Hussein's regime had or was developing nuclear weapons. ====== << wmd >> {{ statement_unnamed_us_policymaker_who_supported_the_invasion_of_iraq_2 }} {{ statement_andrew_wilkie_15 }} {{ statement_greg_thielmann_20 }} {{ statement_john_brady_kiesling_2 }} Before March 19, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_423 false 1 ------ Numerous US and British, current and former, intelligence, military, and other government officials who have inside knowledge refute claims made by the Bush administration that Saddam Hussein's regime has or is currently developing nuclear weapons. ====== << wmd >> {{ statement_mohamed_elbaradei_11 }} {{ statement_mohamed_elbaradei_3 }} {{ statement_unnamed_senior_us_government_official_4 }} {{ statement_unnamed_senior_us_government_officials_2 }} {{ statement_mohamed_elbaradei_13 }} {{ statement_mohamed_elbaradei_12 }} {{ statement_international_atomic_energy_agency_(iaea)_preliminary_report_to_the_un_security_council_3 }} {{ statement_unnamed_us_government_sources_2 }} {{ statement_scott_ritter_21 }} {{ statement_unnamed_military_officials_2 }} {{ statement_scott_ritter_22 }} March 21, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_133 false 1 ------ White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer says during his daily press briefing, &#8220;Well, there is no question that we have evidence and information that Iraq has weapons of mass destruction, biological and chemical particularly. This was the reason that the President felt so strongly that we needed to take military action to disarm Saddam Hussein, since he would not do it himself.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/03/20030321-9.html | White House, 3/21/03 ]] ====== << ChemicalBiologicalQuotes >> ((+ Ari Fleischer )) ((- George W. Bush )) {{ duplicate_ari_fleischer_4 }} March 22, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_134 false 1 ------ Gen. Franks says during a news conference in Qatar: &#8220;There is no doubt that the regime of Saddam Hussein possesses weapons of mass destruction. As this operation continues, those weapons will be identified, found, along with the people who have produced them and who guard them.&#8221; [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0323-06.htm | Washington Post, 3/22/03 ]] ====== << wmdQuotesGeneral >> ((+ Thomas Franks )) {{ duplicate_thomas_franks_2 }} March 24, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_127 false 1 ------ Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld says on CBS's &#8220;Face the Nation&#8221; : &#8220;We have seen intelligence over many months that they have chemical and biological weapons, and that they have dispersed them and that they're weaponized and that, in one case at least, the command and control arrangements have been established.&#8221; [[ http://www.villagevoice.com/issues/0325/mondo2.php | Village Voice, 6/18/03 ]] ====== << ChemicalBiologicalQuotes >> ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) {{ duplicate_donald_rumsfeld_8 }} March 25, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1826 false 1 ------ Arab League ministers meeting in Cairo pass a resolution declaring the war on Iraq to be a &#8220;violation of the United Nations Charter (see [[ treaties_1786 ]]) &#8221; and a &#8220;threat to world peace.&#8221; They demand an unconditional withdrawal of US and British forces from Iraq. The resolution is adopted unanimously by the 22-member League except for key US ally Kuwait. [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2882851.stm | BBC, 3/25/2003 ]] ------ The Bush administration has repeatedly claimed that one of the reasons for invading Iraq was because Saddam Hussein's alleged arsenal of weapons of mass destruction posed a threat to its neighbors (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_434 ]]) (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_435 ]]) (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_370 ]]) (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_129 ]]). ====== << legalJustification >> March 26, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1140 false 1 ------ US Secretary of State Colin Powell tells India's Doordarshan TV: &#8220;But as soon as possible, we want to have working alongside the commander an interim Iraqi authority, people representing the people of Iraq. And, as that authority grows and gets greater credibility from the people of Iraq, we want to turn over more and more responsibilities to them.&#8221; [[ http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/terror/0326powell4.htm | US Department of State, 3/26/2003 ]] ====== << democracyRhetoricQuotes >> ((+ Colin Powell )) {{ duplicate_colin_powell_31 }} March 26, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1141 false 1 ------ In a speech to US troops at MacDill Air Force Base in Tampa, Florida, US President George Bush says: &#8220;We will help the Iraqi people to find the benefits and assume the duties of self-government. The form of those institutions will arise from Iraq's own culture and its own choices.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/03/20030326-4.html | White House, 3/26/2003 ]] ====== << democracyRhetoricQuotes >> ((+ George W. Bush )) {{ duplicate_george_w._bush_27 }} March 27, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_396 false 1 ------ Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage tells the House Committee on Appropriations during a hearing on a supplemental war regulation: &#8220;This is not Afghanistan ... When we approach the question of Iraq, we realize here is a country which has a resource. And it's obvious, it's oil. And it can bring in and does bring in a certain amount of revenue each year ... $10, $15, even $18 billion ... this is not a broke country.&#8221; [[ http://www.house.gov/schakowsky/iraqquotes_web.htm | Congressional Office of Jan Schakowsky, n.d. ]] ====== << preWarPlanning >> << motivesBehindWar >> ((+ Richard Armitage )) March 27, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_393 false 1 ------ Paul Wolfowitz, deputy defense secretary, tells the House of Representatives Appropriations Committee that Iraq's oil wealth will help fund post-war reconstruction. &#8220;There's a lot of money to pay for this that doesn't have to be US taxpayer money, and it starts with the assets of the Iraqi people,&#8221; he says. &#8220;On a rough recollection, the oil revenues of that country could bring between $50 billion and $100 billion over the course of the next two or three years.&#8221; [[ http://www.sptimes.com/2003/04/03/Worldandnation/UN__US_could_clash_ov.shtml | St. Petersburg Times, 4/2/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0116-10.htm | Financial Times, 1/16/04 ]] ====== << preWarPlanning >> << motivesBehindWar >> ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) March 27, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_394 false 1 ------ Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld says during a Senate hearing, &#8220;When it comes to reconstruction, before we turn to the American taxpayer, we will turn first to the resources of the Iraqi government and the international community.&#8221; [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0116-10.htm | Financial Times, 1/16/04 ]] ====== << preWarPlanning >> << motivesBehindWar >> ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) March 30, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_128 false 1 ------ Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld tells George Stephanopolous of ABC News: &#8220;We know where they [the chemical and biological weapons] are. They're in the area around Tikrit and Baghdad and east, west, south and north somewhat.&#8221; [[ http://www.ceip.org/files/nonprolif/templates/article.asp?NewsID=5102 | Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 7/17/03 ]] [[ http://www.defenselink.mil/transcripts/2003/t03302003_t0330sdabcsteph.html | US Department of Defense, 4/30/2003 ]] ====== << ChemicalBiologicalQuotes >> ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) {{ duplicate_donald_rumsfeld_9 }} April 1, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1142 false 1 ------ In an interview with CBS' &#8220;60 Minutes,&#8221; Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz says that the administration intends for Iraq to become a democracy. &#8220;The goal is an Iraq that stands on its own feet and that governs itself in freedom and in unity and with respect for the rights of all its citizens,&#8221; he says. &#8220;We'd like to get to that goal as quickly as possible.&#8221; [[ http://www.dod.gov/news/Apr2003/t04032003_t0401dsd60min.html | US Department of Defense, 4/1/2003 ]] ====== << democracyRhetoricQuotes >> ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) {{ duplicate_paul_wolfowitz_9 }} April 2, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1143 false 1 ------ During a joint conference with Serbian Prime Minister Zoran Zivkovic, US Secretary of State Colin Powell says, &#8220;I can assure you that we all want to end this as soon as possible, so we can get on with the task of allowing the Iraqi people to form a new government.&#8221; [[ http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2003/19296.htm | US Department of State, 4/2/2003 ]] ====== << democracyRhetoricQuotes >> ((+ Colin Powell )) ((- Zoran Zivkovic )) {{ duplicate_colin_powell_32 }} April 4, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1144 false 1 ------ National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice tells reporters, &#8220;We will leave Iraq completely in the hands of Iraqis as quickly as possible.&#8221; [[ http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/terror/texts/03040412.htm | US Department of State, 4/4/2003 ]] ====== << democracyRhetoricQuotes >> ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) {{ duplicate_condoleezza_rice_30 }} April 6, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1145 false 1 ------ Appearing on NBC's &#8220;Meet the Press,&#8221; Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz says, &#8220;We come as an army of liberation, and we want to see the Iraqis running their own affairs as soon as they can.&#8221; [[ http://defenselink.mil/news/Apr2003/t04062003_tdod0406mtp.html | US Department of Defense, 4/6/2003 ]] ====== << democracyRhetoricQuotes >> ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) {{ duplicate_paul_wolfowitz_10 }} April 10, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1146 false 1 ------ Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz tells the Senate Armed Services Committee: &#8220;We want to see a situation where power and responsibility is transferred as quickly as possible to the Iraqis themselves, with as much international assistance as possible ... We have no desire to occupy Iraq ...&#8221; [[ http://www.dod.gov/speeches/2003/sp20030410-depsecdef0142.html | US Department of Defense, 4/10/2003 ]] ====== << democracyRhetoricQuotes >> ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) {{ duplicate_paul_wolfowitz_11 }} April 13, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1148 false 1 ------ Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld says on NBC's &#8220;Meet the Press&#8221;: &#8220;The task is to create an environment that is sufficiently permissive that the Iraqi people can fashion a new government. And what they will do is come together in one way or another and select an interim authority of some kind. Then that group will propose a constitution and a more permanent authority of some kind. And over some period of months, the Iraqis will have their government selected by Iraqi people.&#8221; [[ http://www.centcom.mil/CENTCOMNews/transcripts/20030413.htm | US Department of Defense, 4/13/2003 ]] ====== << democracyRhetoricQuotes >> ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) {{ duplicate_donald_rumsfeld_18 }} April 13, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1147 false 1 ------ Appearing on NBC's &#8220;Meet the Press,&#8221; Ahmed Chalabi, head of the Iraqi National Congress, says: &#8220;After (Gen. Jay Garner) finishes his job of restoring basic services, the interim Iraqi authority will be established. And that interim authority will be an authority of Iraqis, chosen by Iraqis. And it will be able to function as an authority in the country immediately after Gen. Garner's job is finished, which should be only a few weeks.&#8221; [[ http://www.centcom.mil/CENTCOMNews/transcripts/20030413.htm | US Department of Defense, 4/13/2003 ]] ====== << democracyRhetoricQuotes >> ((- Jay Garner )) ((+ Ahmed Chalabi )) {{ duplicate_ahmed_chalabi_4 }} April 13, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1149 false 1 ------ General Tommy Franks tells NBC's &#8220;Meet the Press&#8221;: &#8220;I think what we are so proud of is governments which permit their populace to be involved in a process that provides them freedom, provides them liberty. And I think what we will see in the months and years ahead in Iraq will provide a bit of a model for how that can be done. ... because, Tony, it will be the Iraqi people who decide how to do that, and they will do it on their terms.&#8221; [[ http://www.centcom.mil/CENTCOMNews/transcripts/20030413.htm | US Department of Defense, 4/13/2003 ]] ====== << democracyRhetoricQuotes >> ((+ Thomas Franks )) {{ duplicate_thomas_franks_3 }} April 16, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1150 false 1 ------ Undersecretary for Political Affairs Marc Grossman says in an interview with Free Iraqi Television: &#8220;Soon Iraqis will be able to give us guidance about how to move forward and create an Iraqi interim authority. And that authority will begin to allow Iraqis to have sovereignty over their country and in a way that Iraqis will choose; they will create an Iraqi Government.&#8221; [[ http://www.state.gov/p/19735.htm | US Department of State, 4/16/2003 ]] ====== << democracyRhetoricQuotes >> ((+ Marc Grossman )) {{ duplicate_marc_grossman_2 }} April 17, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1151 false 1 ------ White House envoy to Iraq Zalmay Khalilzad writes in an op-ed piece published in the Wall Street Journal: &#8220;The coalition supports the formation, as soon as possible, of the Iraqi Interim Authority&#8212;a transitional administration, run by Iraqis, until a government is established by the people of Iraq through elections. The Interim Authority should be broad-based and fully representative.&#8221; [[ http://usembassymalaysia.org.my/wf/wf0417_khalilzad.html | Wall Street Journal, 4/17/2003 ]] ====== << democracyRhetoricQuotes >> ((+ Project for the New American Century (PNAC) )) {{ duplicate_project_for_the_new_american_century_(pnac)_2 }} April 19, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_446 false 1 ------ US authorities in Iraq seize a trailer at a checkpoint in the northern city of Mosul. The government will later claim that this trailer, as well as another one that is discovered on May 9 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_415 ]]), is a mobile biological weapons lab. [[ http://www.abcnews.go.com/sections/wnt/World/iraq_WMD030521.html | ABC News, 5/21/03 ]] [[ http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/ssistory.mpl/special/iraq/1904399 | Houston Chronicle, 5/9/2003 ]] ====== << wmd >> April 21, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1152 false 1 ------ Lt. Gen. Jay Garner, director of the Pentagon's Office of Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance, tells reporters: &#8220;The new ruler of Iraq is going to be an Iraqi. I don't rule anything.&#8221; [[ http://www.dod.mil/news/Apr2003/n04242003_200304242.html | US Department of Defense, 4/21/2003 ]] ====== << democracyRhetoricQuotes >> ((+ Jay Garner )) {{ duplicate_jay_garner_3 }} April 24, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1154 false 1 ------ Lt. Gen. Jay Garner, director of the Pentagon's Office of Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance, says during a discussion with about 60 selected Iraqi technocrats and academics: &#8220;I think you'll begin to see the governmental process start next week, by the end of next week. It will have Iraqi faces on it. It will be governed by the Iraqis.&#8221; [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&amp;node=&amp;contentId=A31918-2003Apr24&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 4/24/2003 ]] [[ http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/print/news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2972977.stm | BBC, 4/24/2003 ]] ====== << democracyRhetoricQuotes >> ((+ Jay Garner )) {{ duplicate_jay_garner_4 }} April 24, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1153 false 1 ------ US Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld tells the Associated Press, &#8220;If you're suggesting, how would we feel about an Iranian-type government with a few clerics running everything in the country, the answer is: That isn't going to happen.&#8221; [[ http://www.guardian.co.uk/iran/story/0,12858,943173,00.html | The Guardian, 4/25/2003 ]] [[ http://abcnews.go.com/sections/world/Primetime/iraq_main030425.html | Asssociated Press, 4/25/2003 ]] ====== << democracyRhetoricQuotes >> ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) {{ duplicate_donald_rumsfeld_19 }} April 28, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1155 false 1 ------ US President George Bush, in discussion on the future of Iraq at the Performing Arts Center in Dearborn, Michigan, says: &#8220;As freedom takes hold in Iraq, the Iraqi people will choose their own leaders and their own government. America has no intention of imposing our form of government or our culture. Yet, we will ensure that all Iraqis have a voice in the new government.&#8221; [[ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/04/20030428-3.html | White House, 4/28/2003 ]] ====== << democracyRhetoricQuotes >> ((+ George W. Bush )) {{ duplicate_george_w._bush_28 }} May 1, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_14 false 1 ------ The group Veteran Intelligence Professionals for Sanity writes an open letter to President George W. Bush, warning him that the intelligence being used to make policy decisions was being manipulated. ------ The group writes: &#8220;While there have been occasions in the past when intelligence has been deliberately warped for political purposes, never before has such warping been used in such a systematic way to mislead our elected representatives into voting to authorize launching a war. You may not realize the extent of the current ferment within the intelligence community and particularly the CIA. In intelligence, there is one unpardonable sin&#8212;cooking intelligence to the recipe of high policy. There is ample indication that this has been done in Iraq.&#8221; They call the skewing of intelligence &#8220;a policy and intelligence fiasco of monumental proportions.&#8221; [[ http://truthout.org/docs_03/050503D.shtml | Veteran Intelligence Professionals for Sanity, 5/1/03 ]] [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0531-01.htm | Reuters, 5/30/03 ]] [[ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,5944-698028,00.html | Times, 5/31/03 ]] ====== << deception >> ((+ Veteran Intelligence Professionals for Sanity )) ((+ Colin Powell )) {{ duplicate_veteran_intelligence_professionals_for_sanity_3 }} After May 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_159 false 1 ------ US current and former intelligence and other governmental officials who have inside knowledge continue to refute claims made by the Bush administration that Saddam Hussein's regime had or was seeking ties with global Islamic terrorist groups. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0803-04.htm | Boston Globe, 8/3/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A47665-2003Jul12 | Associated Press, 7/12/03 ]] [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_03/printer_072503B.shtml | UPI, 7/25/03 ]] [[ http://www.sunherald.com/mld/sunherald/news/breaking_news/6176302.htm | Associated Press, 6/26/03 ]] [[ http://www.truthout.org/docs_03/printer_072503B.shtml | UPI, 7/23/03 ]] ====== << terroristTies >> ((+ Greg Thielmann )) ((+ Vince Cannistraro )) ((+ Mel Goodman )) {{ statement_greg_thielmann_18 }} {{ statement_vince_cannistraro_9 }} {{ statement_unnamed_bush_administration_official_3 }} {{ commentary_daniel_benjamin_3 }} {{ statement_mel_goodman_3 }} {{ statement_michael_chandler_2 }} {{ statement_daniel_benjamin_4 }} {{ statement_greg_thielmann_17 }} May 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_500 false 1 ------ Beginning on May 1, American nuclear physicist David Albright attempts to contact US defense officials to inform them that Mahdi Obeidi&#8212;the Iraqi nuclear scientist who once headed Iraq's gas centrifuge program for uranium enrichment&#8212;has valuable information that he wants to share with the United States. But according to Albright, his inquiries are initially &#8220;rebuffed.&#8221; Finally, on May 7, he finds someone at the CIA who is interested. A little more than three weeks later, US authorities will investigate this lead (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_17 ]]). (( David Albright )) [[ http://www.msnbc.com/news/950224.asp?0dm=s20Nk | Newsweek, 8/8/03 ]] [[ http://edition.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/06/25/sprj.irq.centrifuge/ | CNN, 6/26/03 ]] [[ http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A17707-2003Oct25?language=printer | Washington Post, 10/18/03 ]] ====== << aluminumTubes >> ((+ David Albright )) ((+ Mahdi Obeidi )) May 4, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_439 false 1 ------ The Sunday Herald reports: &#8220;Senior officials in the Bush administration have admitted that they would be &#8216;amazed&#8217; if weapons of mass destruction (WMD) were found in Iraq.... [One] senior US official added that America never expected to find a huge arsenal, arguing that the administration was more concerned about the ability of Saddam's scientists&#8212;which he labeled the &#8216;nuclear mujahadeen&#8217; &#8212;to develop WMDs when the crisis passed.&#8221; (( Unnamed senior administration officials )) [[ http://www.sundayherald.com/33628 | Sunday Herald, 5/4/03 ]] [[ http://www.observer.co.uk/international/story/0,6903,949044,00.html | The Observer, 5/4/03 ]] ====== << wmd >> May 5, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1156 false 1 ------ Lt. Gen. Jay Garner, director of the Pentagon's Office of Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance, tells reporters in Baghdad, &#8220;By the middle of (this) month, you'll really see a beginning of a nucleus of an Iraqi government with an Iraqi face on it that is dealing with the coalition.&#8221; [[ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/3000845.stm | BBC, 5/5/2003 ]] [[ http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/05/05/sprj.irq.main/ | CNN, 5/5/2003 ]] ====== << democracyRhetoricQuotes >> ((+ Jay Garner )) {{ duplicate_jay_garner_5 }} May 6, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_718 false 1 ------ New York Times columnist Nicholas Kristof, citing unnamed sources, breaks the story of former US diplomat Joseph Wilson's February 2002 trip to Niger (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_106 ]]). The major source for the story is later revealed to be Wilson himself. [[ http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0506-02.htm | New York Times, 5/6/2003 ]] [[ http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html | Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 282 ]] ====== << africaUraniumClaim >> ((+ Nicholas Kristof )) ((+ Joseph C. Wilson )) May 9, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_415 false 1 ------ The US Army's 101st Airborne Division finds a second trailer at al-Kindi, a former missile research facility in Iraq. The government will later claim that this trailer, as well as another one discovered on April 19 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the