Complete timeline of the 2003 Invasion of Iraq Complete Iraq timeline complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq iraq_project general_topic_areas quotes_from_senior_us_officials 1950s complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_9 1 false The use of aluminum for rotors in gas centrifuges is discontinued. Other materials, such as maraging steel and carbon fiber, are used instead. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39500-2003Aug9.html Washington Post, 8/10/03 News Article aluminumTubes Early 1980s complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_37 1 false At this time, an engineer named &#8220;Joe T.,&#8221; is working in the gas centrifuge program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. His work pertains not to actual centrifuges, but to the platforms upon which the centrifuges are installed. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39500-2003Aug9.html Washington Post, 8/10/03 News Article http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=34042 World Net Daily, 8/12/03 News Article unnamed_us_intelligence,_us_administration,_and/or_un_inspectors source joe_t. activeparticipant aluminumTubes Mid-1980s-late 1990s complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_38 1 false Joe T., an engineer, begins working for the CIA. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39500-2003Aug9.html Washington Post, 8/10/03 News Article unnamed_us_intelligence,_us_administration,_and/or_un_inspectors source joe_t. activeparticipant aluminumTubes Mid-1990s complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_186 1 false Abu Mussab Al Zarqawi, a Jordanian-born Palestinian, moves to Europe where he forms al-Tawhid, a terrorist organization whose aim it is to kill Jews and install an Islamic regime in Jordan. While in Europe, Al Zarqawi and other members of his group make plans to attack Jews and Israeli targets in Germany. http://truthout.org/docs_03/062703B.shtml Newsweek, 6/25/03 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/independent020602.htm Independent, 2/6/03 News Article shadi_abdallah source In late 1999, Al Zarqawi is allegedly involved in an attempt to blow up the Radisson SAS Hotel in Amman, Jordan, whose customers are frequently Israeli and American tourists. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A38235-2003Feb6.html Washington Post, 2/7/03 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/independent020602.htm Independent, 2/6/03 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,807286,00.html Guardian, 10/9/02 News Article unnamed_bush_administration_official source At some point during this period, Al Zarqawi establishes a terrorist training camp near Herat, Afghanistan, which competes with al-Qaeda for new recruits. According to the Bush administration, the training camp specializes in poisons and explosives. While in Afghanistan, Zarqawi maintains contact with his cells in Europe. http://truthout.org/docs_03/062703B.shtml Newsweek, 6/25/03 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/independent020602.htm Independent, 2/6/03 News Article shadi_abdallah source abu_mussab_al_zarqawi activeparticipant alZarqawi late 1990s complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_39 1 false Joe T. begins working in the WINPAC unit of the CIA, which analyzes intelligence related to dual-use technology and export controls. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39500-2003Aug9.html Washington Post, 8/10/03 News Article http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=34042 World Net Daily, 8/12/03 News Article unnamed_us_intelligence,_us_administration,_and/or_un_inspectors source joe_t. activeparticipant aluminumTubes 1991-2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_5 1 false After the First Gulf War, the British Defense Ministry's Defense Intelligence Staff creates a secret intelligence office known as Operation Rockingham. The purpose of the top secret cell is to collect intelligence that can be used by the US and British to support the case for maintaining UN sanctions on Iraq. After the September 11 attacks, Rockingham helps build Britain's case for the need to use military force against Iraq. http://www.sundayherald.com/34491 Sunday Herald, 6/8/03a News Article http://www.sundayherald.com/34461 Sunday Herald, 6/8/03b News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,1089931,00.html Guardian, 11/21/03 News Article http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3227506.stm BBC, 11/21/03 News Article http://www.news.scotsman.com/latest.cfm?id=2205340 Scotsman, 11/21/03 News Article http://politics.guardian.co.uk/iraq/story/0,12956,1095955,00.html Guardian, 11/29/03 News Article unnamed_british_intelligence_officials source scott_ritter source Former US Marine intelligence officer Scott Ritter, who has first-hand knowledge of the operation, will later tell reporters that the members of the cell were backed by officials &#8220;from the very highest levels,&#8221; including military and intelligence officers, as well as civilian officials from the ministry of defense. http://www.sundayherald.com/34491 Sunday Herald, 6/8/03a News Article http://www.sundayherald.com/34461 Sunday Herald, 6/8/03b News Article scott_ritter source Sources equate Rockingham to the Pentagon's Office of Special Plans (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_73 ]]), which is also later accused of producing misleading assessments on Iraq based on the selective use of intelligence. http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,1089931,00.html Guardian, 11/21/03 News Article http://www.sundayherald.com/34491 Sunday Herald, 6/8/03a News Article scott_ritter source The operation is similar to Operation Mass Appeal (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_6 ]]), another British intelligence disinformation program. &#8220;The Government would feed off those reports [coming from Operation Rockingham] to promote the notion that Iraq was a nation ruled by a dictator addicted to WMD.&#8221; http://www.news.scotsman.com/latest.cfm?id=2205340 Scotsman, 11/21/03 News Article statement The report acknowledged the existence of Operation Rockingham and linked it to the UNSCOM inspections. http://www.sundayherald.com/34461 Sunday Herald, 6/8/03b News Article statement &#8220;[Operation] Rockingham was spinning reports and emphasizing reports that showed non-compliance (by Iraq with UN inspections) and quashing those which showed compliance. It was cherry-picking intelligence.&#8221; http://www.sundayherald.com/34491 Sunday Herald, 6/8/03b News Article statement &#8220;The Government would feed off those reports [coming from Operation Rockingham] to promote the notion that Iraq was a nation ruled by a dictator addicted to WMD.&#8221; http://www.news.scotsman.com/latest.cfm?id=2205340 Scotsman, 11/21/03 News Article statement &#8220;Operation Rockingham cherry-picked intelligence. It received hard data, but had a preordained outcome in mind. It only put forward a small percentage of the facts when most were ambiguous or noted no WMD... It became part of an effort to maintain a public mindset that Iraq was not in compliance with the inspections. They had to sustain the allegation that Iraq had WMD [when] Unscom was showing the opposite.&#8221; http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,1089931,00.html Guardian, 11/21/03 News Article http://www.sundayherald.com/34491 Sunday Herald, 6/8/03b News Article statement [Operation] Rockingham's intelligence was built from &#8220;single source data of dubious quality.&#8221; http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3227506.stm BBC, 11/21/03 News Article statement &#8220;[Operation Rockingham] was an organization designed to support a pre-ordained conclusion of the British Government that Iraq will never be found in compliance with UN Security Council resolutions.&#8221; http://www.news.scotsman.com/latest.cfm?id=2205340 Scotsman, 11/21/03 News Article statement scott_ritter activeparticipant deception 1991-2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_6 1 false The British MI6 establishes Operation Mass Appeal, a British intelligence mission &#8220;designed to exaggerate Iraq's weapons of mass destruction&#8221; in order to shape public opinion. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3227506.stm BBC, 11/21/03 News Article The operation plants stories in the US, British, and foreign media from the 1990s through 2003. Intelligence used by Mass Appeal is said to be &#8220;single source data of dubious quality.&#8221; After the First Gulf War, the operation seeks to justify the UN sanctions policy. But after the September 11 attacks, its objective is to secure public support for an invasion of Iraq. The mission is similar to Operation Rockingham (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_5 ]]), another British intelligence disinformation program. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3227506.stm BBC, 11/21/03 News Article http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030331fa_fact1 New Yorker, 3/31/03 News Article http://www.news.scotsman.com/latest.cfm?id=2205340 Scotsman, 11/21/03 News Article scott_ritter source former_clinton_administration_official source Former US Marine intelligence officer Scott Ritter says in late in 2003 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_98 ]]) that he supplied Mass Appeal with intelligence while serving as UN chief weapons inspector from the summer of 1997 until August 1998 and that he met with British agents involved in the operation several times in both New York and London. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3227506.stm BBC, 11/21/03 News Article scott_ritter source &#8220;I was approached by MI6 to provide that data, I met with the Mass Appeal operatives both in New York and London on several occasions. This data was provided and this data did find its way into the international media.&#8221; http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3227506.stm BBC, 11/21/03 News Article statement The intelligence data provided to the media by Operation Mass Appeal &#8220;dealt with Iraq's efforts to procure WMDs, with Iraq's efforts to conceal WMDs. It was all single source data of dubious quality, which lacked veracity.&#8221; http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3227506.stm BBC, 11/21/03 News Article statement Operation Mass Appeal &#8220;took this information and peddled it off to the media, internationally and domestically, allowing inaccurate intelligence data, to appear on the front pages.&#8221; http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3227506.stm BBC, 11/21/03 News Article statement &#8220;I was brought into the operation in 1997 because at the UN... I sat on a body of data which was not actionable, but was sufficiently sexy that if it could appear in the press could make Iraq look like in a bad way.&#8221; http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3227506.stm BBC, 11/21/03 News Article statement &#8220;I was approached by MI6 to provide that data, I met with the Mass Appeal operatives both in New York and London on several occasions. This data was provided and this data did find its way into the international media.&#8221; http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3227506.stm BBC, 11/21/03 News Article statement &#8220;It was intelligence data that dealt with Iraq's efforts to procure WMDs, with Iraq's efforts to conceal WMDs. It was all single source data of dubious quality, which lacked veracity.&#8221; http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3227506.stm BBC, 11/21/03 News Article statement &#8220;The government, both here in the UK and the US, would feed off these media reports [supplied by Operation Mass Appeal], continuing the perception that Iraq was a nation ruled by a leader with an addiction to WMDs.&#8221; http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3227506.stm BBC, 11/21/03 News Article statement &#8220;Over the next year [1998], a former American intelligence officer told me, at least one member of the UN inspection team who supported the American and British position arranged for dozens of unverified and unverifiable intelligence reports and tips-data known as inactionable intelligence-to be funneled to MI6 operatives and quietly passed along to newspapers in London and elsewhere. &#8216;It was intelligence that was crap, and that we couldn't move on, but the Brits wanted to plant stories in England and around the world,&#8217; the former officer said. There was a series of clandestine meetings with MI6, at which documents were provided, as well as quiet meetings, usually at safe houses in the Washington area. The British propaganda scheme eventually became known to some members of the UN inspection team. &#8216;I knew a bit,&#8217; one official still on duty at UN headquarters acknowledged last week, &#8216;but I was never officially told about it.&#8217; &#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030331fa_fact1 New Yorker, 3/31/03 News Article commentary &#8220;I knew that [Operation Mass Appeal] was going on. We were getting ready for action in Iraq, and we wanted the Brits to prepare.&#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030331fa_fact1 New Yorker, 3/31/03 News Article commentary &#8220;The government, both here in the UK and the US, would feed off these media reports, continuing the perception that Iraq was a nation ruled by a leader with an addiction to WMDs.&#8221; http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3227506.stm BBC, 11/21/03 News Article statement &#8220;They took this information and peddled it off to the media, internationally and domestically, allowing inaccurate intelligence data, to appear on the front pages.&#8221; http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3227506.stm BBC, 11/21/03 News Article statement scott_ritter activeparticipant deception 1991-1997 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_419 1 false Under the supervision of UNSCOM weapons inspectors, Iraq destroys more than 38,000 filled and unfilled chemical munitions, 690 tons of chemical warfare agents, over 3,000 tons of precursor chemicals, more than 400 pieces of production equipment, 48 missiles, 6 missile launchers, and 30 missile warheads modified to carry chemical or biological agents. http://www.commondreams.org/views02/0820-04.htm Foreign Policy in Focus, 8/02 News Article http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0829/p01s03-wosc.html Christian Science Monitor, 8/29/02 News Article http://www.fas.org/spp/starwars/crs/98042705_npo.html Congressional Research Service Reports, 4/98 News Article unscom_report,_s/1998/332,_april_16,_1998 source After cross-referencing weapons-making materials found in Iraq with sales records from other countries, UNSCOM inspectors conclude that at least 90% of Iraq's weapons have been destroyed or dismantled. Chief UNSCOM inspector Scott Ritter believes that a good portion of the remaining 10% was destroyed during the First Gulf War, thus leaving only a small fraction unaccounted for. http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/07.25A.wrp.iraq.htm Pitt, 7/24/02 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/views02/0731-09.htm Newsday, 7/30/02 News Article scott_ritter activeparticipant wmd March 8, 1992 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_626 1 false The Defense Planning Guidance document, a &#8220;blueprint for the department's spending priorities in the aftermath of the first Gulf War and the collapse of the Soviet Union,&#8221; is leaked to the New York Times. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/1990s/nyt030892.html New York Times, 3/8/92 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2003/newsday031603.html Newsday, 3/16/03 News Article The paper causes controversy, because it hadn't yet been &#8220;scrubbed&#8221; to replace candid language with euphemisms. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/1990s/nyt031092.html New York Times, 3/10/92 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/1990s/nyt031192.html New York Times, 3/11/92 News Article http://observer.guardian.co.uk/print/0,3858,4388919-102273,00.html The Observer, 4/7/02 News Article The document argues that the US dominates the world as sole superpower, and to maintain that role it &#8220;must maintain the mechanisms for deterring potential competitors from even aspiring to a larger regional or global role.&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/1990s/nyt030892.html New York Times, 3/8/92 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/1990s/nyt030892b.html New York Times, 3/8/92 [B] News Article As the Observer summarizes it, &#8220;America's friends are potential enemies. They must be in a state of dependence and seek solutions to their problems in Washington.&#8221; http://observer.guardian.co.uk/print/0,3858,4388919-102273,00.html The Observer, 4/7/02 News Article The document is mainly written by Paul Wolfowitz and Lewis Libby, who hold relatively low posts at the time, but under Bush Jr. become Deputy Defense Secretary and Vice President Cheney's Chief of Staff, respectively. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2003/newsday031603.html Newsday, 3/16/03 News Article The document conspicuously avoids mention of collective security arrangements through the United Nations, instead suggesting the US &#8220;should expect future coalitions to be ad hoc assemblies, often not lasting beyond the crisis being confronted.&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/1990s/nyt030892.html New York Times, 3/8/92 News Article It also calls for &#8220;punishing&#8221; or &#8220;threatening punishment&#8221; against regional aggressors before they act. Interests to be defended pre-emptively include &#8220;access to vital raw materials, primarily Persian Gulf oil, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missiles, [and] threats to US citizens from terrorism.&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/harpers1002.html Harper's, 10/02 News Article Senator Lincoln Chafee (R), later says, &#8220;It is my opinion that [Bush Jr.'s] plan for preemptive strikes was formed back at the end of the first Bush administration with that 1992 report.&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2003/newsday031603.html Newsday, 3/16/03 News Article In response to the controversy, in May 1992 the US releases an updated version of the document that stresses the US will work with the United Nations and its allies (see also January 1993). http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/1990s/wpost052492.html The Washington Post, 5/24/92 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/harpers1002.html Harper's, 10/02 News Article george_w._bush passiveparticipant dick_cheney passiveparticipant lincoln_chafee activeparticipant lewis_libby activeparticipant paul_wolfowitz activeparticipant motivesBehindWar pre911Plans August 22, 1995 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_424 1 false Hussein Kamel, Iraq's former minister of military industry&#8212;who was Saddam Hussein's son-in-law and who had overseen Saddam's nuclear, chemical, biological and missile weapons programs for almost a decade&#8212;is interviewed shortly after defecting by UNMOVIC Executive Chairman Rolf Ekeus, Professor Maurizio Zifferero, deputy director of the Internal Atomic Energy Agency,and Nikita Smidovick of UNSCOM. During the interview, Kamel says that Iraq had destroyed all of its banned weapons after the First Gulf War. &#8220;I ordered destruction of all chemical weapons. All weapons&#8212;biological, chemical, missile, nuclear were destroyed,&#8221; he tells his interviewers. With regard to Anthrax, which Kamel says had been the &#8220;main focus&#8221; of Iraq's biological program, Kamel says, &#8220;nothing remained.&#8221; Regarding the nerve gas, VX, Kamel says, &#8220;they put it in bombs during last days of the Iran-Iraq war. They were not used and the program was terminated.&#8221; When asked if the program had been reconstituted, Kamel replies, &#8220;We changed the factory into pesticide production. Part of the establishment started to produce medicine ... We gave instructions not to produce chemical weapons.&#8221; On the issue of prohibited missiles, Kamel states: &#8220;[N]ot a single missile left but they had blueprints and molds for production. All missiles were destroyed.&#8221; Kamel also says that inspections worked in Iraq. &#8220;You have important role in Iraq with this. You should not underestimate yourself. You are very effective in Iraq,&#8221; he reveals. unscom_interview_with_hussein_kamel,_august_22,_1995 source But this information is not made public. Newsweek reports in March 2003 that according to its sources, &#8220;Kamel's revelations about the destruction of Iraq's WMD stocks were hushed up by the UN inspectors ... for two reasons. Saddam did not know how much Kamel had revealed, and the inspectors hoped to bluff Saddam into disclosing still more.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0226-01.htm Newsweek, 3/3/03 News Article http://news.scotsman.com/international.cfm?id=230772003 Scotsman, 2/24/03 News Article Kamel also says that Khidhir Hamza, an Iraqi nuclear scientist who defected in 1994 and who will be a source for claims regarding Iraq's alleged nuclear weapons program in the lead-up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, is &#8220;a professional liar.&#8221; &#8220;He worked with us, but he was useless and always looking for promotions,&#8221; he tells his interviewers. &#8220;He consulted with me but could not deliver anything. . . . He was even interrogated by a team before he left and was allowed to go.&#8221; http://www.nybooks.com/articles/16922 New York Review of Books, 2/26/04 News Article At around the same time, Kamel is also interviewed by the CIA and Britain's MI6. According to sources interviewed by Newsweek, Kamel provides them with the same information. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0226-01.htm Newsweek, 3/3/03 News Article http://news.scotsman.com/international.cfm?id=230772003 Scotsman, 2/24/03 News Article unnamed_sources source But after this is revealed on February 24, 2003 by Newsweek's John Barry, the CIA issues a strong denial. &#8220;It is incorrect, bogus, wrong, untrue,&#8221; CIA spokesman Bill Harlow will say. http://abcnews.go.com/wire/US/reuters20030224_550.html Reuters, 2/24/03 News Article rolf_ekeus activeparticipant nikita_smidovick activeparticipant maurizio_zifferero activeparticipant hussein_kamel activeparticipant john_barry activeparticipant bill_harlow activeparticipant wmd July 8, 1996 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_74 1 false The Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies, an Israeli think tank, publishes a paper titled, &#8220;A Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm.&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2003/chicagosuntimes030603.html Chicago Sun-Times, 3/6/03 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/elsewhere/journalist/story/0,7792,785394,00.html Guardian, 9/3/02 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/wtimes100702.htm Washington Times, 10/7/03 News Article The paper advises the new, right-wing Israeli leader Binyamin Netanyahu to make a complete break with the past by adopting a strategy &#8220;based on an entirely new intellectual foundation, one that restores strategic initiative and provides the nation the room to engage every possible energy on rebuilding Zionism ....&#8221; The document advocates the removal of Saddam Hussein and the weakening of Syria. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/1990s/instituteforadvancedstrategicandpoliticalstudies.htm Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies, 7/8/96 News Article http://www.ceip.org/files/nonprolif/templates/Publications.asp?p=8&amp;PublicationID=1214 Carnegie Endowment for Peace, 3/19/2003 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/elsewhere/journalist/story/0,7792,785394,00.html Guardian, 9/3/02 News Article a_clean_break:_a_new_strategy_for_securing_the_realm source Other suggestions for Israel include abandoning the Oslo Accords, developing a foreign policy based on a traditional balance of power strategy, reserving its right to invade the West Bank and Gaza Strip as part of a strategy of &#8220;self-defense,&#8221; abandoning any notion of &#8220;land for peace,&#8221; reestablishing a policy of preemptive strikes, forging closer ties to the US while taking steps towards self-reliance, and seeking an alternative to Yasser Arafat as leader of the PLO. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/1990s/instituteforadvancedstrategicandpoliticalstudies.htm Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies, 7/8/96 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/elsewhere/journalist/story/0,7792,785394,00.html Guardian, 9/3/02 News Article a_clean_break:_a_new_strategy_for_securing_the_realm source Some of the paper's authors will later be appointed to influential government and quasi-government positions during the administration of George W. Bush. The lead writer, Richard Perle, will serve on the Defense Policy Board (for the first year and a half he will serve as chairman). Douglas Feith will serve as undersecretary of defense for policy. He will oversee the activities of several controversial offices including the Counter Terrorism Evaluation Group (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_82 ]]) and the Office of Special Plans (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_78 ]]). David Wurmser will help run the Counter Terrorism Evaluation Group (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_82 ]]) through August 2002 and then will be transferred to the State Department to serve as a senior advisor to Undersecretary of State for Arms Control John R. Bolton (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_78 ]]). &#8220;While there are those who will counsel continuity, Israel has the opportunity to make a clean break; it can forge a peace process and strategy based on an entirely new intellectual foundation, one that restores strategic initiative and provides the nation the room to engage every possible energy on rebuilding Zionism ...&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/1990s/instituteforadvancedstrategicandpoliticalstudies.htm Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies, 7/8/96 News Article duplicate james_colbert activeparticipant meyrav_wurmser activeparticipant jonathan_torop activeparticipant robert_loewenberg activeparticipant charles_fairbanks,_jr. activeparticipant douglas_feith activeparticipant richard_armitage activeparticipant richard_v._allen activeparticipant jeffrey_t._bergner activeparticipant david_wurmser activeparticipant binyamin_netanyahu activeparticipant a_clean_break:_a_new_strategy_for_securing_the_realm activeparticipant motivesBehindWar pre911Plans June 3, 1997 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_627 1 false The Project for the New American Century (PNAC), a neoconservative think tank formed in the spring of 1997, issues its statement of principles. PNAC states that its aims are &#8220;to shape a new century favorable to American principles and interests,&#8221; to achieve &#8220;a foreign policy that boldly and purposefully promotes American principles abroad,&#8221; &#8220;to increase defense spending significantly,&#8221; to challenge &#8220;regimes hostile to US interests and values,&#8221; and to &#8220;accept America's unique role in preserving and extending an international order friendly to our security, our prosperity, and our principles.&#8221; statement_of_principles,_6/3/97 source The statement is significant because it is signed by a group who will become &#8220;a rollcall of today's Bush inner circle.&#8221; http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,903075,00.html Guardian, 2/26/03 News Article ABC's Ted Koppel will later say PNAC's ideas have &#8220;been called a secret blueprint for US global domination&#8221; (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_482 ]]) (see also September 2000, August 21, 2001 (B)). http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2003/abcnews030503b.html ABC News, 3/5/03 (B) News Article donald_kagan activeparticipant zalmay_m._khalilzad_ activeparticipant lewis_libby activeparticipant fred_c._ikle activeparticipant dan_quayle activeparticipant frank_gaffney activeparticipant eliot_a._cohen activeparticipant william_j._bennett activeparticipant jeb_bush activeparticipant dick_cheney activeparticipant paula_j._dobriansky activeparticipant peter_rodman activeparticipant steve_rosen activeparticipant donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant paul_wolfowitz activeparticipant george_weigel activeparticipant midge_decter activeparticipant henry_s._rowen activeparticipant aaron_friedberg activeparticipant francis_fukuyama activeparticipant norman_podhoretz activeparticipant steve_forbes activeparticipant elliott_abrams activeparticipant hasam_amin activeparticipant vin_weber activeparticipant motivesBehindWar pre911Plans November 12, 1997 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_465 1 false David Wurmser, director of the Middle East program at the American Enterprise Institute, writes an op-ed piece in the Wall Street Journal arguing that the US government should support Ahmed Chalabi's Iraqi National Congress [INC] and work to foment &#8220;an Iraqi insurgency to depose the butcher of Baghdad.&#8221; Wurmser writes: &#8220;Washington has no choice now but to abandon the coup option and resurrect the INC. An insurgency may be able to defeat Saddam's weak and demoralized conventional army. But one thing is clear: There is no cost-free way to depose Saddam. He is more resolute, wily and brutal than we. His strength lies in his weapons of terror; that is why he is so attached to them.... Organizing an insurgency to liberate Iraq under the INC may provoke Saddam to use these weapons on the way down. Better that, though, than current policy, which will lead him to use them on his way back up.&#8221; http://www.aei.org/news/newsID.8361/news_detail.asp Wall Street Journal, 11/12/97 News Article david_wurmser activeparticipant ahmed_chalabi passiveparticipant pre911Plans 1998 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_420 1 false Expert committees report that Iraq has failed to adequately account for 500 mustard-gas shells, 25 &#8220;special warheads,&#8221; 150 aerial bombs, 2 scud missiles, 520 kilograms of yeast extract growth medium specifically for anthrax, 15,000 122 mm artillery shells, 25,000 rockets and several hundred tons of chemicals for the nerve agent VX. http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0829/p01s03-wosc.html Christian Science Monitor, 8/29/02 News Article http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2239536.stm BBC, 9/11/2002 News Article http://www.ceip.org/files/Publications/DeadlyArsenals.asp?from=pubdate Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 6/2002 News Article http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/9/3/171417.shtml Newsmax, 9/4/02 News Article Iraq failed to account for 25 &#8220;special warheads&#8221; . Former UNSCOM inspector Scott Ritter will tell the Christian Science Monitor in mid-2002, &#8220;Even if he hid some warheads, they would have degenerated by now.&#8221; http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0829/p01s03-wosc.html Christian Science Monitor, 8/29/02 News Article Iraq has accounted for or destroyed 817 of its 819 Scud missiles. http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0829/p01s03-wosc.html Christian Science Monitor, 8/29/02 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/views02/0820-04.htm Foreign Policy in Focus, 8/02 News Article kofi_annan source It is later suggested by experts, such as former UN inspector Scott Ritter and Charles Duelfer of the Center for Strategic and International Studies, that Iraq could possibly salvage and manufacture enough components to build up a store of between five and 25 missiles. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2239536.stm BBC, 9/11/2002 News Article But as the San Francisco Chronicle later notes, citing unspecified weapons experts, &#8220;there is no evidence that these have been tested or that Iraq has any functional launchers.&#8221; http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/10/12/MN186933.DTL San Francisco Chronicle, 10/12/02 News Article Iraq maintains that these remaining stores of Anthrax were unilaterally destroyed in the summer of 1991, however they offer no evidence of this. http://www.news.scotsman.com/international.cfm?id=230772003 Scotsman, 2/24/03 News Article Scott Ritter, a former Marine intelligence officer and chief weapons inspector, will later say that evidence indicates that Iraq's liquid bulk anthrax has not been produced by Iraq since 1991. Furthermore, he adds, the factory where Iraq had produced the pathogen was destroyed in 1996. He says that any anthrax produced before then is no longer a threat to anyone because after three years liquid bulk anthrax becomes &#8220;useless sludge.&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/reuters020802.htm Reuters, 2/8/02 News Article UNSCOM is unable to account for several hundred tons of chemicals for the nerve agent VX. Iraq maintains that these remaining stocks were unilaterally destroyed in the summer of 1991. http://www.news.scotsman.com/international.cfm?id=230772003 Scotsman, 2/24/03 News Article In March 2003, UNMOVIC, the successor to UNSCOM, will report &#8220;that Iraq's production method created nerve agent that lasted only six to eight weeks.&#8221; http://news.independent.co.uk/world/politics/story.jsp?story=411300 Independent, 6/1/03 News Article Critics believe that most of these stocks were destroyed during the First Gulf War. Scott Ritter, a former chief weapons inspector, speaking at the Suffolk Law School building in downtown Boston, will say on July of 2002: &#8220;The research and development factory is destroyed [a Gulf War bomb destroyed the production facility on January 23, 1991]. The product of that factory is destroyed. The weapons they loaded up have been destroyed. More importantly, the equipment procured from Europe that was going to be used for their large-scale VX nerve agent factory was identified by the special commission&#8212;still packed in its crates in 1997&#8212;and destroyed. Is there a VX nerve agent factory in Iraq today? Not on your life.&#8221; http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/07.25A.wrp.iraq.htm Pitt, 7/24/02 News Article &#8220;Every single one of [the] ... facilities&#8221; bombed in 1998, had been &#8220;subjected to repeated inspections and never did we detect anything to remotely suggest that these were involved in producing anything prohibited. There's nothing there. Nothing.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0708-05.htm Scotland Herald, 7/8/2002 News Article statement &#8220;While we were never able to provide 100 percent certainty regarding the disposition of Iraq's proscribed weaponry, we did ascertain a 90-95 percent level of verified disarmament. This figure takes into account the destruction or dismantling of every major factory associated with prohibited weapons manufacture, all significant items of production equipment, and the majority of the weapons and agent produced by Iraq.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/views02/0721-02.htm Boston Globe, 7/20/02 News Article statement &#8220;What Iraq had in 1991 wasn't a [biological] weapon, it was a large chunk of metal with some sludge in it. The only way it was going to kill you was if it landed on your head.&#8221; http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0829/p01s03-wosc.html Christian Science Monitor, 8/29/02 News Article statement &#8220;Chemical and biological weapons have a limited shelf life. All the materials that Saddam had in 1991 (at the end of the gulf war) would have degraded to the point of being useless long before 2003, whether or not he had destroyed them.&#8221; http://www.msnbc.com/news/920238.asp?cp1=1 Newsweek, 5/30/03 News Article commentary &#8220;... from a qualitative standpoint, Iraq has in fact been disarmed... The chemical, biological, nuclear and long-range ballistic missile programs that were a real threat in 1991 had, by 1998, been destroyed or rendered harmless.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/views/030900-101.htm Boston Globe, 3/9/00 News Article statement &#8220;Under the most stringent on-site inspection regime in the history of arms control, Iraq's biological weapons programs were dismantled, destroyed or rendered harmless during the course of hundreds of no-notice inspections. The major biological weapons production facility&#8212;al Hakum, which was responsible for producing Iraq's anthrax&#8212;was blown up by high explosive charges and all its equipment destroyed. Other biological facilities met the same fate if it was found that they had, at any time, been used for research and development of biological weapons...No evidence of anthrax or any other biological agent was discovered.&#8221; http://www.guardian.co.uk/Print/0,3858,4280517,00.html Guardian, 10/19/01 News Article statement &#8220;If Iraqi disarmament were a five-lap race, we would be three quarters of the way around the fifth and final lap.&#8221; http://iraqaction.org/oldsite/policy.html Boston Globe, 3/22/99 News Article statement wmd 1998 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_161 1 false Radio Free Europe, headquartered in Prague, begins transmitting anti-Saddam programs into Iraq. Late in the year, Iraqi diplomat Jabir Salim defects and tells Czech officials that before leaving Iraq he had been given $150,000 in cash to finance a plot to blow up Radio Free Europe's headquarters. This information is apparently passed on to Washington and US officials warn Tom Dine, program director of Radio Free Europe, about the plot. In response, Radio Free Europe begins 24-hour video surveillance of the building. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/newsweek042802.html Newsweek, 4/28/01 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0501-05.htm Washington Post, 5/1/2002 News Article http://mason-west.com/Research/News/US/missinglink.php#slate Slate, 11/19/2003 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2001/independent102601.htm Independent, 10/26/01 News Article unnamed_sources source jan_kavan source tom_dine activeparticipant jabir_salim activeparticipant radio_free_europe activeparticipant pragueConnection January 26, 1998 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_482 1 false The Project for the New American Century (PNAC), an influential neoconservative think tank, publishes a letter to President Clinton urging war against Iraq and the removal of Saddam Hussein because he is a &#8220;hazard&#8221; to &#8220;a significant portion of the world's supply of oil.&#8221; In a foretaste of what eventually happens, the letter calls for the US to go to war alone, attacks the United Nations, and says the US should not be &#8220;crippled by a misguided insistence on unanimity in the UN Security Council.&#8221; The letter is signed by many who will later lead the 2003 Iraq war. 10 of the 18 signatories later join the Bush Administration, including (future) Defense Secretary Rumsfeld, Assistant Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz, Assistant Secretary of State Richard Armitage, Undersecretaries of State John Bolton and Paula Dobriansky, presidential adviser for the Middle East Elliott Abrams, and Bush's special Iraq envoy Zalmay Khalilzad. http://www.sundayherald.com/32185 Sunday Herald, 3/16/03 News Article january_26,_1998_open_letter_to_bill_clinton source Clinton does heavily bomb Iraq in late 1998, but the bombing doesn't last long and its long-term effect is the break off of United Nations weapons inspections. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/23/international/worldspecial/23PREE.html?pagewanted=all&amp;position=top New York Times, 3/22/03 News Article francis_fukuyama activeparticipant robert_kagan activeparticipant zalmay_m._khalilzad_ activeparticipant paula_j._dobriansky activeparticipant john_r._bolton activeparticipant jeffrey_t._bergner activeparticipant richard_armitage activeparticipant elliott_abrams activeparticipant william_kristol activeparticipant richard_perle activeparticipant donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant peter_rodman activeparticipant william_jefferson_"bill"_clinton passiveparticipant william_j._bennett activeparticipant james_woolsey activeparticipant william_schneider activeparticipant vin_weber activeparticipant paul_wolfowitz activeparticipant robert_b._zoellick activeparticipant motivesBehindWar pre911Plans February 19, 1998 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_75 1 false The Committee for Peace and Security publishes an open letter to President Bill Clinton outlining a 9-point &#8220;comprehensive political and military strategy for bringing down Saddam and his regime.&#8221; The letter is signed by a litany of former US government officials known for their neoconservative viewpoints. Several of the signatories are also involved with the Project for the New American Century and had endorsed a similar letter published by that organization the previous month. http:www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/1990s/openletter021998.htm Committee For Peace and Security, 2/19/98 News Article http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/9802/20/iraq.war.presser/ CNN, 2/20/98 News Article february_19,_1998_open_letter_to_bill_clinton source jarvis_lynch activeparticipant robert_c._mcfarlane activeparticipant joshua_muravchik activeparticipant frederick_l._lewis activeparticipant robert_a._pastor activeparticipant bernard_lewis activeparticipant zalmay_m._khalilzad_ activeparticipant frank_gaffney activeparticipant jeffrey_gedmin activeparticipant fred_c._ikle activeparticipant sven_f._kraemer activeparticipant martin_peretz activeparticipant roger_robinson activeparticipant peter_rodman activeparticipant leon_wienseltier activeparticipant peter_rosenblatt activeparticipant max_singer activeparticipant caspar_weinberger activeparticipant helmut_sonnenfeldt activeparticipant paula_j._dobriansky activeparticipant william_b._clark activeparticipant richard_burt activeparticipant frank_carlucci activeparticipant william_kristol activeparticipant richard_perle activeparticipant paul_wolfowitz activeparticipant elliott_abrams activeparticipant gary_schmitt activeparticipant michael_ledeen activeparticipant robert_kagan activeparticipant dov_zakheim activeparticipant donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant douglas_feith activeparticipant john_r._bolton activeparticipant stephen_solarz activeparticipant david_wurmser activeparticipant stephen_bryen activeparticipant jeffrey_t._bergner activeparticipant richard_armitage activeparticipant richard_v._allen activeparticipant pre911Plans July 1998 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_421 1 false UNSCOM weapons inspector Richard Butler states, &#8220;If Iraqi disarmament were a five-lap race, we would be three quarters of the way around the fifth and final lap.&#8221; http://iraqaction.org/oldsite/policy.html Boston Globe, 3/22/99 News Article &#8220;If Iraqi disarmament were a five-lap race, we would be three quarters of the way around the fifth and final lap.&#8221; http://iraqaction.org/oldsite/policy.html Boston Globe, 3/22/99 News Article duplicate robin_cook activeparticipant wmd Late December 1998 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_183 1 false According to US intelligence sources, Farouk Hijazi, the Iraqi ambassador to Turkey, visits Afghanistan in late 1998 after US cruise missiles are fired on al Qaeda training camps following the bombings of the US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. Hijazi, who is also a longtime intelligence officer, meets Osama bin Laden in Kandahar and extends an offer from Baghdad to provide refuge for him and Taliban leader Mullah Mohammed Omar. Bin Laden reportedly rejects the offer because he doesn't want his organization dominated by Saddam Hussein. After the 9/11 attacks, proponents of invading Iraq will claim the visit makes Hijazi a key link between Saddam Hussein and al Qaeda. Hijazi will be captured by US troops in late April 2003 after the US/British invasion of Iraq begins. When interrogated by US authorities, he will deny any Iraq-al-Qaeda ties. http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,314700,00.html Guardian, 2/16/99 News Article http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/533611/posts Associated Press, 9/27/01 News Article http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/4234549.htm Knight Ridder, 10/7/02 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,314700,00.html Associated Press, 4/25/03 News Article http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2003-07-13-bush-alqaeda_x.htm USA Today, 7/13/03 News Article farouk_hijaz activeparticipant mullah_mohammed_omar passiveparticipant osama_bin_laden activeparticipant terroristTies 1999 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_162 1 false Iraqi diplomat and suspected intelligence officer Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani arrives in Prague to replace his predecessor, Jabir Salim, who had defected (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_161 ]]). Fearing that Al-Ani had a similar mission to that of Salim, Czech intelligence closely monitors al-Ani's activities. Sometime in 1999, al-Ani is reportedly videotaped loitering around and photographing the Radio Free Europe building. Al-Ani is sometimes seen with a thinner, taller man wearing a Shell Oil jacket who is never identified. The pictures are passed onto the Czech intelligence agency [BIS]. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/newsweek042802.html Newsweek, 4/28/01 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0501-05.htm Washington Post, 5/1/2002 News Article http://mason-west.com/Research/News/US/missinglink.php#slate Slate, 11/19/2003 News Article jan_kavan source unnamed_sources source radio_free_europe passiveparticipant jabir_salim passiveparticipant ahmed_khalil_ibrahim_samir_al-ani activeparticipant pragueConnection February 1999 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_94 1 false Wissam al-Zahawie, Iraq's ambassador to the Vatican, sets off on a trip to several African countries, including Niger, where he meets with the country's president. http://psychoanalystsopposewar.org/resources_files/The_Niger_Timebomb.htm Independent, 8/10/03a News Article http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?031027fa_fact New Yorker, 10/20/03 News Article http://www.sundayherald.com/print35264 Sunday Herald, 7/13/03 News Article wissam_al-zahawie source charles_o._cecil source Zahawie's visit is reported in the local newspaper as well as by a French news agency. The US and British governments are also aware of the trip but show no concern. At this time, Niger is &#8220;actively seeking economic assistance from the United States.&#8221; No one suggests that the trip's motives have anything to do with acquiring uranium. http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?031027fa_fact New Yorker, 10/20/03 News Article charles_o._cecil source wissam_al-zahawie source Soon after the September 11 attacks, the Italian intelligence service, SISMI, will provide the US with information it has about the trip and will suggest that the motive behind the visit was to discuss the future purchase of uranium oxide, also known as &#8220;yellowcake&#8221; (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_95 ]]). http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?031027fa_fact New Yorker, 10/20/03 News Article unnamed_us_intelligence_sources source wissam_al-zahawie source wissam_al-zahawie activeparticipant africaUraniumClaim (After February 1999) complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1608 1 false Rocco Martino, an Italian security consultant, provides French officials with documents suggesting that Iraq intends to expand its &#8220;trade&#8221; with Niger. Martino was formerly a member of Italy's foreign intelligence service (SISMI). The French assume the trade being discussed would be in uranium, Niger's main export. At French intelligence's request, Martino continues supplying them with documents. http://www.benadorassociates.com/article/6282 Sunday Times News Article http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/justify/2004/0802niger.htm Financial Times News Article rocco_martino activeparticipant africaUraniumClaim March 1999 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_422 1 false A special panel of the UN Security Council reports that &#8220;the declared facilities of Iraq's biological weapons program have been destroyed and rendered harmless.&#8221; http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/PIL204A.html Daily Mirror, 4/5/02 News Article http://www.cpa.org.au/garchve5/1091war.html Guardian, 5/15/02 News Article wmd December 17, 1999 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_297 1 false With the passing of UN Resolution 1284, the United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) is created to assist in the disarming of Iraq. The new body replaces the United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM). UNMOVIC is deliberately designed to prevent infiltration by spies of the UN Security Council member states, specifically the US and Britain. This had been a problem with its predecessor, UNSCOM. The UN diminishes the role of Americans in the new commission by abolishing the powerful office of deputy chairman, which had always been held by an American, and by appointing non-Americans to important positions. In the new inspections body, &#8220;The highest-ranking American in the agency now has a relatively lowly job, in charge of the training division.&#8221; A Chinese official holds the senior &#8220;activity evaluation&#8221; position and a Russian official is in charge of &#8220;liaising with foreign governments and companies.&#8221; Another reform is that the inspectors will use commercial satellite companies, instead of US spy satellites, to monitor Iraq's activities. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0918-08.htm The Times, 9/18/02 News Article weaponsInspections 2000 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_40 1 false US intelligence learns from the Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS) that Iraq has made arrangements to purchase aluminum tubes from China through Garry Cordukes, the director of the Australian company International Aluminum Supply. The company is associated with Kam Kiu Propriety Limited, a subsidiary of the Chinese company that will manufacture the aluminum tubes. Concerned that the tubes may be related to Iraqi efforts to reconstitute its nuclear weapons program, an Australian intelligence agent contacts Cordukes to obtain a sample of the tubes for examination. A CIA agent, Joe T., is said to have played a significant part in this discovery. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39500-2003Aug9.html Washington Post, 8/10/03 News Article http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2003/transcripts/s976015.htm Australian Broadcasting Corporation News Article unnamed_us_intelligence,_us_administration,_and/or_un_inspectors source joe_t. activeparticipant aluminumTubes 2000 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1609 1 false Former CIA director James Woolsey serves as a corporate officer for the Iraqi National Congress Support Foundation which manages the Iraqi National Congress' US funding. Also during this time, Woolsey and his former law firm, Shea and Gardner, provide the INC and Iraqi exiles with pro bono work. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0716-04.htm Knight Ridder, 7/16/2004 News Article shea_and_gardner activeparticipant iraqi_national_congress_(inc) activeparticipant james_woolsey activeparticipant pre911Plans Early 2000 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1610 1 false Rocco Martino, an Italian security consultant and information peddler, is approached by a former colleague at SISMI, Italy's foreign intelligence agency, who tips him off to a former SISMI source working at the Nigerien Embassy in Rome who can provide Martino with information in exchange for a monthly retainer fee. Martino pursues the lead, and agrees to pay her 500 euros/month. The source, however, remains on SISMI's payroll providing the agency with a way to distribute information to the public while concealing its role. Most of the documents he will receive from the lady will be related to immigration into Italy and Islamist activities in North and Central Africa. http://www.talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/003235.php Talking Points Memo, 8/1/2004 News Article rocco_martino activeparticipant sismi activeparticipant africaUraniumClaim 2000 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_483 1 false During the 2000 presidential campaign, the Republican Party calls for &#8220;a comprehensive plan for the removal of Saddam Hussein.&#8221; Similarly, the Democratic Party's platform supports using &#8220;America's military might against Iraq when and where it is necessary.&#8221; http://www.newamericancentury.org/iraq-070601.htm Project for the New American Century, 7/6/00 News Article http://www.stratmag.com/issueNov-1/page06.htm Strategic Affairs. 11/1/00 News Article http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2001/2/2/212401.shtml NewsMax, 2/3/01 News Article http://www.rnc.org/GOPInfo/Platform/2000platform8aaa.htm Republican National Committee, 2000 Platform News Article http://www.democrats.org/about/2000platform.html Democratic National Committee, 2000 Platform, pg 46 News Article republican_national_committee source democratic_national_committee source democratic_national_committee activeparticipant republican_national_committee activeparticipant pre911Plans September 2000 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_76 1 false The neoconservative think tank Project for the New American Century writes a &#8220;blueprint&#8221; for the &#8220;creation of a &#8216;global Pax Americana&#8217; &#8221; (see also June 3, 1997). The document, titled, Rebuilding America's Defenses: Strategies, Forces and Resources for a New Century, was written for the Bush team even before the 2000 Presidential election. It was written for future Vice President Cheney, future Defense Secretary Rumsfeld, future Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz, Florida Governor and President Bush's brother Jeb Bush, and future Vice President Cheney's Chief of Staff Lewis Libby. The report calls itself a &#8220;blueprint for maintaining global US preeminence, precluding the rise of a great power rival, and shaping the international security order in line with American principles and interests.&#8221; The plan shows that the Bush team intended to take military control of Persian Gulf oil whether or not Saddam Hussein was in power and should retain control of the region even if there is no threat. It says: &#8220;The United States has for decades sought to play a more permanent role in Gulf regional security. While the unresolved conflict with Iraq provides the immediate justification, the need for a substantial American force presence in the Gulf transcends the issue of the regime of Saddam Hussein.&#8221; The report calls for the control of space through a new &#8220;US Space Forces,&#8221; the political control of the internet, the subversion of any growth in political power of even close allies, and advocates &#8220;regime change&#8221; in China, North Korea, Libya, Syria, Iran and other countries. It also mentions that &#8220;advanced forms of biological warfare that can &#8216;target&#8217; specific genotypes may transform biological warfare from the realm of terror to a politically useful tool.&#8221; (see also Spring 2001 and April 2001 (D)). http://www.sundayherald.com/27735 Sunday Herald, 9/7/02 News Article rebuilding_america_s_defenses source However, the report complains that these changes are likely to take a long time, &#8220;absent some catastrophic and catalyzing event&#8212;like a new Pearl Harbor.&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2003/latimes011203.html Los Angeles Times, 1/12/03 News Article In an NBC interview at about the same time, Vice Presidential candidate Cheney defends Bush Jr.'s position of maintaining Clinton's policy not to attack Iraq because the US should not act as though &#8220;we were an imperialist power, willy-nilly moving into capitals in that part of the world, taking down governments.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&amp;node=&amp;contentId=A43909-2003Jan11&amp;notFound=true Washington Post, 1/12/02 News Article This report and the Project for the New American Century generally are mostly ignored until a few weeks before the start of the Iraq war (see February-March 20, 2003). &#8220;The United States has for decades sought to play a more permanent role in Gulf regional security. While the unresolved conflict with Iraq provides the immediate justification, the need for a substantial American force presence in the Gulf transcends the issue of the regime of Saddam Hussein&#8221; http://www.newamericancentury.org/RebuildingAmericasDefenses.pdf Project for a New American Century, 9/00 News Article duplicate The PNAC document supports a &#8220;blueprint for maintaining global US pre-eminence, precluding the rise of a great power rival, and shaping the international security order in line with American principles and interests.&#8221; http://www.newamericancentury.org/RebuildingAmericasDefenses.pdf Project for a New American Century, 9/00 News Article duplicate &#8220;This is garbage from right-wing think-tanks stuffed with chicken-hawks&#8212;men who have never seen the horror of war but are in love with the idea of war. Men like Cheney, who were draft-dodgers in the Vietnam war.... This is a blueprint for US world domination&#8212;a new world order of their making. These are the thought processes of fantasist Americans who want to control the world. I am appalled that a British Labour Prime Minister should have got into bed with a crew which has this moral standing.&#8221; http://www.sundayherald.com/27735 Sunday Herald, 9/7/02 News Article commentary lewis_libby activeparticipant paul_wolfowitz activeparticipant robert_martinage activeparticipant james_lasswell activeparticipant phil_meilinger activeparticipant mark_lagon activeparticipant robert_killebrew activeparticipant donald_kagan activeparticipant fred_kagan activeparticipant robert_kagan activeparticipant william_kristol activeparticipant mackubin_owens activeparticipant steve_rosen activeparticipant gary_schmitt activeparticipant abram_shulsky activeparticipant dan_goure activeparticipant michael_vickers activeparticipant dov_zakheim activeparticipant barry_watts activeparticipant david_fautua activeparticipant thomas_donnelly activeparticipant stephen_cambone activeparticipant eliot_a._cohen activeparticipant devon_gaffney_cross activeparticipant alvin_bernstein activeparticipant roger_barnett activeparticipant lewis_libby activeparticipant jeb_bush activeparticipant william_jefferson_"bill"_clinton activeparticipant david_epstein activeparticipant donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant dick_cheney activeparticipant paul_wolfowitz activeparticipant motivesBehindWar pre911Plans 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_188 1 false Abu Mussab Al Zarqawi, a Jordanian Muslim militant later alleged by the Bush administration to have ties to Osama bin Laden, is arrested in Jordan sometime in 2001 for his involvement in a late 1999 plot to blow up the Radisson SAS Hotel in Amman, Jordan, whose customers are frequently Israeli and American tourists. Some time after his arrest, he is released. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A38235-2003Feb6.html Washington Post, 2/7/03 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,807286,00.html Guardian, 10/9/02 News Article unnamed_bush_administration_official source At some point he is convicted for his role in the plot and sentenced to death by a Jordanian court in absentia. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/independent020602.htm Independent, 2/6/03 News Article abu_mussab_al_zarqawi activeparticipant alZarqawi 2001-2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_474 1 false The US intelligence community&#8212;most notably the intelligence gatherers working in the Pentagon offices under Douglas Feith (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_78 ]]) &#8212;bases several of its intelligence assessments concerning Iraq on information offered by the Iraqi National Congress (INC) and by Iraqi defectors provided by the INC, despite warnings from the State Department and some CIA analysts that the lobbying group cannot be trusted. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0807-02.htm Inter Press Service, 8/7/03 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,999737,00.html Guardian, 7/17/03 News Article http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article4124.htm Salon, 7/16/03 News Article http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030512fa_fact New Yorker, 5/5/03 News Article http://news.independent.co.uk/world/americas/story.jsp?story=448353 Independent, 9/30/03 News Article http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html Mother Jones, 1/04 News Article greg_thielmann source unnamed_administration_official source Some of the INC's intelligence on Iraq's alleged arsenal of weapons of mass destruction and Saddam's supposed ties to terrorists are reportedly funneled directly to the office of Vice President Dick Cheney by Francis Brooke, the DC lobbyist for the group. http://msnbc.msn.com/id/3660169/ Newsweek, 12/15/03 News Article memo source francis_brooke source Brooke will later acknowedge that the information provided by the INC was driven by an agenda. &#8220;I told them [the INC], as their campaign manager, &#8216;Go get me a terrorist and some WMD, because that's what the Bush administration is interested in.&#8217; &#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 230 News Article Brooke had previously worked for the Rendon Group, &#8220;a shadowy CIA-connected public-relations firm.&#8221; http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html Mother Jones, 1/04 News Article &#8220;Our guys working this area for a living all believe Chalabi and all those guys in their Bond Street suits are charlatans. To take them for a source of anything except a fantasy trip would be a real stretch. But it's an article of faith among those with no military experience that the Iraqi military is low-hanging fruit.&#8221; http://www.realcities.com/mld/krwashington/news/special_packages/6082423.html Knight Ridder, 11/1/02 News Article statement &#8220;The [INC's] intelligence isn't reliable at all. Much of it is propaganda. Much of it is telling the Defense Department what they want to hear. And much of it is used to support Chalabi's own presidential ambitions. They make no distinction between intelligence and propaganda, using alleged informants and defectors who say what Chalabi wants them to say, [creating] cooked information that goes right into presidential and vice-presidential speeches.&#8221; http://news.independent.co.uk/world/americas/story.jsp?story=448353 Independent, 9/30/03 News Article commentary &#8220;The UN stopped using Chalabi's information as a basis for conducting inspections once the tenuous nature of his sources and his dubious motivations became clear. Unfortunately, the same cannot be said for the mainstream US media, which give prominent coverage to sources of information that, had they not been related to Hussein's Iraq, would normally be immediately dismissed.&#8221; http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0123/p09s01-coop.html Christian Science Monitor, 1/28/02 News Article statement &#8220;The Iraqi opposition, particularly the group led by Ahmed Chalabi, whose intelligence was underwritten by the Pentagon, played a crucial role in informing the Pentagon ... with information that looks, from this vantage point, like it was fraudulent, in many cases was fabricated, and the most benign interpretation was that it was just flat wrong.&#8221; http://www.abcnews.go.com/sections/nightline/World/ntl_wmd_bury_030616.html ABC News, 6/16/03 News Article statement dick_cheney passiveparticipant francis_brooke activeparticipant douglas_feith passiveparticipant frank_gaffney activeparticipant terroristTies deception wmd officeOfSpecialPlans Early 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_11 1 false Shortly after Bush is inaugurated into office, Greg Thielmann, an analyst for the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR), is appointed to serve as the intelligence liaison to John Bolton. But Thielmann's intelligence briefings do not support Bolton's assumptions about Iraq, and Thielmann is soon barred from attending the meetings. http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?031027fa_fact New Yorker, 10/20/03 News Article greg_thielmann source John Bolton claimed that Greg Thielmann had &#8220;invited himself&#8221; to his daily staff meetings, while Thielmann had told Seymour Hersh he had been assigned the duty. Bolton explained: &#8220;This was my meeting with the four assistant secretaries who report to me, in preparation for the Secretary's 8:30 a.m. staff meeting. This was within my family of bureaus. There was no place for INR or anyone else&#8212;the Human Resources Bureau or the Office of Foreign Buildings.&#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?031027fa_fact New Yorker, 10/20/03 News Article statement &#8220;Bolton seemed to be troubled because INR was not telling him what he wanted to hear. I was intercepted at the door of his office and told, &#8216;The Under-Secretary doesn't need you to attend this meeting anymore&#8217; ,&#8221; he was told by one of Bolton's aides. &#8220;The Under-Secretary wants to keep this in the family.&#8221; To ensure that Bolton received the intelligence he wanted, explained Thielmann, &#8220;He surrounded himself with a hand-chosen group of loyalists, and found a way to get CIA information directly.&#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?031027fa_fact New Yorker, 10/20/03 News Article statement &#8220;I found that there was lots of stuff that I wasn't getting and that the INR analysts weren't including. I didn't want it filtered. I wanted to see everything&#8212;to be fully informed. If that puts someone's nose out of joint, sorry about that.&#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?031027fa_fact New Yorker, 10/20/03 News Article statement john_r._bolton activeparticipant greg_thielmann activeparticipant deception January 2, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1182 1 false The Italian police discover that the Niger Embassy in Rome has been ransacked. It appears that the people involved in the break-in searched through the embassy's documents and files. http://bulletin.ninemsn.com.au/bulletin/EdDesk.nsf/0/a0f101466d6da341ca256d6b000ae3cc?OpenDocument Newsweek, 7/28/03 News Article In 2003, Italian investigators will suspect that this incident is related to a collection of forged documents obtained by an Italian journalist in October 2002 which play a significant role in US allegations that Saddam Hussein attempted to obtain uranium oxide from Niger between 1999 and 2001 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_96 ]]). http://bulletin.ninemsn.com.au/bulletin/EdDesk.nsf/0/a0f101466d6da341ca256d6b000ae3cc?OpenDocument Newsweek, 7/28/03 News Article africaUraniumClaim January 10, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_434 1 false During a National Press Club Newsmakers luncheon, outgoing Defense Secretary William Cohen says: &#8220;Well, Saddam Hussein's forces are in a state where he cannot pose a threat to his neighbors at this point. We have been successful, through the sanctions regime, to really shut off most of the revenue that will be going to build his&#8212;rebuild his military.&#8221; http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4309594,00.html US Department of Defense, 1/10/01 News Article http://www.viwuk.freeserve.co.uk/library/hans.html Jordan Times, 2002 News Article william_cohen activeparticipant wmd January 29, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_459 1 false Imam Sayed Hassan al-Qazwini, who heads the Islamic Center of America in Detroit, one of the nation's largest mosques, meets with President Bush in the White House about the administration's policy towards Iraq. The president says he supports a policy aimed at removing Saddam Hussein from power, though he does not discuss by what means. &#8220;No method was discussed at all,&#8221; al-Qazwini will tell the New York Times two years later. &#8220;It was a general desire for regime change.&#8221; He will also tell the newspaper that he had spoken with Bush about removing Saddam Hussein a total of six or seven times, both before and after the 2000 elections. http://foi.missouri.edu/polinfoprop/bushdisputes.html New York Times, 1/12/04 News Article imam_sayed_hassan_al-qazwini source george_w._bush activeparticipant imam_sayed_hassan_al-qazwini activeparticipant pre911Plans decision January 30, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_457 1 false The Bush White House holds its first National Security Council meeting. The lead discussion of the meeting centers on the need to remove Saddam Hussein from power. US Secretary of Treasury Paul O'Neill, recalling the meeting, will tell CBS News two years later: &#8220;From the very beginning, there was a conviction, that Saddam Hussein was a bad person and that he needed to go ... From the very first instance, it was about Iraq. It was about what we can do to change this regime. Day one, these things were laid and sealed.&#8221; O'Neill will say officials never questioned the logic behind this policy. No one ever asked, &#8220;Why Saddam?&#8221; and &#8220;Why now?&#8221; Instead, the issue that needed to be resolved was how this could be accomplished. &#8220;It was all about finding a way to do it,&#8221; O'Neill will explain. &#8220;That was the tone of it. The president saying &#8216;Go find me a way to do this.&#8217; &#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0110-03.htm CBS News, 1/10/04 News Article http://foi.missouri.edu/polinfoprop/bushdisputes.html New York Times, 1/12/04 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,1120959,00.html Guardian, 1/12/04 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 234 News Article paul_o?neill source After information of this meeting is revealed by Paul O'Neill, the White House will attempt to downplay its significance. &#8220;... The stated policy of my administration toward Saddam Hussein was very clear,&#8221; Bush will tell reporters during a visit to Mexico In January 2004. &#8220;Like the previous administration, we were for regime change. ... And in the initial stages of the administration, as you might remember, we were dealing with desert badger or fly-overs and fly-betweens and looks, and so we were fashioning policy along those lines.&#8221; http://foi.missouri.edu/polinfoprop/bushdisputes.html New York Times, 1/12/04 News Article But another official, who is also present at the meeting, will later say that the tone of the meeting implies a policy much more aggressive than that of the previous administration. &#8220;The president told his Pentagon officials to explore the military options, including use of ground forces,&#8221; the official will tell ABC News. &#8220;That went beyond the Clinton administration's halfhearted attempts to overthrow Hussein without force.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0113-09.htm ABC News, 1/13/04 News Article unnamed_senior_official_of_the_bush_administration source Other people, in addition to O'Neill and Bush, who are likely in attendance include Vice President Dick Cheney, Secretary of State Colin Powell, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice, Director of Central Intelligence George Tenet and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Richard B. Myers. national_security_presidential_directives&mdash;nspd-1,_2/13/01]_ source donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant condoleezza_rice activeparticipant paul_o?neill activeparticipant colin_powell activeparticipant george_tenet activeparticipant richard_b._myers activeparticipant george_w._bush activeparticipant pre911Plans decision February 1, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_458 1 false The Bush White House holds its second National Security Council meeting. Again, the issue of regime change in Iraq is a central topic. One of the memos discussed during the meeting is titled, &#8220;Plan for post-Saddam Iraq.&#8221; It reportedly discusses the need for troops in a post-Saddam occupation, war crimes tribunals, and how to divvy up Iraq's oil wealth. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0110-03.htm CBS News, 1/10/04 News Article http://foi.missouri.edu/polinfoprop/bushdisputes.html New York Times, 1/12/04 News Article paul_o?neill source In attendance is Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, who speaks in favor of removing Saddam Hussein. It would &#8220;demonstrate what US policy is all about,&#8221; he says, and contribute to the transformation of the Middle East. According to Paul O'Neill, Rumsfeld talks at the meeting &#8220;in general terms about post-Saddam Iraq, dealing with the Kurds in the north, the oil fields, the reconstruction of the country's economy, and the &#8216;freeing of the Iraqi people.&#8217; &#8221; http://foi.missouri.edu/polinfoprop/bushdisputes.html New York Times, 1/12/04 News Article paul_o?neill source Other people, in addition to O'Neill, Bush, and Rumsfeld, who are likely in attendance include Vice President Dick Cheney, Secretary of State Colin Powell, National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice, Director of Central Intelligence George Tenet and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Richard B. Myers. national_security_presidential_directives&mdash;nspd-1,_2/13/01]_ source donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant paul_o?neill activeparticipant george_w._bush activeparticipant colin_powell activeparticipant george_tenet activeparticipant richard_b._myers activeparticipant condoleezza_rice activeparticipant pre911Plans preWarPlanning decision February 24, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_435 1 false Secretary of State Colin Powell travels to Cairo and meets with his counterpart Amre Moussa. During a press conference, Powell says: &#8220;He [Saddam Hussein] has not developed any significant capability with respect to weapons of mass destruction. He is unable to project conventional power against his neighbors.&#8221; http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2001/933.htm US Department of State, 2/24/03 News Article http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/allnews/content_objectid=13434081_method=full_siteid=50143_headline=-THE-BIG-LIE-name_page.html The Mirror, 9/22/03 News Article http://www.mercurynews.com/mld/mercurynews/news/special_packages/iraq/6860886.htm Associated Press, 9/25/03 News Article Some nineteen months later, when Powell is asked to explain why his assessment of Iraq had so drastically changed over such a short span of time, Powell says, &#8220;... I did not say he (Iraqi President Saddam Hussein) didn't have weapons of mass destruction.... He was a threat then. The extent of his holdings were yet to be determined. It was early in the administration and the fact of the matter is it was long before 9/11 (the date of the 2001 attacks on the United States).... A lot changed between February 2001 (and the invasion), but I don't find anything inconsistent between what I said then and what I've said all along.&#8221; http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2003/24534.htm US Department of State, 9/25/03 News Article http://www.unknownnews.net/030929liesliesmorelies.html Washington Post, 9/26/03 News Article http://www.mercurynews.com/mld/mercurynews/news/special_packages/iraq/6860886.htm Associated Press, 9/25/03 News Article amre_moussa activeparticipant colin_powell activeparticipant wmd March 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_460 1 false Cheney's Energy Task Force authors a variety of documents relating to the oil industries of Iraq, United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia. http://www.judicialwatch.org/071703.b_PR.shtml Judicial Watch, 7/17/03 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0110-03.htm CBS News, 1/10/04 News Article http://foi.missouri.edu/polinfoprop/bushdisputes.html New York Times, 1/12/04 News Article This document, dated March 5, 2001, includes a table listing 30 countries which have interests in Iraq's oil industry. The document also includes the names of companies that have interests, the oil fields with which those interests are associated, as well as the statuses of those interests. iraq_oil_foreign_suitors,_page_1 source iraq_oil_foreign_suitors,_page_2 source The map includes markings for &#8220;supergiant&#8221; oil fields of 5 billion barrels or more, other oilfields, fields &#8220;earmarked for production sharing,&#8221; oil pipelines, operational refineries, and tanker terminals. iraq_oil_map source Other documents include oil field maps and project tables for both Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates saudi_arabia_oil_project_table source saudia_arabia_oil_map source uae_oil_map source uae_oil_project_table source dick_cheney activeparticipant decision pre911Plans motivesBehindWar April 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_77 1 false A report commissioned by former US Secretary of State James Baker and the Council on Foreign Relations titled, &#8220;Strategic Energy Policy Challenges For The 21st Century&#8221; is submitted to Vice President Cheney. &#8220;The report is linked to a veritable who's who of US hawks, oilmen and corporate bigwigs.&#8221; The report says the &#8220;central dilemma&#8221; for the US administration is that &#8220;the American people continue to demand plentiful and cheap energy without sacrifice or inconvenience.&#8221; It warns that the US is running out of oil, with a painful end to cheap fuel already in sight. It argues that &#8220;the United States remains a prisoner of its energy dilemma,&#8221; and that one of the &#8220;consequences&#8221; of this is a &#8220;need for military intervention&#8221; to secure its oil supply. It argues that Iraq needs to be overthrown so the US can control its oil. http://www.sundayherald.com/28224 Sunday Herald, 10/05/02 News Article http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/12/25/1040511092926.html Sydney Morning Herald, 12/26/02 News Article strategic_energy_policy_challenges_for_the_21st_century source In what may be a reference to a pipeline through Afghanistan, the report suggests the US should &#8220;Investigate whether any changes to US policy would quickly facilitate higher exports of oil from the Caspian Basin region... the exports from some oil discoveries in the Caspian Basin could be hastened if a secure, economical export route could be identified swiftly&#8221; (see also September 2000 and Spring 2001). strategic_energy_policy_challenges_for_the_21st_century source &#8220;Iraq remains a destabilizing influence to ... the flow of oil to international markets from the Middle East. Saddam Hussein has also demonstrated a willingness to threaten to use the oil weapon and to use his own export program to manipulate oil markets. This would display his personal power, enhance his image as a pan-Arab leader and pressure others for a lifting of economic sanctions against his regime. The United States should conduct an immediate policy review toward Iraq including military, energy, economic and political/diplomatic assessments. The United States should then develop an integrated strategy with key allies in Europe and Asia, and with key countries in the Middle East, to restate goals with respect to Iraqi policy and to restore a cohesive coalition of key allies...&#8221; http://www.rice.edu/projects/baker/Pubs/workingpapers/cfrbipp_energy/energycfr.pdf Strategic Energy Policy Challenges For The 21st Century, 4/ 01, pg. 42 News Article excerpt &#8220;Iraqi [oil] reserves represent a major asset that can quickly add capacity to world oil markets and inject a more competitive tenor to oil trade.&#8221; http://www.rice.edu/projects/baker/Pubs/workingpapers/cfrbipp_energy/energycfr.pdf Strategic Energy Policy Challenges For The 21st Century, 4/ 01, pg. 43 News Article excerpt &#8220;[T]he United States remains a prisoner of its energy dilemma, suffering on a recurring basis from the negative consequences of sporadic energy shortages. These consequences can include recession, social dislocation of the poorest Americans, and at the extremes, a need for military intervention.&#8221; http://www.rice.edu/projects/baker/Pubs/workingpapers/cfrbipp_energy/energycfr.pdf Strategic Energy Policy Challenges For The 21st Century, 4/ 01, pg. 34 News Article excerpt dick_cheney activeparticipant james_a._baker_iii_institute_for_public_policy_of_rice_university activeparticipant motivesBehindWar pre911Plans April 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_494 1 false During a National Security Council deputy principals meeting, Paul Wolfowitz is challenged by White House counterterrorism advisor Richard Clarke after asserting that Iraq is involved in terrorism. Recalling the meeting, Clarke tells The Guardian in a March 2004 interview: &#8220;April was an initial discussion of terrorism policy writ large and at that meeting I said we had to talk about al-Qaeda. And because it was terrorism policy writ large [Paul] Wolfowitz said we have to talk about Iraqi terrorism and I said that's interesting because there hasn't been any Iraqi terrorism against the United States. There hasn't been any for 8 years. And he said something derisive about how I shouldn't believe the CIA and FBI, that they've been wrong. And I said if you know more than I know tell me what it is, because I've been doing this for 8 years and I don't know about any Iraqi-sponsored terrorism against the US since 1993. When I said let's start talking about bin Laden, he said bin Laden couldn't possibly have attacked the World Trade Center in '93. One little terrorist group like that couldn't possibly have staged that operation. It must have been Iraq.&#8221; http://www.guardian.co.uk/september11/story/0,11209,1175817,00.html The Guardian, 3/23/04 News Article paul_wolfowitz activeparticipant richard_clarke activeparticipant decision terroristTies April 8, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_163 1 false An informant for the BIS, the Czech intelligence agency, reportedly sees Iraqi diplomat Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani meeting in a restaurant outside Prague with an Arab man in his 20s. This draws concern from the intelligence community because the informant suggests the person is &#8220;a visiting &#8216;student&#8217; from Hamburg&#8212;and ... potentially dangerous.&#8221; http://mason-west.com/Research/News/US/missinglink.php#slate Slate, 11/19/2003 News Article jan_kavan source The young man is never positively identified or seen again. Fearing that al-Ani may have been attempting to recruit the young man for a mission to blow-up Radio Free Europe headquarters, the diplomat is told to leave the country on April 18. http://mason-west.com/Research/News/US/missinglink.php#slate Slate, 11/19/2003 News Article http://www.nytimes.com/2001/10/27/international/middleeast/27IRAQ.html?pagewanted=all New York Times, 10/27/01 News Article http://www.upi.com/view.cfm?StoryID=20021020-092811-8185r UPI, 10/21/02 News Article jan_kavan source unnamed_us_officials source Information about the incident is passed on to US intelligence. After the 9/11 attacks and after it is reported on the news that Atta had likely visited Prague, the BIS informant will say the young man at the restaurant was Atta. (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_165 ]]) This information leads hawks to come up with the so-called &#8220;Prague Connection&#8221; theory, which will hold that 9/11 plotter Mohammed Atta flew to Prague on April 8, met with al-Ani to discuss the planning and financing of the 9/11 attacks, and returned to the US on either April 9 or 10. http://mason-west.com/Research/News/US/missinglink.php#slate Slate, 11/19/2003 News Article http://www.nytimes.com/2001/10/27/international/middleeast/27IRAQ.html?pagewanted=all New York Times, 10/27/01 News Article http://www.upi.com/view.cfm?StoryID=20021020-092811-8185r UPI, 10/21/02 News Article jan_kavan source unnamed_us_officials source unnamed_bis_informant source The theory will be widely discounted by October 2002. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/nyt102102.html New York Times, 10/21/02 News Article unnamed_bis_informant source unnamed_us_officials source mohammed_atta passiveparticipant ahmed_khalil_ibrahim_samir_al-ani activeparticipant jabir_salim activeparticipant radio_free_europe passiveparticipant pragueConnection terroristTies April 20, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_164 1 false Hynek Kmonicek, the Czech Republic's deputy foreign minister, informs the Iraqi charg? d'affaires in Prague that al-Ani must leave the Czech Republic within 24-hours because his &#8220;presence [is] not in the security interests of the Czech Republic&#8221; and because his activities are &#8220;incompatible with his diplomatic status.&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2001/nyt102701.html New York Times, 10/27/01 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2001/nyt121601.html New York Times, 12/16/01 News Article http://mason-west.com/Research/News/US/missinglink.php#slate Slate, 11/19/2003 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2001/independent102601.htm Independent, 10/26/01 News Article Kmonicek will later deny that the dismissal is related to the meeting that allegedly took place on April 8 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_163 ]]). A Newsweek report in April 2002 will suggest the dismissal is related to video surveillance footage showing al-Ani photographing the Radio Free Europe building on several occasions. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/newsweek042802.html Newsweek, 4/28/01 News Article But a November 2003 report in Slate will say that the dismissal is indeed related to the alleged meeting, explaining that Czech intelligence had become nervous after learning of the meeting. http://mason-west.com/Research/News/US/missinglink.php#slate Slate, 11/19/2003 News Article jan_kavan source The real cause for his dismissal is never officially disclosed. hynek_kmonicek activeparticipant ahmed_khalil_ibrahim_samir_al-ani activeparticipant pragueConnection April 30, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_139 1 false The US State Department's 2000 annual report states in its section on state-sponsored terrorism that the Ba'ath regime's &#8220;terrorist&#8221; activities consist primarily of its use of violence to silence dissident exiles. The report also notes that Iraq has not engaged in terrorism against the West &#8220;since its failed plot to assassinate former President Bush in 1993 in Kuwait.&#8221; Significantly the report does not tie Iraq to international Islamic terrorist groups like al-Qaeda. http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/pgtrpt/2000/2441.htm US Department of State, 4/30/2001 News Article ../../archive/2001/newsday122101.htm Newsday, 12/24/01 News Article us_department_of_state,_4/30/2001 source terroristTies May 15, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_436 1 false Powell says that Saddam Hussein has not been able to &#8220;build his military back up or to develop weapons of mass destruction&#8221; for &#8220;the last 10 years,&#8221; adding that the sanctions policy had successfully kept him &#8220;in a box.&#8221; http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/allnews/content_objectid=13434081_method=full_siteid=50143_headline=-THE-BIG-LIE-name_page.html The Mirror, 9/22/03 News Article colin_powell activeparticipant wmd May 23, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_468 1 false A container shipment of 3,000 aluminum tubes manufactured in China leaves southern China for Hong Kong on a slow barge. From there the shipment will go to Jordan. The tubes' final destination is Iraq. http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2003/transcripts/s976015.htm Australian Broadcasting Corporation News Article aluminumTubes May 25, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_469 1 false The Chinese government contacts a Chinese aluminum manufacturer that has just filled an order for 3,000 aluminum tubes, which is now on its way to Iraq. The company is told that the US government has a special interest in the order and is determined to prevent the shipment from reaching its destination. http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2003/transcripts/s976015.htm Australian Broadcasting Corporation News Article garry_cordukes source aluminumTubes July 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_41 1 false Following leads from the Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS) (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_40 ]]), a team of CIA agents and Jordanian secret police confiscate a shipment to 3,000 aluminum tubes in Jordan. The tubes had been purchased by a Jordanian front company, AT&amp;C, on behalf of Iraq. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39500-2003Aug9.html Washington Post, 8/10/03 News Article http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2003/transcripts/s976015.htm Australian Broadcasting Corporation News Article It is later learned that Iraq's supply of rocket body casing tubes is depleted at about this time and that &#8220;[t]housands of warheads, motors and fins [are] ... crated at the assembly lines [in Iraq], awaiting the arrival of tubes.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39500-2003Aug9.html Washington Post, 8/10/03 News Article unnamed_us_intelligence,_us_administration,_and/or_un_inspectors source It is also later determined that the shipment of tubes is meant to replenish Iraq's supply of rocket casing tubes; they are not for Iraq's alleged nuclear weapons program (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_50 ]]). aluminumTubes July 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_437 1 false National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice says, &#8220;Saddam does not control the northern part of the country. We are able to keep his arms from him. His military forces have not been rebuilt.&#8221; http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/allnews/content_objectid=13434081_method=full_siteid=50143_headline=-THE-BIG-LIE-name_page.html The Mirror, 9/22/03 News Article condoleezza_rice activeparticipant wmd July 2001 and later complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_43 1 false Almost immediately after Joe T.'s theory is circulated through US intelligence and science circles, centrifuge physicists at the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and other similar institutions express doubt that the tubes are meant for centrifuges. They provide several reasons why: (1) The size of the tubes makes them ill-suited to be used as rotors in a centrifuge. They have thick walls and are too long and narrow. (2) Since the 1950s, aluminum has no longer been used for rotors. (3) Iraq is known to have had the blueprints for a more efficient centrifuge, which used maraging steel and carbon fiber, not aluminum. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39500-2003Aug9.html Washington Post, 8/10/03 News Article Not withstanding these criticisms, Joe T. sticks with his theory. His position is backed by CIA director George Tenet. http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2003/transcripts/s976015.htm Australian Broadcasting Corporation News Article joe_t. activeparticipant aluminumTubes July 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_487 1 false The UN's International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) obtains a few samples of the aluminum tubes that were seized by the CIA and Jordanian secret service. They examine the tubes and initially are quite skeptical that the Iraqis intended to use them as rotors in a gas centrifuge. http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2003/transcripts/s976015.htm Australian Broadcasting Corporation News Article Later this month, CIA agent Joe T. flies to Vienna and presents his case to the IAEA. David Albright, a physicist and former weapons inspector, who heads the Institute for Science and International Security, will later explain to the Australian Broadcasting Corporation: &#8220;The view in Vienna in the summer of 2001 was &#8216;Maybe this guy has a clever idea, but he really is just grabbing at almost straws to prove his case, and when he's debunked in one model, he then shifts it and tries to make his information fit another centrifuge model.&#8217; And yet whenever you confronted him with the facts or the weaknesses in argument, he always came back with the same answer&#8212; &#8216;It's only for centrifuges.&#8217; &#8221; When Joe T. returns to Washington, he tells his superiors at the CIA that the IAEA agrees with his theory. http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2003/transcripts/s976015.htm Australian Broadcasting Corporation News Article jacques_bautes source andrew_wilkie source joe_t. activeparticipant aluminumTubes July 2001-2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_42 1 false Joe T. maintains his claim that the aluminum tubes imported by Iraq but intercepted by the US in Jordan (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_41 ]]) were meant to be used as rotors in centrifuges. Joe T.'s theory becomes one of the most important components of the Bush administration's argument that Saddam Hussein is pursuing the development of nuclear weapons. Despite significant criticisms of his theory from prominent experts in the field, Joe T. (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_43 ]]) (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_44 ]]) (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_47 ]]) (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_49 ]]) receives an award for exceptional performance from the CIA for his analysis of the intercepted aluminum tubes. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39500-2003Aug9.html Washington Post, 8/10/03 News Article unnamed_us_intelligence,_us_administration,_and/or_un_inspectors source joe_t. activeparticipant aluminumTubes Early September 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_64 1 false At the behest of Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz, former CIA director James Woolsey flies to London to look for evidence tying Osama bin Laden and Saddam Hussein to the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center and evidence that 9/11 hijacker Mohammed Atta had worked with Iraqi intelligence to plan the September 11 attacks. Woolsey is advised to meet with Iraqi exiles and others who may have useful intelligence. http://www.observer.co.uk/international/story/0,6903,573893,00.html Observer 10/14/01 News Article http://www.villagevoice.com/issues/0147/vest.php The Village Voice, 11/21/01 News Article http://globalresearch.ca/articles//BEA112A.html Observer, 12/2/01 News Article Secretary of State Colin Powell and CIA director George Tenet are not informed of the visit. http://www.villagevoice.com/issues/0147/vest.php The Village Voice, 11/21/01 News Article james_woolsey activeparticipant paul_wolfowitz activeparticipant decision September 4, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_441 1 false The New York Times reports: &#8220;Over the past several years, the United States has embarked on a program of secret research on biological weapons that, some officials say, tests the limits of the global treaty banning such weapons. ... The projects, which have not been previously disclosed, were begun under President Clinton and have been embraced by the Bush administration, which intends to expand them.&#8221; The US claims that this research is needed to protect Americans from the threat posed by rogue nations or terrorist groups who may be developing such weapons. http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/CHO111D.html New York Times, 9/4/01 News Article wmd Soon after September 11, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_63 1 false Soon after September 11, a concerted effort begins to pin the blame for the attacks on Saddam Hussein. Retired General Wesley Clark will later say on NBC's &#8220;Meet the Press&#8221; in June 2003 and in a letter published by the New York Times that &#8220;immediately after 9/11&#8221; there was a &#8220;concerted effort ... to pin 9/11 and the terrorism problem on Saddam Hussein&#8221; and use the attacks as an excuse to go after the Iraqi dictator. When asked by NBC's Tim Russert, who was behind the concerted effort, Clark will respond: &#8220;Well, it came from the White House, it came from people around the White House. It came from all over.&#8221; Clark also says, &#8220;I got a call on 9/11. I was on CNN, and I got a call at my home saying, &#8216;You got to say this is connected. This is state-sponsored terrorism. This has to be connected to Saddam Hussein.&#8217; I said, &#8216;But&#8212;I'm willing to say it, but what's your evidence?&#8217; And I never got any evidence.&#8221; He says the phone call came from a Middle Eastern think tank outside of the country. http://www.fair.org/press-releases/clark-iraq.html MSNBC, 6/15/03 News Article http://www.pandagon.net/archives/00001512.htm New York Times, 7/18/03 News Article &#8220;[I]mmediately after 9/11&#8221; there was a &#8220;concerted effort ... to pin 9/11 and the terrorism problem on Saddam Hussein.&#8221; [When asked who was behind the concerted effort, Clark responded:] &#8220;Well, it came from the White House, it came from people around the White House. It came from all over. I got a call on 9/11. I was on CNN, and I got a call at my home saying, &#8216;You got to say this is connected [Clark is not referring to White House here. He will later explain in a letter to the NY Times that the call came from a Middle East think tank located outside of the US ? ed.]. This is state-sponsored terrorism. This has to be connected to Saddam Hussein.&#8217; I said, &#8216;But&#8212;I'm willing to say it, but what's your evidence?&#8217; And I never got any evidence.&#8221; http://www.msnbc.com/news/927000.asp?0dm=C219V&amp;cp1=1 MSNBC, 6/15/03 News Article duplicate wesley_clark activeparticipant terroristTies decision deception Shortly after September 11, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_493 1 false According to White House counterterrorism advisor, Richard Clarke, Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz, asks during a meeting, &#8220;Why we are [sic] beginning by talking about this one man, bin Laden?&#8221; Clarke responds with an explaination that only al-Qaeda &#8220;poses an immediate and serious threat to the United States.&#8221; Wolfowitz then claims that Iraqi terrorism poses &#8220;at least as much&#8221; a danger. According to Clarke, FBI and CIA representatives who are present at the meeting agree that there is no evidence to support Wolfowitz's assertion. http://www.palmbeachpost.com/news/content/auto/epaper/editions/today/news_04e5f65c05b8512e00a5.html Washington Post, 3/22/2004 News Article richard_clarke source &#8220;April was an initial discussion of terrorism policy writ large and at that meeting I said we had to talk about al-Qaeda. And because it was terrorism policy writ large [Paul] Wolfowitz said we have to talk about Iraqi terrorism and I said that's interesting because there hasn't been any Iraqi terrorism against the United States. There hasn't been any for 8 years. And he said something derisive about how I shouldn't believe the CIA and FBI, that they've been wrong. And I said if you know more than I know tell me what it is, because I've been doing this for 8 years and I don't know about any Iraqi-sponsored terrorism against the US since 1993. When I said let's start talking about bin Laden, he said bin Laden couldn't possibly have attacked the World Trade Center in '93. One little terrorist group like that couldn't possibly have staged that operation. It must have been Iraq.&#8221; http://www.guardian.co.uk/september11/story/0,11209,1175817,00.html The Guardian, 3/23/04 News Article duplicate richard_clarke activeparticipant paul_wolfowitz activeparticipant terroristTies September 11, 2001-March 17, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_13 1 false In the months leading up to the war with Iraq, Bush administration officials manipulate the intelligence provided to them by analysts in order to drum up support for the invasion. Some analysts complain that they are under pressure to write assessments that support the administration's case for invading Iraq. On March 7, 2002, Knight Ridder reports that various military officials, intelligence employees, and diplomats in the Bush administration have charged &#8220;that the administration squelches dissenting views and that intelligence analysts are under intense pressure to produce reports supporting the White House's argument that Hussein poses such an immediate threat to the United States that preemptive military action is necessary.&#8221; http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/4234549.htm Knight Ridder 10/7/02 News Article simon_crean source jonathan_dean source mel_goodman source edward_kennedy source demetrius_perricos source knight_ridder_newspapers source david_albright source seymour_hersh source john_prados source scott_ritter source karen_kwiatkowski source joseph_cirincione source larry_johnson source dick_cheney source vince_cannistraro source patrick_g._eddington source bob_graham source several_unnamed_us_intelligence_officials source david_albright source ivan_eland source ray_mcgovern source andrew_wilkie source stansfield_turner source larry_hanauer source robin_cook source patrick_lang source greg_thielmann source menzies_campbell source Most of the blame &#8220;lies with the way senior officials misused the information they were provided.&#8221; http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,995188,00.html Guardian, 7/10/03 News Article statement &#8220;Analysts at the working level in the intelligence community are feeling very strong pressure from the Pentagon to cook the intelligence books.&#8221; http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/4234549.htm Knight Ridder 10/7/02 News Article statement &#8220;The intelligence information we had was crap. We didn't know whether Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction.&#8221; http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/news/archive/2003/05/25/national1216EDT0466.DTL Associated Press, 5/25/03 News Article statement &#8220;What we're getting and what President Bush may be getting is very different, to put it mildly.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/1206-04.htm Times of London 12/6/02 News Article statement In London, there was an &#8220;over-reliance&#8221; on &#8220;garbage grade human intelligence&#8221; by individuals he said were &#8220;desperate to encourage intervention.&#8221; http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/05/30/1054177726543.html Sydney Morning Herald, 5/31/03 News Article http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/allnews/content_objectid=13089258_method=full_siteid=50143_headline=-EXPERT-BLASTS-BLAIR-WMD-FILE-name_page.html Mirror, 6/20/03 News Article statement &#8220;This administration has had a faith-based intelligence attitude ... &#8216;We know the answers&#8212;give us the intelligence to support those answers.&#8217; &#8221; Iraq &#8220;posed no imminent threat to either its neighbors or to the United States&#8221; when the invasion was launched in March 2003. http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,995188,00.html Guardian, 7/10/03 News Article statement &#8220;[The administration] understood that to get the American people on their side they needed to come up with something more to say than &#8216;We've liberated Iraq and got rid of a tyrant.&#8217; So they had to find some ties to weapons of mass destruction and were willing to allow a majority of Americans to incorrectly conclude that the invasion of Iraq had something to do with the World Trade Center. Overemphasizing the national-security threat made it more difficult to get the rest of the world on our side. It was the weakest and most misleading argument we could use. ... It appears that they have the intelligence. The problem is, they didn't like the conclusions.&#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030512fa_fact New Yorker, 5/5/03 News Article commentary &#8220;...groupthink was, and probably remains, the predominant characteristic of Pentagon Middle East policy development. The result of groupthink is the elevation of opinion into a kind of accepted &#8216;fact,&#8217; and uncritical acceptance of extremely narrow and isolated points of view. ... Groupthink, in this most recent case leading to invasion and occupation of Iraq, will be found, I believe, to have caused a subversion of constitutional limits on executive power and a co-opting through deceit of a large segment of the Congress. Shortly before my retirement I read a secretary of state cable answering a long list of questions from a Middle Eastern country regarding US planning for the aftermath in Iraq. The answers had been heavily crafted by the Pentagon, and to me, they were remarkably inadequate, given the late stage of the game. I suggested to my boss that if this was as good as it got, some folks in the Pentagon might be sitting beside Saddam in the war crimes tribunals.&#8221; http://www.charlotte.com/mld/observer/news/6432709.htm Knight Ridder, 8/1/03 News Article statement &#8220;I have little choice but to conclude that some of the intelligence related to Iraq's nuclear weapons program was twisted to exaggerate the Iraqi threat.&#8221; http://www.reuters.co.uk/newsPackageArticle.jhtml?type=worldNews&amp;storyID=333570 Reuters, 7/6/03 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0706-02.htm New York Times, 7/6/03 News Article commentary &#8220;The normal processing of establishing accurate intelligence was sidestepped.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0531-01.htm Reuters, 5/30/03 News Article statement &#8220;I became dismayed when a knowledgeable government scientist told me that the administration could say anything it wanted about the tubes while government scientists who disagreed were expected to remain quiet.&#8221; http://www.tnr.com/docprint.mhtml?i=20030630&amp;s=ackermanjudis063003 New Republic, 6/19/03 News Article commentary &#8220;If one is seeking the answers to why peculiar bits of &#8216;intelligence&#8217; found sanctity in a presidential speech, or why the post-Saddam occupation has been distinguished by confusion and false steps, one need look no further than the process inside the office of the secretary of defense.&#8221; http://www.charlotte.com/mld/observer/news/6432709.htm Knight Ridder, 8/1/03 News Article commentary &#8220;It really comes down to the administration misrepresenting the facts on an issue that was a fundamental justification for going to war. It begs the question, what else are they lying about?&#8221; He added that he did not believe the war was about the alleged threat posed by Saddam Hussein, instead suggesting that the real motive behind the war was to &#8220;redraw the map of the Middle East.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0706-05.htm Washington Post, 7/6/03 News Article commentary The Bush administration dismantled &#8220;the existing filtering process that for fifty years had been preventing the policymakers from getting bad information. They created stovepipes to get the information they wanted directly to the top leadership. Their position is that the professional bureaucracy is deliberately and maliciously keeping information from them. ... They always had information to back up their public claims, but it was often very bad information. They were forcing the intelligence community to defend its good information and good analysis so aggressively that the intelligence analysts didn't have the time or the energy to go after the bad information.&#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?031027fa_fact New Yorker, 10/20/03 News Article commentary &#8220;It's looking like in truth the Iraqi (weapons) program was gray. The Bush administration was trying to say it was black.&#8221; http://www.bayarea.com/mld/mercurynews/news/special_packages/iraq/6032355.htm Knight Ridder, 6/6/03 News Article commentary &#8220;To deny that there was any pressure on the intelligence community is just absurd.&#8221; http://maconareaonline.com/news.asp?id=2943 Reuters, 6/6/03 News Article commentary &#8220;There's more and more evidence that public opinion in our three countries was manipulated by the Bush Administration with the fragments of intelligence that they had.&#8221; http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/06/20/1055828490548.html Sydney Morning Herald, 6/21/03 News Article commentary &#8220;I'm suggesting that either the intelligence was so bad and flawed&#8212;and if that's the case, then somebody's head ought to roll for that&#8212;or the intelligence was exaggerated or twisted in a way to make a more convenient case to the American people. ... If there's a strategic decision for taking down Iraq, if it's the so-called neoconservative idea that taking apart Iraq and creating a democracy, or whatever it is, will change the equation in the Middle East, then make the case based on this.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0926-01.htm Reuters, 9/26/03 News Article commentary &#8220;There was no imminent threat. This was made up in Texas, announced in January to the Republican leadership that war was going to take place and was going to be good politically. This whole thing was a fraud.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A32687-2003Sep18.html Washington Post, 9/16/03 News Article commentary &#8220;I don't know why there is not more debate. I have heard that a lot of people are expected to remain silent. [The Bush administration] has certainly scared people. I met one government scientist who said his phone was being monitored.&#8221; http://news.independent.co.uk/world/americas/story.jsp?story=335531 Independent, 9/22/02 News Article statement &#8220;... the inclusion of the [debunked] uranium story in Bush's speech appears to support charges that some pro-invasion officials ignored intelligence that could hurt the administration's case that Saddam was pursuing nuclear, chemical and biological weapons programs.&#8221; http://www.bayarea.com/mld/cctimes/news/6079211.htm Knight Ridder, 6/13/03 News Article commentary &#8220;It turns out that the intelligence community is really very much dominated by a small group of people in the Pentagon. Donald Rumsfeld, the Secretary of Defense, has more or less muscled his way into day-to-day intelligence operations. I wrote about an ad-hoc analytical group that began working in the Pentagon in the aftermath of September 11th, and which became formally known as the Office of Special Plans last August. The office is the responsibility of William Luti, the Under-Secretary of Defense, and its director is Abram Shulsky. They argued that the CIA and other agencies, including the Defense Intelligence Agency and the State Department, weren't able to understand the connections between Iraq and al-Qaeda, and the extent to which Iraq was involved in the pursuit of weapons of mass destruction. They felt that these agencies didn't get it right because they didn't have the right point of view. The Pentagon group's idea was, essentially: Let's just assume that there is a connection between al-Qaeda and Iraq, and let's assume that they have made weapons of mass destruction, and that they're still actively pursuing nuclear weapons and have generated thousands of tons of chemical and biological weapons and not destroyed them. Having made that leap of faith, let's then look at the intelligence the CIA has assembled with fresh eyes and see what we can see. As one person I spoke to told me, they wanted to believe it was there and, by God, they found it.... If it is true that this Administration deliberately, from the very beginning, understood that the best way to mobilize the American people was to present Saddam as a direct national-security threat to us, without having the evidence beforehand that he was, that's, well, frankly, lying. That's the worst kind of deceit a President can practice. We don't elect our President to not tell us the real situation of the world, particularly when he sends kids to kill and be killed.... My view as a journalist is simple: you have to hold public officials to the highest possible standard. What's happened in America is very disturbing. All of us, as parents, don't want our children to lie to us, and, earlier, as children, don't want to be lied to by our parents. We all understand that integrity in a relationship is the core issue. The tragedy in America today is that we don't begin to impose on our national leaders the same standard which we hold so dear in our personal life. In other words, if we were to say, &#8216;Well, that's always happened,&#8217; we'd almost be officially saying that there is a double standard&#8212;that what we can't tolerate in our personal life is O.K. in the most important officials we have, those officials with power not only over us but over our young men and women who go to fight, and over the people they kill. If we start saying that anything less than the highest standard is tolerable, we're really destroying democracy. Democracy exists on the basis of truth.&#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/online/content/?030512on_onlineonly01 New Yorker, 5/12/03 News Article commentary &#8220;Civil service and active-duty military professionals were noticeably uninvolved in key areas of interest to Under Secretary for Policy Douglas Feith, Deputy Secretary Paul Wolfowitz and Rumsfeld. In terms of Israel and Iraq, all primary staff work was conducted by political appointees. These personnel may be exceptionally qualified. But the human resource depth made possible through broad-based teamwork with the professional policy and intelligence corps was never established and apparently never wanted.&#8221; http://www.charlotte.com/mld/observer/news/6432709.htm Knight Ridder, 8/1/03 News Article commentary The Pentagon &#8220;started picking out things that supported their thesis and stringing them into arguments that they could use with the President. It's not intelligence. It's political propaganda.&#8221; http://www.globalsecurity.org/org/news/2003/030511-intell01.htm New York Times, 5/11/03 News Article statement &#8220;The administration sold the connection (between Iraq and al-Qaeda) to scare the pants off the American people and justify the war. There's no connection, and that's been confirmed by some of bin Laden's terrorist followers ... What you've seen here is the manipulation of intelligence for political ends.&#8221; http://www.truthout.org/docs_03/printer_072503B.shtml UPI, 7/23/03 News Article statement &#8220;What is clear from intelligence reporting is that until about 1998 the CIA was fairly comfortable with its assessments on Iraq. But from that time on the agency gradually buckled under the weight of pressure to adopt alarmist views. After mid-2001, the rush to judgment on Iraq became a stampede.&#8221; http://maconareaonline.com/news.asp?id=2943 Reuters, 6/6/03 News Article statement &#8220;... the American public was seriously misled. The administration twisted, distorted, and simplified intelligence in a way that led Americans to seriously misunderstand the nature of the Iraq threat. I'm not sure I can think of a worse act against the people in a democracy than the president distorting critical classified information.&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 294 News Article statement [ed: Goodman is referring here to the lectures he gives to intelligence analysts at the State Department's Foreign Services Institute]&#8220;I get into the issue of politicization. They don't say much during the question period, but afterwards people come up to me, DIA and CIA analysts who have had this pressure. I've gotten stories from DIA people being called into a supervisor's office and told they might lose their job if they didn't revise a paper. &#8216;This is not what the administration is looking for. You've got to find WMD's, which are out there.&#8217; &#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 242 News Article statement &#8220;Throughout the spring and fall of 2002 and well into 2003 I received numerous complaints from friends and colleagues in the intelligence community, and from people in the policy community ... [that] many Administration officials reacted strongly, negatively, and aggressively when presented with information or analysis that contradicted what they already believed about Iraq. Many of these officials believed that Saddam Hussein was the source of virtually all the problems in the Middle East and was an imminent danger to the United States because of his perceived possession of weapons of mass destruction and support of terrorism.... Intelligence officers who presented analyses that were at odds with the pre-existing views of senior Administration officials were subjected to barrages of questions and requests for additional information. They were asked to justify their work sentence by sentence: &#8216;Why did you rely on this source and not this other piece of information?&#8217; &#8216;How does this conclusion square with this other point?&#8217; &#8216;Please explain the history of Iraq's association with the organization you mention in this sentence.&#8217; Reportedly, the worst fights were those over sources. The Administration gave greatest credence to accounts that presented the most lurid picture of Iraqi activities. In many cases intelligence analysts were distrustful of those sources, or knew unequivocally that they were wrong. But when they said so, they were not heeded; instead they were beset with further questions about their own sources.&#8221; http://www.theatlantic.com/issues/2004/01/pollack.htm Atlantic Monthly, 1/2004 News Article statement &#8220;I witnessed neoconservative agenda bearers within OSP usurp measured and carefully considered assessments, and through suppression and distortion of intelligence analysis promulgate what were in fact falsehoods to both Congress and the executive office of the president.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0310-09.htm Salon, 3/10/2004 News Article statement &#8220;I witnessed neoconservative agenda bearers within OSP usurp measured and carefully considered assessments, and through suppression and distortion of intelligence analysis promulgate what were in fact falsehoods to both Congress and the executive office of the president.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0310-09.htm Salon, 3/10/2004 News Article statement &#8220;War is generally crafted and pursued for political reasons, but the reasons given to the Congress and to the American people for this one were inaccurate and so misleading as to be false. Moreover, they were false by design. Certainly, the neoconservatives never bothered to sell the rest of the country on the real reasons for occupation of Iraq&#8212;- more bases from which to flex US muscle with Syria and Iran, and better positioning for the inevitable fall of the regional ruling sheikdoms. Maintaining OPEC on a dollar track and not a euro and fulfilling a half-baked imperial vision also played a role. These more accurate reasons for invading and occupying could have been argued on their merits&#8212;- an angry and aggressive US population might indeed have supported the war and occupation for those reasons. But Americans didn't get the chance for an honest debate.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0310-09.htm Salon, 3/10/2004 News Article statement &#8220;Senator [Bob] Graham felt that they [Bush administration officials] declassified only things that supported their position and left classified what did not support that policy.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A19822-2003Jun21.html Washington Post, 6/22/03 News Article commentary Visits to CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia by Dick Cheney and his chief of staff, I. Lewis Libby, &#8220;sent signals, intended or otherwise, that a certain output was desired from here.&#8221; http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/06/05/1054700335400.html Sydney Morning Herald, 6/5/03 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A15019-2003Jun4.html Washington Post, 6/5/03 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,999737,00.html Guardian, 7/17/03 News Article statement &#8220;I don't know why there is not more debate. I have heard that a lot of people are expected to remain silent. [The Bush administration] has certainly scared people. I met one government scientist who said his phone was being monitored.&#8221; http://news.independent.co.uk/world/americas/story.jsp?story=335531 Independent, 9/22/02 News Article statement &#8220;The White House carefully manipulated public opinion, never quite lied, but gave the very strong impression that Iraq did it. They did know better. We told them. The CIA told them. The FBI told them. They did know better. And the tragedy here is that Americans went to their death in Iraq thinking that they were avenging Sept. 11, when Iraq had nothing to do with Sept. 11. I think for a commander in chief and a vice president to allow that to happen is unconscionable.&#8221; http://www.nytimes.com/2004/03/23/politics/23ASSE.html New York Times, 3/23/04 News Article statement &#8220;It's troubling to have classified information that contradicts statements made by the administration. There's more they should share with the public.&#8221; http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/4234549.htm Knight Ridder 10/7/02 News Article commentary &#8220;I realized with almost a sharp physical pain that (Defense Secretary Donald) Rumsfeld and Wolfowitz were going to try to take advantage of this national tragedy to promote their agenda about Iraq.&#8221; http://www.palmbeachpost.com/news/content/auto/epaper/editions/today/news_04e5f65c05b8512e00a5.html Washington Post, 3/22/2004 News Article statement &#8220;The Iraqi opposition, particularly the group led by Ahmed Chalabi, whose intelligence was underwritten by the Pentagon, played a crucial role in informing the Pentagon ... with information that looks, from this vantage point, like it was fraudulent, in many cases was fabricated, and the most benign interpretation was that it was just flat wrong.&#8221; http://www.abcnews.go.com/sections/nightline/World/ntl_wmd_bury_030616.html ABC News, 6/16/03 News Article statement &#8220;I saw that the administration was picking evidence quite carefully to support that Iraq had a nuclear weapons program. For example, there were defectors, credible defectors that said, &#8216;Iraq has no nuclear weapons programs.&#8217; I never heard the administration talk about them.&#8221; http://www.abcnews.go.com/sections/nightline/World/ntl_wmd_bury_030616.html ABC News, 6/16/03 News Article statement &#8220;It is impossible to support the bald conclusions being made by the White House and the Pentagon given the poor quantity and quality of the intelligence available. There is uproar within the intelligence community on all of these points, but the Bush White House has quashed dissent.&#8221; http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/02/04/wirq04.xml/ Telegraph, 2/4/03 News Article statement &#8220;The reason this report was delayed for so long&#8212;deliberately opposed at first, then slow-walked after it was created&#8212;is that the administration wanted to get the war in Iraq in and over ... before (it) came out. Had this report come out in January like it should have done, we would have known these things before the war in Iraq, which would not have suited the administration.&#8221; http://www.truthout.org/docs_03/printer_072503B.shtml UPI, 7/25/03 News Article statement &#8220;[B]y no stretch of the imagination was it an honest mistake. We were able to tell by last fall that there was very little substance to the main charges with respect to weapons of mass destruction. Even the sanitized version of the National Intelligence Estimate that was put on the CIA Web site&#8212;if you have any experience in intelligence, you could see what a thin reed they were relying on, and that there was little possibility of substantiating Dick Cheney's claim that Iraq was reconstituting its nuclear weapons program. That, of course, is the mushroom cloud that scared Congress into ceding its power to wage war.&#8221; http://www.sojo.net/index.cfm?action=magazine.article&amp;issue=soj0311&amp;article=031110x Sojourners, 11/03 News Article statement &#8220;It's the first time that I've seen such a long-term, orchestrated plan of deception by which one branch of our government deliberately misled the other on a matter of war and peace. Here was a very calculated plan, proceeding from a &#8216;Mein Kampf&#8217; type of document. All one need do is consult the Project for the New American Century on the Web to see the ideological and strategic underpinnings of this campaign. The first objective was to deceive Congress into approving the plans. They succeeded masterfully. They had their war, and they thought that in the wake of the war, with Iraqis opening their arms to us, no one would really care whether there were, in fact, weapons of mass destruction. They were absolutely wrong on that.&#8221; http://www.sojo.net/index.cfm?action=magazine.article&amp;issue=soj0311&amp;article=031110x Sojourners, 11/03 News Article commentary &#8220;The use of deception to frighten Congress and secure its consent for the October resolution reflects the way our government has been functioning in the area of war and peace for more than half a century. Congress has effectively resigned its power in these areas to the executive. This has been done over and over again, mostly notably in the case of Vietnam, and the response of Congress has been nearly always to pass what is, by my definition, a plainly unconstitutional act, the War Powers Act.&#8221; http://www.sojo.net/index.cfm?action=magazine.article&amp;issue=soj0311&amp;article=031110x Sojourners, 11/03 News Article commentary &#8220;Everybody in the community was intensely aware that they didn't have the intelligence. They knew they didn't have it .... The operational side was beating its head against the wall, saying, &#8216;We don't have it. We have to figure out a way to get it.&#8217; The analytical side was understandably frustrated, and doing its best to provide analysis when there is limited, and bad information.... Because of the lack of humanity, we didn't have enough countervailing intelligence to dismiss what they were selling ... So in the end of the day, there was a strong bias to buy the intelligence that fit what the policy makers wanted. And it looks like that's what happened.&#8221; http://users.crocker.com/~afsc/news/PREWAR.HTM Boston Globe, 2/1/04 News Article statement &#8220;Now we know that no other President of the United States has ever lied so baldly and so often and so demonstrably ... The presumption now has to be that he's lying any time that he's saying anything.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/views03/1109-02.htm Independent, 11/9/03 News Article commentary &#8220;The Gulf of Tonkin was a spur-of-the-moment thing, and Lyndon Johnson seized on that. That's very different from the very calculated, 18-month, orchestrated, incredibly cynical campaign of lies that we've seen to justify a war. This is an order of magnitude different. It's so blatant.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/views03/1109-02.htm Independent, 11/9/03 News Article commentary &#8220;The crisis was manufactured, and Bush political adviser Karl Rove was telling Republicans to &#8216;run on the war.&#8217; &#8221; http://www.palmbeachpost.com/news/content/auto/epaper/editions/today/news_04e5f65c05b8512e00a5.html Washington Post, 3/22/2004 News Article statement &#8220;The intelligence officials are responding to the political leadership, not the other way around, which is how it should be. The politics are driving our intelligence assessments at this point.&#8221; http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-cia11oct11.story Los Angeles Times 10/11/02 News Article commentary &#8220;Much has been written about the role of the founding members of the Project for a New American Century, the Center for Security Policy and the American Enterprise Institute and their new positions in the Bush administration. Certainly, appointees sharing particular viewpoints are expected to congregate, and that an overwhelming number of these appointees have such organizational ties is neither conspiratorial nor unusual. What is unusual is the way this network operates solely with its membership across the various agencies&#8212;in particular the State Department, the National Security Council and the Office of the Vice President. ... I personally witnessed several cases of staff officers being told not to contact their counterparts at State or the National Security Council because that particular decision would be processed through a different channel.&#8221; http://www.charlotte.com/mld/observer/news/6432709.htm Knight Ridder, 8/1/03 News Article statement &#8220;They [proponents of the invasion of Iraq] take a fact that you could draw several different conclusions from, and in every case they draw the conclusion that supports the policy, without any particular evidence that would meet the normal bar that analytic tradecraft would require for you to make that conclusion.&#8221; http://www.truthout.org/docs_03/printer_072503B.shtml UPI, 7/23/03 News Article statement &#8220;Never before in my 40 years of experience in this town has intelligence been used in so cynical and so orchestrated a way.&#8221; http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/07/20/iraq/main564106.shtml CBS News, 7/19/03 News Article commentary &#8220;The Agency analysts that we are in touch with are disheartened, dispirited, angry. They are outraged.&#8221; http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/07/20/iraq/main564106.shtml CBS News, 7/19/03 News Article statement Politicization of intelligence is &#8220;a problem whenever a US administration sets its heart on a policy that cannot be supported by intelligence.&#8221; http://www.sunspot.net/bal-te.intelligence04apr04.story Baltimore Sun, 4/4/03 News Article commentary The neoconservatives who had led the drive for invading Iraq were referred in top policy and intelligence circles as &#8220;the crazies&#8221; and that their case for war had been &#8220;95 per cent charade.&#8221; http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/allnews/content_objectid=13434081_method=full_siteid=50143_headline=-THE-BIG-LIE-name_page.html London Daily Mirror, 9/22/03 News Article commentary The neoconservatives who had led the drive for invading Iraq were referred in top policy and intelligence circles as &#8220;the crazies&#8221; and that their case for war had been &#8220;95 per cent charade.&#8221; http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/allnews/content_objectid=13434081_method=full_siteid=50143_headline=-THE-BIG-LIE-name_page.html London Daily Mirror, 9/22/03 News Article commentary &#8220;While there have been occasions in the past when intelligence has been deliberately warped for political purposes, never before has such warping been used in such a systematic way to mislead our elected representatives into voting to authorize launching a war. You may not realize the extent of the current ferment within the intelligence community and particularly the CIA. In intelligence, there is one unpardonable sin&#8212;cooking intelligence to the recipe of high policy. There is ample indication that this has been done in Iraq.&#8221; They called the skewing of intelligence &#8220;a policy and intelligence fiasco of monumental proportions.&#8221; http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,5944-698028,00.html Times, 5/31/03 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0531-01.htm Reuters, 5/30/03 News Article http://truthout.org/docs_03/050503D.shtml Veteran Intelligence Professionals for Sanity, 5/1/03 News Article statement &#8220; &#8216;Intelligence&#8217; was how the Americans described the material accumulating on Iraq from their super-sophisticated spy systems. But two analysts at the Office of National Assessments in Canberra, a decent chunk of the growing pile looked like rubbish. In their offices on the top floor of the drab ASIO building, ONA experts found much of the US material worthy only of the delete button or the classified waste chute to the truck-sized shredder in the basement. ... Report after report from the bureaucracy made it abundantly clear that the US impatience to go for Iraq had very little to do with WMDs and an awful lot to do with US strategic and domestic interests.&#8221; http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/05/30/1054177726543.html Sydney Morning Herald, 5/31/03 News Article statement &#8220;You cannot just cherry-pick evidence that suits your case and ignore the rest. It is a cardinal rule of intelligence. Yet that is what the PM is doing. What we have is a few strands of highly circumstantial evidence, and to justify an attack on Iraq it is being presented as a cast-iron case. That really is not good enough&#8221; http://news.independent.co.uk/world/politics/story.jsp?story=400805 Independent, 4/27/03 News Article statement &#8220;They ignored intelligence assessments which said Iraq was not a threat.&#8221; http://news.independent.co.uk/world/politics/story.jsp?story=400805 Independent, 4/27/03 News Article statement &#8220;We've heard from multiple sources inside the agency about the pressure to conform. They say they feel pressure to shape estimates to support the administration's positions&#8212;or at least not contradict the administration's positions.&#8221; http://www.sunspot.net/bal-te.intelligence04apr04.story Baltimore Sun, 4/4/03 News Article commentary &#8220;There's no doubt that the intelligence services have been concerned about what they see as the misuse of information ? in the sense that they believe the Government is inclined to use what supports the Government's political case without taking full account of the qualifications attached to such information. ... The security services are unhappy at the way some of their products are being used. It's certainly the case that they feel there has been selective use of material.&#8221; http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/politics/story.jsp?story=379087 Independent, 2/17/03 News Article commentary &#8220;The [INC's] intelligence isn't reliable at all. Much of it is propaganda. Much of it is telling the Defense Department what they want to hear. And much of it is used to support Chalabi's own presidential ambitions. They make no distinction between intelligence and propaganda, using alleged informants and defectors who say what Chalabi wants them to say, [creating] cooked information that goes right into presidential and vice-presidential speeches.&#8221; http://news.independent.co.uk/world/americas/story.jsp?story=448353 Independent, 9/30/03 News Article commentary &#8220;I think that they're [administration officials] not getting the intelligence outcome that they want from the CIA, that is, that the CIA is skeptical of ties between Al-Qaeda and Iraq&#8212;justifiably so. The CIA [has] run around trying to corroborate this stuff, and it hasn't had too much luck. And the ties that they have claimed seem very thin and on closer inspection don't seem to go anywhere.&#8221; http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/2002-10-24-oped-bamford_x.htm USA Today 10/24/02 News Article commentary &#8220;Intelligence officials said that several CIA analysts had quietly complained that senior Defense Department officials and other Bush administration officials sought to press them to produce reports that supported the administration's positions on Iraq.&#8221; http://www.nytimes.com/2003/05/22/international/worldspecial/22INTE.html?ex=1054572327&amp;ei=1&amp;en=f3adf0d6ab896bee New York Times, 5/22/03 News Article statement &#8220;It is impossible to support the bald conclusions being made by the White House and the Pentagon given the poor quantity and quality of the intelligence available. There is uproar within the intelligence community on all of these points, but the Bush White House has quashed dissent.&#8221; http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/02/04/wirq04.xml/ Telegraph 2/4/03 News Article statement &#8220;Analysts feel more politicized and more pushed than many of them can ever remember. ... The guys at the Pentagon shriek on issues such as the link between Iraq and al-Qaeda. There has been a lot of pressure to write on this constantly, and to not let it drop.&#8221; http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-cia11oct11.story Los Angeles Times 10/11/02 News Article statement &#8220;The policy decisions weren't matching the reports we were reading every day.&#8221; http://www.usnews.com/usnews/issue/030609/usnews/9intell.htm US News and World Report, 6/9/03 News Article statement &#8220;In the assessments on the US, it was being made very clear to government all the things which were driving the US on Iraq. WMD wasn't the most important issue. In fact, it was seen as a secondary issue. .... It was also about the credibility of the US military. The US sees its military and threat of force as one of its most important foreign policy tools. They had threatened to use force and would lose credibility if they didn't.&#8221; http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/06/10/1055010936009.html Sydney Morning Herald, 6/10/03 News Article statement &#8220;Some people higher up the food chain made the leap from suspicion to conviction. I think they honestly believed that, based on how the Iraqis had always behaved in the past and not just because they wanted to scare the public into supporting the war.&#8221; http://www.bayarea.com/mld/mercurynews/news/special_packages/iraq/6032355.htm Knight Ridder, 6/6/03 News Article statement &#8220;Analysts at the agency said they had felt pressured to make their intelligence reports on Iraq conform to Bush administration policies.&#8221; http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/23/international/worldspecial/23CIA.html?ex=1049415096&amp;ei=1&amp;en=3578b119d1f40ef4 New York Times, 3/23/03 News Article statement &#8220;They are politicizing intelligence, no question about it. And they are undertaking a campaign to get George Tenet [the director of central intelligence] fired because they can't get him to say what they want on Iraq.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A14056-2002Oct24.html Washington Post, 10/25/02 News Article statement &#8220;Basically, cooked information is working its way into high-level pronouncements and there's a lot of unhappiness about it in intelligence, especially among analysts at the CIA.&#8221; http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,807286,00.html Guardian 10/9/02 News Article statement &#8220;Several analysts have told colleagues they have become so frustrated that they have considered leaving the agency, according to government officials who have talked with the analysts.&#8221; http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/23/international/worldspecial/23CIA.html?ex=1049415096&amp;ei=1&amp;en=3578b119d1f40ef4 New York Times, 3/23/03 News Article statement &#8220;Information not consistent with the administration agenda was discarded and information that was [consistent] was not seriously scrutinized.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A46957-2003Jun11.html Washington Post, 6/12/03 News Article statement &#8220;The British and Australian governments were deliberately intent on using WMD to exaggerate the Iraq threat so as to stay in step with the US.... The apparent direct political interference with intelligence agencies in the United States and the more subtle political pressure applied in London and Canberra, meant that the rules were different with Iraq. Intelligence that once would have been discarded was now useable, with qualification. The problem was that the juicy bits of intelligence most in accord with governments position were being latched on to and the qualifications were being dropped.&#8221; http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/06/19/1055828436631.html Sydney Morning Herald, 6/20/03 News Article statement &#8220;All I can tell you is there is a general feeling among CIA analysts that intelligence was politicized and that the CIA and (Defense Intelligence Agency) was not given full consideration because the Pentagon, the policymakers, including the vice-president's office, did not want to hear that message. They wanted to hear a hardline message supporting a policy they already adopted.&#8221; http://www.spacewar.com/2003/030601214245.m3z9n9tg.html Agence-France Presse, 6/1/03 News Article statement The Australian government misrepresented intelligence by concealing from the public ambiguities that had been present in intelligence assessments. Words like &#8220;probably,&#8221; &#8220;could&#8221; and &#8220;uncorroborated evidence suggests&#8221; were often left out of reports and &#8220;Words like &#8216;massive&#8217; and &#8216;mammoth&#8217; were included [instead].&#8221; http://www.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,4057,7038000^421,00.html The Age, 8/23/03 News Article http://news.independent.co.uk/world/australasia/story.jsp?story=436350 Independent, 8/23/03 News Article http://www.agitprop.org.au/nowar/20031013_wilkie_deception_down_under.htm Wilkie, 8/22/03 News Article statement &#8220;During the time that I was office director, 2000 to 2002, we never assessed that there was good evidence that Iraq was reconstituting or getting really serious about its nuclear weapons program.&#8221; http://www.tnr.com/docprint.mhtml?i=20030630&amp;s=ackermanjudis063003 New Republic, 6/19/03 News Article statement &#8220;Suspicions were presented as fact, contrary arguments ignored. When the administration did talk about specific evidence&#8212;it was basically declassified, sensitive information&#8212;it did it in a way that was also not entirely honest.&#8221; http://www.guardian.co.uk/uslatest/story/0,1282,-2762073,00.html Associated Press, 6/7/03 News Article statement &#8220;Evidence was lacking&#8221; for the administration's claims that Iraq was close to developing nuclear weapons and that it had ties with the terrorist organization, al-Qaeda. http://www.guardian.co.uk/uslatest/story/0,1282,-2762073,00.html Associated Press, 6/7/03 News Article statement &#8220;I believe the Bush administration did not provide an accurate picture to the American people of the military threat posed by Iraq.&#8221; http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,995188,00.html Guardian, 7/10/03 News Article statement &#8220;What disturbs me deeply is what I think are the disingenuous statements made from the very top about what the intelligence did say. The area of distortion was greatest in the nuclear field.&#8221; http://www.truthout.org/docs_03/060903C.shtml Associated Press, 6/9/03 News Article statement &#8220;...The main problem was that the senior administration officials have what I call faith-based intelligence. They knew what they wanted the intelligence to show. They were really blind and deaf to any kind of countervailing information the intelligence community would produce. I would assign some blame to the intelligence community and most of the blame to the senior administration officials.&#8221; http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/10/14/60II/main577975.shtml CBS News, 10/14/03 News Article statement &#8220;We've entered the world of George Orwell. I'm disgusted. The truth has to be told. We can't allow our leaders to use bogus information to justify war.&#8221; http://www.sundayherald.com/34491 Sunday Herald, 6/8/03 News Article commentary &#8220;There is no question in my mind (policymakers) distorted the situation, either because they had bad intelligence or because they misinterpreted it.&#8221; http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2003-06-17-turner-usat_x.htm Agence-France Presse, 6/19/03 News Article http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2003-06-17-turner-usat_x.htm USA Today, 6/17/03 News Article statement &#8220;When they looked at intelligence, they weren't looking at intelligence to try to get a balanced judgment, a guide to policy, out of it, they were looking to intelligence to support a conclusion they had already come to&#8212;which is that they were going to go to war.&#8221; http://www.nytimes.com/2003/06/09/international/worldspecial/09BRIT.html New York Times, 6/9/03 News Article statement The Australian government portrayed Iraq as a country where &#8220;every factory was up to no good and weaponization was continuing apace.&#8221; http://www.agitprop.org.au/nowar/20031013_wilkie_deception_down_under.htm Wilkie, 8/22/03 News Article statement &#8220;Rumsfeld was deeply, almost pathologically distorting the intelligence.&#8221; http://www.time.com/time/nation/printout/0,8816,455767,00.html Time, 6/1/03 News Article statement There was &#8220;a lot of sorrow and anger at the way intelligence was misused.&#8221; It seemed as though &#8220;the administration didn't think the public would be enthusiastic about the idea of war&#8221; if they knew that much of the intelligence on Iraq was uncertain. http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,968581,00.html Guardian, 6/2/03 News Article http://www.mayanmajix.com/art099.html Newsweek, 6/9/03 News Article statement &#8220;The entire case the Bush administration made against Iraq is a lie. ... What was the basis of the affirmation by (US Defense Secretary Donald) Rumsfeld? He said there are weapons of mass destruction in Iraq&#8212;nobody asked him to prove it. The press just printed it. We have now to demand the proof.&#8221; http://www.heraldsun.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5478,6755221%255E25777,00.html AP, 7/15/03 News Article commentary &#8220;What we have here is advocacy, not intelligence work. I don't think [administration officials] were lying; I just think they did a poor job. It's not the intelligence community. It's these guys in the Office of the Secretary of Defense who were playing the intelligence community.&#8221; http://www.usnews.com/usnews/issue/030609/usnews/9intell.htm US News and World Report, 6/9/03 News Article commentary The Australian government &#8220;skewed, misrepresented, used selectively and fabricated&#8221; intelligence in order to build its case for invading Iraq. http://www.agitprop.org.au/nowar/20031013_wilkie_deception_down_under.htm Wilkie, 8/22/03 News Article http://news.independent.co.uk/world/australasia/story.jsp?story=436350 Independent, 8/23/03 News Article statement &#8220;Sometimes the exaggeration was so great it was clear dishonesty.&#8221; http://www.agitprop.org.au/nowar/20031013_wilkie_deception_down_under.htm Wilkie, 8/22/03 News Article http://news.independent.co.uk/world/australasia/story.jsp?story=436350 Independent, 8/23/03 News Article http://www.newsday.com/news/nationworld/world/wire/sns-ap-australia-iraq,0,4872010.story?coll=sns-ap-world-headlines Reuters Newsday, 8/23/03 News Article statement &#8220;In some cases, they managed to push the intel guys back. In other cases, where they couldn't do that, they simply ignored them.&#8221; http://www.bayarea.com/mld/mercurynews/news/special_packages/iraq/6032355.htm Knight Ridder, 6/6/03 News Article statement &#8220;I will go so far as to say the material was going straight from ONA to the prime minister's office and the exaggeration was occurring in there, or the dishonesty was occurring somewhere in there [Mr Howard's office].&#8221; http://www.newsday.com/news/nationworld/world/wire/sns-ap-australia-iraq,0,4872010.story?coll=sns-ap-world-headlines Reuters Newsday, 8/23/03 News Article http://www.agitprop.org.au/nowar/20031013_wilkie_deception_down_under.htm Wilkie, 8/22/03 News Article http://news.independent.co.uk/world/australasia/story.jsp?story=436350 Independent, 8/23/03 News Article statement The Australian government sometimes exaggerated the Iraqi threat as a result of the &#8220;fairytales&#8221; coming out of the US. http://www.agitprop.org.au/nowar/20031013_wilkie_deception_down_under.htm Wilkie, 8/22/03 News Article http://www.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,4057,7038000^421,00.html The Age, 8/23/03 News Article statement John Howard's government was &#8220;prepared to deliberately exaggerate the Iraqi weapons of mass destruction and terrorism threat so as to stay in step&#8221; with the US. http://www.globalexchange.org/countries/iraq/979.html Reuters, 8/22/03 News Article statement The [neoconservative] Cabal had &#8220;cherry-picked the intelligence stream&#8221; so that its conclusions would support the case for war. The Defense Intelligence Agency had been &#8220;exploited and abused and bypassed in the process of making the case for war in Iraq based on the presence of WMD.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0531-01.htm Reuters, 5/30/03 News Article statement The CIA did little to resist pressure from above. The agency had &#8220;no guts at all.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0531-01.htm Reuters, 5/30/03 News Article commentary He told Reuters that &#8220;he knew of serving intelligence officers who blame the Pentagon for playing up &#8216;fraudulent&#8217; intelligence&#8221; that had been acquired through the notorious Ahmad Chalabi of the Iraqi National Congress. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0531-01.htm Reuters, 5/30/03 News Article statement &#8220;The [Australian] Government lied every time. ... It skewed, misrepresented, used selectively, and fabricated the Iraq story. ... The Government lied when the Prime Minister's office told the media I was mentally unstable. ... The Government lied when it associated Iraq with the Bali bombing and the Government lied every time that it associated Iraq with the war on terror. ... I think it would be far more valuable, far more useful for this country if instead of attacking those who criticize it, the Government sought to explain in a sensible and honest way why there is such a gap between their justification for the war and what we all now know for sure. speaking at a conference in Sydney today.&#8221; http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/s930536.htm Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 8/23/03 News Article statement When Andrew Wilkie was asked if he thought Howard's office had sexed up the intelligence, he responded, &#8220;Yes, it was sexed up.&#8221; http://www.newsday.com/news/nationworld/world/wire/sns-ap-australia-iraq,0,4872010.story?coll=sns-ap-world-headlines Newsday, 8/23/03 News Article statement deception September 11, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_706 1 false Seven members of Donald Rumsfeld's so-called neocon &#8220;brain trust,&#8221; including Undersecretary of Defense for Policy Douglas Feith and William Luti, head of the Pentagon's Near Eastern and South Asian desk, are &#8220;busy on unrelated missions in Europe and the Middle East.&#8221; They return to Washington the next day (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_705 ]]). http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 234 News Article douglas_feith source william_luti source william_luti activeparticipant douglas_feith activeparticipant officeOfSpecialPlans Shortly after September 11, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_82 1 false Undersecretary of Defense for Policy Douglas Feith and Middle East specialist Harold Rhode recruit David Wurmser, the director of Middle East studies for the American Enterprise Institute, to serve as a Pentagon consultant. Wurmser is a known advocate of regime change in Iraq, having expressed his views in a 1997 op-ed piece published in the Wall Street Journal (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_465 ]]) and having participated in the drafting of a 1996 policy paper for Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu called &#8220;A Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm&#8221; (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_74 ]]). Wurmser works at Feith's office, where he and another neocon, F. Michael Maloof, a former aide to Richard Perle, head a secret intelligence unit, named the Counter Terrorism Evaluation Group, or the &#8220;Wurmser-Maloof&#8221; project. The four- to five-person unit, a &#8220;B Team&#8221; commissioned by Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, uses powerful computers and software to scan and sort already-analyzed documents and reports from the CIA, the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, and other agencies in an effort to consider possible interpretations and angles of analysis that these agencies may have missed due to deeply ingrained biases and out-of-date worldviews. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/wtimes011402.htm Washington Times, 1/14/02 News Article http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html Mother Jones, 1/04 News Article http://www.nytimes.com/2002/10/24/international/24INTE.html New York Times, 10/24/02 News Article http://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/suncommentary/la-op-arkin8feb08,1,1827395.story?coll=la-headlines-suncomment Los Angeles Times, 2/8/04 News Article http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/s1048656.htm Reuters, 2/19/04 News Article The Pentagon unit's activities cause tension within the traditional intelligence community. Critics claim that its members manipulate and distort intelligence, &#8220;cherry-picking&#8221; bits of information that fit their preconceived conclusions. &#8220;There is a complete breakdown in the relationship between the Defense Department and the intelligence community, to include its own Defense Intelligence Agency,&#8221; a defense official will tell the New York Times. &#8220;Wolfowitz and company disbelieve any analysis that doesn't support their own preconceived conclusions. The CIA is enemy territory, as far are they're concerned.&#8221; http://www.nytimes.com/2002/10/24/international/24INTE.html New York Times, 10/24/02 News Article unnamed_defense_official source Defending the project, Paul Wolfowitz will tell the New York Times that the team's purpose is to circumvent the problem &#8220;in intelligence work, that people who are pursuing a certain hypothesis will see certain facts that others won't, and not see other facts that others will.&#8221; He insists that the special Pentagon unit is &#8220;not making independent intelligence assessments.&#8221; http://www.nytimes.com/2002/10/24/international/24INTE.html New York Times, 10/24/02 News Article One of the cell's projects includes sorting through existing intelligence to create a map of relationships demonstrating links between terrorist groups and state powers. This chart of links, which they name the &#8220;matrix,&#8221; leads the intelligence unit to conclude that Hamas, Hezbollah, Islamic Jihad and other groups with conflicting ideologies and objectives are allowing these differences to fall to the wayside as they discover their shared hatred of the US. The group's research also leads them to believe that al-Qaeda has a presence in such places as Latin American. For weeks, the unit will attempt to uncover evidence tying Saddam Hussein to the 9/11 attacks, a theory advocated by both Feith and Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/wtimes011402.htm Washington Times, 1/14/02 News Article http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html Mother Jones, 1/04 News Article http://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/suncommentary/la-op-arkin8feb08,1,1827395.story?coll=la-headlines-suncomment Los Angeles Times, 2/8/04 News Article David Wurmser will later be relocated to the State Department where he will be the senior advisor to Undersecretary Of State for Arms Control John Bolton.(see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_78 ]]). http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html Mother Jones, 1/04 News Article http://amconmag.com/12_1_03/feature.html American Conservative, 12/1/03 News Article richard_perle passiveparticipant paul_wolfowitz passiveparticipant harold_rhode activeparticipant donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant david_wurmser activeparticipant douglas_feith activeparticipant f._michael_maloof activeparticipant deception officeOfSpecialPlans terroristTies 2:40PM (EST), September 11, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_57 1 false About five hours after American Airlines Flight 77 crashes into the Pentagon, Donald Rumsfeld instructs aides to begin planning for a strike against Iraq. Notes taken by one of the aides, read: &#8220;[I want the] best info fast. Judge whether good enough hit S.H. [Saddam Hussein] at same time. Not only UBL [Usama bin Laden]. ... Go massive. Sweep it all up. Things related and not.&#8221; However, at this time, there is no intelligence indicating that Saddam Hussein was behind the attacks. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/09/04/september11/main520830.shtml CBS News, 9/4/02 News Article notes_taken_by_an_aide_of_rumsfeld_on_9/11 source &#8220;[I want the] best info fast. Judge whether good enough hit S.H. [Saddam Hussein] at same time. Not only UBL [Osama bin Laden].... Go massive. Sweep it all up. Things related and not.&#8221; http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/09/04/september11/main520830.shtml CBS News 9/4/02 News Article duplicate &#8220;[B]arely five hours after American Airlines Flight 77 plowed into the Pentagon, Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld was telling his aides to come up with plans for striking Iraq&#8212;even though there was no evidence linking Saddam Hussein to the attacks... . With the intelligence all pointing toward bin Laden, Rumsfeld ordered the military to begin working on strike plans..... Now, nearly one year later, there is still very little evidence Iraq was involved in the Sept. 11 attacks. But if these notes are accurate, that didn't matter to Rumsfeld.&#8221; http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/09/04/september11/main520830.shtml CBS News 9/4/02 News Article commentary donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant decision September 12, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_492 1 false US President George Bush speaks privately with White House counterterrorism advisor Richard Clarke in the White House Situation Room. According to Clarke, Bush tells him to investigate the possibility that Iraq had been involved in the attacks. &#8220;Go back over everything, everything,&#8221; Bush says. &#8220;See if Saddam did this.&#8221; When Clarke responds, &#8220;But Mr. President, Al-Qaeda did this,&#8221; Bush replies, &#8220;I know, I know, but... see if Saddam was involved. Just look. I want to know any shred.&#8221; Clarke insists that the CIA, FBI and White House had already concluded that there were no such links. As he exits the room, Bush &#8220;testily&#8221; reiterates, &#8220;Look into Iraq, Saddam.&#8221; http://www.palmbeachpost.com/news/content/auto/epaper/editions/today/news_04e5f65c05b8512e00a5.html Washington Post, 3/22/2004 News Article richard_clarke source During a &#8220;60 Minutes&#8221; interview, Clarke will add that Bush's instructions were made in a way that were &#8220;very intimidating,&#8221; and which hinted that Clarke &#8220;should come back with that answer.&#8221; http://www.nytimes.com/2004/03/23/politics/23ASSE.html?ex=1081011465&amp;ei=1&amp;en=33db0132fd003259 New York Times, 3/23/04 News Article White House Press Secretary Scott McClellan will later dispute Clarke's account. Bush &#8220;doesn't have any recollection&#8221; of such a meeting or conversation, McClellan will say on March 22, 2004. &#8220;There's no record of the President being in the Situation Room on that day that ... you know, when the President is in the Situation Room, we keep track of that.&#8221; http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/news/archive/2004/03/22/national1723EST0709.DTL Associated Press, 3/22/04 News Article After the meeting, Clarke collaborates with CIA and FBI experts producing a report which finds no evidence that Iraq had a hand in the attacks. But &#8220;it got bounced by the national-securty advisor, or deputy,&#8221; Clarke will explain. &#8220; It got bounced and sent back, saying &#8216;Wrong answer .... Do it again.&#8217; &#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 238 News Article &#8220;I can only tell you I think Dick has enormous credibility. He's got a first-class intellect. He's very dedicated. He tries to make things happen. He doesn't hesitate to take unpopular stances, and he doesn't hesitate to push the envelope. ....Dick is a serious player. He's been involved in this business for years. You can't overlook what Dick is saying.&#8221; http://www.nytimes.com/2004/03/23/politics/23ASSE.html New York Times, 3/23/04 News Article commentary &#8220;Dick Clarke had a front-row seat on America's counterterrorism efforts for almost two decades... The facts are that within six months of the first bombs falling on Afghanistan, this administration was diverting military and intelligence resources to its planned war in Iraq, which allowed Al Qaeda to regenerate. As the people of Indonesia, Morocco, Saudi Arabia and most recently, Spain, have learned painfully well, this president failed to execute the real war on terrorism&#8221; http://www.nytimes.com/2004/03/23/politics/23ASSE.html New York Times, 3/23/04 News Article commentary stephen_hadley activeparticipant condoleezza_rice activeparticipant scott_mcclellan activeparticipant george_w._bush activeparticipant richard_clarke activeparticipant deception decision September 12, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_705 1 false Seven members of Donald Rumsfeld's so-called neocon &#8220;brain trust,&#8221; meet at an airport in Frankfurt, Germany where they are picked up by an Air Force refueling plane which brings them back to Washington. During the flight they discuss the implications of the 911 attacks for US foreign policy. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 234 News Article william_luti source douglas_feith source &#8220;[R]ight there on the plane, we took out our laptops and sketched out for Secretary Rumsfeld where we thought we had to go, what it meant to get things on a war footing,&#8221; William Luti will tell Vanity Fair magazine. &#8220;Obviously we had Afghanistan on our minds straightaway. That was our immediate concern. But we also thought we had to learn about the terrorist networks, how they connected to he states.&#8221; They arrive at Andrews Air Force base a few minutes after five in the afternoon. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 234 News Article william_luti activeparticipant douglas_feith activeparticipant decision officeOfSpecialPlans September 12, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_58 1 false White House counterterrorism advisor Richard Clarke meets with Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld and President Bush. During the briefing Rumsfeld suggests that the US should bomb Iraq in retaliation for the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. &#8220;Rumsfeld was saying we needed to bomb Iraq,&#8221; Clarke will later recall in his book, Against All Enemies. &#8220;... We all said, &#8216;but no, no. Al-Qaeda is in Afghanistan&#8217; and Rumsfeld said, &#8216;There aren't any good targets in Afghanistan and there are lots of good targets in Iraq.&#8217; &#8221; http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&amp;cgi=product&amp;isbn=0743260244 Clarke, Richard. Against All Enemies. Free Press, 2004. News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldlatest/story/0,1280,-3881862,00.html Associated Press, 3/20/04 News Article http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=worldNews&amp;storyID=4610418&amp;section=news Reuters, 3/19/04 News Article http://www.palmbeachpost.com/news/content/auto/epaper/editions/today/news_04e5f65c05b8512e00a5.html Washington Post, 3/22/2004 News Article richard_clarke source Rumsfeld's view is said to be closely aligned with that of his deputy, Paul Wolfowitz, who believes Saddam, not Osama bin Laden or al-Qaeda, should be the principal target of the &#8220;war on terrorism.&#8221; http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&amp;cgi=product&amp;isbn=0743204735 Woodward, Bob. Bush at War. New York: Simon &amp; Schuster, 2002. Pg. 49 News Article Commenting on his feelings after the meeting, Clarke will later write, &#8220;I realized with almost a sharp physical pain that (Defense Secretary Donald) Rumsfeld and Wolfowitz were going to try to take advantage of this national tragedy to promote their agenda about Iraq.&#8221; http://www.palmbeachpost.com/news/content/auto/epaper/editions/today/news_04e5f65c05b8512e00a5.html Washington Post, 3/22/2004 News Article Bush administration officials will contest the accusations Clarke&#8212;who was a registered Republican in 2000&#8212;makes in his book, dismissing them as politically motivated comments made during an election year. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/news/archive/2004/03/22/national1723EST0709.DTL Associated Press, 3/22/04 News Article But another source had provided a similar account a year earlier. In his book, Bush at War, Washington Post reporter Bob Woodward stated that during a White House meeting, Rumsfeld had suggested that the US should attack Iraq. (Note: It is not clear whether or not this meeting is the same one referred to by Clarke.) http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&amp;cgi=product&amp;isbn=0743204735 Woodward, Bob. Bush at War. New York: Simon &amp; Schuster, 2002. Pg. 49 News Article Clarke also says in his book, referring to unspecified administration officials, &#8220;They were talking about Iraq on 9/11. They were talking about it on 9/12.&#8221; http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&amp;cgi=product&amp;isbn=0743260244 Clarke, Richard. Against All Enemies. Free Press, 2004. News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldlatest/story/0,1280,-3881862,00.html Associated Press, 3/20/04 News Article http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=worldNews&amp;storyID=4610418&amp;section=news Reuters, 3/19/04 News Article richard_clarke source &#8220;I realized with almost a sharp physical pain that (Defense Secretary Donald) Rumsfeld and Wolfowitz were going to try to take advantage of this national tragedy to promote their agenda about Iraq.&#8221; http://www.palmbeachpost.com/news/content/auto/epaper/editions/today/news_04e5f65c05b8512e00a5.html Washington Post, 3/22/2004 News Article duplicate &#8220;Dick Clarke had a front-row seat on America's counterterrorism efforts for almost two decades... The facts are that within six months of the first bombs falling on Afghanistan, this administration was diverting military and intelligence resources to its planned war in Iraq, which allowed Al Qaeda to regenerate. As the people of Indonesia, Morocco, Saudi Arabia and most recently, Spain, have learned painfully well, this president failed to execute the real war on terrorism&#8221; http://www.nytimes.com/2004/03/23/politics/23ASSE.html New York Times, 3/23/04 News Article commentary &#8220;There aren't any good targets in Afghanistan and there are lots of good targets in Iraq.&#8221; http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&amp;cgi=product&amp;isbn=0743260244 Clarke, Richard. Against All Enemies. Free Press, 2004. News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldlatest/story/0,1280,-3881862,00.html Associated Press, 3/20/04 News Article http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=worldNews&amp;storyID=4610418&amp;section=news Reuters, 3/19/04 News Article duplicate &#8220;Rumsfeld was saying we needed to bomb Iraq.... We all said, &#8216;but no, no. Al-Qaeda is in Afghanistan&#8217; and Rumsfeld said, &#8216;There aren't any good targets in Afghanistan and there are lots of good targets in Iraq.&#8217; &#8221; http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=worldNews&amp;storyID=4610418&amp;section=news Reuters, 3/19/04 News Article http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/partner?partner_id=28108&amp;cgi=product&amp;isbn=0743260244 Clarke, Richard. Against All Enemies. Free Press, 2004. News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldlatest/story/0,1280,-3881862,00.html Associated Press, 3/20/04 News Article duplicate &#8220;I can only tell you I think Dick has enormous credibility. He's got a first-class intellect. He's very dedicated. He tries to make things happen. He doesn't hesitate to take unpopular stances, and he doesn't hesitate to push the envelope. ....Dick is a serious player. He's been involved in this business for years. You can't overlook what Dick is saying.&#8221; http://www.nytimes.com/2004/03/23/politics/23ASSE.html New York Times, 3/23/04 News Article commentary paul_wolfowitz passiveparticipant george_w._bush activeparticipant richard_clarke activeparticipant donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant decision September 13, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_59 1 false Two days after the September 11 attacks, the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA), a neoconservative think tank focused on maintaining and strengthening the US/Israeli military alliance, releases a press statement calling for regime change in Iraq. &#8220;In response to the attack on September 11, 2001 JINSA calls on the United States to: Halt all US purchases of Iraqi oil under the UN Oil for Food Program and to provide all necessary support to the Iraq [sic] National Congress, including direct American military support, to effect a regime change in Iraq,&#8221; the statement reads. http://www.jinsa.org/articles/print.html/documentid/1262 Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA), 9/13/01 News Article &#8220;[I want the] best info fast. Judge whether good enough hit S.H. [Saddam Hussein] at same time. Not only UBL [Osama bin Laden].... Go massive. Sweep it all up. Things related and not.&#8221; http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/09/04/september11/main520830.shtml CBS News 9/4/02 News Article duplicate the_jewish_institute_for_national_security_affairs_(jinsa) activeparticipant decision September 14, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_165 1 false The CIA intelligence liaison in Prague is told by the Czech intelligence agency (BIS) that one of its informants believes the Hamburg &#8220;student&#8221; he had seen meeting with Iraqi diplomat Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani on April 8, 2001 in a restaurant outside of Prague was 9/11 plotter Mohamed Atta. (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_163 ]]) FBI agents head for the Czech Republic and are given full access to Czech intelligence material. This information leads hawks to come up with the so-called &#8220;Prague Connection&#8221; theory, which holds that 9/11 plotter Mohammed Atta flew to Prague on April 8, met with al-Ani to discuss the planning and financing of the 9/11 attacks, and returned to the US on either April 9 or 10. The theory will be widely discounted by October 2002. http://mason-west.com/Research/News/US/missinglink.php#slate Slate, 11/19/2003 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/nyt102102.html New York Times, 10/21/02 News Article jan_kavan source mohammed_atta passiveparticipant ahmed_khalil_ibrahim_samir_al-ani passiveparticipant pragueConnection terroristTies September 15, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_60 1 false George W. Bush, CIA Director George Tenet, Dick Cheney, Colin Powell, Donald Rumsfeld, Treasury Secretary Paul O'Neill, National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice, FBI Director Robert S. Mueller III, Paul Wolfowitz, and perhaps other officials as well, meet at Camp David to discuss war plans in Afghanistan. The meeting reportedly begins at 9:30 AM with a prayer. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&amp;node=&amp;contentId=A64802-2002Jan30&amp;notFound=true Washington Post, 1/31/02 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 232 News Article During the meeting, there is some discussion about taking military action against Iraq, with Paul Wolfowitz pushing for regime change. He claims that there is a 10 to 50 percent chance that Iraq had been involved in the attacks. http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0743204735/centerforcoop-20 Woodward, Bob. Bush at War. New York: Simon &amp; Schuster, 2002. Pg. 83 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 232 News Article &#8220;Wolfowitz seized the opportunity. Attacking Afghanistan would be uncertain. He worried about 100,000 American troops bogged down in mountain fighting in Afghanistan six months from then. In contrast, Iraq was a brittle, oppressive regime that might break easily. It was doable. He estimated that there was a 10 to 50 percent chance Saddam was involved in the September 11 terrorist attacks. The U. S. would have to go after Saddam at some time if the war on terrorism was to be taken seriously.&#8221; http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0743204735/centerforcoop-20 Woodward, Bob. Bush at War. New York: Simon &amp; Schuster, 2002. Pg. 83 News Article statement paul_wolfowitz activeparticipant robert_s._mueller_iii activeparticipant condoleezza_rice activeparticipant donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant george_w._bush activeparticipant george_tenet activeparticipant dick_cheney activeparticipant colin_powell activeparticipant paul_o?neill activeparticipant decision September 17, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_61 1 false President Bush signs a 2�-page &#8220;top secret&#8221; document that outlines the administration's plan to invade Afghanistan and topple its government. According to administration officials interviewed by The Washington Post, the document also instructs the Pentagon to begin planning for an invasion of Iraq. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A43909-2003Jan11.html Washington Post, 1/12/03 News Article http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/allnews/content_objectid=13434081_method=full_siteid=50143_headline=-THE-BIG-LIE-name_page.html The Mirror, 9/22/03 News Article senior_administration_officials source george_w._bush activeparticipant decision September 18, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_166 1 false Information about the alleged April 2001 meeting in Prague between 9/11 plotter Mohammed Atta and Iraqi diplomat Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani is leaked to the Associated Press, which reports, &#8220;A US official, speaking on condition of anonymity, said the United States has received information from a foreign intelligence service that Mohamed Atta, a hijacker aboard one of the planes that slammed into the World Trade Center, met earlier this year in Europe with an Iraqi intelligence agent.&#8221; http://mason-west.com/Research/News/US/missinglink.php#slate Slate, 11/19/2003 News Article http://www.augustachronicle.com/morrisnews/918criminal.html Associated Press, 9/18/01 News Article unnamed_us_official source mohammed_atta passiveparticipant ahmed_khalil_ibrahim_samir_al-ani passiveparticipant pragueConnection September 19, 2001-September 20, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_62 1 false The Defense Policy Board (DPB) meets in secrecy in Rumsfeld's Pentagon conference room on September 19 and 20 for nineteen hours to discuss the option of taking military action against Iraq. This is reported in detail by the New York Times three weeks later on October 12 http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2001/nyt101201.htm New York Times, 10/12/01 News Article Among those attending the meeting are the 18 members of the Defense Policy Board, Paul Wolfowitz, and Donald Rumsfeld, Ahmed Chalabi, and Bernard Lewis. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2001/nyt101201.htm New York Times 10/12/01 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 236 News Article Secretary of State Colin Powell and other State Department officials in charge of US policy toward Iraq are not invited and are not informed of the meeting. A source will later tell the New York Times that Powell was irritated about not being briefed on the meeting. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2001/nyt101201.htm New York Times 10/12/01 News Article During the seminar, two of Richard Perle's invited guests, Princeton professor Bernard Lewis and Ahmed Chalabi, the president of the Iraqi National Congress, are given the opportunity to speak. Lewis says that the US must encourage democratic reformers in the Middle East, &#8220;such as my friend here, Ahmed Chalbi.&#8221; Chalabi argues that Iraq is a breeding ground for terrorists and asserts that Saddam's regime has weapons of mass destruction. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 232 News Article During another part of the meeting, the attendees write a letter to President Bush calling for the removal of Saddam Hussein. &#8220;[E]ven if evidence does not link Iraq directly to the attack, any strategy aiming at the eradication of terrorism and its sponsors must include a determined effort to remove Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq. Failure to undertake such an effort will constitute an early and perhaps decisive surrender in the war on international terrorism,&#8221; the letter reads. The letter is published in The Washington Times on September 20 in the name of The Project for a New American Century (PNAC), a conservative think tank that believes the US needs to shoulder the responsibility for maintaining &#8220;peace&#8221; and &#8220;security&#8221; in the world by strengthening its global hegemony. http://www.newamericancentury.org/Bushletter.htm Project for a New American Century, 9/20/01 News Article http://www.manilatimes.net/national/2003/jul/19/opinion/20030719opi5.html Manila Times, 7/19/03 News Article They also discuss how to overcome some of the obvious diplomatic and political pressures that will impede a policy of regime change in Iraq. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2001/nyt101201.htm New York Times 10/12/01 News Article Bush reportedly rejects the proposal, as both Cheney and Powell agree that there is no evidence implicating Saddam Hussein in the attacks. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2001/nyt101201.htm New York Times 10/12/01 News Article unnamed_senior_administration_officials_and_defense_experts source &#8220;[E]ven if evidence does not link Iraq directly to the attack, any strategy aiming at the eradication of terrorism and its sponsors must include a determined effort to remove Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq. Failure to undertake such an effort will constitute an early and perhaps decisive surrender in the war on international terrorism.&#8221; http://www.newamericancentury.org/Bushletter.htm Project for a New American Century, 9/20/01 News Article duplicate adm._david_e._jeremiah activeparticipant dan_quayle activeparticipant james_r._schlesinger activeparticipant james_woolsey activeparticipant henry_a._kissinger activeparticipant newt_gingrich activeparticipant paul_wolfowitz activeparticipant defense_policy_board activeparticipant a_clean_break:_a_new_strategy_for_securing_the_realm activeparticipant harold_brown activeparticipant ahmed_chalabi activeparticipant donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant bernard_lewis activeparticipant decision September 20, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_707 1 false British Prime Minister Tony Blair meets with President George Bush at the White House. During dinner that night, also attended by Colin Powell, Condoleezza Rice, and British ambassador Sir Christopher Meyer, Bush indicates that he is determined to remove Saddam Hussein from power. According to Meyers, Bush says, &#8220;... when we have dealt with Afghanistan, we must come back to Iraq.&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 238 News Article christopher_meyers source condoleezza_rice activeparticipant tony_blair activeparticipant george_w._bush activeparticipant christopher_meyers activeparticipant colin_powell activeparticipant decision September 20, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq-138 1 false A top Pentagon official&#8212;thought to be Douglas Feith&#8212;pens a top-secret memo fielding the idea that the US should consider initially attacking targets outside the Middle East, like Latin America, or &#8220;non-Al Qaeda&#8221; targets like Iraq. The memo suggests that striking such a target would catch al-Qaeda off-guard. 9/11_commission_report source The memo's recommendation is reportedly based on research by the Counter Terrorism Evaluation Group <ref key="82"/>, a two-man secret intelligence team operating under Feith's office that was set up to identify possible links between al-Qaeda and other groups, including states like Iraq. http://msnbc.msn.com/id/5570015/site/newsweek Newsweek, 8/9/2004 News Article douglas_feith activeparticipant f._michael_maloof activeparticipant david_wurmser activeparticipant decision officeOfSpecialPlans Fall 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_712 1 false Joe T., an analyst for the CIA, gives a presentation in Room 6526 of the State Department's Office of Strategic Proliferation on his theory that a confiscated shipment of aluminum tubes destined for Iraq (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_41 ]]) had been intended for use in a gas centrifuge program. Present at the meeting is Greg Theilmann, head of the nuclear proliferation monitoring division at the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research, who is not at all impressed with Joe T.'s argument. &#8220;I found the presentation to be unpersuasive,&#8221; Thielmann later explains to Vanity Fair. &#8220;He seemed far more a man on a mission than an objective analyst. He had something to sell.&#8221; Also in attendance is a scientist from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory who also disagrees with Joe T.'s conclusions. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 281 News Article joe_t. activeparticipant greg_thielmann activeparticipant aluminumTubes Fall 2001 and after complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_67 1 false The momentum towards a policy of &#8220;regime change&#8221; in Iraq increases, independent of Bush's own decisions. &#8220;The issue got away from the president,&#8221; a senior official will later tell The Washington Post. &#8220;He wasn't controlling the tone or the direction&#8221; and was influenced by people who &#8220;painted him into a corner because Iraq was an albatross around their necks.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A43909-2003Jan11.html Washington Post, 1/12/03 News Article unnamed_senior_official source george_w._bush passiveparticipant decision After October 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_156 1 false Rohan Gunaratna, a research fellow at the Center for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland, begins researching for his book, Inside al-Qaeda: Global Network of Terror. He examines several tens of thousands of documents acquired from al-Qaeda and Taliban sources. During the course of his investigation, he finds no evidence of an Iraqi-al-Qaeda link. In an op-ed piece printed in the International Herald Tribune on February 19, 2003, he writes: &#8220;In addition to listening to 240 tapes taken from al-Qaeda's central registry, I debriefed several al-Qaeda and Taliban detainees. I could find no evidence of links between Iraq and al-Qaeda. The documentation and interviews indicated that al-Qaeda regarded Saddam, a secular leader, as an infidel.&#8221; http://www.iht.com/articles/87151.html International Herald Tribune, 2/19/03 News Article rohan_gunaratna source rohan_gunaratna activeparticipant terroristTies Fall 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_95 1 false The Italian intelligence agency, SISMI, provides the CIA with a report on a 1999 trip to Niger made by Wissam al-Zahawie (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_94 ]]), Iraq's former ambassador to the Vatican. The report suggests that the trip's mission was to discuss the future purchase of uranium oxide, known as &#8220;yellowcake.&#8221; According to sources later interviewed by New Yorker's Seymour Hersh, the report is &#8220;dismissed as amateurish and unsubstantiated&#8221; by US intelligence. http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?031027fa_fact New Yorker, 10/20/03 News Article unnamed_us_intelligence_sources source wissam_al-zahawie source wissam_al-zahawie activeparticipant sismi activeparticipant africaUraniumClaim October 4, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_428 1 false Gary Milhollin of the Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control testifies in Congress before the Subcommittee on the Middle East and the South Asia Committee on International Relations that Iraq &#8220;is still committed to developing weapons of mass destruction.&#8221; He states: &#8220;Iraq has become self-sufficient in biological weaponry; it possesses the strains, growth media and infrastructure necessary to build a biological arsenal. Iraq also retains stocks of chemical agent from the period of the Gulf War and is known to have all the elements of a workable nuclear weapon except the fissile material needed to fuel it. Iraq&apos;s authorized program for developing short-range missiles will also enable the building of longer-range missiles, and Iraq is showing an interest in cruise missiles and unmanned aerial vehicles, apparently to deliver chemical or biological payloads.&#8221; http://www.wisconsinproject.org/pubs/testimonies/2001/10-4-01.htm US House of Representatives, 10/4/01 News Article http://www.insightmag.com/main.cfm/include/detail/storyid/165820.html United Press International, 1/17/02 News Article gary_milhollin activeparticipant wmd October 13, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_167 1 false Czech foreign minister Jan Kavan briefs Secretary of State Colin Powell in Washington about the alleged trip 9/11 plotter Mohammed Atta took to the Czech Republic in April 2001 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_163 ]]). Kavan tells Powell that the BIS, the Czech intelligence service, has reason to believe that Mohamed Atta may have met near Prague with Iraqi Counsel Al-Ani. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2001/nyt102001.html New York Times, 10/20/01 News Article jan_kavan source mohammed_atta passiveparticipant colin_powell activeparticipant jan_kavan activeparticipant ahmed_khalil_ibrahim_samir_al-ani passiveparticipant pragueConnection October 16, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_452 1 false Referring to the claim that Atta met with Iraqi Counsel al-Ani on April 8, 2001 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_163 ]]), Stanislav Gross, the Czech interior minister, states, &#8220;I can only confirm one visit in the summer&#8221; and Petr Necas, chairman of the parliamentary defense committee, says, &#8220;I haven't seen any direct evidence that Mr. Atta met any Iraqi agent.&#8221; Citing a senior Czech Republic official, the New York Times will report on October 20 that &#8220;firm documentary evidence existed only that Mr. Atta had passed through the Prague airport from Germany to take a flight to Newark.&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2001/nyt102001.html New York Times, 10/20/01 News Article unnamed_senior_czech_republic_official source The rumors, which had first surfaced shortly after the attacks, were based on information from a Czech intelligence source inside Prague's Middle Eastern community. The source had told the BIS, the Czech Republic's intelligence service, that he had seen Atta meeting al-Ani in a restaurant outside of Prague on April 8 earlier that year.(see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_163 ]]) http://www.cnn.com/2001/US/09/19/inv.iraq.terrorism/index.html CNN, 9/19/01 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/newsweek042802.html Newsweek, 4/28/02 News Article mohammed_atta passiveparticipant ahmed_khalil_ibrahim_samir_al-ani passiveparticipant stanislav_gross activeparticipant petr_necas activeparticipant pragueConnection October 25, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_140 1 false Powell, speaking before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, dismisses bin Laden's claims that al-Qaeda's fight is in solidarity with Iraqis and Palestinians. Powell argues: &#8220;We cannot let Osama bin Laden pretend that he is doing it in the name of helping the Iraqi people or the Palestinian people. He doesn't care one whit about them. He has never given a dollar toward them. He has never spoken out for them.&#8221; http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2001/5751.htm US Department of State News Article http://slate.msn.com/id/2078437 Slate MSNBC, 2/11/03 News Article &#8220;We cannot let Osama bin Laden pretend that he is doing it in the name of helping the Iraqi people or the Palestinian people. He doesn't care one whit about them. He has never given a dollar toward them. He has never spoken out for them.&#8221; http://slate.msn.com/id/2078437 Slate MSNBC, 2/11/03 News Article http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2001/5751.htm US Department of State News Article duplicate colin_powell activeparticipant terroristTies October 26, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_168 1 false Czech interior minister Stanislav Gross says during a press conference that 9/11 plotter Mohammed Atta had in fact met with Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani, the consul and second secretary of the Iraqi embassy, in the Czech Republic after arriving in Prague on April 8, 2001 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_163 ]]). &#8220;We can confirm now that during his ... trip to the Czech Republic, he did have a contact with an officer of the Iraqi intelligence,&#8221; he says. He also says that Atta had been in Prague at least twice&#8212;in May 2000 after coming to Prague from Germany on his way to the United States and then again in April when he allegedly met with Ahni. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2001/nyt102701.html New York Times, 10/27/01 News Article http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/europe/10/27/inv.czech.iraq/ CNN, 10/27/01 News Article Also, by this time, the FBI claims it has physical evidence of Atta's trip to Prague. The New York Times reports, &#8220;On April 4 he was in Virginia Beach. He flew to the Czech Republic on April 8 and met with the Iraqi intelligence officer ... By April 11, Atta was back in Florida renting a car.&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2001/nyt102701.html New York Times, 10/27/01 News Article jan_kavan source unnamed_us_officials source But this will later be disputed. In late April 2002, Newsweek will report, &#8220;The FBI could find no visa or airline records showing he had left or re-entered the United States that month,&#8221; quoting an unnamed US official who says, &#8220;Neither we nor the Czechs nor anybody else has any information he was coming or going [to Prague] at that time.&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/newsweek042802.html Newsweek, 4/28/02 News Article unnamed_us_official source jan_kavan source And in late 2003, Edward Jay Epstein will similarly report in Slate that there &#8220;were no car rental records in Virginia, Florida, or anywhere else in April 2001 for Mohamed Atta, since he had not yet obtained his Florida license ... [n]or were there other records in the hands of the FBI that put Atta in the United States at the time.&#8221; But Epstein will note that Atta would likely have traveled to Prague using false documents anyway. http://mason-west.com/Research/News/US/missinglink.php#slate Slate, 11/19/03 News Article &#8220;The Czech confirmation seems to me very important. It is yet another lead that points toward Iraqi involvement in some sort of terrorism against the United States that ought to be followed up vigorously.&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2001/nyt102701.html New York Times, 10/27/01 News Article commentary stanislav_gross activeparticipant mohammed_atta passiveparticipant ahmed_khalil_ibrahim_samir_al-ani passiveparticipant pragueConnection October 28, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1183 1 false The White House repeats its warning to the UN that the US will act if the UN fails to pass a stronger resolution. George Bush says: &#8220;Either the UN will do its duty to disarm Saddam Hussein. Or Saddam Hussein will disarm himself. In either case, if they refuse to act ... the US will lead a coalition and disarm Saddam Hussein.&#8221; And Ari Fleischer, the White House Press Secretary says, &#8220;The United Nations has debated this long enough. The time has come for people to raise their hands and cast their vote.&#8221; http://www.mwaw.org/article.php?sid=1634 Independent, 10/29/02 News Article legalJustification November-December 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_440 1 false President George W. Bush kills the proposed enforcement and verification mechanism for the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, which was aimed at establishing an inspection system by which the provisions of the convention could be enforced. The mechanism would have required mandatory inspections of any plant where biological weapons could be made, including sites located in the United States. For six years, the US had impeded these efforts. US opposition to the convention was based on fears that inspections of US facilities might harm the profits of US biotech companies and impede current US military research and development of biological weapons. http://www.commondreams.org/views02/0805-08.htm Common Dreams, 8/5/02 News Article http://www.cnn.com/2001/ALLPOLITICS/11/01/bush.bioterror/ CNN, 11/1/01 News Article http://www.counterpunch.org/sunshine1.html Counterpunch, 10/25/01 News Article george_w._bush activeparticipant wmd Early November 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_65 1 false According to a September 2002 USA Today article, the decision to invade Iraq is made at this time. Significantly, the decision is made independent of normal policy-making procedures&#8212;a National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) on Iraq was not requested, members of Congress were not consulted, and the concerns of senior military officers and intelligence analysts were ignored. Explaining why the White House did not request a NIE on Iraq, an unnamed US intelligence official explains it didn't want to detail the uncertainties regarding the threat Iraq allegedly poses to the US. And a senior administration official says the White House did not believe an NIE would be helpful. Notwithstanding, an NIE will be requested in September 2002 as a result of pressure from Congress. The classified version of the document will include many qualified and nuanced statements, but the shorter, unclassified, public version, which is given to Congress, will not include these uncertainties (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_7 ]]). http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2002-09-10-iraq-war_x.htm USA Today, 9/10/02 News Article officials_at_the_white_house,_state_department,_pentagon,_intelligence_agencies,_congress_and_elsewhere source george_w._bush activeparticipant wmd Early November 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_66 1 false Wayne Downing, a retired Army general who is heading counterterrorism in the White House, is drawing up plans for a US invasion of Iraq on his own initiative. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A43909-2003Jan11.html Washington Post, 1/12/03 News Article unnamed_senior_administration_official source &#8220;The [decision-making] process underscores Bush's confidence in his own judgment and his hard-line policy instincts. It shows his reliance on a tight circle of aides, his penchant for secrecy and his preference for unilateral action. And it illustrates how his approach has complicated his efforts now to win support from allies and members of Congress who felt they weren't adequately consulted before.&#8221; http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2002-09-10-iraq-war_x.htm USA Today, 9/10/02 News Article commentary wayne_downing activeparticipant decision November 9, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_169 1 false Czech Prime Minister Milos Zeman tells Colin Powell and CNN that during the alleged April 2001 meeting in Prague between 9/11 plotter Mohammed Atta and Iraqi diplomat Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani, the two men discussed plans to bomb the Radio Free Europe building in Prague, which also housed Radio Free Iraq. The claim is reportedly based on footage from surveillance cameras at the Radio Free Europe building which had shown al-Ani surveying the building in April 2001 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_162 ]]). The Prime Minister will later back away from the claim, explaining it was just a hypothesis raised by Czech intelligence. http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/europe/11/09/inv.czech.atta/index.html CNN, 11/09/01 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2001/ap121601.htm Associated Press, 12/16/01 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0501-05.htm Washington Post 5/1/02 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/newsweek042802.html Newsweek, 4/28/01 News Article ahmed_khalil_ibrahim_samir_al-ani passiveparticipant colin_powell activeparticipant milos_zeman activeparticipant mohammed_atta passiveparticipant pragueConnection November 21, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_665 1 false George W. Bush and Donald Rumsfeld speak in private. Bush asks the Defense Secretary what kind of plan the Pentagon has for invading Iraq. When Rumsfeld says its current plan is outdated, Bush instructs him to devise a new one. &#8220;Let's get started on this,&#8221; Bush will later tell Bob Woodward. &#8220;And get Tommy Franks looking at what it would take to protect America by removing Saddam Hussein if we have to.&#8221; Bush requests that discussion about Iraq remain low-key. &#8220;I knew what would happen if people thought we were developing a potential war plan for Iraq,&#8221; Bush will say to Woodward. Bush does not share the details of his conversation with Condoleezza Rice, only telling her that Rumsfeld would be working on Iraq. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0416-01.htm Woodward, 2004 cited in Associated Press, 4/16/2004 News Article http://www.nytimes.com/2004/04/17/international/middleeast/17BOOK.html Woodward, 2004 cited in New York Times, 4/17/2004 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A20860-2004Apr17.html Woodward, 2004 cited in Washington Post 1/18/2004 News Article george_bush_and_other_top_officials_interviewed_by_washington_post_editor_bob_woodward source When General Tommy Franks&#8212;who already has his hands full with the operation in Afghanistan&#8212;learns that the administration is considering plans to invade Iraq, he utters &#8220;a string of obscenities.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0416-01.htm Woodward, 2004 cited in Associated Press, 4/16/2004 News Article top_officials_interviewed_by_washington_post_editor_bob_woodward source General Franks will meet with Bush and brief him on the plan's progress on December 28 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_666 ]]). condoleezza_rice activeparticipant george_w._bush activeparticipant donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant thomas_franks activeparticipant decision Between late 2001 and September 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1612 1 false Rocco Martino, an Italian security consultant and information peddler, receives a telephone call from a former colleague at SISMI, Italy's foreign intelligence service, who informs him that his source at the Nigerien embassy is in possession of documents (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1611 ]]) that might be of interest to him. &#8220;I met her and she gave me documents,&#8221; Martino later tells the Sunday Times. &#8220;Sismi wanted me to pass on the documents but they didn't want anyone to know they had been involved.&#8221; http://www.benadorassociates.com/article/6282 Sunday Times News Article http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/justify/2004/0802niger.htm Financial Times News Article sismi activeparticipant rocco_martino activeparticipant africaUraniumClaim Late 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1611 1 false A member of SISMI, Italy's foreign intelligence service, provides an agency asset working at the Nigerien embassy in Rome with a set of documents which the asset then slips into a collection of documents she later gives to Rocco Martino, an Italian security consultant and information peddler. http://www.talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/003235.php Talking Points Memo, 8/1/2004 News Article http://www.benadorassociates.com/article/6282 Sunday Times News Article http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/justify/2004/0802niger.htm Financial Times, 8/2/2004 News Article The documents consist of a series of letters purported to have been exchanged between the Niger government and an Iraqi diplomat. According to these letters, Iraq had attempted to obtain 500 tons of uranium oxide, or &#8220;yellowcake,&#8221; from Niger. http://www.talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/week_2003_10_26.html#002145 Corriere della Sera, date unknown, cited in Talking Points Memo, 10/31/03 News Article http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?031027fa_fact New Yorker, 10/20/03 News Article http://quickstart.clari.net/qs_se/webnews/wed/bi/Qus-iraq-niger-italy.Rt17_DlJ.html Agence France Presse, 7/19/03 News Article http://www.matamat.com/fullstory.php?gd=25&amp;cd=2003-07-19 Reuters, 7/19/03 News Article elisabetta_burba source sismi activeparticipant rocco_martino activeparticipant africaUraniumClaim Late 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_80 1 false A small group of CIA agents, among them Joe T., flies to Canberra, Australia and meets with Australian intelligence officers from the Australian Security Intelligence Organization (ASIO), Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS), Defense Intelligence Organization (DIO) and the Office of National Assessments (ONA) at ASIO headquarters. The team of CIA officers presents what is later described as a compelling case that the aluminum tubes, which in July had been intercepted by the US in Jordan on their way to Iraq (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_41 ]]), had been intended for use as rotors in a gas centrifuge program. http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2003/transcripts/s976015.htm Australian Broadcasting Corporation News Article aluminumTubes December 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_430 1 false In early December, Adnan Ihsan Saeed al-Haideri flees Iraq and defects to the United States. He tells US intelligence that he was a civil engineer until the end of 2000 and that he was involved in rebuilding Iraqi facilities that would produce chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons. He claims &#8220;that as many as 300 secret weapons facilities ... [have] been &#8216;reactivated&#8217; since the withdrawal of UN inspectors.&#8221; He describes a biological weapons program consisting of small underground labs and mobile labs concealed within specially modified trucks. &#8220;In some areas, houses or a small factory would get converted into labs,&#8221; Saeed tells his debriefers. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A23545-2002Jul30.html Washington Post, 7/31/2002 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A9604-2001Dec20?language=printer Washington Post, 12/21/01 News Article http://www.realdemocracy.com/iraqidef.htm New York Times, 12/20/2001 News Article In late December, Ahmed Chalabi of the Iraqi National Congress arranges for Saeed al-Haideri to be interviewed by New York Times reporter Judith Miller in Thailand. In the interview, Saeed describes visits he made to the secret weapons labs. He says &#8220;that he had personally visited at least 20 different sites that he believed to have been associated with Iraq's chemical or biological weapons programs,&#8221; reports the New York Times. &#8220;[S]everal of the production and storage facilities were hidden in the rear of government companies and private villas in residential areas, or underground in what were built to look like water wells which are lined with lead-filled concrete and contain no water. He said that he was shown biological materials from a laboratory that was underneath Saddam Hussein Hospital, the largest hospital in Baghdad.&#8221; http://www.nybooks.com/articles/16922 New York Review of Books 2/26/04 News Article http://www.realdemocracy.com/iraqidef.htm New York Times, 12/20/2001 News Article After the invasion of Iraq, no evidence will be found to substantiate Saeed's claims, and Judith Miller will be widely criticized for her heavy&#8212;almost exclusive&#8212;reliance on the INC and its members as the main sources for her stories. http://slate.msn.com/id/2087735/ Slate, 8/29/03 News Article http://slate.msn.com/id/2086110/ Slate, 7/25/03 News Article iraqi_national_congress_(inc) activeparticipant ahmed_chalabi activeparticipant judith_miller activeparticipant adnan_ihsan_saeed_al-haideri activeparticipant wmd Late 2001-May 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_185 1 false Jordanian Muslim militant Abu Mussab Al Zarqawi flees Afghanistan and heads to Iran where he continues to run his terrorist organization, al-Tawhid, using telephones and a network of couriers to maintain contact with his operatives in Europe. Al Zarqawi's organization establishes another poison and explosive training center camp in northeastern Iraq in an area controlled by Ansar al-Islam, an Islamist group opposed to Saddam Hussein. In May 2002, Zarqawi goes to Baghdad and has an amputation performed on his leg, which had been injured when he was fleeing US forces in Afghanistan. According to the Bush administration, Al Zarqawi stays in Baghdad for two months, during which time some two dozen &#8220;al-Qaeda affiliates&#8221; establish a base of operations in the city. The group presumably &#8220;coordinate[s] the movement of people, money and supplies into and throughout Iraq for his network.&#8221; Then Zarqawi reportedly travels to the Ansar al-Islam-controlled region in Northern Iraq, before eventually returning to Iran. http://truthout.org/docs_03/062703B.shtml Newsweek, 6/25/03 News Article http://www.mercurynews.com/mld/mercurynews/news/politics/5052710.htm Knight Ridder Newspapers, 1/28/03 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/independent020602.htm Independent, 2/6/03 News Article In an effort to justify military action against Iraq, the Bush administration will later claim that Saddam Hussein is aware of Al Zarqawi's presence in Baghdad and therefore is guilty of knowingly harboring a terrorist (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_184 ]]). The administration will also allege&#8212;falsely&#8212;that Al Zarqawi is a senior al-Qaeda agent and that his visit is evidence that Saddam's regime has ties to Osama bin Laden. http://truthout.org/docs_03/062703B.shtml Newsweek, 6/25/03 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/independent020602.htm Independent, 2/6/03 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,807286,00.html Guardian, 10/9/02 News Article shadi_abdallah source But the administration never offers any conclusive evidence to support this allegation. The claim is disputed by intelligence analysts in both Washington and London. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/02/04/wirq04.xml/ Telegraph, 2/4/03 News Article &#8220;Al-Zarqawi was indeed in Iraq but was not, as a thick sheaf of reports of interrogations of his close associates open on my desk make clear, an ally of bin Laden. His group, al-Tawhid, was actually set up in competition to that of the Saudi. To lump them together is either a wilful misrepresentation or reveals profound ignorance about the nature of modern Islamic militancy. Either way, there's no link there. Nor has any evidence for one surfaced since the end of the war.&#8221; http://observer.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,6903,1006663,00.html Observer, 7/27/03 News Article commentary The intercepts provided no evidence that Al Zarqawi was working with Saddam Hussein's or that he was working on a terrorist operation. http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/4234549.htm Knight Ridder Newspapers, 10/7/02 News Article statement &#8220;Some al-Qaeda leaders who fled Afghanistan went to Iraq. These include one very senior al-Qaeda leader who received medical treatment in Baghdad this year, and who has been associated with planning for chemical and biological attacks.&#8221; http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021007-8.html White House, 10/7/02 News Article statement &#8220;Because someone makes a telephone call from a country, does not mean that the government of that country is complicit in that. ... When we found out there was an al-Qaeda cell operating in Germany, we didn't say &#8216;we have to invade Germany, because the German government supports al-Qaeda.&#8217; ... There was no evidence to indicate that the Iraqi government knew about or was complicit in Zarqawi's activities.&#8221; http://www.truthout.org/docs_03/printer_072503B.shtml United Press International, 7/23/03 News Article statement abu_mussab_al_zarqawi activeparticipant saddam_hussein passiveparticipant osama_bin_laden passiveparticipant terroristTies alZarqawi December 10, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_68 1 false US Congressmen write a letter to President Bush urging him to take military action against Iraq. Among those who sign the letter are Jesse Helms, Joseph Lieberman, John McCain, Henry Hyde, and Trent Lott. The letter states, &#8220;As we work to clean up Afghanistan, it is imperative that we plan to eliminate the threat from Iraq. This December will mark three years since United Nations inspectors last visited Iraq. There is no doubt that since that time, Saddam Hussein has reinvigorated his weapons programs. ...Reports indicate that biological, chemical and nuclear programs continue apace and may be back to pre-Gulf War levels. We believe we must directly confront Saddam, sooner rather than later.&#8221; http://www.nandotimes.com/special_reports/terrorism/opinions/story/195435p-1896515c.html Scripps Howard News Service, 12/15/01 News Article http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/terror/01120705.htm US Department of State, 12/5/01 News Article &#8220;As we work to clean up Afghanistan, it is imperative that we plan to eliminate the threat from Iraq. This December will mark three years since United Nations inspectors last visited Iraq. There is no doubt that since that time, Saddam Hussein has reinvigorated his weapons programs. ... Reports indicate that biological, chemical and nuclear programs continue apace and may be back to pre-Gulf War levels. We believe we must directly confront Saddam, sooner rather than later.&#8221; http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/terror/01120705.htm US Department of State, 12/5/01 News Article http://www.nandotimes.com/special_reports/terrorism/opinions/story/195435p-1896515c.html Scripps Howard News Service, 12/15/01 News Article duplicate henry_hyde activeparticipant trent_lott activeparticipant jesse_helms activeparticipant john_mccain activeparticipant joseph_lieberman activeparticipant decision December 11, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_69 1 false The House International Relations Committee drafts House Joint Resolution 75 which states that if Iraq refuses to allow UN inspectors to investigate freely in Iraq, the refusal will constitute an &#8220;act of aggression against the United States.&#8221; The bill is sponsored by Representatives Lindsey Graham, Porter Goss and Henry Hyde. A different version of this resolution is passed by the House on December 20 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_499 ]]). http://worldnetdaily.com/news/printer-friendly.asp?ARTICLE_ID=25629 World Net Daily, 12/11/01 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2001/uscongress122001.htm H.J Res 75 News Article henry_hyde activeparticipant porter_j._goss activeparticipant lindsey_graham activeparticipant decision December 17, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_170 1 false Czech Police Chief Jiri Kolar says that there is no evidence that 9/11 ringleader Mohammed Atta met an Iraqi intelligence agent in Prague in April (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_163 ]]). He also says&#8212;contradicting earlier reports&#8212;that there is no documentary evidence that Atta traveled to Prague at all in 2001. Additionally, an unnamed Czech intelligence official tells the newspaper Mlada Fronta Dnes, that that the person who had met with al-Ani on April 2001 near Prague was not Atta. Another person with the same name had arrived in Prague in 2001 but he &#8220;didn't have the same identity card number.&#8221; Furthermore, &#8220;There was a great difference in their ages, their nationalities didn't match, basically nothing&#8212;it was someone else,&#8221; the source says. It is also reported that a man named Hassan, described as a businessman and a long-time member of Prague's Arab community, claims to have been a close friend of al-Ani. Hassan says that he believes the Czechs had mistaken another man for Atta, a used car dealer from Nuremberg by the name of Saleh, who often visited Prague to meet al-Ani and and who sold him at least one car. &#8220;I have sat with the two of them at least twice. The double is an Iraqi who has met with the consul. If someone saw a photo of Atta he might easily mistake the two,&#8221; Hassan says. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2001/12/18/wirq18.xml Telegraph, 12/18/01 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2001/nyt121601.html New York Times, 12/16/01 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2001/ap121601.htm Associated Press, 12/16/01 News Article jiri_kolar source hassan source unnamed_czech_intelligence_officials source unnamed__interior_ministry_official source Responding to the report, Gabriela Bartikova, spokeswoman for the Czech Minister of Interior, says that the Czech intelligence agency still believes that Mohammed Atta and al-Ani, the consul and second secretary of the Iraqi embassy met in April 2001. She says, &#8220;Minister Gross had the information from BIS (the Czech Republic's Intelligence Agency), and BIS guarantees the information. So we stick by that information.&#8221; At about the same time, US officials tell the Associated Press they also still believe the meeting had transpired. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2001/ap121601.htm Associated Press, 12/16/01 News Article stanislav_gross activeparticipant mohammed_atta activeparticipant ahmed_khalil_ibrahim_samir_al-ani activeparticipant pragueConnection December 20, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_499 1 false House Joint Resolution 75 is passed by the House and sent to the Senate where it is referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations. It is not as strongly worded as the initial draft (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_69 ]]), which had included a provision stating that the refusal to admit inspectors would constitute an &#8220;act of aggression against the United States.&#8221; The final version instead reads: &#8220;Iraq's refusal to allow United Nations weapons inspectors immediate, unconditional, and unrestricted access to facilities and documents covered by United Nations Security Council Resolution 687 and other relevant resolutions presents a mounting threat to the United States, its friends and allies, and international peace and security.&#8221; The bill is sponsored by Representatives Lindsey Graham, Porter Goss and Henry Hyde. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2001/uscongress122001.htm H.J Res 75 News Article This bill will die in the Senate. The congressional bill that conditionally authorizes Bush to take military action against Iraq is not passed until October 11, 2002 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_216 ]]). henry_hyde activeparticipant porter_j._goss activeparticipant lindsey_graham activeparticipant decision December 28, 2001 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_666 1 false General Tommy Franks, the head of the US Central Command, visits Bush at his ranch in Crawford, Texas and briefs him on the progress of his Iraq war plan. Bush had requested an updated plan from the Defense Department on November 21 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_665 ]]). http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A20860-2004Apr17.html Woodward, 2004 cited in Washington Post 1/18/2004 News Article top_officials_interviewed_by_washington_post_editor_bob_woodward source george_w._bush activeparticipant thomas_franks activeparticipant decision Early 2002, probably May or later complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_174 1 false Czech president Vaclav Havel informs Washington that there is no evidence to substantiate claims that 9/11 plotter Mohammed Atta met with Iraqi diplomat Ahmad Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani in Prague in April 2001 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_163 ]]). The information is relayed to the White House quietly to avoid embarrassing top Czech officials&#8212;presumably Interior Minister Stanislav Gross -who had publicly stated on more than one occasion that there was no evidence to suggest that the meeting did not take place. The New York Times will report in October 2002: &#8220;Mr. Havel ... moved carefully behind the scenes in the months after the reports of the Prague meeting came to light to try to determine what really happened, officials said. He asked trusted advisers to investigate, and they quietly went through back channels to talk with Czech intelligence officers to get to the bottom of the story. The intelligence officers told them there was no evidence of a meeting.&#8221; The New York Times also reports that analysts in the Czech intelligence service were furious that the Prime Minister stovepiped the information straight to Washington, before they had the opportunity to investigate further. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/nyt102102.html New York Times, 10/21/02 News Article http://www.upi.com/view.cfm?StoryID=20021020-092811-8185r United Press International, 10/20/03 News Article unnamed_cia_and_fbi_officials source &#8220;Quite simply, we think the source for this story may have invented the meeting that he reported. We can find no corroborative evidence for the meeting and the source has real credibility problems.&#8221; http://www.upi.com/view.cfm?StoryID=20021020-092811-8185r United Press International, 10/21/02 News Article statement ahmed_khalil_ibrahim_samir_al-ani passiveparticipant vaclav_havel activeparticipant mohammed_atta passiveparticipant stanislav_gross activeparticipant terroristTies pragueConnection 2002-early 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_34 1 false Vice President Dick Cheney, sometimes accompanied by his chief of staff, Lewis Libby, visits the offices of US intelligence analysts working at CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia &#8220;approximately 10&#8221; times. He drills them on their intelligence work on Iraq. Some analysts later complain that Cheney's visits made them feel pressured to provide the administration with conclusions that supported the case for war. Other analysts will say they did not feel pressured. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A15019-2003Jun4.html Washington Post, 6/5/03 News Article http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/06/05/1054700335400.html Sydney Morning Herald, 6/5/03 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,999737,00.html Guardian, 7/17/03 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 242 News Article Newt Gingrich also makes visits to CIA headquarters in Langley. http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,999737,00.html Guardian, 7/17/03 News Article &#8220;He's got a deep interest in intelligence and engages actively with our folks on it. That is something which we welcome.&#8221; http://www.sanluisobispo.com/mld/sanluisobispo/news/politics/6444861.htm Chicago Tribune, 8/2/03 News Article statement &#8220;One would think if Cheney was on some sort of noble pursuit of the truth and really wanted to get into details, he would have noticed that INR [State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research] had very loud and lengthy dissents on some critical pieces of Iraq intelligence. ... You'd think he might want to hear from us. It never happened, of course, because Cheney wasn't engaged in an academic search for truth.&#8221; http://www.sanluisobispo.com/mld/sanluisobispo/news/politics/6444861.htm Chicago Tribune, 8/2/03 News Article commentary Visits to CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia by Dick Cheney and his chief of staff, I. Lewis Libby, &#8220;sent signals, intended or otherwise, that a certain output was desired from here.&#8221; http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/06/05/1054700335400.html Sydney Morning Herald, 6/5/03 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A15019-2003Jun4.html Washington Post, 6/5/03 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,999737,00.html Guardian, 7/17/03 News Article statement &#8220;... personal visitations of that frequency and duration&#8212;and for that purpose&#8212;are unprecedented in the history of the CIA. Equally unprecedented are Cheney's &#8216;multiple visits.&#8217; When George H. W. Bush was vice president, not once did he go out to CIA headquarters for a working visit. We brought our analysis to him. ... once the subjects uppermost in policymakers' minds are clear to analysts, the analysis itself must be conducted in an unfettered, sequestered way&#8212;and certainly without the direct involvement of officials with policy axes to grind. Until now, that is the way it has been done; the analysis and estimates were brought downtown to the policymakers&#8212;not the other way around.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0822-12.htm Veteran Intelligence Professionals for Sanity, 08/22/03 News Article commentary dick_cheney activeparticipant newt_gingrich activeparticipant deception 2002-2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_135 1 false In the lead-up to the war, top Bush administration officials make strong statements asserting that Saddam Hussein possesses weapons of mass destruction. The administration claims that it has incontrovertible evidence, though no such evidence is disclosed to the public&#8212;neither before nor after the invasion. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/09/20020912-1.html White House, 9/12/02 News Article http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021007-8.html White House, 10/7/02 News Article http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/01/20030109-8.html White House, 1/9/2003 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/onpolitics/transcripts/bushtext_012803.html Washington Post, 1/28/03 News Article http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/03/20030317-7.html US President, 3/17/03 News Article http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/03/20030321-9.html White House, 3/21/03 News Article http://usinfo.state.gov/regional/nea/disarm/intro.htm US Department of State, 2/5/03 News Article http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/middle_east/july-dec02/bkgdiraq_9-12.html PBS, 9/12/02 News Article http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/06/06/1054700385928.html The Age (Australia), 6/7/03 News Article http://www.nytimes.com/2002/08/26/international/middleeast/26WEB-CHENEY.html US Vice President 8/26/02 News Article http://www.sundayherald.com/print35264 Sunday Herald, 7/13/03 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/chicagotribune020702.htm Chicago Tribune 2/7/02 News Article http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,60818,00.html Fox News, 8/20/03 News Article http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/08/21/wirq21.xml/ Telegraph 8/21/02 News Article http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/08/21/1029114137295.html Guardian 8/22/02 News Article http://www.centcom.mil/CENTCOMNews/transcripts/20020903.htm Centcom, 9/3/2002 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/ap090302.htm Associated Press 9/3/02 News Article http://www.washtimes.com/upi-breaking/20020903-041327-7431r.htm UPI 9/3/02 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/uslatest/story/0,1282,-2302299,00.html AP, 1/7/03b News Article http://www.villagevoice.com/issues/0325/mondo2.php Village Voice, 6/18/03 News Article http://www.ceip.org/files/nonprolif/templates/article.asp?NewsID=5102 Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 7/17/03 News Article http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/attack/2002/0908exinspector.htm Associated Press 9/8/02 News Article http://www.newsmax.com/showinsidecover.shtml?a=2002/9/8/110715 Newsmax 9/8/02 News Article http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/02/05/sprj.irq.powell.transcript.10/ CNN, 2/5/03 News Article http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/story.hts/front/1690282 AP, 12/5/03 News Article http://www.cbc.ca/stories/2002/12/05/iraq021205 CBC News, 12/5/2002 News Article &#8220;He's had years to get good at it and we believe he [Saddam Hussein] has, in fact, reconstituted nuclear weapons. I think Mr. ElBaradei [the director of the UN's International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)] frankly is wrong.&#8221; http://www.sundayherald.com/print35264 Sunday Herald, 7/13/03 News Article statement &#8220;We ... have satellite photos that indicate that banned materials have recently been moved from a number of Iraqi weapons of mass destruction facilities, There can be no doubt that Saddam Hussein has biological weapons and the capability to rapidly produce more, many more.... We know that Saddam Hussein is determined to keep his weapons of mass destruction, is determined to make more.&#8221; http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/02/05/sprj.irq.powell.transcript.10/ CNN, 2/5/03 News Article http://usinfo.state.gov/regional/nea/disarm/intro.htm US Department of State, 2/5/03 News Article statement &#8220;The president of the United States and the secretary of Defense would not assert as plainly and bluntly as they have that Iraq has weapons of mass destruction if it was not true, and if they did not have a solid basis for saying it.... President Bush has said Iraq has weapons of mass destruction. Tony Blair has said Iraq has weapons of mass destruction. Donald Rumsfeld has said Iraq has weapons of mass destruction. Richard Butler has said they do. The United Nations has said they do. The experts have said they do. Iraq says they don't. You can choose who you want to believe.&#8221; http://www.cbc.ca/stories/2002/12/05/iraq021205 CBC News, 12/5/2002 News Article http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/story.hts/front/1690282 AP, 12/5/03 News Article statement &#8220;We know for a fact that there are weapons there.&#8221; http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/01/20030109-8.html White House, 1/9/2003 News Article statement &#8220;Well, there is no question that we have evidence and information that Iraq has weapons of mass destruction, biological and chemical particularly. This was the reason that the President felt so strongly that we needed to take military action to disarm Saddam Hussein, since he would not do it himself.&#8221; http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/03/20030321-9.html White House, 3/21/03 News Article statement &#8220;If the administration had such secret evidence, we'd be at war in Iraq right now. We wouldn't be talking about it. It would be a fait accompli.&#8221; http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/07.25A.wrp.iraq.htm Pitt, 7/24/02 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/views02/0731-09.htm Newsday, 7/30/02 News Article commentary &#8220;The rhetoric of fear that is disseminated by my government and others has not to date been backed up by hard facts to substantiate any allegations that Iraq is today in possession of weapons of mass destruction or has links to terror groups responsible for attacking the United States. Void of such facts, all we have is speculation.&#8221; http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/attack/2002/0908exinspector.htm Associated Press 9/8/02 News Article http://www.newsmax.com/showinsidecover.shtml?a=2002/9/8/110715 Newsmax 9/8/02 News Article statement &#8220;Intelligence gathered by this and other governments leaves no doubt that the Iraq regime continues to possess and conceal some of the most lethal weapons ever devised.&#8221; http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/03/20030317-7.html US President, 3/17/03 News Article statement &#8220;The truth is Iraq is not a threat to its neighbors and it is not acting in a manner which threatens anyone outside its borders. Military action against Iraq cannot be justified.&#8221; http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/attack/2002/0908exinspector.htm Associated Press 9/8/02 News Article http://www.newsmax.com/showinsidecover.shtml?a=2002/9/8/110715 Newsmax 9/8/02 News Article statement &#8220;We know where they are. They're in the area around Tikrit and Baghdad and east, west, south and north somewhat.&#8221; http://www.ceip.org/files/nonprolif/templates/article.asp?NewsID=5102 Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 7/17/03 News Article statement &#8220;Our major near-term concern is the possibility that Saddam might gain access to fissile material, ... [and] with substantial foreign assistance, [Iraq] could flight-test a longer-range ballistic missile within the next five years.&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/chicagotribune020702.htm Chicago Tribune 2/7/02 News Article statement &#8220;Think of the prelude to World War Two. Think of all the countries that said, well, we don't have enough evidence. I mean, Mein Kampf had been written. Hitler had indicated what he intended to do. Maybe he won't attack us. Maybe he won't do this or that. Well, there were millions of people dead because of the miscalculations. The people who argued for waiting for more evidence have to ask themselves how they are going to feel at that point where another event occurs.... There are al-Qaeda in a number of locations in Iraq.... The suggestion that ... [Iraqi government officials] who are so attentive in denying human rights to their population aren't aware of where these folks [al-Qaeda] are or what they're doing is ludicrous in a vicious, repressive dictatorship.... it's very hard to imagine that the government is not aware of what's taking place in the country.&#8221; http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,60818,00.html Fox News, 8/20/03 News Article http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/08/21/1029114137295.html Guardian 8/22/02 News Article http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/08/21/wirq21.xml/ Telegraph 8/21/02 News Article http://www.nytimes.com/2002/08/20/politics/20CND-MILI.html?ex=1030877793&amp;ei=1&amp;en=834448b0938f890e New York Times 8/20/02 News Article statement &#8220;We know that they were a lot closer than any of the experts had estimated they would be with respect to [developing] a nuclear weapon. To the extent that they have kept their nuclear scientists together and working on these efforts, one has to assume they've not been playing tiddlywinks.&#8221; http://www.washtimes.com/upi-breaking/20020903-041327-7431r.htm UPI 9/3/02 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/ap090302.htm Associated Press 9/3/02 News Article http://www.centcom.mil/CENTCOMNews/transcripts/20020903.htm Centcom, 9/3/2002 News Article statement &#8220;There is no doubt in my mind but that they currently have chemical and biological weapons.&#8221; http://www.guardian.co.uk/uslatest/story/0,1282,-2302299,00.html AP, 1/7/03b News Article statement &#8220;We have seen intelligence over many months that they have chemical and biological weapons, and that they have dispersed them and that they're weaponized and that, in one case at least, the command and control arrangements have been established.&#8221; http://www.villagevoice.com/issues/0325/mondo2.php Village Voice, 6/18/03 News Article statement &#8220;We have facts, not speculation. Scott is certainly entitled to his opinion but I'm afraid that I would not place the security of my nation and the security of our friends in the region on that kind of an assertion by somebody who's not in the intelligence chain any longer.... If Scott is right. Then why are they keeping the inspectors out? If Scott is right, why don't they say, &#8216;Anytime, any place, anywhere, bring'em in, everybody come in&#8212;we are clean?&#8217; The reason is they are not clean. And we have to find out what they have and what we're going to do about it. And that's why it's been the policy of this government to insist that Iraq be disarmed in accordance with the terms of the relevant UN resolutions.&#8221; http://www.newsmax.com/showinsidecover.shtml?a=2002/9/8/110715 Newsmax 9/8/02 News Article statement &#8220;The threat comes from Iraq. It arises directly from the Iraqi regime's own actions&#8212;its history of aggression, and its drive toward an arsenal of terror. Eleven years ago, as a condition for ending the Persian Gulf War, the Iraqi regime was required to destroy its weapons of mass destruction, to cease all development of such weapons, and to stop all support for terrorist groups. The Iraqi regime has violated all of those obligations. It possesses and produces chemical and biological weapons. It is seeking nuclear weapons. It has given shelter and support to terrorism, and practices terror against its own people. The entire world has witnessed Iraq's eleven-year history of defiance, deception and bad faith.... We know that the regime has produced thousands of tons of chemical agents, including mustard gas, sarin nerve gas, VX nerve gas ... And surveillance photos reveal that the regime is rebuilding facilities that it had used to produce chemical and biological weapons.&#8221; http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021007-8.html White House, 10/7/02 News Article http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021007-8.html White House, 10/7/02 News Article statement Saddam Hussein will &#8220;seek domination of the entire Middle East, take control of a great portion of the world's energy supplies, directly threaten America's friends throughout the region and subject the United States or any other nation to nuclear blackmail.&#8221; http://www.nytimes.com/2002/08/26/international/middleeast/26WEB-CHENEY.html New York Times, 8/26/02 News Article statement Iraq has enough material &#8220;to produce over 25,000 liters of anthrax&#8212;enough doses to kill several million people ... more than 38,000 liters of botulinum toxin&#8212;enough to subject millions of people to death by respiratory failure ... as much as 500 tons of sarin, mustard and VX nerve agent.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/onpolitics/transcripts/bushtext_012803.html Washington Post, 1/28/03 News Article statement &#8220;Right now, Iraq is expanding and improving facilities that were used for the production of biological weapons.&#8221; http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/06/06/1054700385928.html The Age (Australia), 6/7/03 News Article http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/09/20020912-1.html White House, 9/12/02 News Article http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/middle_east/july-dec02/bkgdiraq_9-12.html PBS, 9/12/02 News Article statement &#8220;The entire case the Bush administration made against Iraq is a lie. ... What was the basis of the affirmation by (US Defense Secretary Donald) Rumsfeld? He said there are weapons of mass destruction in Iraq&#8212;nobody asked him to prove it. The press just printed it. We have now to demand the proof.&#8221; http://www.heraldsun.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5478,6755221%255E25777,00.html AP, 7/15/03 News Article commentary wmd 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_83 1 false Shortly after George W. Bush is inaugurated, &#8220;[k]ey personnel, long-time civilian professionals&#8221; at the Pentagon's Near East South Asia (NESA) desk are moved or replaced with people from neoconservative think tanks. http://amconmag.com/12_1_03/feature.html American Conservative, 12/1/03 News Article http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html Mother Jones, 1/04 News Article karen_kwiatkowski source Joe McMillan, the Office Director, is moved to a new location outside of the Pentagon, which according to Karen Kwiatkowski, who works at the NESA desk, is odd because &#8220;the whole reason for the Office Director being a permanent civilian (occasionally military) professional is to help bring the new appointee up to speed, ensure office continuity, and act as a resource relating to regional histories and policies.&#8221; http://amconmag.com/12_1_03/feature.html American Conservative, 12/1/03 News Article http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html Mother Jones, 1/04 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0310-09.htm Salon, 3/10/04 News Article karen_kwiatkowski source Larry Hanauer, who has long been at the Israel-Syria-Lebanon desk and who is known to be &#8220;even-handed with Israel,&#8221; is replaced by David Schenker of the Washington Institute. http://amconmag.com/12_1_03/feature.html American Conservative, 12/1/03 News Article http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html Mother Jones, 1/04 News Article karen_kwiatkowski source Other veteran NESA employees who are banished include James Russell, who has served as the country director for Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates, and Marybeth McDevitt, the country director for Egypt. http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html Mother Jones, 1/04 News Article &#8220;The director's job in the time of transition was to help bring the newly appointed deputy assistant secretary up to speed, ensure office continuity, act as a resource relating to regional histories and policies, and help identify the best ways to maintain course or to implement change. Removing such a critical continuity factor was not only unusual but also seemed like willful handicapping. It was the first signal of radical change&#8221; statement &#8220;I learned that there was indeed a preferred ideology for NESA. My first day in the office, a GS-15 career civil servant rather unhappily advised me that if I wanted to be successful here, I'd better remember not to say anything positive about the Palestinians. This belied official US policy of serving as an honest broker for resolution of Israeli and Palestinian security concerns. At that time, there was a great deal of talk about Bush's possible support for a Palestinian state. That the Pentagon could have implemented and, worse, was implementing its own foreign policy had not yet occurred to me.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0310-09.htm Salon, 3/10/2004 News Article statement larry_hanauer activeparticipant james_russell activeparticipant joe_mcmillan activeparticipant marybeth_mcdevitt activeparticipant david_schenker activeparticipant officeOfSpecialPlans deception pre911Plans Early 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_491 1 false Bruce Hardcastle, the Defense Intelligence Agency officer assigned to Bill Luti, provides Luti's office with intelligence briefings. But his reports are not appreciated by Luti or his colleagues, because they do not support neoconservatives' assumptions about Iraq's weapon capabilities and terrorist activities. http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0310-09.htm Salon, 3/10/2004 News Article paul_o?neill source bruce_hardcastle activeparticipant william_luti activeparticipant officeOfSpecialPlans deception 2002-2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_399 1 false Noted experts, analysts and commentators, as well as current and former US and foreign government officials, say that control over Iraq's oil would benefit the United States. A pro-American government in Iraq would provide the US with stable access to its northern and southern oil fields, provide US oil companies with favorable access to oil production sharing agreements and other oil industry-related contracts, allow the US to undermine OPEC's influence in the oil market, and ensure that Iraq's oil is traded in US dollars. &#8220;The fundamental issue is, the day after Saddam is removed, the Iraqi oil industry is open for grabs, and it will depend upon the government of Iraq to decide how it will dispense that resource. Certainly, American companies would be in a very, very strong position to compete for the right.&#8221; http://abcnews.go.com/sections/business/Nightline/NTL_oil_iraq_021004.html ABC News, 10/4/02 News Article statement &#8220;... complete US control of oil would preserve the rule of the dollar (not only would oil producers continue to use the dollar for their international trade, but the dollar's international standing would rise) and hurt the credibility of the euro. In the 1990s the major OPEC countries, after two decades of discouraging or prohibiting foreign investment in oil and gas fields, raced to invite foreign investment again to carry out massive new developments. In the late 1990s Venezuela, Iran, and Iraq struck massive deals with foreign firms for major fields. Even Saudi Arabia invited proposals for development of its untapped natural gas reserves, a move that oil giants responded to with alacrity in the hope the country's mammoth oil fields too would later be opened to foreign investment. However, American firms were shut out of Iran and Iraq by their own government's sanctions; French, Russian and Chinese firms got the contracts instead. Chavez's increasing assertiveness threatens to shut American firms out of Venezuela as well. The Saudi deal&#8212;which the American firms were to lead&#8212;stands cancelled, apparently because of the Saudi government's fear of public resentment. Thus, if it does not invade the west Asian region, the US stands to lose dollar hegemony by losing control of the major oil field development projects in the next decade.&#8221; http://www.rupe-india.org/34/pillar.html Research Unit for Political Economy,11/02 News Article commentary &#8220;Iraqis are pretty nationalistic. The assumption that the US will just walk in and call the shots&#8212;I think that's simplistic. Unless we behave like a colonialist occupier, we're not going to call the shots.&#8221; http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/11.15A.msnbc.oil.htm MSNBC, 11/11/02 News Article commentary &#8220;OPEC is already significantly fractured, and [US control of Iraqi oil] would already add to its internal frictions. It would definitely diminish the Saudis' influence (over the United States) and would cause the Iranian regime a lot of trouble.&#8221; http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2002/09/29/MN116803.DTL San Francisco Chronicle, 9/29/02 News Article statement &#8220;Iraq possesses huge reserves of oil and gas&#8212;reserves I'd love Chevron to have access to.&#8221; http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/oil/2002/0820corporate.htm Seattle Post Intelligencer, 8/20/02 News Article http://www.observer.co.uk/international/story/0,6903,882512,00.html Observer, 1/26/03 News Article statement &#8220;Since taking office, Bush has devoted equal attention to two other strategic priorities: the modernization and expansion of US military capabilities, and the procurement of more foreign oil. These two priorities have independent roots, but have intertwined together, and with the war on terrorism, to produce a unified strategic design [sic]. It is this design, rather than any individual objective, that now governs US foreign policy.&#8221; http://www.ratical.org/ratville/JFK/JohnJudge/linkscopy/teror2plainW.html Le Monde, 11//02 News Article statement &#8220;For more than a half-century, American foreign policy involving oil has been cloaked in intrigue and deception, from the overthrow of the Premier of Iran in 1953 to the arming of Afghan rebels through the 1980s, from the permanent establishment of a military presence in the Persian Gulf to the early support of Saddam Hussein in Iraq. If Iraq is now handled openly&#8212;meaning the war really was about liberating Iraq from a dictator and the rest of the world from a security threat, as the Bush Administration asserts, and not about gaining control of oil reserves, as much of the rest of the world believes&#8212;it will be a historic first. The yardstick to measure US intentions will be 1950s Iran.... Before the US-inspired overthrow of the Iranian government, American oil companies had no presence in that country. After the coup, five US oil companies moved in and produced oil for the next 25 years. More dependent on imports than ever before, the US today is seeking to diversify its sources. Iraq is the only country capable of flooding the world with cheap oil on the scale of Saudi Arabia. ... the fact is that oil&#8212;who has it, who produces it, who fixes its price&#8212;governs everything of significance in the Persian Gulf and affects economies everywhere. While the Bush Administration has repeatedly asserted that Iraq's oil belongs to its citizens&#8212; &#8216;We'll make sure that Iraq's natural resources are used for the benefit of their owners, the Iraqi people,&#8217; the President said&#8212;the stakes go far beyond Iraq. The amount of oil that Iraq brings to market will not just determine the living standards of Iraqis but affect everything from the Russian economy to the price Americans pay for gasoline, from the stability of Saudi Arabia to Iran's future.&#8221; http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/oil/2003/0519crude.htm Time, 5/10/03 News Article commentary Iraq's oil might be produced for as little as 97 cents a barrel. &#8220;Ninety cents a barrel for oil that sells for $30&#8212;that's the kind of business anyone would want to be in. A 97% profit margin&#8212;you can live with that.&#8221; http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,845167,00.html Guardian, 11/22/02 News Article statement &#8220;Let us not be fooled: The upcoming war against Iraq has nothing to do with the war against terror. President George W. Bush's war is fueled by two things: bolstering the president's popularity as he attempts to ride on the natural wave of American patriotism unleashed by the criminal attacks of Sept. 11; and a misguided temptation to get more oil out of the Middle East by turning a &#8216;friendly&#8217; Iraq into a private American oil pumping station. ... So all the talk about spreading democracy and changing the whole Middle East, starting with Iraq, does not hold water. The United States, obsessed with oil and something called &#8216;regime change,&#8217; wants to create a totally pro-American Middle East. The problem is that it will not work. You don't impose democracy by installing an occupying power in a region that has no tradition for it.&#8221; http://www.iht.com/cgi-bin/generic.cgi?template=articleprint.tmplh&amp;ArticleId=75500 International Herald Tribune, 11/1/2002 News Article commentary &#8220;When there is a regime change in Iraq, you could add three million to five million barrels [per day] of production to world supply. The successful prosecution of the war would be good for the economy.&#8221; http://www.peaceandjustice.org/issues/iraqdb/lindsey_wsj.html Wall Street Journal, 9/16/02 News Article http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/09/17/wirq217.xml/ Telegraph, 9/17/02 News Article statement &#8220;We would review the Russian and French contracts in particular although it is not an automatic revocation. You have to bear in mind a lot of the deals were done by a dictator.&#8221; http://anderson.ath.cx:8000/911/ir07.html Reuters, 10/17/02 News Article statement A war in Iraq &#8220;would open up this spigot on Iraqi oil which certainly would have a profound effect in terms of the performance of the world economy for those countries that are manufacturers and oil consumers.&#8221; http://www.msnbc.com/news/823985.asp?cp1=1 Christian Science Monitor, 10/16/02 News Article http://observer.guardian.co.uk/iraq/story/0,12239,882517,00.html Guardian, 1/26/03 News Article http://www.msnbc.com/news/823985.asp?cp1=1 MSNBC, 11/7/02 News Article statement &#8220;We have to look at who helped to free Iraq and who took Saddam's side at our time of need. As the saying in the West goes, people should be equal. But some should be slightly more equal than others. The fact that Britain and the United States were there for us should give them some slight leverage.&#8221; http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/oil/2002/1105p5co.htm Los Angeles Times, 11/5/02 News Article statement &#8220;It would seem to me that the people of Iraq, now having been liberated, might glance around and see who helped in that liberation and participated in that liberation and who did not.&#8221; http://reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=politicsNews&amp;storyID=2337950 Reuters, 3/6/03 News Article statement &#8220;Most of the companies have been thinking about Iraq for many years, and I mean many years, because of the obvious potential of the resource base. There will be, I'm sure, a great deal of interest to begin discussions at as early a date as possible with the Iraqis.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A10348-2003Jun3?language=printer Washington Post, 6/5/03 News Article statement &#8220;If you turn up and it's your tanks that dislodged the regime and you have 50,000 troops in the country and they're in your tanks, then you're going to get the best deals. That's the way it works. The French will have three men and a 1950s tank. That's just not going to work.&#8221; http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/11.15A.msnbc.oil.htm MSNBC, 11/11/02 News Article statement &#8220;[T]he scenario exists whereby Britain and the United States, by handling Iraq's oil resources a certain way, could carve out the ultimate, strategic petroleum reserve.&#8221; http://www.msnbc.com/news/823985.asp?cp1=1 MSNBC, 11/7/02 News Article statement &#8220;The Russians and the French may think that with a new government in Baghdad, they may lose the opportunity to have access to this really abundant and cheap oil, Iraq is the only country in the world that could, conceivably, replace Saudi Arabia as the guarantor of world oil price stability. Given America's feelings about Saudi Arabia right now, it is not hard to imagine how a US-backed government will deal with oil policy.&#8221; http://www.msnbc.com/news/823985.asp?cp1=1 MSNBC, 11/7/02 News Article statement &#8220;Supposedly, the sole aim of the [planned] invasion [of Iraq] is to destroy surviving Iraqi capabilities for the production of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and prevent the handover of them to terrorists. But Washington is clearly also worried about the future availability of oil from the Gulf area and is determined to eliminate any threat&#8212;such as that of Iraq ? of interruption to the flow. American strategists want to make sure that Iraq's vast oil reserves will be accessible to US oil companies in the future and not be exclusively controlled by Russian, Chinese and European firms.&#8221; http://www.ratical.org/ratville/JFK/JohnJudge/linkscopy/teror2plainW.html Le Monde, 11//02 News Article statement &#8220;It is now an accepted notion that lifting the current sanctions on Iraqi oil exports will put downward pressure on oil prices in the medium term. More important, however, Russian and most non-OPEC oil is relatively expensive to produce&#8212;$15 a barrel or more. By contrast, Iraqi production costs, once damage from the war is repaired, should be highly competitive with Saudi oil at $5 a barrel or less. This makes Iraq pivotal for stabilizing oil prices in both directions. If prices rise too high, Iraq can simply pump more. Less obviously, however, if the Saudis decide, as they have twice done in recent years, to wage a ruinous price war, lowering prices sharply in order to deter other cartel members from overproducing, then Iraq's role is again [the] key. With another low-cost gas station open for business, the Saudis cannot count on maintaining total revenues as prices fall, because now they will have to split the take with the Iraqis. This downward price deterrence will be welcome news to marginal producers around the world, including those in Texas, and it is very important in assessing the long-run impact of the American move.&#8221; http://www.alternet.org/story.html?StoryID=14308 Ferguson and Johnson, 10/16/02 News Article statement &#8220;American companies will have a big shot at Iraqi oil.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&amp;node=&amp;contentId=A18841-2002Sep14&amp;notFound=true Washington Post, 9/15/02 News Article statement &#8220;A major prop for the dollar has long been the simple fact that oil is priced in US dollars. If the new Iraqi petroleum authorities announce that they will accept checks only in dollars, invest their surplus in dollars, and swell US exports by contracting principally with American firms for services and goods, the dollar's prospects will brighten. As pleased as Europeans have been to seize chances to export under the umbrella of a high dollar, this will not be what they had in mind when they called in recent months for action to break the dollar's fall: Nascent ventures to create an oil futures market in euros may well be stillborn, while prospects will diminish for a long-term rebalancing of asset portfolios away from the dollar and in favor of the euro.&#8221; http://www.alternet.org/story.html?StoryID=14308 Ferguson and Johnson, 10/16/02 News Article statement &#8220;The majority opinion is that if a government creates a [legal] title, it survives a change of government. The idea that all the Iraqi oil industry is now going to be sold to Exxon, say, or BP... is not going to work.&#8221; http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,845167,00.html Guardian, 11/22/02 News Article commentary &#8220;Once the fighting starts, you have to be involved or you are irrelevant. And it's not just because of the Iraqi oil. It's because of the oil in the entire region. You want to be part of the postwar world in the Persian Gulf.&#8221; http://abcnews.go.com/sections/business/Nightline/NTL_oil_iraq_021004.html ABC News, 10/4/02 News Article statement &#8220;Hussein's replacement with somebody else, particularly someone who is appointed by the US Government, will mean that Russia may be ousted from Iraq sooner or later. Therefore, it becomes clear that resolving the Iraq problem is all about the rivalry around one of the richest oil countries in the world.&#8221; http://bbs.clubplanet.com/showthread/t-128089.html Los Angeles Times, 11/8/02 News Article statement &#8220;Everybody knows why the United States is doing this. The only reason is the US desire to establish full control over the oil-gas complex of Iraq.&#8221; http://bbs.clubplanet.com/showthread/t-128089.html Los Angeles Times, 11/8/02 News Article statement &#8220;The parallels between the military strategy and energy policy are striking. Without implying any conscious intent by the administration to heighten this conjunction, it is clear that an energy policy favoring increased US access to oil supplies in the Persian Gulf, the Caspian, Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa would be more realistic if accompanied by a strategy favoring a big increase in US capacity to project military power. Whether or not senior political figures have reached this conclusion, US military officials have certainly done so. In the Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) report of September 2001, the Department of Defense acknowledges that &#8216;The US and its allies will continue to depend on the energy resources of the Middle East,&#8217; and that access to this region could be jeopardized by military threats.&#8221; The report also says that American strategy &#8220;rests on the assumption that US forces have the ability to project power worldwide.&#8221; http://www.ratical.org/ratville/JFK/JohnJudge/linkscopy/teror2plainW.html Le Monde, 11//02 News Article statement &#8220;According to [VP Dick Cheney's May 2001 energy report] ... US reliance on imported oil will rise from about 52% of total consumption in 2001 to an estimated 66% in 2020. Because oil use is also rising, the US will have to import 60% more oil in 2020 than it does today. This means that imports will have to rise from their current rate of about 10.4m barrels a day to an estimated 16.7m barrels a day in 2020. The only way to do this is to persuade foreign suppliers to increase their production and sell more of their output to the US. ... The report does not say openly what will be obvious to any reader: almost all areas identified as potential sources of increased oil supplies are chronically unstable or harbor anti-American sentiments, or both. While elites in these countries may favor increased economic co-operation with the US, other sectors of the population often oppose such ties for nationalistic, economic or ideological reasons. So US efforts to obtain more oil from these countries is almost certain to provoke resistance, including terrorism and other violence. There is an unacknowledged security dimension to the Cheney energy plan, with considerable significance for US military policy..&#8221; http://www.ratical.org/ratville/JFK/JohnJudge/linkscopy/teror2plainW.html Le Monde, 11//02 News Article statement &#8220;If there is military action, the prospects for us in Iraq will be zero. Do Americans need us in Iraq? Of course not. Russian companies will lose the oil forever if the Americans come.&#8221; http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/oil/2002/1017russia.htm New York Times, 10/17/02 News Article statement motivesBehindWar Mid-January 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_312 1 false By this time, more than 300 different inspections have been conducted in Iraq by the UN weapons inspection teams, which report no instances of Iraqi attempts to impede their access to the alleged weapons sites. http://www.nctimes.net/news/2003/20030119/55310.html Associated Press, 1/18/03 News Article http://www.sunspot.net/news/nationworld/bal-te.evidence19jan19,0,887892.story?coll=bal-nationworld-headlines Baltimore Sun, 1/20/03 News Article http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/20/international/middleeast/20IRAQ.html New York Times, 1/20/03 News Article The London Independent quotes one diplomat, who says, &#8220;Realistically, it is not going to be easy to see in the next two months that we will be able to say that Iraq is not cooperating.&#8221; http://news.independent.co.uk/world/politics/story.jsp?story=367577 Independent 1/8/03 News Article Inspectors also say that there are no signs that Iraq is developing weapons of mass destruction. An Associated Press report cites several specific cases of alleged weapons sites that the inspection teams&#8212;after repeated visits&#8212;have determined are not involved in the production of weapons of mass destruction. &#8220;UN arms monitors have inspected 13 sites identified by US and British intelligence agencies as major &#8216;facilities of concern,&#8217; and reported no signs of revived weapons building.&#8221; http://www.nctimes.net/news/2003/20030119/55310.html Associated Press, 1/18/03 News Article http://www.sunspot.net/news/nationworld/bal-te.evidence19jan19,0,887892.story?coll=bal-nationworld-headlines Baltimore Sun, 1/20/03 News Article http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/20/international/middleeast/20IRAQ.html New York Times, 1/20/03 News Article And International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Chief Weapons Inspector Mohamed ElBaradei tells reporters: &#8220;I think it's difficult for Iraq to hide a complete nuclear-weapons program. They might be hiding some computer studies or R. and D. on one single centrifuge. These are not enough to make weapons&#8221; (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_51 ]]). http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1101030120-407286,00.html Time, 1/12/03 News Article &#8220;I think it's difficult for Iraq to hide a complete nuclear-weapons program. They might be hiding some computer studies or R. and D. on one single centrifuge. These are not enough to make weapons. There were reports from different member states that Iraq was importing aluminum tubes for enrichment, that they were importing uranium from Africa. Our provisional conclusion is that these tubes were for rockets and not for centrifuges. They deny they have imported any uranium since 1991.&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/time011203.htm Time, 1/12/02 News Article duplicate mohamed_elbaradei activeparticipant wmd weaponsInspections Mid 2002-2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_85 1 false The US and British repeatedly assert that Iraq has sought to obtain uranium from an African country. In most cases the African country is not named, though it later becomes evident that the country in question is Niger. &#8220;Why is Iraq still trying to procure uranium and the special equipment needed to transform it into material for nuclear weapons?&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A31496-2003Aug7.html Washington Post, 8/8/03 News Article statement A controversial British dossier, released on September 24, 2002, charged Iraq with attempting to buy &#8220;significant quantities of uranium&#8221; from an unnamed African country, &#8220;despite having no active civil nuclear power program that could require it.&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/wot/iraq/britishdossier.html outline News Article http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030331fa_fact1 New Yorker, 3/31/03 News Article http://www.number-10.gov.uk/output/page271.asp British Government, 9/24/03 News Article statement &#8220;We know that Saddam has been trying to buy significant quantities of uranium from Africa, although we do not know whether he has been successful.&#8221; http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/attack/2003/0605niger.htm Independent, 6/5/03 News Article http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/cm200102/cmhansrd/vo020924/debtext/20924-01.htm British House of Commons, 9/24/03 News Article statement Iraq failed &#8220;to account for or explain Iraq's efforts to get uranium from abroad&#8221; in its December 2002 declaration to the UN. http://usinfo.state.gov/regional/nea/iraq/press/0123rice.htm US Department of State, 1/23/03 News Article statement &#8220;There is no mention [in the declaration] of Iraqi efforts to procure uranium from abroad.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A31496-2003Aug7.html Washington Post, 8/8/03 News Article statement Saddam's regime had &#8220;the design for a nuclear weapon; it was working on several different methods of enriching uranium, and recently was discovered seeking significant quantities of uranium from Africa.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A31496-2003Aug7.html Washington Post, 8/8/03 News Article statement &#8220;The declaration ignores [Iraq's] efforts to procure uranium from Niger&#8221; http://edition.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/europe/07/13/sprj.irq..italy.uranium.ap/ Associated Press, 7/14/03 News Article http://www.mail-archive.com/marxist-leninist-list@lists.econ.utah.edu/msg03645.html Associated Press, 6/12/03 News Article http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2002/16118.htm US Department of state, 12/19/03 News Article statement Iraq did not report in its December 2002 declaration to the UN that it had attempted &#8220;to acquire uranium and the means to enrich it.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A31496-2003Aug7.html Washington Post, 8/8/03 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2003/uspresident012803.pdf US President, 1/28/03 News Article statement &#8220;The British government has learned that Saddam Hussein recently sought significant quantities of uranium from Africa. Saddam Hussein has not credibly explained these activities. ... He clearly has much to hide.&#8221; http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/01/20030128-19.html US President, 1/28/03 News Article statement Iraq failed to explain its &#8220;efforts to procure uranium from abroad for its nuclear weapons program&#8221; in its December 2002 declaration to the UN. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A31496-2003Aug7.html Washington Post, 8/8/03 News Article statement &#8220;[Saddam] recently sought significant quantities of uranium from Africa, according to the British Government.&#8221; http://www.whitehouse.gov/response/disarm.html White House website News Article http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/attack/2003/0605niger.htm Independent, 6/5/03 News Article statement wmd deception africaUraniumClaim January 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_294 1 false Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz orders the CIA to conduct an investigation of Hans Blix, chairman of the new UN weapons inspection team (UNMOVIC) that will go to Iraq if Saddam Hussein agrees to re-admit the weapons inspectors. Wolfowitz feels that past investigations of Saddam's declared nuclear power plants under the authority of Hans Blix were not sufficiently aggressive. The CIA reports back in late January that Blix conducted his past investigations &#8220;fully within the parameters he could operate&#8221; as chief of the agency. There are two opposing accounts of how Wolfowitz responds to the report's conclusion. According to an anonymous former State Department official, Wolfowitz &#8220;hit the ceiling&#8221; upon learning the results because it did not provide a pretext for undermining Blix and UNMOVIC. However an administration official disputes this, claiming that he &#8220;did not angrily respond.&#8221; http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/2002/0415cia.htm The Washington Post 4/15/02 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4399549,00.html Guardian 4/23/02 News Article http://www.rense.com/general25/sdt.htm Independent 5/10/02 News Article unnamed_administration_official source unnamed_former_state_department_official source The Washington Post notes, &#8220;[T]he request for a CIA investigation underscored the degree of concern by Wolfowitz and his civilian colleagues in the Pentagon that new inspections&#8212;or protracted negotiations over them&#8212;could torpedo their plans for military action to remove Hussein from power&#8221; and ultimately lead to the suspension of sanctions. http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/2002/0415cia.htm The Washington Post 4/15/02 News Article paul_wolfowitz activeparticipant hans_blix passiveparticipant weaponsInspections Early 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_708 1 false DIA reservist and Penn-State political-science professor Chris Carney takes over the Counter Terrorism Evaluation Group (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_82 ]]). http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 238 News Article chris_carney activeparticipant officeOfSpecialPlans (2002) complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_711 1 false Vice President Dick Cheney asks that his daily intelligence briefer from the CIA be replaced. An unnamed former CIA official later explains to Vanity Fair magazine: &#8220;One briefer annoyed Cheney and he asked that she be replaced. He asked for a new briefer. That sent a chill through the whole process. It sent out the message to the analysts, &#8216;Be careful with some of this stuff. Be careful what you say.&#8217; &#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 242-44 News Article unnamed_former_cia_official source dick_cheney activeparticipant deception 2002-2004 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_406 1 false Critics of the Bush administration's Iraq policy say that its plans for war are motivated by reasons other than those being cited by the White House. &#8220;But if a case [for war] cannot be made on national security grounds, then one must consider the real possibility that the administration's drive for war with Iraq is being pursued in support of a domestic political agenda, something that should concern all Americans, regardless of political affiliation. The brave men and women in our armed forces have demonstrated their willingness to make the ultimate sacrifice so that our democracy can be preserved. To ask them to do so in support of politically driven motives would not only disrespect those to whom we look for protection, but also dishonor American democracy as a whole. It is up to our nation as a whole to ensure that is not, and never will be, the case.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/views02/0901-02.htm Baltimore Sun, 9/2/2002 News Article statement &#8220;It is of more than passing interest that the war-drum beating regarding Saddam and Iraq has had an inverse relation to the Dow-Jones Industrial Average; as the latter has plummeted, the former has intensified. George W. Bush wouldn't be the first national leader to launch a war that effectively managed to divert attention from a shattered economy.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/views02/0726-01.htm Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 7/26/02 News Article statement &#8220;This is not about the security of the United States. This is about domestic American politics. The national security of the United States of America has been hijacked by a handful of neo-conservatives who are using their position of authority to pursue their own ideologically-driven political ambitions. The day we go to war for that reason is the day we have failed collectively as a nation.&#8221; http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/07.25A.wrp.iraq.htm Truth Out, 7/24/2002 News Article statement &#8220;In the assessments on the US, it was being made very clear to government all the things which were driving the US on Iraq. WMD wasn't the most important issue. In fact, it was seen as a secondary issue. .... It was also about the credibility of the US military. The US sees its military and threat of force as one of its most important foreign policy tools. They had threatened to use force and would lose credibility if they didn't.&#8221; http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/06/10/1055010936009.html Sydney Morning Herald, 6/10/03 News Article statement &#8220;Let us not be fooled: The upcoming war against Iraq has nothing to do with the war against terror. President George W. Bush's war is fueled by two things: bolstering the president's popularity as he attempts to ride on the natural wave of American patriotism unleashed by the criminal attacks of Sept. 11; and a misguided temptation to get more oil out of the Middle East by turning a &#8216;friendly&#8217; Iraq into a private American oil pumping station. ... So all the talk about spreading democracy and changing the whole Middle East, starting with Iraq, does not hold water. The United States, obsessed with oil and something called &#8216;regime change,&#8217; wants to create a totally pro-American Middle East. The problem is that it will not work. You don't impose democracy by installing an occupying power in a region that has no tradition for it.&#8221; http://www.iht.com/cgi-bin/generic.cgi?template=articleprint.tmplh&amp;ArticleId=75500 International Herald Tribune, 11/1/2002 News Article commentary &#8220;The war on Iraq was just as much prompted by the strategic objectives of the state of Israel as it was the strategic objectives of the United States. The people running this war are people who are well attuned to Israel's objectives. The authors of the Project for the New American Century have set out for the United States to become the dominant power in the world. Israel is hell bent on remaining the dominant power in the Middle East. The confluence of objectives is striking.&#8221; http://www.sojo.net/index.cfm?action=magazine.article&amp;issue=soj0311&amp;article=031110x Sojourners, 11/03 News Article statement &#8220;A powerful corollary of the strategy is that a pro-US Iraq would make the region safer for Israel and, indeed, its staunchest proponents are ardent supporters of the Israeli right-wing. Administration officials, meanwhile, have increasingly argued that the onset of an Iraq allied to the US would give the administration more sway in bringing about a settlement to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, though Cheney and others have offered few details on precisely how.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0910-01.htm Boston Globe, 9/10/02 News Article statement &#8220;The crisis was manufactured, and Bush political adviser Karl Rove was telling Republicans to &#8216;run on the war.&#8217; &#8221; http://www.palmbeachpost.com/news/content/auto/epaper/editions/today/news_04e5f65c05b8512e00a5.html Washington Post, 3/22/2004 News Article statement motivesBehindWar Mid-January 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_313 1 false After more than two months and more than 350 inspections, the UN teams have failed to find the arsenal of banned weapons the US and Britain claim Iraq has. Nor are there any signs of programs to build such weapons. The London Observer reports that International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors are convinced Iraq does not have a reconstituted nuclear weapons program. &#8220;IAEA officials and intelligence sources admit it is extremely unlikely that Iraq has nuclear weapons squirreled away,&#8221; The Observer reports, explaining that &#8220;... the IAEA [had] revealed that analysis of samples taken by UN nuclear inspectors in Iraq ... showed no evidence of prohibited nuclear activity.&#8221; http://www.observer.co.uk/iraq/story/0,12239,882739,00.html Observer, 1/26/03 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A47302-2003Jan26.html The Washington Post, 12/27/03 News Article http://www.latimes.com/la-fg-inspect26jan26,0,575624.story Los Angeles Times, 1/26/03 News Article wmd weaponsInspections Early 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_136 1 false Unnamed US intelligence officials tell the New York Times that the CIA has no evidence that Saddam Hussein's government has participated in terrorist operations against the United States in nearly a decade. The agency also believes that Saddam Hussein has not provided chemical or biological weapons to al-Qaeda or other terrorist organizations. http://www.embargos.de/irak/post1109/english/terror_acts_waned.htm New York Times, 2/6/02 News Article unnamed_us_intelligence_officials source saddam_hussein passiveparticipant terroristTies 2002-2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_353 1 false The Bush administration develops plans for post-war Iraq. But the process is plagued with infighting between a small, highly secretive group of planners in the Pentagon and experts at the CIA and State Department who are involved with the &#8220;Future of Iraq Project&#8221; (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_349 ]]). The two opposing groups disagree on a wide range of topics, but it is the Pentagon group which exerts the strongest influence on the White House's plans (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_347 ]]) for administering post-Saddam Iraq. One State Department official complains to The Washington Post in October 2002 &#8220;that the Pentagon is seeking to dominate every aspect of Iraq's postwar reconstruction.&#8221; The group of Pentagon planners includes several noted neoconservatives who work in, or in association with, the Pentagon's Office of Special Plans (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_78 ]]) and the Near East/South Asia bureau. The planners have close ties to the American Enterprise Institute (AEI) and the Project for the New American Century (PNAC), two think tanks with a shared vision of reshaping the geopolitical landscape of the Middle East in favor of US and Israeli interests. The Pentagon planning group &#8220;had a visionary strategy that it hoped would transform Iraq into an ally of Israel, remove a potential threat to the Persian Gulf oil trade and encircle Iran with US friends and allies,&#8221; Knight Ridder Newspapers will later observe. The group's objectives put it at odds with planners at the CIA and State Department whose approach and objectives are much more prudent. The Pentagon unit works independently of the CIA and State Department and pays little attention to the work of those two agencies. Critics complain that the group is working in virtual secrecy and evading the scrutiny and oversight of others involved in the post-war planning process by confining their inter-agency communications to discussions with their neoconservative colleagues working in other parts of the government. The Pentagon planners even have a direct line to the office of Dick Cheney where their fellow neoconservative, Lewis Libby, is working. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0712-05.htm Knight Ridder, 7/12/03 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A6098-2003Apr1.html Washington Post, 4/2/03 News Article http://news.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/11/12/wirq112.xml&amp;sSheet=/news/2002/11/12/ixnewstop.html Associated Press, 11/12/02 News Article In the fall of 2002, the various groups involved in planning for post-war Iraq send their recommendations to the White House&apos;s Executive Steering Committee, which reviews their work and then passes on its own recommendations to the cabinet heads (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_347 ]]). According to a July 2003 report by Knight Ridder Newspapers, the ultimate responsibility for deciding the administration's post-war transition plans lay with Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld and National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0712-05.htm Knight Ridder, 7/12/03 News Article The civilian planners at the Pentagon believe that the UN should exert no influence over the structure, make-up, or policy of the interim Iraqi post-Saddam government. They seek to limit the UN's role to humanitarian and reconstruction projects, and possibly security. The State Department, however, believes that the US will not be able to do it alone and that UN participation in post-Saddam Iraq will be essential. http://www.observer.co.uk/focus/story/0,6903,930591,00.html Observer, 4/6/03 News Article http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/iraq/homefront/la-war-postwar2apr02,1,7358865.story?coll=la%2Dhome%2Dheadlines Los Angeles Times, 4/2/03 News Article The Pentagon group wants to install Ahmad Chalabi, the controversial Iraqi exile leader of the Iraqi National Congress (INC), as leader of post-Saddam Iraq. http://www.prospect.org/print/V14/5/dreyfuss-r.html American Prospect, 5/1/03 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0712-05.htm Knight Ridder, 7/12/03 News Article richard_perle source The group thinks that the Iraqis will welcome Chalabi, who claims he has a secret network inside and outside the Ba'ath government which will quickly fill in the power vacuum to restore order to the country. Chalabi is a notorious figure who is considered untrustworthy by the State Department and CIA and who has a history of financial misdealings. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0712-05.htm Knight Ridder, 7/12/03 News Article But the Pentagon is said to be enamored with Chalabi &#8220;because he [advocates] normal diplomatic relations with Israel&#8221; which they believe will &#8220;&#8216; [take] off the board&#8217; one of the only remaining major Arab threats to Israeli security.&#8221; Another geopolitical benefit to installing Chalabi is that he can help the US contain &#8220;the influence of Iran's radical Islamic leaders in the region, because he would ... [provide] bases in Iraq for US troops,&#8221; which would &#8220;complete Iran's encirclement by American military forces around the Persian Gulf and US friends in Russia and Central Asia.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0712-05.htm Knight Ridder, 7/12/03 News Article unnamed_bush_administration_official source Danielle Pletka, vice president of the American Enterprise Institute, with close ties to the Pentagon's planning group, tells Robert Dreyfuss of American Prospect Magazine that the State Department's perception of Chalabi is wrong. &#8220;The [Defense Department] is running post-Saddam Iraq,&#8221; said Pletka, almost shouting. &#8220;The people at the State Department don't know what they are talking about! Who the hell are they? ... the simple fact is, the president is comfortable with people who are comfortable with the INC.&#8221; http://www.prospect.org/print/V14/5/dreyfuss-r.html American Prospect, 5/1/03 News Article The Pentagon's planning unit believes that the Iraqis will welcome US troops as liberators and that any militant resistance will be short-lived. They do not develop a contingency plan for persistent civil unrest. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0712-05.htm Knight Ridder, 7/12/03 News Article However the State Department's &#8220;Future of Iraq&#8221; planning project is more prudent, noting that Iraqis will likely be weary of US designs on their country. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1019-07.htm New York Times, 10/19/03 News Article The Pentagon planners believe that Iraq's oil reserves&#8212;estimated to contain some 112 billion barrels of oil&#8212;should be used to help fund the reconstruction of Iraq. They also advocate a plan that would give the US more control over Iraq's oil. &#8220;[The Pentagon] hawks have long argued that US control of Iraq's oil would help deliver a second objective,&#8221; reports the Observer. &#8220;That is the destruction of OPEC, the oil producers' cartel, which they argue is &#8216;evil&#8217;&#8212;that is, incompatible with American interests.&#8221; The State Department, however, believes such aggressive policies will surely infuriate Iraqis and give credence to suspicions that the invasion is motivated by oil interests. One critic of the plan says &#8220;that only a puppet Iraqi government would acquiesce to US supervision of the oil fields and that one so slavish to US interests risks becoming untenable with Iraqis.&#8221; http://www.observer.co.uk/international/story/0,6903,825103,00.html Observer, 11/3/02 News Article http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/oil/2002/1228divides.htm Insight, 12/28/02 News Article &#8220;What should be an open and well-understood operation is secretive and possibly confused.&#8221; http://www.boston.com/news/packages/iraq/globe_stories/041003_postwar.htm Boston Globe, 4/11/03 News Article commentary &#8220;In contrast, years before World War II ended, American planners plotted extraordinarily detailed blueprints for administering postwar Germany and Japan, designing everything from rebuilt economies to law enforcement and democratic governments.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0712-05.htm Knight Ridder, 7/12/03 News Article commentary &#8220;By giving control to the INC, the Pentagon seems intent on creating a government modeled on South Vietnam's Ngo Dinh Diem regime, which would require a US praetorian guard to prop it up for years to come.&#8221; commentary ahmed_chalabi passiveparticipant donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant condoleezza_rice activeparticipant american_enterprise_institute passiveparticipant danielle_pletka activeparticipant project_for_the_new_american_century passiveparticipant officeOfSpecialPlans preWarPlanning 2002-2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_306 1 false In explaining the Bush administration's policy on Iraq, top US officials waver between &#8220;disarmament&#8221; and &#8220;regime change.&#8221; &#8220;The President's position is either he will disarm or we will remove him so Iraq is disarmed&#8221; http://www.whitehouse.gov/infocus/iraq/excerpts_nov23.html White House, 10/23/02 News Article statement &#8220;The United States reserves its option to do whatever it believes might be appropriate to see if there can be a regime change.... US policy is that regardless of what the inspectors do, the people of Iraq and the people of the region would be better off with a different regime in Baghdad.&#8221; http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/terror/02050707.htm US Department of State, 5/5/02 News Article http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/2586425.stm BBC, 12/19/02 News Article statement &#8220;The bottom line is that Saddam Hussein and his regime must fundamentally change their attitude and finally implement a disarmament that they agreed to over a decade ago.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A923-2002Dec2.html Washington Post, 12/3/02 News Article statement Asked if the administration's policy objective in Iraq is disarmament, regime change, or both, Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld replies: &#8220;Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. It depends on who you talk to and when you talk to them.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A11088-2002Dec4.html Washington Post, 12/5/02 News Article http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/arms/02120310.htm US Department of State News Article statement &#8220;While there are those who will counsel continuity, Israel has the opportunity to make a clean break; it can forge a peace process and strategy based on an entirely new intellectual foundation, one that restores strategic initiative and provides the nation the room to engage every possible energy on rebuilding Zionism ...&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/1990s/instituteforadvancedstrategicandpoliticalstudies.htm Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies, 7/8/96 News Article statement &#8220;The American people know my position. And that is that regime change is in the interest of the world.&#8221; http://edition.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0208/25/le.00.html CNN, 8/25/02 News Article http://www.cnn.com/2002/US/09/30/sproject.irq.regime.change/ CNN, 9/30/02 News Article http://www.namibian.com.na/2002/august/world/027D397555.html Agence France-Presse, 8/22/02 News Article statement &#8220;.... And that's why two administrations&#8212;mine and President Clinton's&#8212;have stated that regime change in Iraq is the only certain means of removing a great danger to our nation.&#8221; http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021007-8.html White House, 10/07/02 News Article statement &#8220;With respect to Iraq, it's long been, for several years now, a policy of the United States' government that regime change would be in the best interest of the region, the best interest of the Iraqi people. And we're looking at a variety of options that would bring that about.&#8221; http://www.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0202/13/ip.00.html CNN, 2/13/2002 News Article statement &#8220;We have facts, not speculation. Scott is certainly entitled to his opinion but I'm afraid that I would not place the security of my nation and the security of our friends in the region on that kind of an assertion by somebody who's not in the intelligence chain any longer.... If Scott is right. Then why are they keeping the inspectors out? If Scott is right, why don't they say, &#8216;Anytime, any place, anywhere, bring'em in, everybody come in&#8212;we are clean?&#8217; The reason is they are not clean. And we have to find out what they have and what we're going to do about it. And that's why it's been the policy of this government to insist that Iraq be disarmed in accordance with the terms of the relevant UN resolutions.&#8221; http://www.newsmax.com/showinsidecover.shtml?a=2002/9/8/110715 Newsmax 9/8/02 News Article statement &#8220;The stated policy of the United States is regime change because, for 11 years, Saddam Hussein has ignored the United Nations and the free world. For 11 years, he has&#8212;he said, look, you passed all these resolutions; I could care less what you passed. And that's why the stated policy of our government, the previous administration and this administration, is regime change&#8212;because we don't believe he is going to change.&#8221; http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021021-8.html White House, 10/21/02 News Article statement &#8220;Regime change remains Congress' policy, assigned by the President, remains law of the land, it remains the American position and a position that the President and everybody in his Cabinet strongly supports.&#8221; http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021021-6.html White House, 10/21/02 News Article statement &#8220;The policy is regime change. Saddam Hussein is the heart of the regime.&#8221; http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021022.html White House, 10/22/02 News Article statement &#8220;We have a president who wants to go to war. There is no question about it....He denies it all over the place, but everything points to it..... That's the point&#8212;a regime change. It's not inspectors. They don't care down at the White House about whether we have disarmament or not, they want to go to war.&#8221; http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/754009/posts Washington Times, 9/20/02 News Article commentary &#8220;Well, there is no question that we have evidence and information that Iraq has weapons of mass destruction, biological and chemical particularly. This was the reason that the President felt so strongly that we needed to take military action to disarm Saddam Hussein, since he would not do it himself.&#8221; http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/03/20030321-9.html White House, 3/21/03 News Article statement &#8220;This is not a matter of inspections. It is about disarmament of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction and the Iraqi regime's compliance with all other Security Council resolutions.&#8221; statement legalJustification Early January 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_466 1 false Harold Rhode, a specialist on Islam who speaks Hebrew, Arabic, Turkish, and Farsi, moves into the Pentagon Office of Net Assessment, &#8220;an in-house Pentagon think tank&#8221; run by Andrew Marshall. Rhode, along with Douglas Feith, whose appointment to Undersecretary of Defense for Policy is not approved until July, imposes a new anti-Iraq and anti-Arab orientation on the department. The two men purge the department of career Defense officials whose worldviews are not considered sufficiently compatible with the neoconservative perspective. An intelligence analyst will tell reporter Robert Dreyfuss that Rhode appeared to be &#8220;pulling people out of nooks and crannies of the Defense Intelligence Agency and other places to replace us with.&#8221; The source adds: &#8220;They wanted nothing to do with the professional staff. And they wanted us the fuck out of there.&#8221; http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html Mother Jones, 1/04 News Article harold_rhode activeparticipant andrew_marshall passiveparticipant officeOfSpecialPlans Mid-January 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_307 1 false Referring to the weapons inspectors upcoming January 27 report (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_292 ]]), Colin Powell says in an interview with Saturday's Sueddeutsche Zeitung, &#8220;We believe that at the end of the month it will be convincingly proven that Iraq is not cooperating.&#8221; http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/2670429.stm BBC, 1/18/03 News Article colin_powell activeparticipant weaponsInspections January 16, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_338 1 false CIA Director George Tenet informs Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak during a meeting in Sharm el Sheikh that the Bush administration has already decided to attack Iraq and asks Mubarak not to publicly express Egypt's opposition to the planned invasion. The Egyptian president warns that such an attack could destabilize the entire Middle East. http://www.haaretzdaily.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=131145&amp;contrassID=1&amp;subContrassID=0&amp;sbSubContrassID=0 Ha'aretz, 2/17/02 News Article unnamed_source_interviewed_by_the_lebanese_newspaper_al-mustaqbal_ source hosni_mubarak activeparticipant letter_from_cia_director_george_tenet_to_bob_graham activeparticipant decision February 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_496 1 false Vice President Dick Cheney prepares for a March trip to the Middle East. According to public statements by the Bush administration, Cheney will be conferring with Arab leaders on US Iraq policy. However, a senior Bush administration official tells the Philadelphia Inquirer: &#8220;He's not going to beg for support. He's going to inform them that the President's decision has been made and will be carried out, and if they want some input into how and when it's carried out, now's the time for them to speak up.&#8221; http://www.philly.com/mld/inquirer/2661207.htm Philadelphia Inquirer, 2/13/02 News Article unnamed_bush_administration_official source donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant decision February 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_337 1 false A Bush administration official tells the Philadelphia Inquirer: &#8220;This is not an argument about whether to get rid of Saddam Hussein. That debate is over. This is ... how you do it.&#8221; http://www.philly.com/mld/inquirer/2661207.htm Philadelphia Inquirer, 2/13/02 News Article unnamed_bush_administration_official source decision February 6, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_123 1 false George Tenet tells the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, &#8220;Our major near-term concern is the possibility that Saddam might gain access to fissile material, . . . [and] with substantial foreign assistance, [Iraq] could flight-test a longer-range ballistic missile within the next five years.&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/chicagotribune020702.htm Chicago Tribune 2/7/02 News Article &#8220;Our major near-term concern is the possibility that Saddam might gain access to fissile material, ... [and] with substantial foreign assistance, [Iraq] could flight-test a longer-range ballistic missile within the next five years.&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/chicagotribune020702.htm Chicago Tribune 2/7/02 News Article duplicate george_tenet activeparticipant nuclearQuotes February 6, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_171 1 false The New York Times reports, &#8220;[S]enior American intelligence officials have concluded that the meeting between Mr. Atta and the Iraqi officer, Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani, did take place. But they say they do not believe that the meeting provides enough evidence to tie Iraq to the Sept. 11 attacks.&#8221; A month and a half earlier, the same newspaper had reported that sources in the Czech Republic thought that it had been a different &#8220;Mohammed Atta&#8221; who had met al-Ani (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_170 ]]). http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/europe/11/09/inv.czech.atta/index.html CNN, 11/09/01 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2001/nyt121601.html New York Times, 12/16/01 News Article unnamed_senior_us_intelligence_officials source ahmed_khalil_ibrahim_samir_al-ani passiveparticipant mohammed_atta passiveparticipant pragueConnection February 11, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_484 1 false Former CIA Director James Woolsey telephones Deputy Asistant Defense Secretary Linton Wells to arrange a meeting between Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) analysts and Mohammad Harith, an Iraqi defector being supplied by the Iraqi exile group, the Iraqi National Congress. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0716-04.htm Knight Ridder, 7/16/2004 News Article classified_pentagon_report source After the phone call, Wells issues an &#8220;executive referral,&#8221; requesting that the Iraqi National Congress (INC) introduce Harith to the Pentagon's Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA). http://www.reuters.com/locales/newsArticle.jsp;:4032bd96:6f9ede1cc8cbb76f?type=worldNews&amp;locale=en_IN&amp;storyID=4379274 Reuters, 2/18/04 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0716-04.htm Knight Ridder, 7/16/2004 News Article classified_pentagon_report source Later in the day, two DIA officers meet with Ahmed Chalabi to arrange an interview with Harith. In an email to Knight Ridder Newspapers, Wells will later recall, &#8220;I discussed the issue of an individual with information on Iraq weapons of mass destruction with intelligence community members. They said they would follow up. I never met with any member of the INC.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0716-04.htm Knight Ridder, 7/16/2004 News Article iraqi_national_congress_(inc) activeparticipant james_woolsey activeparticipant mohammad_harith activeparticipant linton_wells activeparticipant wmd February 12, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_710 1 false Colin Powell tells the Senate Budget Committee: &#8220;With respect to Iraq, it's long been, for several years now, a policy of the United States' government that regime change would be in the best interest of the region, the best interest of the Iraqi people. And we're looking at a variety of options that would bring that about.&#8221; http://www.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0202/13/ip.00.html CNN, 2/13/2002 News Article &#8220;With respect to Iraq, it's long been, for several years now, a policy of the United States' government that regime change would be in the best interest of the region, the best interest of the Iraqi people. And we're looking at a variety of options that would bring that about.&#8221; http://www.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0202/13/ip.00.html CNN, 2/13/2002 News Article duplicate colin_powell activeparticipant legalJustification Between February 12, 2002 and March 31, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1614 1 false After several meetings with Mohammad Harith (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_484 ]])&#8212;an Iraqi defector provided by the Iraqi National Congress&#8212;a Defense Intelligence Agency debriefer determines that the defector's information on Iraq's presumed arsenal of banned weapons seems &#8220;accurate, but much of it [apears] embellished.&#8221; Defense Intelligence Agency analysts also determine that the defected Iraqi has been &#8220;coached by [the] Iraqi National Congress.&#8221; Harith claimed that he was a major in an Iraqi intelligence unit charged with concealing illicit weapons and that Iraq has developed mobile biological weapons labs. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0716-04.htm Knight Ridder, 7/16/2004 News Article iraqi_national_congress_(inc) activeparticipant mohammad_harith activeparticipant wmd February 15, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_667 1 false Bush signs an intelligence finding, directing the CIA to conduct operations within Iraq as part of an ultimate plan to overthrow Saddam's government. The CIA warns Bush that staging a coup to depose the leader would be impossible. http://msnbc.msn.com/id/4761041/ Woodward, 2004 cited in Washington Post 1/18/2004 News Article top_officials_interviewed_by_washington_post_editor_bob_woodward source george_w._bush activeparticipant decision Late February 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_327 1 false An unnamed UN official tells The Washington Post that Iraq's level of cooperation is improving. &#8220;[F]or example,&#8221; the Iraqis have been &#8220;frantically digging in an area where it claims biological weapons were destroyed,&#8221; the UN official explains. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A18454-2003Feb28.html The Washington Post, 3/1/03 News Article unnamed_un_official source weaponsInspections Late February 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_106 1 false The CIA sends Joseph C. Wilson, a retired US diplomat, to Niger to investigate claims that Iraq had sought to purchase uranium from that country. The trip is paid for by the CIA. But the identity of the party who requests the mission is later disputed. While Wilson will claim the trip was requested directly by Dick Cheney's office, other sources will say that the CIA had decided that a delegation to Niger was needed in order to investigate questions raised by one of Dick Cheney's aides. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A46957-2003Jun11.html The Washington Post, 6/12/03 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0706-02.htm New York Times, 7/6/03 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0506-02.htm New York Times, 5/6/03 News Article http://www.arena.org.nz/iraqccc.htm Independent, 6/29/03 News Article unnamed_senior_officials source joseph_c._wilson source In Niger, Wilson makes &#8220;it abundantly clear to everyone&#8221; that he is &#8220;acting on behalf of the United States government.&#8221; He meets with US Ambassador to Niger Barbro Owens-Kirkpatrick who informs Wilson that she has already concluded that the allegations of uranium sales to Iraq are unfounded. She tells Wilson &#8220;she had already debunked them in her reports to Washington.&#8221; After spending eight days chatting with current government officials, former government officials, and people associated with the country's uranium business, Wilson concludes the rumors are false. He calls the allegations &#8220;bogus and unrealistic.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A46957-2003Jun11.html The Washington Post, 6/12/03 News Article http://www.bayarea.com/mld/cctimes/news/6079211.htm Knight Ridder, 6/13/03 News Article http://www.abcnews.go.com/sections/wnt/World/iraq030612_uranium.html/ ABC News, 6/12/03 News Article http://www.arena.org.nz/iraqccc.htm Independent, 6/29/03 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0706-02.htm New York Times, 7/6/03 News Article http://cbsnewyork.com/terror/terror_story_192084528.html CBS News, 7/11/03 News Article http://www.townhall.com/columnists/robertnovak/rn20030714.shtml Novak, 7/14/03 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 282 News Article joseph_c._wilson source &#8220;Before I left Niger, I briefed the ambassador on my findings, which were consistent with her own. I also shared my conclusions with members of her staff. In early March, I arrived in Washington and promptly provided a detailed briefing to the CIA I later shared my conclusions with the State Department African Affairs Bureau.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0706-02.htm New York Times, 7/6/03 News Article statement &#8220;Niger's uranium business consists of two mines, Somair and Cominak, which are run by French, Spanish, Japanese, German and Nigerian interests. If the government wanted to remove uranium from a mine, it would have to notify the consortium, which in turn is strictly monitored by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Moreover, because the two mines are closely regulated, quasi-governmental entities, selling uranium would require the approval of the minister of mines, the prime minister and probably the president. In short, there's simply too much oversight over too small an industry for a sale to have transpired.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0706-02.htm New York Times, 7/6/03 News Article statement joseph_c._wilson activeparticipant barbro_owens-kirkpatrick activeparticipant africaUraniumClaim Late February 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_110 1 false Four-Star Marine General Carlton W. Fulford Jr., deputy commander of the US European Command, travels to Niger to investigate the security of that country's uranium and to remind Niger's president of the need to keep a close eye on its ore deposits. The trip is separate from, and independent of, retired diplomat Joseph Wilson's mission, which occurs at about the same time. On February 24, Fulford joins US ambassador to Niger, Barbro Owens-Kirkpatrick, at a meeting with Niger's President Mamadou Tandja. He explains the importance of keeping Niger's ore deposits secure. Fulford's investigation concludes that Niger's uranium is safely in the hands of a French consortium and that there is little risk that the material will end up in the wrong hands. These findings are passed on to General Joseph Ralston who provides them to General Richard B. Myers, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A56336-2003Jul14.html The Washington Post, 7/15/03 News Article http://www.voanews.com/article.cfm?objectID=1317249F-4A4C-4008-96E74561EBC52FE8 Voce of America, 7/15/03 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 282 News Article carlton_w._fulford source The Pentagon will later say that Donald Rumsfeld was not informed about the trip or its conclusions. http://www.voanews.com/article.cfm?objectID=1317249F-4A4C-4008-96E74561EBC52FE8 Voice of America, 7/15/03 News Article &#8220;I was convinced it was not an issue.....I was asked to impress upon the president the importance that the yellowcake in Niger be under control. I did that. He assured me. He said the mining operations were handled through a French consortium.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A56336-2003Jul14.html Washington Post, 7/15/03 News Article statement richard_b._myers activeparticipant general_joseph_ralston activeparticipant carlton_w._fulford activeparticipant barbro_owens-kirkpatrick activeparticipant africaUraniumClaim Late February 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_328 1 false Chief UN Inspector Hans Blix prepares a list of disarmament tasks that Iraq needs to complete in order prove its claim that it has no weapons of mass destruction. According to UN Resolution 1284, the completion of these tasks would make Iraq eligible for the suspension of sanctions. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A18454-2003Feb28.html The Washington Post, 3/01/03 News Article hans_blix activeparticipant weaponsInspections February 28, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_21 1 false During a British cabinet meeting, Home Secretary David Blunkett initiates a discussion about Iraq. During the discussion, British Foreign Minister Robin Cook mentions that most of the Arab world considers Ariel Sharon, rather than Saddam Hussein, to be the largest threat to peace in the Middle East. Describing the subsequent reaction to his comments, Cook later writes in his diary: &#8220;Somewhat to my surprise this line provides a round of &#8216;hear, hearing&#8217; from colleagues, which is the nearest I heard to mutiny in the cabinet.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1005-01.htm Sunday Times, 10/5/03 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1005-01.htm Guardian, 10/6/03 News Article http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/politics/story.jsp?story=450373 Independent, 10/6/03 News Article robin_cook_s_diary source During the meeting, Patricia Hewitt, the Trade and Industry Secretary, says &#8220;We are in danger of being seen as close to President Bush, but without any influence over President Bush.&#8221; http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/politics/story.jsp?story=450373 Independent, 10/6/03 News Article robin_cook_s_diary source robin_cook activeparticipant david_blunkett activeparticipant patricia_hewitt activeparticipant maintreamDissent March 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1613 1 false Iraqi defector Mohammad Harith (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_484 ]]) appears on CBS's &#8220;60 Minutes&#8221; and claims that while working as an Iraqi intelligence operative he had purchased seven Renault refrigerated trucks for the purpose of converting them into biological weapons laboratories. His identity is not revealed during the program. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0716-04.htm Knight Ridder, 7/16/2004 News Article mohammad_harith activeparticipant wmd Early March 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_70 1 false According to a former White House official interviewed by Seymour Hersh during the fall of 2003, Bush makes the decision to invade Iraq at this time and begins diverting resources away from the &#8220;war on terrorism&#8221; to the planned invasion of Iraq. &#8220;The Bush administration took many intelligence operations that had been aimed at al-Qaeda and other terrorist groups around the world and redirected them to the Persian Gulf. Linguists and special operatives were abruptly reassigned, and several ongoing anti-terrorism intelligence programs were curtailed.&#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?031027fa_fact The New Yorker, 10/20/03 News Article unnamed_former_white_house_official source &#8220;While there are those who will counsel continuity, Israel has the opportunity to make a clean break; it can forge a peace process and strategy based on an entirely new intellectual foundation, one that restores strategic initiative and provides the nation the room to engage every possible energy on rebuilding Zionism ...&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/1990s/instituteforadvancedstrategicandpoliticalstudies.htm Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies, 7/8/96 News Article commentary george_w._bush activeparticipant decision March 7, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_23 1 false According to British Foreign Minister Robin, Home Secretary David Blunkett asks where Britain had obtained the &#8220;legal authority&#8221; to invade Iraq. http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/politics/story.jsp?story=450373 Independent, 10/6/03 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1005-01.htm Guardian, 10/6/03 News Article robin_cook_s_diary source david_blunkett activeparticipant maintreamDissent March 9, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_107 1 false The CIA sends a 1 1/2-page cable to the White House, the FBI, the Justice Department, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Defense Intelligence Agency, with news that a CIA source (Joseph Wilson) sent to Niger has failed to find any evidence to back claims that Iraq sought uranium from that country. http://www.realcities.com/mld/krwashington/6076178.htm Knight Ridder Newspapers, 6/12/03 News Article http://www.bayarea.com/mld/cctimes/news/6079211.htm Knight Ridder, 6/13/03 News Article http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3056626.stm BBC, 7/8/03 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A52813-2003Jun12.html? nav=hptop_ts The Washington Post, 6/13/03 News Article http://www.abcnews.go.com/sections/wnt/World/iraq030612_uranium.html/ ABC News, 6/12/03 News Article http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3056626.stm BBC, 7/8/03 News Article senior_cia_official source Bush administration officials will later say in June 2003 that the cable left out important details of the trip. They will say it did not include the name of the diplomat who had gone to Niger or his conclusions. And consequently, The Washington Post will report in June 2003, &#8220;It was not considered unusual or very important and not passed on to Condoleezza Rice, the president's national security adviser, or other senior White House officials.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A46957-2003Jun11.html The Washington Post, 6/12/03 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A52813-2003Jun12.html The Washington Post, 6/13/03 News Article http://www.bayarea.com/mld/cctimes/news/6079211.htm Knight Ridder, 6/13/03 News Article senior_administration_official source But the CIA source who made the journey, Joseph Wilson, will find this explanation hard to believe. &#8220;Though I did not file a written report, there should be at least four documents in United States government archives confirming my mission,&#8221; he will later explain. &#8220;The documents should include the ambassador's report of my debriefing in Niamey, a separate report written by the embassy staff, a CIA report summing up my trip, and a specific answer from the agency to the office of the vice president (this may have been delivered orally). While I have not seen any of these reports, I have spent enough time in government to know that this is standard operating procedure.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0706-02.htm New York Times, 7/6/03 News Article joseph_c._wilson source joseph_c._wilson activeparticipant africaUraniumClaim March 19, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_179 1 false Testifying before the Senate Intelligence Committee, CIA Director George Tenet says: &#8220;There is no doubt that there have been (Iraqi) contacts and linkages to the al-Qaeda organization. As to where we are on September 11, the jury is still out. As I said carefully in my statement, it would be a mistake to dismiss the possibility of state sponsorship whether Iranian or Iraqi and we'll see where the evidence takes us.... There is nothing new in the last several months that changes our analysis in any way.... There's no doubt there have been contacts or linkages to the al-Qaeda organization.... I want you to think about al-Qaeda as a front company that mixes and matches its capabilities.... The distinction between Sunni and Shia that have traditionally divided terrorists groups are not distinctions we should make any more, because there are common interests against the United States and its allies in this region, and they will seek capabilities wherever they can get it.... Their ties may be limited by divergent ideologies, but the two sides' mutual antipathies toward the United States and the Saudi royal family suggests that tactical cooperation between them is possible.&#8221; http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/tenet_3-19-02.html PBS, 3/19/02 News Article http://www.intelmessages.org/Messages/National_Security/Archives/Archive_05/wwwboard/messages/215.html Agence France Press, 3/20/02 News Article Testifying before the Senate Intelligence Committee, CIA Director George Tenet says, &#8220;There is no doubt that there have been (Iraqi) contacts and linkages to the al-Qaeda organization. As to where we are on September 11, the jury is still out. As I said carefully in my statement it would be a mistake to dismiss the possibility of state sponsorship whether Iranian or Iraqi and we'll see where the evidence takes us.... There is nothing new in the last several months that changes our analysis in any way.... There's no doubt there have been contacts or linkages to the al-Qaeda organization.... I want you to think about al-Qaeda as a front company that mixes and matches its capabilities. ... The distinction between Sunni and Shia that have traditionally divided terrorists groups are not distinctions we should make any more, because there are common interests against the United States and its allies in this region, and they will seek capabilities wherever they can get it.... Their ties may be limited by divergent ideologies, but the two sides mutual antipathies toward the United States and the Saudi royal family suggests that tactical cooperation between them is possible.&#8221; http://www.intelmessages.org/Messages/National_Security/Archives/Archive_05/wwwboard/messages/215.html Agence France Press, 3/20/02 News Article http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/tenet_3-19-02.html PBS, 3/19/02 News Article duplicate george_tenet activeparticipant terroristTies Late March 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_407 1 false Philip Gordon of the Brooking Institution tells the Associated Press, &#8220;Removing Saddam will be opening a Pandora's box, and there might not be any easy way to close it back up.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0331-04.htm Associated Press, 3/31/02 News Article philip_gordon activeparticipant predictions Late March 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_339 1 false After Dick Cheney's 10-day trip across the Middle East, during which he was told by several Middle East leaders that their respective governments would not support an invasion of Iraq, an official tells the Telegraph of London: &#8220;I don't think it will change the administration's thinking. We are quite determined on this account.&#8221; http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/03/24/wafg124.xml Telegraph, 3/24/02 News Article decision April 2002-March 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_349 1 false The US State Department begins the &#8220;Future of Iraq&#8221; project aimed at developing plans for post-Saddam Iraq. The project eventually evolves into the collaborative effort of some seventeen working groups involving more than 200 exiled Iraqi opposition figures and professionals including jurists, academics, engineers, scientists and technical experts. These groups meet on numerous occasions over the next eight to ten months, preparing plans to address a wide range of issues. The seventeen working groups include: Public Health and Humanitarian Needs; Water, Agriculture and the Environment; Public Finance and Accounts; Transitional Justice; Economy and Infrastructure; Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons, and Migration Policy; Foreign and National Security Policy; Defense Institutions and Policy; Civil Society Capacity-Building; Public and Media Outreach; Economic and Infrastructure; Local Government; Anti-Corruption Measures; Oil and Energy; Education; Free Media; and Democratic Principles. http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/19708.pdf US State Department, 4/23/03 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/usnews112502.htm US News, 11/25/03 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1019-07.htm New York Times, 10/19/03 News Article http://www.washtimes.com/upi-breaking/05062002-041921-3354r.htm Washington Times, 6/5/02 News Article http://www.useu.be/Categories/GlobalAffairs/Oct0402PowellBlixIraqInspections.html United States Mission to the European Union, 10/4/02 News Article http://www.useu.be/Categories/GlobalAffairs/Oct1102futureiraqopposition.html United States Mission to the European Union, 10/11/02 News Article http://aina.org/releases/2002/workgroups.htm Assyrian International News Agency, 10/31/02 News Article http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/dpb/2002/14340.htm US Department of State, 10/11/02 News Article http://www.krg.org/about/ministries/reconstruction/minister-interview-dec-2002.asp Washington File, 12/16/02 News Article http://usinfo.state.gov/regional/nea/iraq/text/1216group.htm Washington File, 12/16/02 News Article http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2002/16119.htm US Department of State, 12/19/02 News Article http://usembassy.state.gov/islamabad/wwwh03012303.html Washington File, 1/23/02 News Article http://www.freep.com/news/metro/shias10_20030210.htm Free Press, 2/10/03 News Article http://www.usembassy.ro/WF/300/03-02-12/eur304.htm Washington File, 2/12/03 News Article http://usinfo.state.gov/regional/nea/iraq/text2003/0203edu.htm US Department of State, 2/3/03 News Article The project suffers from a serious lack of interest and funds. In July, the Guardian reports, &#8220;Deep in the bowels of the US State Department, not far from the cafeteria, there is a small office identified only by a handwritten sign on the door reading: &#8216;The Future of Iraq Project.&#8217; .... [T]he understaffed and underfunded Future of Iraq Project has been spending more effort struggling with other government departments than plotting Saddam's downfall.&#8221; http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,752591,00.html Guardian 7/10/02 News Article The $5 million project ultimately produces 13 volumes of reports consisting of some 2,000 pages of what is described as varying quality. The New York Times will later report: &#8220;A review of the work shows a wide range of quality and industriousness.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1019-07.htm New York Times, 10/19/03 News Article The newspaper cites several examples: &#8220;... the transitional justice working group, made up of Iraqi judges, law professors and legal experts, ... met four times and drafted more than 600 pages of proposed reforms in the Iraqi criminal code, civil code, nationality laws and military procedure.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1019-07.htm New York Times, 10/19/03 News Article &#8220;The group studying defense policy and institutions expected problems if the Iraqi Army was disbanded quickly.... The working group recommended that jobs be found for demobilized troops to avoid having them turn against allied forces ...&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1019-07.htm New York Times, 10/19/03 News Article &#8220;The democratic principles working group wrestled with myriad complicated issues from reinvigorating a dormant political system to forming special tribunals for trying war criminals to laying out principles of a new Iraqi bill of rights.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1019-07.htm New York Times, 10/19/03 News Article &#8220;The transparency and anticorruption working group warned that &#8216;actions regarding anticorruption must start immediately; it cannot wait until the legal, legislative and executive systems are reformed.&#8217;&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1019-07.htm New York Times, 10/19/03 News Article &#8220;The economy and infrastructure working group warned of the deep investments needed to repair Iraq's water, electrical and sewage systems.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1019-07.htm New York Times, 10/19/03 News Article &#8220;The free media working group noted the potential to use Iraq's television and radio capabilities to promote the goals of a post-Hussein Iraq ....&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1019-07.htm New York Times, 10/19/03 News Article After the US and British invasion of Iraq, Knight Ridder will report, &#8220;Virtually none of the &#8216;Future of Iraq&#8217; project's work was used.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0712-05.htm Knight Ridder, 7/12/03 News Article It was &#8220;ignored by Pentagon officials,&#8221; the New York Times will also observe. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1019-07.htm New York Times, 10/19/03 News Article Iraq expert and former CIA analyst Judith Yaphe, who is one of the American experts involved in the &#8220;Future of Iraq&#8221; project, will tell American Prospect magazine in May 2003: &#8220;[The Office of the Secretary of Defense] has no interest in what I do.&#8221; She will also complain about how the Defense Department prevented the State Department from getting involved in the post-war administration of Iraq. &#8220;They've brought in their own stable of people from AEI [American Enterprise Institute], and the people at the State Department who worked with the Iraqi exiles are being kept from Garner,&#8221; she will explain. http://www.prospect.org/print/V14/5/dreyfuss-r.html American Prospect, 5/1/03 News Article One of those people is Tom Warrick, the &#8220;Future of Iraq&#8221; project director. When retired Lt. Gen. Jay Garner, the first US administrator in Iraq, requests that Warrick join his staff, Pentagon civilians veto the appointment. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0712-05.htm Knight Ridder, 7/12/03 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1019-07.htm New York Times, 10/19/03 News Article Other sources will also say that the Pentagon purposefully ignored the work of the &#8220;Future of Iraq&#8221; project. Air Force Lt. Col. Karen Kwiatkowski, who retires from the Pentagon's Near East/South Asia bureau on July 1, will tell Knight Ridder Newspapers that she and her colleagues were instructed by Pentagon officials in the Office of Special Plans to ignore the State Department's concerns and views. &#8220;We almost disemboweled State,&#8221; Kwiatkowski will recall. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0712-05.htm Knight Ridder, 7/12/03 News Article After the fall of Saddam Hussein, critics will say that several of the post-war problems encountered could have been avoided had the Pentagon considered the warnings and recommendations of the &#8220;Future of Iraq&#8221; project. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1019-07.htm New York Times, 10/19/03 News Article http://www.prospect.org/print/V14/5/dreyfuss-r.html American Prospect, 5/1/03 News Article &#8220;[The Office of the Secretary of Defense] has no interest in what I do. They've brought in their own stable of people from AEI, and the people at the State Department who worked with the Iraqi exiles are being kept from Garner.&#8221; duplicate tom_warrick activeparticipant jay_garner activeparticipant karen_kwiatkowski activeparticipant judith_yaphe activeparticipant preWarPlanning April 25, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_180 1 false British Prime Minister Tony Blair's spokesperson states, &#8220;Given what we know about al-Qaeda's interest in the material, we have to have concerns about a possible marriage between those who wish to acquire it and those who have it.&#8221; Immediately after the statement is made, Britain's own senior military officials refute the claim saying that there is no credible evidence to support the claim. A senior source tells the Independent of London, &#8220;We are not aware of evidence, intelligence or otherwise, that the Iraqi government or its agencies are passing on weapons of mass destruction to al-Qaeda. Nor have we seen any credible evidence linking the Iraqi government to the September 11 attacks.&#8221; http://www.converge.org.nz/pma/cra0323.htm Independent, 3/26/02 News Article unnamed_senior_british_military_source source &#8220;We are not aware of evidence, intelligence or otherwise, that the Iraqi government or its agencies are passing on weapons of mass destruction to al- Qa'ida. Nor have we seen any credible evidence linking the Iraqi government to the September 11 attacks.&#8221; http://www.converge.org.nz/pma/cra0323.htm Independent, 3/26/02 News Article duplicate terroristTies April 28, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_172 1 false Newsweek reports that both US and Czech officials no longer believe the alleged April 2001 meeting between Mr. Atta and the Iraqi officer, Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani, ever took place (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_163 ]]). The magazine reports that FBI and CIA investigations show no record that Atta visited Prague during that time and instead place the 9/11 plotter in Virginia Beach, Virginia, and Florida during that month. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/newsweek042802.html Newsweek, 4/28/01 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0501-05.htm Washington Post, 5/1/02 News Article http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/world/americas/1961668.stm BBC, 5/1/02 News Article unnamed_czech_intelligence_officials source unnamed_us_intelligence_officials source But Interior Minister Stanislav Gross maintains that the meeting did take place. A few days after the Newsweek report is published, he says, &#8220;Right now I do not have the slightest information that anything is wrong with the details I obtained from BIS counterintelligence. I trust the BIS more than journalists.&#8221; http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/world/americas/1961668.stm BBC, 5/1/02 News Article http://www.praguepost.com/P02/2002/20508/news3.php Prague Post, 5/8/02 News Article &#8220;We looked at this real hard because, obviously, if it were true, it would be huge. But nothing has matched up.&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/newsweek042802.html Newsweek, 4/28/02 News Article statement mohammed_atta passiveparticipant stanislav_gross activeparticipant ahmed_khalil_ibrahim_samir_al-ani passiveparticipant pragueConnection (May 2002-February 2003) complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_79 1 false Karen Kwiatkowski escorts about half a dozen Israelis, including some generals, from the first floor reception area of the Pentagon to Douglas Feith's office. &#8220;We just followed them, because they knew exactly where they were going and moving fast,&#8221; she later explains. The Israelis are not required to sign in as is required under special regulations put into effect after the Sept. 11 attacks. Kwiatkowski speculates that Feith?s office may have waived this requirement for the Israelis so that there would be no record of the meeting. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0807-02.htm Inter Press Service, 8/7/03 News Article karen_kwiatkowski source officeOfSpecialPlans May 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_473 1 false Defense Intelligence Agency analysts issue a &#8220;fabricator notice,&#8221; warning the intelligence community that Iraqi defector Mohammad Harith is of questionable reliability and recommending that agencies disregard any intelligence that he has provided. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4208564 Newsweek, 2/16/04 News Article http://www.nytimes.com/2004/02/13/politics/13INTE.html New York Times 2/13/04 News Article http://www.reuters.com/locales/newsArticle.jsp;:4032bd96:6f9ede1cc8cbb76f?type=worldNews&amp;locale=en_IN&amp;storyID=4379274 Reuters, 2/18/04 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0716-04.htm Knight Ridder, 7/16/2004 News Article unnamed_us_intelligence_official source The classified memo is &#8220;widely circulated within intelligence agencies, including the DIA and CIA,&#8221; Newsweek will later report, citing unnamed intelligence officials. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4208564 Newsweek, 2/16/04 News Article unnamed_us_intelligence_officials source linton_wells activeparticipant Almost a year later, in a presentation to the UN, Secretary of State Colin Powell will make the claim that Iraq has mobile biological weapons labs (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_442 ]]), and cite Harith as one of intelligence's four sources. Explaining how the reference to a dubious source made its way into Powell's speech, the State Department will say that the &#8220;fabricator notice&#8221; had not been properly cross-referenced in intelligence computers. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4208564 Newsweek, 2/16/04 News Article iraqi_national_congress_(inc) activeparticipant wmd May 5, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_304 1 false Appearing on ABC's &#8220;This Week,&#8221; Colin Powell says, &#8220;The United States reserves its option to do whatever it believes might be appropriate to see if there can be a regime change.... US policy is that regardless of what the inspectors do, the people of Iraq and the people of the region would be better off with a different regime in Baghdad.&#8221; http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/terror/02050707.htm US Department of State, 5/5/02 News Article http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/2586425.stm BBC, 12/19/02 News Article &#8220;The United States reserves its option to do whatever it believes might be appropriate to see if there can be a regime change.... US policy is that regardless of what the inspectors do, the people of Iraq and the people of the region would be better off with a different regime in Baghdad.&#8221; http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/terror/02050707.htm US Department of State, 5/5/02 News Article http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/2586425.stm BBC, 12/19/02 News Article duplicate colin_powell activeparticipant legalJustification June 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1187 1 false The CIA issues a classified report titled, &#8220;Iraq and al-Qaeda: A Murky Relationship,&#8221; which reportedly expresses doubts that Iraq is involved in international terrorism. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A53578-2002Oct19?language=printer The Washington Post, 10/20/2002 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0428-07.htm New York Times, 4/28/2004 News Article http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2004/07/11/wsept11.xml&amp;sSheet=/news/2004/07/11/ixnewstop.html Telegraph, 7/11/2004 News Article Undersecretary of Defense for Policy Douglas Feith informs Donald Rumsfeld that the report should be read &#8220;for content only&#8212;and CIA's interpretation should be ignored.&#8221; http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2004/07/11/wsept11.xml&amp;sSheet=/news/2004/07/11/ixnewstop.html Telegraph, 7/11/2004 News Article donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant douglas_feith activeparticipant terroristTies June 26, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_462 1 false Entifadh Qunbar, a lobbyist for the Iraqi National Congress (INC), sends a memo to the staff of the Senate Appropriations Committee, in which he provides information about a State Department-funded intelligence program, known as the &#8220;information-collection program,&#8221; run by the INC. Qunbar, who says he is the overall manager of the group, states in the memo that under the program, &#8220;defectors, reports and raw intelligence are cultivated and analyzed,&#8221; and &#8220;the results are reported through the INC newspaper (Al Mutamar), the Arabic and Western media and to appropriate governmental, nongovernmental and international agencies.&#8221; Information is also passed on to William Luti, who will later run the Office of Special Plans (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_78 ]]), and John Hannah, a senior national-security aide on Cheney?s staff, who Qunbar describes as the &#8220;principal point of contact.&#8221; http://msnbc.msn.com/id/3660169/ Newsweek, 12/15/03 News Article http://www.nytimes.com/2004/02/12/politics/12EXIL.html?pagewanted=all New York Times, 2/12/04 News Article memo source The memo provides a description of some of the people involved in the group and their activities. It says that the analytical group includes five analysts with a background in Iraq's military, Iraq's intelligence services and human rights. One person, a consultant, monitors the Iraqi government's alleged efforts to develop banned weapons. The five analysts process information and write reports, which are sent to Al Mutamar, the INC's newspaper, as well as the US government and many mainstream news organizations. Qunbar says that the information-collection program issued 30 reports between August 2001 and June 2002, which were sent to Al Mutamar. His memo also indicates the group published 28 private reports in collaboration with the INC's headquarters in London. The memo reveals that between October 2001 and May 2002, information provided by the INC was cited in more than 100 articles published by a variety of English-language news publications, including The New York Times, The Washington Post, Time, Newsweek, The New Yorker, CNN, Fox News, and several others. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/02/12/politics/12EXIL.html?pagewanted=all New York Times, 2/12/04 News Article memo source entifadh_qunbar activeparticipant iraqi_national_congress_(inc) activeparticipant dick_cheney activeparticipant memo activeparticipant officeOfSpecialPlans deception June 28, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_405 1 false The National Review publishes an op-ed piece by Lawrence Kudlow, titled, &#8220;Taking back the market . . . by force,&#8221; in which he claims, &#8220;The shock therapy of decisive war will elevate the stock market by a couple thousand points.&#8221; Kudlow is the CEO of Kudlow &amp; Co. http://www.nationalreview.com/script/printpage.asp?ref=/kudlow/kudlow062602.asp National Review, 6/26/02 News Article research_unit_for_political_economy activeparticipant motivesBehindWar July 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_71 1 false Condoleezza Rice tells an unnamed Bush administration official who has doubts about invading Iraq: &#8220;A decision has been made. Don't waste your breath.&#8221; http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/allnews/content_objectid=13434081_method=full_siteid=50143_headline=-THE-BIG-LIE-name_page.html The Mirror, 9/22/03 News Article unnamed_bush_administration_official(s)_and/or_us_intelligence_official(s) source &#8220;A decision has been made [about attacking Iraq]. Don't waste your breath.&#8221; http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/allnews/content_objectid=13434081_method=full_siteid=50143_headline=-THE-BIG-LIE-name_page.html The Mirror, 9/22/03 News Article duplicate condoleezza_rice activeparticipant decision After Summer 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_100 1 false The CIA shares its doubts about the veracity of the Africa-uranium claim with the White House, National Security Council staffers, members of Congress, other intelligence offices and the British. The agency warns administration officials against using the Africa-uranium claim as evidence that Iraq is pursuing the development of nuclear weapons. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A9011-2003Mar22.html The Washington Post, 3/22/03 News Article http://www.bayarea.com/mld/cctimes/news/6079211.htm Knight Ridder, 6/13/03 News Article unnamed_us_intelligence_officials source The CIA's doubts about the veracity of the Niger documents &#8220;were well-known and widely shared throughout the government before Bush's speech.&#8221; http://www.bayarea.com/mld/cctimes/news/6079211.htm Knight Ridder, 6/13/03 News Article statement africaUraniumClaim Summer 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_72 1 false Claire Short, the British secretary for international development who later resigns in protest of the impending invasion of Iraq, will say in June 2003 that three senior British Intelligence officials told her before the war that Bush and Blair's decision to attack Iraq had been made sometime during the summer of 2002 and that it would likely begin in mid-February 2003. &#8220;Three extremely senior people in the Whitehall system said to me very clearly and specifically that the target date was mid-February.&#8221; Furthermore, Short will learn, the decision by Blair's government to participate in the US invasion of Iraq bypassed proper government procedures and ignored opposition to the war from Britain's intelligence quarters. http://politics.guardian.co.uk/iraq/story/0,12956,979787,00.html Guardian, 6/18/03 News Article claire_short source &#8220;A decision has been made [about attacking Iraq]. Don't waste your breath.&#8221; http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/allnews/content_objectid=13434081_method=full_siteid=50143_headline=-THE-BIG-LIE-name_page.html The Mirror, 9/22/03 News Article duplicate claire_short activeparticipant decision Summer 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_722 1 false Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz secretly meets with Francis Brooke, the Iraqi National Congress' lobbyist, and Khidir Hamza, the former chief of Iraq's nuclear program. Wolfowitz asks Hamza if he thinks the aluminum tubes (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_41 ]]) could be used in centrifuges. Hamza&#8212;who has never built a centrifuge and who is considered an unreliable source by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_427 ]]) &#8212;looks at the tubes' specifications and concludes that the tubes are adaptable. Wolfowitz disseminates Hamza's assessment to several of his neoconservative colleagues who have posts in the administration. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 281 News Article paul_wolfowitz activeparticipant khidir_hamza activeparticipant francis_brooke activeparticipant aluminumTubes July 2002-March 19, 2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_158 1 false Numerous US and British, current and former, intelligence, military, and other government officials who have inside knowledge refute claims made by the Bush administration that Saddam Hussein's regime has or is seeking ties with global Islamic terrorist groups. http://news.independent.co.uk/world/politics/story.jsp?story=376732 Independent, 2/9/03 News Article http://www.iht.com/articles/85354.html New York Times, 2/3/03 News Article http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/4234549.htm Knight Ridder, 10/7/02 News Article http://www.rferl.org/nca/features/2002/10/29102002161249.asp Radio Free Europe, 10/29/02 News Article http://www.iht.com/cgi-bin/generic.cgi?template=articleprint.tmplh&amp;ArticleId=75500 International Herald Tribune, 11/1/02 News Article http://www.latimes.com/la-fg-noqaeda4nov04,0,4538810.story Los Angeles Times, 11/4/02 News Article http://www.sunspot.net/bal-op.iraq26sep26.story Baltimore Sun, 9/26/02 News Article http://www.opinionjournal.com/editorial/feature.html?id=110002133 Wall Street Journal, 8/15/02 News Article http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/02/04/wirq04.xml/ Telegraph, 2/4/03 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A59403-2002Sep9.html Washington Post 9/10/02 News Article http://www.sundayherald.com/28384 Sunday Herald, 10/13/02 News Article http://www.cbc.ca/stories/2002/11/01/bushiraq021101 CBC News, 11/1/02 News Article &#8220;Is there any confirmed evidence of Iraq's links to terrorism? No,&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A59403-2002Sep9.html Washington Post 9/10/02 News Article statement &#8220;We have found no evidence of links between Iraq and al-Qaeda. And we are working on 50 cases involving al-Qaeda or radical Islamic cells. I think if there were such links, we would have found them. But we have found no serious connections whatsoever.&#8221; http://www.latimes.com/la-fg-noqaeda4nov04,0,4538810.story Los Angeles Times, 11/4/02 News Article statement &#8220;We have not found any link between al-Qaeda and Iraq. Not a trace. There is no foundation to our investigations for the information given by the Americans.&#8221; http://www.sundayherald.com/28384 Sunday Herald, 10/13/02 News Article statement &#8220;While there are contacts, have been contacts, there is no co-operation. There is no substantial, noteworthy relationship.&#8221; http://www.cbc.ca/stories/2002/11/01/bushiraq021101 CBC News, 11/1/02 News Article statement &#8220;The administration sold the connection (between Iraq and al-Qaeda) to scare the pants off the American people and justify the war. There's no connection, and that's been confirmed by some of bin Laden's terrorist followers ... What you've seen here is the manipulation of intelligence for political ends.&#8221; http://www.truthout.org/docs_03/printer_072503B.shtml UPI, 7/23/03 News Article commentary &#8220;I have seen no evidence of Iraq providing weapons of mass destruction to non-Iraqi terrorist groups.&#8221; http://www.themercury.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5936,4817425^401,00.html Associated Press, 8/1/02 News Article statement &#8220;We've been looking at this [the possibility of links between Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda] hard for more than a year, and you know what, we just don't think it's there.&#8221; http://www.iht.com/articles/85354.html New York Times, 2/3/03 News Article statement &#8220;There is no question in my mind about the al-Qaeda connection. It is a connection that has unfolded, that we're learning more about as we are able to take the testimony of detainees, people who were high up in the al-Qaeda organization. And what emerges is a picture of a Saddam Hussein who became impressed with what al-Qaeda did after it bombed our embassies in 1998 in Kenya and Tanzania, began to give them assistance in chemical and biological weapons, something that they were having trouble achieving on their own, that harbored a terrorist network under this man Zarqawi, despite the fact that Saddam Hussein was told that Zarqawi was there.&#8221; http://www.house.gov/reform/min/features/iraq_on_the_record/ Iraq on the Record database, 3/16/2004 News Article http://www.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0302/05/lkl.00.html CNN, 2/15/2003 News Article statement &#8220;Well, we are, of course, continually learning more about these links between Iraq and al-Qaeda, and there is evidence that Secretary Powell did not have the time to talk about. But the core of the story is there in what Secretary Powell talked about. This poisons network with at least two dozen of its operatives operating in Baghdad, a man who is spreading poisons now throughout Europe and into Russia, a man who got medical care in Baghdad despite the fact that the Iraqis were asked to turn him over, training in biological and chemical weapons.&#8221; http://www.house.gov/reform/min/features/iraq_on_the_record/ Iraq on the Record database, 3/16/2004 News Article http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,78723,00.html Fox News, 2/16/2003 News Article statement &#8220;Now the al-Qaida is an organization that's quite disbursed and&#8212;and quite widespread in its effects, but it clearly has had links to the Iraqis, not to mention Iraqi links to all kinds of other terrorists. And what we do not want is the day when Saddam Hussein decides that he's had enough of dealing with sanctions, enough of dealing with, quote, unquote, &#8216;containment,&#8217; enough of dealing with America, and it's time to end it on his terms, by transferring one of these weapons, just a little vial of something, to a terrorist for blackmail or for worse.&#8221; http://www.house.gov/reform/min/features/iraq_on_the_record/ Iraq on the Record database, 3/16/2004 News Article http://cbsnews.cbsig.net/stories/2003/03/10/ftn/main543395.shtml CBS, 3/9/2003 News Article statement &#8220;[W]e know that there was training of al-Qaeda in chemical and perhaps biological warfare. We know that the Zarqawi was network out of there, this poisons network that was trying to spread poisons throughout.... And there was an Ansar al-Islam, which appears also to try to be operating in Iraq. So yes, the al-Qaeda link was there.&#8221; http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,96651,00.html Fox News, 9/7/2003 News Article http://www.fpa.org/newsletter_info2583/newsletter_info_sub_list.htm?section=Global%20Views%3A%20%20Iraq%20Update Global Views, 9/26/2003 News Article http://www.house.gov/reform/min/features/iraq_on_the_record/ Iraq on the Record database, 3/16/2004 News Article statement &#8220;Saddam Hussein&#8212;no one has said that there is evidence that Saddam Hussein directed or controlled 9/11, but let's be very clear, he had ties to al-Qaeda, he had al-Qaeda operatives who had operated out of Baghdad.&#8221; http://www.house.gov/reform/min/features/iraq_on_the_record/ Iraq on the Record database, 3/16/2004 News Article http://www.msnbc.com/news/973028.asp NBC, 9/28/2003 News Article statement &#8220;[Saddam Hussein]clearly has links to terrorism ... &#8212;Links to terrorism [that] would include al-Qaeda....&#8221; http://www.islam-online.net/English/News/2002-09/15/article78.shtml Islam OnLine, 9/15/2002 News Article http://www.cnn.com/2002/US/09/25/us.iraq.alqaeda/ CNN, 9/26/2002 News Article http://www.house.gov/reform/min/features/iraq_on_the_record/ Iraq on the Record database, 3/16/2004 News Article http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,63125,00.html Fox News, 9/15/2002 News Article statement &#8220;We are not aware of evidence, intelligence or otherwise, that the Iraqi government or its agencies are passing on weapons of mass destruction to al- Qa'ida. Nor have we seen any credible evidence linking the Iraqi government to the September 11 attacks.&#8221; http://www.converge.org.nz/pma/cra0323.htm Independent, 3/26/02 News Article statement &#8220;I'm not aware of any linkage to al-Qaeda or terrorism, so I have to wonder if this has something to do with his father being targeted by Saddam,&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A10749-2002Jul27.html Washington Post, 7/28/02 News Article statement Osama bin Laden considered Saddam Hussein &#8220;an apostate, an infidel, or someone who is not worthy of being a fellow Muslim.&#8221; Additionally, in 1990, bin Laden wanted to raise an army of mujaheddin fighters to expel Saddam's forces from Kuwait. http://www.commondreams.org/views02/0820-04.htm Foreign Policy in Focus, 8/20/02 News Article commentary &#8220;Al-Qaeda hates the Iraqi government for the way it treated the Kurds in northern Iraq after the Gulf War. There is no reason why it should be any different now. .. Iraq has been involved with Palestinian groups such as Hamas, but not with al-Qaeda.&#8221; http://www.news.scotsman.com/topics.cfm?id=118342003&amp;tid=518 Scotsman, 1/30/03 News Article commentary &#8220;Thus far, all the arguments presented for sending American boys and girls into one of the world's most dangerous neighborhoods are half-truths, spurious assumptions and utter nonsense. Washington simply cannot prove the case that Iraq is tied to al-Qaeda.&#8221; http://www.iht.com/cgi-bin/generic.cgi?template=articleprint.tmplh&amp;ArticleId=75500 International Herald Tribune, 11/1/02 News Article commentary Allegations of Iraq working with al-Qaeda are &#8220;nonsense.... Not even the Americans believe it anymore.&#8221; http://www.latimes.com/la-fg-noqaeda4nov04,0,4538810.story Los Angeles Times, 11/4/02 News Article statement The hawks are not getting evidence of al-Qaeda/Iraq ties &#8220;from the CIA because the CIA, to its credit, is telling it the way they see it, which is what they should be doing, describing the world as it is, not as policy-makers wish it to be, or hope it to be, but as it is.&#8221; http://www.cbc.ca/stories/2002/11/01/bushiraq021101 CBC News,11/1/02 News Article statement &#8220;I think that they're [administration officials] not getting the intelligence outcome that they want from the CIA, that is, that the CIA is skeptical of ties between Al-Qaeda and Iraq&#8212;justifiably so. The CIA [has] run around trying to corroborate this stuff, and it hasn't had too much luck. And the ties that they have claimed seem very thin and on closer inspection don't seem to go anywhere.&#8221; http://www.rferl.org/nca/features/2002/10/29102002161249.asp Radio Free Europe, 10/29/02 News Article commentary &#8220;I've seen nothing that's compelling&#8221; to indicate that Saddam represents an imminent threat. http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/4234549.htm Knight Ridder, 10/7/02 News Article statement &#8220;I have seen no link to al-Qaeda. No one has demonstrated it to me. And therefore we have to be very careful not to confuse the citizens. One thing is that you don't like the Iraqi regime, that Saddam Hussein is a dictator. But there are many terrible dictators. That's not a reason to start a war with all the consequences it could have for millions of innocents.&#8221; http://www.latimes.com/la-fg-noqaeda4nov04,0,4538810.story Los Angeles Times, 11/4/02 News Article commentary &#8220;It could well be the case that there were links, active links, between al-Qaeda and the Iraqi regime before Sept. 11. What I'm asked is if I've seen any evidence of that. And the answer is: I haven't.&#8221; http://www.latimes.com/la-fg-noqaeda4nov04,0,4538810.story Los Angeles Times, 11/4/02 News Article statement &#8220;[T]here is scant evidence to tie Saddam to terrorist organizations, and even less to the Sept. 11 attacks. Indeed Saddam's goals have little in common with the terrorists who threaten us, and there is little incentive for him to make common cause with them. He is unlikely to risk his investment in weapons of mass destruction, much less his country, by handing such weapons to terrorists who would use them for their own purposes and leave Baghdad as the return address.&#8221; http://www.opinionjournal.com/editorial/feature.html?id=110002133 Wall Street Journal, 8/15/02 News Article http://www.latimes.com/la-fg-noqaeda4nov04,0,4538810.story Los Angeles Times, 11/4/02 News Article commentary &#8220;The claims of Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld and Vice President Dick Cheney that Iraq might join with terrorists to strike the United States at any time are far-fetched. Very little about the historical record or current intelligence lends credence to that view.&#8221; Therefore his pursuit of such weapons are aimed merely at deterring US interventionism in the Middle East. The op-ed concluded, &#8220;Mr. Cheney and Mr. Rumsfeld would be more credible and more effective in making their case for threatening force against Mr. Hussein if they cut back on the overdramatizations and stuck to the facts.&#8221; http://www.sunspot.net/bal-op.iraq26sep26.story Baltimore Sun, 9/26/02 News Article http://www.latimes.com/la-fg-noqaeda4nov04,0,4538810.story Los Angeles Times, 11/4/02 News Article commentary daniel_benjamin activeparticipant igor_ivanov activeparticipant tony_blair activeparticipant rohan_gunaratna activeparticipant vince_cannistraro activeparticipant youssef_m._ibrahim activeparticipant jean_chretien activeparticipant michael_o_hanlon activeparticipant baltasar_garzon activeparticipant anna_eshoo activeparticipant brent_scowcroft activeparticipant jean-louis_brugui←re activeparticipant jack_straw activeparticipant us_department_of_state,_4/30/2001 activeparticipant saddam_hussein passiveparticipant george_w._bush activeparticipant vince_cannistraro activeparticipant richard_durbin activeparticipant michael_chandler activeparticipant terroristTies Summer 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_431 1 false Ahmed Chalabi, the leader of the Iraqi National Congress, says that &#8220;informants within the Iraqi intelligence community,&#8221; have revealed &#8220;that Hussein's VX stockpile is far larger than the 3.9 tons Iraq reported&#8212;something UNSCOM inspectors have long suspected,&#8221; reports The Washington Post. &#8220;Chalabi also says that the VX had been converted into a dry salt for long-term storage and was positioned in various sites across Iraq for use in the event of a foreign attack. UNSCOM officials said the account seemed credible, given what was learned about Iraq's VX program in the final months of weapons inspections.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A23545-2002Jul30.html Washington Post, 7/31/2002 News Article iraqi_national_congress_(inc) activeparticipant ahmed_chalabi activeparticipant wmd Summer 2002-2003 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_361 1 false Current and former top US military brass dispute White House claims that Iraq poses an immediate threat to the US and that it must be dealt with militarily. In late July 2002, The Washington Post reports that &#8220;top generals and admirals in the military establishment, including members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff&#8221; believe that Saddam Hussein's regime &#8220;poses no immediate threat and that the United States should continue its policy of containment rather than invade Iraq to force a change of leadership in Baghdad.&#8221; The report says that the military officials' positions are based &#8220;in part on intelligence assessments of the state of Hussein's nuclear, chemical and biological weapons programs and his missile delivery capabilities.&#8221; The newspaper says that there are several reasons why these dissident officers disagree with their civilian bosses. They worry that if Saddam Hussein is removed, Iraq could &#8220;split up, ... potentially leading to chaos and the creation of new anti-American regimes and terrorist sanctuaries in the region.&#8221; It is also possible, they say, that an invasion of Iraq could provoke Saddam Hussein into using whatever weapons of mass destruction he may have. And even if the invasion is successful, the aftermath could see &#8220;mass instability, requiring tens of thousands of US troops to maintain peace, prop up a post-Saddam government, and prevent the fragmentation of Iraq,&#8221; the military brass warns. Their position is that the US should continue its policy of containment, specifically sanctions and the enforcement of the US- and British- imposed &#8220;no-fly&#8221; zones. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A10749-2002Jul27.html The Washington Post, 7/28/02 News Article Responding to the dissenting opinions of these military officials, Richard Perle, current chairman of the Defense Policy Board, says that the decision of whether or not to attack Iraq is &#8220;a political judgment that these guys aren't competent to make.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A10749-2002Jul27.html The Washington Post, 7/28/02 News Article A few days later, The Washington Post publishes another story along similar lines, reporting, &#8220;Much of the senior uniformed military, with the notable exception of some top Air Force and Marine generals, opposes going to war anytime soon, a stance that is provoking frustration among civilian officials in the Pentagon and in the White House.&#8221; Notably the division has created &#8220;an unusual alliance between the State Department and the uniformed side of the Pentagon, elements of the government that more often seem to oppose each other in foreign policy debates.&#8221; http://www.mafhoum.com/press3/tim107.htm The Washington Post, 8/1/02 News Article unnamed_senior_military_officials source The extent of the generals' disagreement is quite significant, reports the Post, which quotes one proponent of invading Iraq expressing his/her concern that the brass' opinion could ultimately dissuade Bush from taking military action. &#8220;You can't force things onto people who don't want to do it, and the three- and four-star Army generals don't want to do it. I think this will go back and forth, and back and forth, until it's time for Bush to run for reelection,&#8221; the source says. http://www.mafhoum.com/press3/tim107.htm The Washington Post, 8/1/02 News Article unnamed_us_official source During the next several months, several former military officials speak out against the Bush administration's military plans, including Wesley Clark, Joseph P. Hoar, John M. Shalikashvili, Tony McPeak, Gen James L Jones, Norman Schwarzkopf, Anthony Zinni, Henry H. Shelton and Thomas G. McInerney. In mid-January 2003, Time magazine reports that according to its sources, &#8220;as many as 1 in 3 senior officers questions the wisdom of a preemptive war with Iraq.&#8221; They complain that &#8220;the US military is already stretched across the globe, the war against Osama bin Laden is unfinished, and ... a long postwar occupation looks inevitable.&#8221; http://www.time.com/time/covers/1101030127/nrummy.html Time, 1/19/03 News Article &#8220;I'd argue that containment is certainly a better approach than either marching on Baghdad or destabilizing the Iraqi government by killing Saddam. It only has to work until something happens to him&#8212;he's either killed or dies.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A10749-2002Jul27.html Washington Post, 7/28/02 News Article statement &#8220;In the Gulf War we had an international force and troops from many nations. We would be lacking if we went it alone at this time. ... It is not going to be an easy battle but it would be much more effective if we didn't have to do it alone.&#8221; http://www.obv.org.uk/reports/2002/rpt20020819h.html Times, 8/19/02 News Article statement &#8220;It is almost a certainty that we'd wind up doing a campaign against the Kurds and Shiites.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A10749-2002Jul27.html Washington Post, 7/28/02 News Article statement &#8220;We've bottled him up for 11 years, so we're doing okay. I don't know the reason the administration is so focused on Iraq. I'm very puzzled by it.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A10749-2002Jul27.html Washington Post, 7/28/02 News Article statement &#8220;Bush should publicly admit personal failure and start the diplomacy over."The world would breathe a sigh of relief, and we'd go back and do it right. I mean, the world would fall in love with this guy. It's not that hard to fix.&#8221; http://www.calpundit.com/archives/000500.html Associated Press, 2/25/03 News Article statement &#8220;Afghanistan was Afghanistan; Iraq is Iraq. It would be foolish, if you were ever committed to going into Iraq, to think that the principles that were successful in Afghanistan would necessarily be successful in Iraq. In my opinion, they would not.&#8221; http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/08/23/wirq23.xml/ Telegraph, 8/23/02 News Article statement &#8220;We must continue to persuade the other members of the Security Council of the correctness of our position, and we must not be too quick to take no for an answer.&#8221; http://www.mindfully.org/Reform/2002/Retired-Generals-Warn-Bush24sep02.htm New York Times, 9/24/02 News Article statement &#8220;We should not wait to be attacked with weapons of mass destruction.&#8221; http://www.mindfully.org/Reform/2002/Retired-Generals-Warn-Bush24sep02.htm New York Times, 9/24/02 News Article statement &#8220;On an operational level, I would just point out this, that, for example, if you can't bring Saudi Arabia into the coalition to be able to use, at a minimum, air space, but, ideally air bases as well, the complications associated with carrying out a military campaign will grow exponentially. We need them. We need a broad base. We need it for the political reasons as well as the military reasons that we all understand. It will make the whole job a great deal easier. And, in the long run, as Wes [General Clark] said, in our relationship with these countries in the future, it will expedite and ease our ability to do business after the military campaign is over.&#8221; http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/10.05B.levin.dont.p.htm Levin, 9/24/02 News Article statement &#8220;I'm not aware of any linkage to al-Qaeda or terrorism, so I have to wonder if this has something to do with his father being targeted by Saddam,&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A10749-2002Jul27.html Washington Post, 7/28/02 News Article statement &#8220;It's a question of what's the sense of urgency here, and how soon would we need to act unilaterally? So far as any of the information has been presented, there is nothing that indicates that in the immediate, next hours, next days, that there's going to be nuclear-tipped missiles put on launch pads to go against our forces or our allies in the region.&#8221; http://www.mindfully.org/Reform/2002/Retired-Generals-Warn-Bush24sep02.htm New York Times, 9/24/02 News Article statement &#8220;We are a global nation with global interests, and undermining the credibility of the United Nations does very little to help provide stability and security and safety to the rest of the world, where we have to operate for economic reasons and political reasons.&#8221; http://www.mindfully.org/Reform/2002/Retired-Generals-Warn-Bush24sep02.htm New York Times, 9/24/02 News Article statement &#8220;It's pretty interesting that all the generals see it the same way and all the others who have never fired a shot and are hot to go to war see it another way&#8221; http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/bush/zinni2.htm Tampa Tribune, 8/24/02 News Article statement &#8220;Why are young people flocking to these causes? Could the issues be political, economic and social? Could disenfranchisement or oppression be what drives them rather than the religious fanaticism that may be the core element to only a few? How do we cooperate to fix these problems? How do we help a part of the world that's trying to come to grips with modernity?&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/middleeastinstitute101002.htm Middle East Institute, 10/10/02 News Article statement &#8220;If we think there is a fast solution to changing the governance of Iraq, then we don't understand history, the nature of the country, the divisions, or the underneath-suppressed passions that could rise up. God help us if we think this transition will occur easily.&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/middleeastinstitute101002.htm Middle East Institute, 10/10/02 News Article statement &#8220;We've bottled him up for 11 years, so we're doing okay. I don't know the reason the administration is so focused on Iraq. I'm very puzzled by it.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A10749-2002Jul27.html The Washington Post, 7/28/02 News Article statement &#8220;If we get drawn into something in Iraq, then our focus will go very heavily there, and it will be hard to sustain the momentum in the war on terrorism. That's the biggest danger that I see.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A21639-2002Aug31.html The Washington Post, 9/1/02 News Article statement james_l_jones activeparticipant norman_schwarzkopf activeparticipant john_m._shalikashvili activeparticipant anthony_zinni activeparticipant henry_h._shelton activeparticipant thomas_g._mcinerney activeparticipant joseph_hoar activeparticipant tony_mcpeak activeparticipant richard_perle activeparticipant kim_holmes activeparticipant wesley_clark activeparticipant predictions maintreamDissent July 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_44 1 false Houston G. Wood III, a retired Oak Ridge physicist considered to be &#8220;among the most eminent living experts&#8221; on centrifuges, reviews the tube controversy and concludes that it is very unlikely that the tubes were imported to be used for centrifuges. He says the aluminum tubes are too thick to be used as rotors. He sends a report of his analysis to US authorities. He later tells The Washington Post in mid-2003 that &#8220;it would have been extremely difficult to make these tubes into centrifuges,&#8221; adding that it stretched &#8220;the imagination to come up with a way.&#8221; He also adds that other centrifuge experts whom he knows share his assessment of the tubes. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39500-2003Aug9.html Washington Post, 8/10/03 News Article http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2003/transcripts/s976015.htm Australian Broadcasting Corporation News Article houston_g._wood_iii source houston_g._wood_iii activeparticipant aluminumTubes Late July 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_178 1 false A Congressional panel investigating the terrorist attacks of September 11 concludes that there is no evidence that Mohammad Atta&#8212;under any of his known aliases&#8212;visited Prague in April 2001 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_163 ]]). http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0803-04.htm Boston Globe, 8/3/03 News Article &#8220;The CIA had proof that Iraqi guy was not in Prague at the time. &#8216;The mystery here is why did the CIA allow that story to live when it could disprove it with hard information.&#8217; &#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0803-04.htm Boston Globe, 8/3/03 News Article commentary ahmed_khalil_ibrahim_samir_al-ani passiveparticipant mohammed_atta passiveparticipant pragueConnection terroristTies July 30, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_181 1 false Richard Butler, a former UN inspector from Australia, tells the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, &#8220;I have seen no evidence of Iraq providing weapons of mass destruction to non-Iraqi terrorist groups.&#8221; http://www.themercury.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5936,4817425^401,00.html Associated Press, 8/1/02 News Article &#8220;I have seen no evidence of Iraq providing weapons of mass destruction to non-Iraqi terrorist groups.&#8221; http://www.themercury.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5936,4817425^401,00.html Associated Press, 8/1/02 News Article duplicate richard_butler activeparticipant terroristTies July 30, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_427 1 false Khidir Hamza, &#8220;who played a leading role in Iraq's nuclear weapon program before defecting in 1994,&#8221; tells the Senate Judiciary Committee that according to German intelligence, Iraq has &#8220;more than 10 tons of uranium and one ton of slightly enriched uranium ... in its possession&#8221; which would be &#8220;enough to generate the needed bomb-grade uranium for three nuclear weapons by 2005.&#8221; He says that Iraq is &#8220;using corporations in India and other countries to import the needed equipment for its program and channel it through countries like Malaysia for shipment to Iraq.&#8221; He also claims that Iraq is &#8220;gearing up to extend the range of its missiles to easily reach Israel.&#8221; The testimony is widely reported in the media. http://www.cnn.com/2002/ALLPOLITICS/07/31/senate.iraq.hearing/ CNN, 8/1/02 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,767235,00.html Guardian, 8/1/02 News Article http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/08/01/wirq01.xml/ Telegraph, 8/1/02 News Article Hamza, however, is considered by many to be an unreliable source. David Albright, president of the Institute for Science and International Security where Hamza worked as an analyst from 1997 to 1999, says that after Hamza defected &#8220;he went off the edge&#8221; and &#8220;started saying irresponsible things.&#8221; http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/10/12/MN186933.DTL San Francisco Chronicle, 10/12/02 News Article http://www.nybooks.com/articles/16922 New York Review of Books, 2/26/04 News Article And General Hussein Kamel, Saddam Hussein's son-in-law who was in charge of the dictator's former weapons program but who defected in 1995, told UNSCOM and IAEA inspectors at the time of his defection, as well as US and British intelligence, that Khidhir Hamza was not a reliable source (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_424 ]]). http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030512fa_fact New Yorker, 5/5/03 News Article unscom_interview_with_hussein_kamel,_august_22,_1995 source The IAEA will say in 2004 that before the US invasion of Iraq, it had warned journalists reporting on Iraq's alleged nuclear weapons program that Hamza was not a credible source. &#8220;Hamza had no credibility at all. Journalists who called us and asked for an assessment of these people&#8212;we'd certainly tell them&#8221; http://www.nybooks.com/articles/16922 New York Review of Books, 2/26/04 News Article unnamed_iaea_staff_member source khidir_hamza activeparticipant david_albright activeparticipant hussein_kamel activeparticipant wmd July 31, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_362 1 false Joseph P. Hoar, a retired Marine Corps general who commanded American forces in the Persian Gulf after the 1991 war, warns the Senate Foreign Relations Committee that the proposed invasion is both &#8220;risky&#8221; and possibly unnecessary. http://www.why-war.com/news/2002/08/01/expertsw.html New York Times, 8/1/02 News Article joseph_hoar activeparticipant maintreamDissent August 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_369 1 false Retired Army General Henry H. Shelton, a former chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, tells The Washington Post, &#8220;If we get drawn into something in Iraq, then our focus will go very heavily there, and it will be hard to sustain the momentum in the war on terrorism. That's the biggest danger that I see.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A21639-2002Aug31.html The Washington Post, 9/1/02 News Article &#8220;If we get drawn into something in Iraq, then our focus will go very heavily there, and it will be hard to sustain the momentum in the war on terrorism. That's the biggest danger that I see.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A21639-2002Aug31.html The Washington Post, 9/1/02 News Article duplicate henry_h._shelton activeparticipant maintreamDissent August 1, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_409 1 false A panel of experts on Iraq warns the Senate Foreign Relations Committee that administering Iraq after the toppling of Saddam's government will be expensive and difficult. The panel says that &#8220;there are no obvious successors to Saddam Hussein and that the Bush administration should be prepared to help install and protect a pro-American government if it decides to topple him&#8212;a proposition, they added, that would be long and expensive,&#8221; the New York Times reports. &#8220;Nearly all the experts argued that setting up a stable, pro-Western government in Baghdad would require a huge infusion of aid and a long-term commitment of American troops to maintain peace.&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/nytimes080202.htm New York Times, 8/2/02 News Article Phebe Marr, a professor from the National Defense University who has written prolifically on Iraq, tells the panel, &#8220;If the US is going to take the responsibility for removing the current leadership, it should assume that it cannot get the results it wants on the cheap.&#8221; Scott Feil, a retired Army colonel who studies postwar reconstruction programs, says that 75,000 troops will be needed in Iraq to stabilize the country after Saddam is removed from power. He estimates that such a deployment will cost in excess of $16 billion per year. After the first 12 months, the colonel says that the force could be reduced in number, possibly to as low as 5,000, though this military presence would have to be maintained for at least another five years. In contrast, Caspar W. Weinberger, the secretary of defense under President Ronald Reagan argues that the United States will not need to undertake a major effort in rebuilding Iraq. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/nytimes080202.htm New York Times, 8/2/02 News Article scott_feil activeparticipant caspar_weinberger activeparticipant phebe_marr activeparticipant preWarPlanning predictions August 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_366 1 false General James L. Jones, the four-star commander of the Marine Corps who will be taking over as NATO's supreme allied commander, tells The Washington Times that toppling Iraq's government and defeating its army will be much more difficult than it was to remove the Taliban. &#8220;Afghanistan was Afghanistan; Iraq is Iraq,&#8221; he explains. &#8220;It would be foolish, if you were ever committed to going into Iraq, to think that the principles that were successful in Afghanistan would necessarily be successful in Iraq. In my opinion, they would not.&#8221; The general suggests that a large force will be needed to successfully invade the country. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/08/23/wirq23.xml/ Telegraph, 8/23/02 News Article &#8220;Afghanistan was Afghanistan; Iraq is Iraq. It would be foolish, if you were ever committed to going into Iraq, to think that the principles that were successful in Afghanistan would necessarily be successful in Iraq. In my opinion, they would not.&#8221; http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/08/23/wirq23.xml/ Telegraph, 8/23/02 News Article duplicate james_l_jones activeparticipant maintreamDissent August 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_709 1 false Defense Intelligence Agency [DIA] reservist and Penn-State political-science professor Chris Carney and Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Douglas Feith give two presentations on Iraq's alleged ties to al-Qaeda to the CIA at the agency's Langley headquarters. CIA analysts are not impressed, having seen much of the information before and having already determined that it was not credible. Some of the information will nevertheless be included in speeches by Bush and in testimony by Tenet to Congress. The information is also put into a classified memo to the Senate Intelligence Committee by Feith, which is later leaked to The Weekly Standard, a neoconservative magazine. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 238 News Article chris_carney activeparticipant douglas_feith activeparticipant officeOfSpecialPlans terroristTies Early August 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_173 1 false Several Pentagon officials, including Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz, meet with the FBI's assistant director for counterterrorism, Pat D'Amuro, to discuss the latest intelligence concerning the alleged April 2001 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_163 ]]) meeting between 9/11 plotter Mohammed Atta and Iraqi diplomat Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani. Wolfowitz pressures the two agencies' analysts to confirm that the Prague meeting had in fact happened. The FBI concedes that the occurrence of the meeting, though not proven, was at least possible. http://www.cnn.com/2002/ALLPOLITICS/08/26/time.iraq/ Time, 9/2/02 News Article unnamed_cia_and_fbi_officials source mohammed_atta passiveparticipant paul_wolfowitz activeparticipant pat_d_amuro activeparticipant ahmed_khalil_ibrahim_samir_al-ani passiveparticipant pragueConnection deception terroristTies August 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_432 1 false US satellite photos reportedly show increased activity near the Taji factory in Iraq, which US intelligence suspects may be involved in the production of anthrax. The facility is located 10 miles outside of Baghdad. http://216.26.163.62/2002/ss_jordan_08_14.html World Tribune, 8/14/02 News Article But on August 20, a week after news of the satellite photos are reported, the Iraqi government allows 15 journalists, mostly Iraqis representing foreign presses, to tour the alleged weapons site. Reporters who tour the facility find &#8220;piles of 110-pound sacks of sugar and rice and boxes of milk covered the floor. Writing on the sacks [indicates] ... they were imported under the oil-for-food program that allows Iraq to sell unlimited quantities of oil provided the proceeds go for food, medicine and other supplies,&#8221; http://www.why-war.com/news/2002/08/20/iraqioff.html Associated Press, 8/20/02 News Article including powdered milk imported from Yemen, Vietnam, Tunisia and Indonesia and sacks of sugar imported from Egypt and India. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0820-03.htm Saleh, 8/20/02 News Article Iraq's trade minister, Mohammed Mehdi Saleh, explains that the trucks captured by the satellite photos had been distributing foodstuffs from al-Taji to warehouses in the various provinces of Iraq. He states: &#8220;They [Americans] are checking every movement in Iraq, but a satellite cannot tell real information. This is rubbish information, actually rubbish information to convert baby milk and baby food and sugar to weapons of mass destruction.... We started to move food from this warehouse to supply stores in provinces early this month, and more specifically on August 4 as we started to distribute food rations every two months.... We have transported 2,500 tons of powdered milk in 187 trucks and not 60 trucks as the Americans said and we will continue (to do so).... If they enlarge the satellite photographs they can compare boxes of the baby milk moved from this site as they were not covered and boxes here.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0820-03.htm Saleh, 8/20/02 News Article An enlargement of the pictures would have revealed the words, &#8220;Al-moudhish,&#8221; written on the packages&#8212;the brand name of the milk that had been imported from Oman. http://www.why-war.com/news/2002/08/20/iraqioff.html Associated Press, 8/20/02 News Article mohammed_mehdi_saleh activeparticipant wmd (August 2002) complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1188 1 false Pentagon officials working in the Office of Special Plans visit George Tenet at CIA headquarters under the direction of Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Douglas Feith to voice their objections to the final draft of a CIA assessment on Iraq's supposed links to terrorism. The officials disputed the report's conclusion that intelligence suggesting an alleged April 2001 Prague meeting between Mohammed Atta and Iraqi diplomat Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_162 ]]) was not credible. As a result of Pentagon officials' objections, the CIA's assessment is postponed until September 18. Tenet will later say he &#8220;didn't think much of&#8221; the briefing. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2004/07/11/wsept11.xml&amp;sSheet=/news/2004/07/11/ixnewstop.html Telegraph, 7/11/2004 News Article http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5412317/site/newsweek Newsweek, 7/19/2004 News Article george_tenet activeparticipant terroristTies officeOfSpecialPlans pragueConnection August 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_481 1 false The Counter Terrorism Evaluation Group, also know as the &#8220;Wurmser-Maloof&#8221; project, which had been formed shortly after the September 11 attacks (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_82 ]]), is disbanded. http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/s1048656.htm Reuters, 2/19/04 News Article officeOfSpecialPlans (Early August 2002) complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_715 1 false British Prime Minister Tony Blair and US President George Bush discuss over the phone their intention to topple Saddam Hussein's government. An unnamed White House official who later reads the transcripts of the 15-minute phone call, will explain to Vanity Fair that it was clear from their conversation that the decision to invade Iraq had already been made. The magazine reports in April 2004: &#8220;Before the call, the official says, he had the impression that the probability of invasion was high, but still below 100 percent, Afterward, he says, &#8216;it was a done deal.&#8217; &#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 284 News Article unnamed_white_house_official source george_w._bush activeparticipant tony_blair activeparticipant decision August 4, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_381 1 false Appearing on CBS's &#8220;Face the Nation,&#8221; Brent Scowcroft warns that a unilateral invasion of Iraq could destabilize the Middle East and undermine efforts to defeat global terrorist groups. Scowcroft says: &#8220;It's a matter of setting your priorities. There's no question that Saddam is a problem. He has already launched two wars and spent all the resources he can working on his military. But the President has announced that terrorism is our number one focus. Saddam is a problem, but he's not a problem because of terrorism. I think we could have an explosion in the Middle East. It could turn the whole region into a cauldron and destroy the War on Terror.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0805-02.htm Times, 8/5/02 News Article &#8220;Scowcroft has managed to get one thing half right, even though he misdescribes it. He fears that if we attack Iraq &#8216;I think we could have an explosion in the Middle East. It could turn the whole region into a caldron and destroy the War on Terror.&#8217; One can only hope that we turn the region into a cauldron, and faster, please. If ever there were a region that richly deserved being cauldronized, it is the Middle East today. If we wage the war effectively, we will bring down the terror regimes in Iraq, Iran, and Syria, and either bring down the Saudi monarchy or force it to abandon its global assembly line to indoctrinate young terrorists. That's our mission in the war against terror.&#8221; http://www.nationalreview.com/ledeen/ledeen080602a.asp National Review Online, 8/6/02 News Article commentary brent_scowcroft activeparticipant predictions maintreamDissent (8:00 p.m.) August 5, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_716 1 false After dinner at the White House, Colin Powell speaks privately with George Bush and convinces him that international backing would be crucial for an invasion of Iraq and the inevitable occupation that would follow. Powell cites polls which indicate that a majority of Americans favor seeking a UN resolution. Bush reluctantly agrees. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 284 News Article george_w._bush activeparticipant colin_powell activeparticipant weaponsInspections August 7, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_371 1 false Speaking to the Commonwealth Club of California in San Francisco, Cheney states, &#8220;Many of us, I think, are skeptical that simply returning the inspectors will solve the problem. A debate with [Mr Hussein] over inspectors simply, I think, would be an effort by him to obfuscate, delay and avoid having to live up to the accords that he signed up to at the end of the Gulf war.&#8221; http://www.intelmessages.org/Messages/National_Security/wwwboard/messages/1460.html New York Times, 8/7/02 News Article http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/oil/2002/0811greed.htm Observer, 8/11/02 News Article In the speech, he also tells his audience that Saddam &#8220;sits on top of 10 per cent of the world's oil reserves. He has enormous wealth being generated by that,&#8221; adding, &#8220;And left to his own devices, it's the judgment of many of us that in the not too distant future he will acquire nuclear weapons.&#8221; http://www.intelmessages.org/Messages/National_Security/wwwboard/messages/1460.html New York Times, 8/7/02 News Article http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/oil/2002/0811greed.htm Observer, 8/11/02 News Article dick_cheney activeparticipant motivesBehindWar nuclearQuotes weaponsInspections August 12, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_379 1 false Former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger writes an op-ed piece which is published in the paper edition of The Washington Post. In it, Kissinger argues against a unilateral preemptive strike against Iraq without first creating a new international security framework that allows for nations to conduct preemptive strikes only under specific limited conditions. Otherwise, Kissinger argues, such an action would set a dangerous precedent that other nations might attempt to use in justifying their own policies. http://www.etaiwannews.com/Perspective/2002/08/17/1029553745.htm New York Times, 8/16/02 News Article http://www.why-war.com/news/2002/08/13/bushrisk.html Times of London, 8/13/02 News Article http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,60626,00.html Fox News, 8/16/02 News Article http://www.why-war.com/news/2002/08/17/kissinge.html Independent, 8/17/02 News Article &#8220;America's special responsibility is to work toward an international system that rests on more than military power ? indeed, that strives to translate power into co-operation. Any other attitude will gradually isolate and exhaust America.&#8221; http://www.why-war.com/news/2002/08/17/kissinge.html Independent, 8/17/02 News Article excerpt &#8220;Military intervention should be attempted only if we are willing to sustain such an effort for however long it is needed.&#8221; http://www.etaiwannews.com/Perspective/2002/08/17/1029553745.htm New York Times, 8/16/02 News Article excerpt &#8220;The objective of a regime change should be subordinated ... to the need to eliminate weapons of mass destruction from Iraq as required by the UN resolutions. It is necessary to propose a stringent inspection system that achieves substantial transparency of Iraqi institutions. A time limit should be set. The case for military intervention then will have been made in the context of seeking a common approach.&#8221; http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,60626,00.html Fox News, 8/16/02 News Article excerpt &#8220;Because of the precedent-setting nature of this war, its outcome will determine the way US actions will be viewed far more than the way we entered it.&#8221; He added that the US needs to be careful that it does not set a dangerous precedent in foreign policy that might be readily copied by others. &#8220;It is not in the American national interest to establish preemption as a universal principle available to every nation,&#8221; he said. http://www.why-war.com/news/2002/08/13/bushrisk.html Times of London, 8/13/02 News Article excerpt john_larson activeparticipant maintreamDissent August 13, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_382 1 false Former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger joins Secretary of State Colin L. Powell and his advisors for a meeting. Describing the meeting, the New York Times reports three days later that they &#8220;have decided that they should focus international discussion on how Iraq would be governed after Mr. Hussein&#8212;not only in an effort to assure a democracy but as a way to outflank administration hawks and slow the rush to war, which many in the department oppose.&#8221; http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/08.17A.gop.no.irq.htm New York Times, 8/15/02 News Article henry_a._kissinger activeparticipant colin_powell activeparticipant preWarPlanning maintreamDissent August 15, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_387 1 false The Washington Post syndicated columnist Charles Krauthhammer, speaking on &#8220;Inside Washington&#8221; in a discussion with fellow Post columnist Charlie King and Post military reporter Thomas Ricks, argues in favor of the Bush administration's policy on Iraq. At one point, moderator Gordan Petersons asks what the US should do after deposing Saddam. Krauthhammer responds: &#8220;We don't speak about exit strategies; this is not Bosnia, or Haiti, or the Balkans. This is very important, everybody understands it, we are not going to run away. We are going to get there, and we are going to stay. We are going to try to make a reasonably civil society, reasonably pro-American, a good influence on the neighbors, and disarmed. That's a large undertaking, and I think we are absolutely [unintelligible] everybody who is supporting the war or the invasion is in favor of staying and doing the job.&#8221; When Thomas Ricks notes that Krauthhammer's proposal would involve nine of the US Army's ten active-duty divisions, he counters, &#8220;That assumption is entirely unwarranted. I think we will be accepted as liberators, as we were in Afghanistan.&#8221; He also shoots down a comment from Peterson referring to the cost of invading Iraq. &#8220;If we win the war, we are in control of Iraq, it is the single largest source of oil in the world, it's got huge reserves, which have been suppressed because of Iraq's actions, and Saddam's. We will have a bonanza, a financial one, at the other end, if the war is successful,&#8221; Krauthhammer explains. http://www.wusatv9.com/insidewashington/insidewashington_article.aspx?storyid=8463 WUSATV, 8/3/02 News Article charles_krauthhammer activeparticipant motivesBehindWar preWarPlanning August 15, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_386 1 false Kenneth Adelman, a former Reagan official with close ties to senior Bush aides, &#8220;It'll be a piece of cake to get public support. The American people will be 90 percent for it. Almost nobody in Congress will object, and the allies will pipe down.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A31067-2002Aug17.html The Washington Post, 8/18/02 News Article kenneth_adelman activeparticipant legalJustification August 15, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_370 1 false In an interview broadcast by BBC Radio 4's Today Program, Condoleezza Rice says: &#8220;This is an evil man who, left to his own devices, will wreak havoc again on his own population, his neighbors and, if he gets weapons of mass destruction and the means to deliver them, on all of us. There is a very powerful moral case for regime change. We certainly do not have the luxury of doing nothing.... Clearly, if Saddam Hussein is left in power doing the things that he is doing now, this is a threat that will emerge, and emerge in a very big way.... The case for regime change is very strong. This is a regime that we know has twice tried and come closer than we thought at the time to acquiring nuclear weapons. He has used chemical weapons against his own people and against his neighbors, he has invaded his neighbors, he has killed thousands of his own people. He shoots at our planes, our airplanes, in the no-fly zones where we are trying to enforce UN security resolutions.... History is littered with cases of inaction that led to very grave consequences for the world. We just have to look back and ask how many dictators who ended up being a tremendous global threat and killing thousands and, indeed, millions of people, should we have stopped in their tracks.&#8221; http://www.miami.com/mld/miami/3867529.htm Reuters, 8/15/2002 News Article http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/08/16/wirq16.xml Telegraph, 8/16/2002 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0816-03.htm Times, 8/16/2002 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,775110,00.html Guardian, 8/15/02 News Article Interestingly, Rice does not say Iraq has chemical, biological or nuclear arms. Instead, she speaks of the danger Saddam would pose, &#8220;if he gets weapons of mass destruction and the means to deliver them.&#8221; http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2002-08-15-iraq-weapons_x.htm USA Today, 8/15/02 News Article &#8220;Her speech sounded very much like the kind of rhetoric we sometimes do hear from fairly tinpot regimes around the world where the agenda isn't to convince the outside world but to make sure the public at home believe the regime. It isn't good enough in the modern world to say trust the White House because they are Americans. We have got to be a bit more sophisticated than that.&#8221; http://politics.guardian.co.uk/foreignaffairs/story/0,11538,775716,00.html Guardian, 8/16/02 News Article commentary condoleezza_rice activeparticipant imminentThreatQuotes August 15, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_380 1 false Brent Scowcroft is the source of major embarrassment for the administration when he authors an op-ed piece in the Wall Street Journal arguing against the need to remove Saddam Hussein from power. He says that the toppling of Saddam's regime would destabilize the Middle East and thus &#8220;turn the whole region into a cauldron and destroy the War on Terror.&#8221; Noting that &#8220;there is scant evidence to tie Saddam to terrorist organizations, and even less to the Sept. 11 attacks,&#8221; he calls on Bush to abandon his designs on Saddam Hussein and instead refocus his foreign policy on the war on terrorism. http://ffip.com/opeds081502.htm Wall Street Journal News Article It is suggested that Scowcroft's criticisms probably reflect the feelings of the President's father. The Los Angeles Times reports: &#8220;Several former officials close to Scowcroft said they doubted he would have gone public with that posture without clearing the move first with the senior Bush, heightening questions about the latter's view on confronting Iraq. The former president has not commented publicly, which has only fed speculation.&#8221; http://www.latimes.com/la-fg-bush17aug17002040.story Los Angeles Times, 8/17/02 News Article &#8220;Israel would have to expect to be the first casualty, as in 1991 when Saddam sought to bring Israel into the Gulf conflict. This time, using weapons of mass destruction, he might succeed, provoking Israel to respond, perhaps with nuclear weapons, unleashing an Armageddon in the Middle East.&#8221; http://ffip.com/opeds081502.htm Wall Street Journal News Article excerpt &#8220;An attack on Iraq at this time would seriously jeopardize, if not destroy, the global counterterrorist campaign we have undertaken.... [T]he central point is that any campaign against Iraq, whatever the strategy, cost and risks, is certain to divert us for some indefinite period from our war on terrorism. Worse, there is a virtual consensus in the world against an attack on Iraq at this time. So long as that sentiment persists, it would require the US to pursue a virtual go-it-alone strategy against Iraq, making any military operations correspondingly more difficult and expensive. The most serious cost, however, would be to the war on terrorism. Ignoring that clear sentiment would result in a serious degradation in international cooperation with us against terrorism. And make no mistake, we simply cannot win that war without enthusiastic international cooperation, especially on intelligence. At a minimum, it would stifle any cooperation on terrorism, and could even swell the ranks of the terrorists.&#8221; http://ffip.com/opeds081502.htm Wall Street Journal News Article excerpt &#8220;I think Scowcroft has done us all a great favor by his article saying don't do it. My own personal view is that basically Gen. Scowcroft is correct. Unless the president can make a very compelling case that Saddam Hussein has his finger on a weapon of mass destruction and is about ready to use it, I do not think that now is the time to go to war against Saddam Hussein.&#8221; http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,60626,00.html Fox News, 8/16/02 News Article commentary &#8220;But there is scant evidence to tie Saddam to terrorist organizations, and even less to the Sept. 11 attacks. Indeed Saddam's goals have little in common with the terrorists who threaten us, and there is little incentive for him to make common cause with them. He is unlikely to risk his investment in weapons of mass destruction, much less his country, by handing such weapons to terrorists who would use them for their own purposes and leave Baghdad as the return address.&#8221; http://ffip.com/opeds081502.htm Wall Street Journal News Article excerpt &#8220;Saddam would be likely to conclude he had nothing left to lose, leading him to unleash whatever weapons of mass destruction he possesses.&#8221; http://ffip.com/opeds081502.htm Wall Street Journal News Article excerpt The invasion of could result in &#8220;serious consequences for the US and global economy.&#8221; http://ffip.com/opeds081502.htm Wall Street Journal News Article excerpt &#8220;I think Brent just got it wrong. The failure to take on Saddam after what the president said would produce such a collapse of confidence in the president that it would set back the war on terrorism. I think it is na�ve to believe that we can produce results in the 50-year-old dispute between the Israelis and the Arabs, and therefore this is an excuse for not taking action.&#8221; http://www.nytimes.com/2002/08/16/international/middleeast/16IRAQ.html New York Times, 8/16/02 News Article commentary Brent Scowcroft's August 15 op-ed in the Wall Street Journal &#8220;came as no surprise to top officials in the administration, who have been well aware of his concerns. Scowcroft didn't want to overthrow Saddam Hussein in the first Persian Gulf war. He felt from the beginning that a successor might be worse. His position just reflects the same view he had back then.&#8221; http://www.howardlabs.com/Headlines/HTML/870.htm New York Times, 8/17/02 News Article commentary A unilateral preemptive strike would be a detriment to &#8220;other American foreign policy interests, including our relationships with practically all other Arab countries (and even many of our customary allies in Europe and elsewhere) and perhaps even to our top foreign policy priority, the war on terrorism.&#8221; http://www.howardlabs.com/Headlines/HTML/870.htm New York Times, 8/17/02 News Article commentary &#8220;While there may be little evidence that Iraq has ties to al-Qaeda or to the attacks of Sept. 11, there is no question that its present government, under Saddam Hussein, is an outlaw regime, is in violation of United Nations Security Council resolutions, is embarked upon a program of developing weapons of mass destruction and is a threat to peace and stability&#8221; http://www.howardlabs.com/Headlines/HTML/870.htm New York Times, 8/17/02 News Article commentary &#8220;[T]here will be the cost to the American taxpayer of a military undertaking of this magnitude. The Persian Gulf war cost somewhere in the range of $60 billion, but we were able to convince our many allies in that effort to bear the brunt of the costs.&#8221; http://www.howardlabs.com/Headlines/HTML/870.htm New York Times, 8/17/02 News Article commentary &#8220;[W]e need to move affirmatively, aggressively, and in a fair and balanced way to implement the president's vision for a settlement of the Arab-Israeli dispute, as laid out in his June speech. That means, of course, reform by Palestinians and an end to terror tactics. But it also means withdrawal by Israeli forces to positions occupied before September 2000 and an immediate end to settlement activity.&#8221; http://www.howardlabs.com/Headlines/HTML/870.htm New York Times, 8/17/02 News Article commentary &#8220;The United States should advocate the adoption by the United Nations Security Council of a simple and straightforward resolution requiring that Iraq submit to intrusive inspections anytime, anywhere, with no exceptions, and authorizing all necessary means to enforce it. Although it is technically true that the United Nations already has sufficient legal authority to deal with Iraq, the failure to act when Saddam Hussein ejected the inspectors has weakened that authority. Seeking new authorization now is necessary, politically and practically, and will help build international support.&#8221; http://www.howardlabs.com/Headlines/HTML/870.htm New York Times, 8/17/02 News Article commentary &#8220;Israel would have to expect to be the first casualty, as in 1991 when Saddam sought to bring Israel into the Gulf conflict. This time, using weapons of mass destruction, he might succeed, provoking Israel to respond, perhaps with nuclear weapons, unleashing an Armageddon in the Middle East.&#8221; http://ffip.com/opeds081502.htm Wall Street Journal News Article excerpt brent_scowcroft activeparticipant george_herbert_walker_bush activeparticipant predictions terroristTies maintreamDissent August 15, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_438 1 false USA Today reports: &#8220;US intelligence cannot say conclusively that Saddam Hussein has weapons of mass destruction, an information gap that is complicating White House efforts to build support for an attack on Saddam's Iraqi regime. The CIA has advised top administration officials to assume that Iraq has some weapons of mass destruction. But the agency has not given President Bush a &#8216;smoking gun,&#8217; according to US intelligence and administration officials. The most recent unclassified CIA report on the subject goes no further than saying it is &#8216;likely&#8217; that Iraq has used the four years since United Nations inspectors left the country to rebuild chemical and biological weapons programs.&#8221; http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2002-08-15-iraq-weapons_x.htm USA Today, 8/15/02 News Article unnamed_us_intelligence_and_administration_officials source wmd August 15, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_385 1 false Former Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleberger says on ABC News that unless Mr. Hussein &#8220;has his hand on a trigger that is for a weapon of mass destruction, and our intelligence is clear, I don't know why we have to do it now, when all our allies are opposed to it.&#8221; http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/08.17A.gop.no.irq.htm New York Times, 8/15/02 News Article lawrence_eagleburger activeparticipant maintreamDissent August 16, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_391 1 false After a spate of criticism of his administration's Iraq policy from several prominent Republican former US government officials, President George Bush says from his ranch in Mount Crawford, Texas: &#8220;I am aware that some very intelligent people are expressing their opinions about Saddam Hussein and Iraq. I listen very carefully to what they have to say. I'll continue to consult.... I will use all the latest intelligence to make informed decisions about how best to keep the world at peace, how best to defend freedom for the long run.... Listen, it's a healthy debate for people to express their opinion. People should be allowed to express their opinion. But America needs to know, I'll be making up my mind based upon the latest intelligence and how best to protect our own country plus our friends and allies.&#8221; But he also adds, &#8220;There should be no doubt in anybody's mind that this man is thumbing his nose at the world, that he has gassed his own people, that he is trouble in his neighborhood, that he desires weapons of mass destruction.&#8221; http://www.howardlabs.com/Headlines/HTML/870.htm New York Times, 8/17/02 News Article http://www.cnn.com/2002/ALLPOLITICS/08/16/bush.iraq/index.html CNN, 8/16/02 News Article http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,60626,00.html Fox News, 8/16/02 News Article &#8220;Iraq developed these weapons with the help of the United States and the West. No matter how many times Iranians shouted that Iraq was using chemical weapons, they were ignored. I don't know why the United States has suddenly become kinder than a mother for the suffering of us chemical weapons patients.... We took patients to Germany, to Britain, to France, but no one stopped Saddam's regime from using these terrible weapons. The United States let him develop, stockpile and use these weapons. Now suddenly it's changed. The fact is that the United States is only after its own interests. It doesn't care about what has happened to people.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0213-05.htm New York Times, 2/13/03 News Article excerpt george_w._bush activeparticipant wmdQuotesGeneral maintreamDissent August 18, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_384 1 false In a Washington Post op-ed piece, Zbigniew Brzezinski reprimands the Bush administration for its reckless foreign policy, saying that &#8220;war is too serious a business and too unpredictable in its dynamic consequences&#8212;especially in a highly flammable region&#8212;to be undertaken because of a personal peeve, demagogically articulated fears or vague factual assertions.&#8221; He adds that &#8220;[i]f it is to be war, it should be conducted in a manner that legitimizes US global hegemony and, at the same time, contributes to a more responsible system of international security.&#8221; He then makes several recommendations for improving US foreign policy, including a summary of &#8220;a wrong way for America to initiate a war.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A28822-2002Aug16.html The Washington Post, 8/18/02 News Article &#8220;In the absence of any serious effort by the Bush administration to push the Israelis and Palestinians toward peace, there is a high risk that a US assault on Iraq will be perceived ... as part of an American-Israeli effort to impose a new order on the Middle East without regard for either Iraqi or Palestinian civilian casualties.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A28822-2002Aug16.html Washington Post, 8/18/02 News Article excerpt &#8220;Public support should not be generated by fear-mongering or demagogy, with some of it encouraged by parties with a strategic interest in fostering American-Arab hostility.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A28822-2002Aug16.html Washington Post, 8/18/02 News Article excerpt &#8220;A sudden launching of war could prompt many in the world to justify any subsequent Iraqi retaliation against America or Israel, even with a weapon of mass destruction, while setting a dangerous example for the world of an essentially Darwinian international system characterized by sudden, preemptive attacks.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A28822-2002Aug16.html Washington Post, 8/18/02 News Article excerpt &#8220;The United States should itself take the lead in formulating detailed plans for a genuinely intrusive and comprehensive inspection regime .... [A]n outright refusal or ... subsequent efforts to sabotage the inspection process ... would .... provide a highly legitimate casus belli for military action.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A28822-2002Aug16.html Washington Post, 8/18/02 News Article excerpt &#8220;The initiation of a war should not be decided in camera by the president alone with just a few of his own appointees, without regard for either American or global public opinion.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A28822-2002Aug16.html Washington Post, 8/18/02 News Article excerpt &#8220;The initiation of a war should not be decided in camera by the president alone with just a few of his own appointees, without regard for either American or global public opinion.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A28822-2002Aug16.html Washington Post, 8/18/02 News Article excerpt &#8220;The president himself has to make, in a speech addressed to the nation, a careful, reasoned case, without sloganeering, on the specifics of the threat. Detailed evidence needs to be presented that the threat is both grave and imminent. An explanation is also needed as to why one member of &#8216;the axis of evil&#8217; is seen as more menacing than the others.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A28822-2002Aug16.html Washington Post, 8/18/02 News Article excerpt &#8220;... a persuasive case also needs to be made as to why, in the US view, deterrence no longer suffices. The frequently cited but essentially demagogic formula that Hussein used weapons of mass destruction (specifically gas) against his own people ignores the fact that he did not use such weapons in 1991 against either US troops or Israel, both of which had the capacity to retaliate and thus to deter.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A28822-2002Aug16.html Washington Post, 8/18/02 News Article excerpt zbigniew_brzezinski activeparticipant maintreamDissent August 18, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_365 1 false Retired General Norman Schwarzkopf, who commanded allied forces during the Gulf War, warns against invading Iraq without the support of allies. He explains: &#8220;In the Gulf War we had an international force and troops from many nations. We would be lacking if we went it alone at this time.... It is not going to be an easy battle but it would be much more effective if we didn't have to do it alone.&#8221; http://www.obv.org.uk/reports/2002/rpt20020819h.html Times, 8/19/02 News Article &#8220;In the Gulf War we had an international force and troops from many nations. We would be lacking if we went it alone at this time. ... It is not going to be an easy battle but it would be much more effective if we didn't have to do it alone.&#8221; http://www.obv.org.uk/reports/2002/rpt20020819h.html Times, 8/19/02 News Article duplicate norman_schwarzkopf activeparticipant maintreamDissent August 20, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_124 1 false During an interview with Fox News, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld mocks calls from Washington, Europe and the Arab world demanding that the Bush administration show them evidence to substantiate the hawk's claim that Saddam Hussein is a threat to the US and its allies. &#8220;Think of the prelude to World War Two,&#8221; the Defense Secretary says. &#8220;Think of all the countries that said, well, we don't have enough evidence. I mean, Mein Kampf had been written. Hitler had indicated what he intended to do. Maybe he won't attack us. Maybe he won't do this or that. Well, there were millions of people dead because of the miscalculations. The people who argued for waiting for more evidence have to ask themselves how they are going to feel at that point where another event occurs.&#8221; http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,60818,00.html Fox News, 8/20/03 News Article http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/08/21/wirq21.xml/ Telegraph 8/21/02 News Article http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/08/21/1029114137295.html Guardian 8/22/02 News Article Rumsfeld also says during a news conference that according to &#8220;intelligence reports,&#8221; Saddam's government is &#8220;hosting, supporting or sponsoring&#8221; an al-Qaeda presence in Iraq. Responding to a question about whether he has any evidence to support the claim that al-Qaeda is operating in Iraq, Rumsfeld states, &#8220;There are Al-Qaeda in a number of locations in Iraq.... The suggestion that ... [Iraqi government officials] who are so attentive in denying human rights to their population aren't aware of where these folks [al-Qaeda] are or what they're doing is ludicrous in a vicious, repressive dictatorship.... [I]t's very hard to imagine that the government is not aware of what's taking place in the country.&#8221; http://www.nytimes.com/2002/08/20/politics/20CND-MILI.html New York Times 8/20/02 News Article Shortly after Rumsfeld's remarks, a senior US intelligence official tells The Guardian that there is no evidence to back the defense secretary's claims. &#8220;They are not the official guests of the Government,&#8221; a second official says, adding that any al-Qaeda in the region are still &#8220;on the run.&#8221; http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/08/21/1029114137295.html Guardian 8/22/02 News Article &#8220;Think of the prelude to World War Two. Think of all the countries that said, well, we don't have enough evidence. I mean, Mein Kampf had been written. Hitler had indicated what he intended to do. Maybe he won't attack us. Maybe he won't do this or that. Well, there were millions of people dead because of the miscalculations. The people who argued for waiting for more evidence have to ask themselves how they are going to feel at that point where another event occurs.... There are al-Qaeda in a number of locations in Iraq.... The suggestion that ... [Iraqi government officials] who are so attentive in denying human rights to their population aren't aware of where these folks [al-Qaeda] are or what they're doing is ludicrous in a vicious, repressive dictatorship.... it's very hard to imagine that the government is not aware of what's taking place in the country.&#8221; http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,60818,00.html Fox News, 8/20/03 News Article http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/08/21/1029114137295.html Guardian 8/22/02 News Article http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/08/21/wirq21.xml/ Telegraph 8/21/02 News Article http://www.nytimes.com/2002/08/20/politics/20CND-MILI.html?ex=1030877793&amp;ei=1&amp;en=834448b0938f890e New York Times 8/20/02 News Article duplicate donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant ChemicalBiologicalQuotes imminentThreatQuotes terroristTiesQuotes August 20, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_182 1 false Secretary of State Donald Rumsfeld, citing various &#8220;intelligence reports,&#8221; claims that the Iraqi government is &#8220;hosting, supporting or sponsoring&#8221; an al-Qaeda presence in Iraq. When asked if he has evidence to support this claim Rumsfeld responds: &#8220;There are al-Qaeda in a number of locations in Iraq.... The suggestion that ... [Iraqi government officials] who are so attentive in denying human rights to their population aren't aware of where these folks [al-Qaeda] are or what they're doing is ludicrous in a vicious, repressive dictatorship.&#8221; He also says, &#8220;It's very hard to imagine that the government is not aware of what's taking place in the country.&#8221; http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Aug2002/t08202002_t0820sd.html US Department of Defense, 8/20/02 News Article http://www.nytimes.com/2002/08/20/politics/20CND-MILI.html New York Times, 8/20/02 News Article Shortly after the Defense Secretary's allegations, an unnamed intelligence official tells the Guardian, &#8220;They are not the official guests of the Government,&#8221; adding that any al-Qaeda in the region are still &#8220;on the run.&#8221; A month later, Knight Ridder reports that according to an anonymous US official, Rumsfeld's charge is based on information from Kurdish opposition groups which are feeding information to the Pentagon. http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/08/21/1029114137295.html Guardian, 8/22/02 News Article http://www.kansas.com/mld/kansas/4150487.htm Knight Ridder, 9/25/02 News Article unnamed_us_official source unnamed_us_intelligence_official source donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant terroristTies August 21, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_378 1 false Following a trip to several Middle Eastern countries, which included meetings with several diplomats and foreign dignitaries, US Representative John Larson warns that &#8220;the innocent slaughter of Muslims will create, in essence, what Osama bin Laden was unable to do, a united Islamic jihad against us.&#8221; http://www.zwire.com/site/news.cfm?newsid=5122538&amp;BRD=1641&amp;PAG=461&amp;dept_id=10110&amp;rfi=6 New Britain Herald, 8/22/02 News Article john_larson activeparticipant predictions August 23, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_367 1 false In a speech to the Economic Club of Florida in Tallahassee, retired Marine General Anthony Zinni, who recently served as the president's special envoy to the Middle East, argues that there are more pressing issues than Saddam Hussein's regime in Iraq. Specifically, he points to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, instability in Afghanistan, the continuing existence of the al-Qaeda network, and the theocracy in Iran. He adds that the proposed war with Iraq would be expensive and would put considerable strain on the military's resources, which already are &#8220;stretched too tight all over the world.&#8221; Furthermore, notes the general, invading Iraq would further antagonize America's allies in the Middle East. &#8220;We need to quit making enemies that we don't need to make enemies out of,&#8221; he says. He also notes, &#8220;It's pretty interesting that all the generals see it the same way and all the others who have never fired a shot and are hot to go to war see it another way.&#8221; http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/bush/zinni2.htm Tampa Tribune, 8/24/02 News Article &#8220;It's pretty interesting that all the generals see it the same way and all the others who have never fired a shot and are hot to go to war see it another way&#8221; http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/bush/zinni2.htm Tampa Tribune, 8/24/02 News Article duplicate james_l_jones activeparticipant maintreamDissent August 25, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_383 1 false The New York Times publishes an opinion article by James Baker, a former secretary of state and a close friend of the Bush family. In his piece, Baker writes that the US must raise a coalition and secure a broad base of support before attempting to remove Saddam Hussein by force. Although it may be possible to successfully invade the country and depose its regime, he argues, America's image would suffer irreparable damage as a consequence. Therefore, according to Baker, a unilateral preemptive strike in the midst of massive opposition from US allies in Europe and the Middle East would be detrimental to American strategic interests. http://middleeastinfo.org/article1342.html New York Times, 8/25/02 News Article james_baker activeparticipant maintreamDissent August 26, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_121 1 false In a speech to the Nashville convention of the Veterans of Foreign Wars, Vice President Richard Cheney says Saddam Hussein will &#8220;seek domination of the entire Middle East, take control of a great portion of the world's energy supplies, directly threaten America's friends throughout the region and subject the United States or any other nation to nuclear blackmail.&#8221; He also states unequivocally that Iraq has weapons of mass destruction. &#8220;Simply stated, there is no doubt that Saddam Hussein now has weapons of mass destruction,&#8221; he says. &#8220;There is no doubt that he is amassing them to use against our friends, against our allies and against us ... What he wants is time, and more time to husband his resources to invest in his ongoing chemical and biological weapons program, and to gain possession of nuclear weapons.&#8221; Therefore he argues, the answer is not weapons inspections. &#8220;Against that background, a person would be right to question any suggestion that we should just get inspectors back into Iraq, and then our worries will be over. Saddam has perfected the game of shoot and retreat, and is very skilled in the art of denial and deception. A return of inspectors would provide no assurance whatsoever of his compliance with UN resolutions.&#8221; http://www.nytimes.com/2002/08/26/international/middleeast/26WEB-CHENEY.html New York Times, 8/26/02 News Article Cheney's speech marks the first major statement from the White House regarding the Bush administration's Iraq policy following a flood of criticisms from former officials. Significantly, the speech was not cleared by the CIA or the State Department. http://msnbc.msn.com/id/3068035/ Newsweek, 9/9/02 News Article unnamed_sources_interviewed_by_newsweek source Furthermore, Cheney's comments dismissing the need for the return of inspectors, were not cleared by President Bush. http://msnbc.msn.com/id/3068035/ Newsweek, 9/9/02 News Article andrew_card source Three days after the speech, a State Department source tells CNN that Powell's view clashes with that which was presented in Cheney's speech, explaining that the Secretary of State is opposed to any military action in which the US would &#8220;go it alone ... as if it doesn't give a damn&#8221; what other nations think. The source also says that Powell and &#8220;others in the State Department were &#8216;blindsided&#8217; by Cheney's &#8216;time is running out&#8217; speech ... and were just as surprised as everyone else,&#8221; CNN reports. http://www.cnn.com/2002/US/08/30/powell.iraq/ CNN, 8/30/02 News Article unnamed_source_interviewed_by_cnn source &#8220;There is no doubt that Saddam Hussein now has weapons of mass destruction. There is no doubt that he is amassing them to use against our friends, against our allies and against us.&#8221; http://www.nytimes.com/2002/08/26/international/middleeast/26WEB-CHENEY.html New York Times, 8/26/02 News Article statement &#8220;And many of those who now argue that we should act only if he gets a nuclear weapon, would then turn around and say that we cannot act because he has a nuclear weapon. At bottom, that argument counsels a course of inaction that itself could have devastating consequences for many countries, including our own.&#8221; http://www.nytimes.com/2002/08/26/international/middleeast/26WEB-CHENEY.html New York Times, 8/26/02 News Article statement Much has happened since the attacks of 9/11. But as Secretary Rumsfeld has put it, we are still closer to the beginning of this war than we are to its end. The United States has entered a struggle of years&#8212;a new kind of war against a new kind of enemy. http://www.nytimes.com/2002/08/26/international/middleeast/26WEB-CHENEY.html New York Times, 8/26/02 News Article statement The terrorists who struck America are ruthless. They are resourceful. And they hide in many countries. They came into our country to murder thousands of innocent men, women and children. There is no doubt they wish to strike again and that they are working to acquire the deadliest of all weapons. http://www.nytimes.com/2002/08/26/international/middleeast/26WEB-CHENEY.html New York Times, 8/26/02 News Article statement Saddam Hussein will &#8220;seek domination of the entire Middle East, take control of a great portion of the world's energy supplies, directly threaten America's friends throughout the region and subject the United States or any other nation to nuclear blackmail.&#8221; http://www.nytimes.com/2002/08/26/international/middleeast/26WEB-CHENEY.html New York Times, 8/26/02 News Article duplicate &#8220;Today in Afghanistan, the world has seen that America acts not to conquer but to liberate. It remains in friendship to help the people build a future of stability, self-determination and peace.&#8221; http://www.nytimes.com/2002/08/26/international/middleeast/26WEB-CHENEY.html New York Times, 8/26/02 News Article statement &#8220;What he wants is time, and more time to husband his resources to invest in his ongoing chemical and biological weapons program, and to gain possession of nuclear weapons.&#8221; http://www.nytimes.com/2002/08/26/international/middleeast/26WEB-CHENEY.html New York Times, 8/26/02 News Article statement &#8220;Against that background, a person would be right to question any suggestion that we should just get inspectors back into Iraq, and then our worries will be over. Saddam has perfected the game of shoot and retreat, and is very skilled in the art of denial and deception. A return of inspectors would provide no assurance whatsoever of his compliance with UN resolutions.&#8221; http://www.nytimes.com/2002/08/26/international/middleeast/26WEB-CHENEY.html New York Times, 8/26/02 News Article statement dick_cheney activeparticipant colin_powell activeparticipant maintreamDissent nuclearQuotes ChemicalBiologicalQuotes August 27, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_498 1 false Speaking to US Marines of the 1st Marine Division at Camp Pendleton in California, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld says: &#8220;Leadership in the right direction finds followers and supporters.... It's less important to have unanimity than it is making the right decision and doing the right thing, even though at the outset it may seem lonesome.&#8221; http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Aug2002/t08282002_t0827thm.html US Department of Defense, 8/27/03 News Article http://www.firstcoastnews.com/news/2002-08-28/usw_gop.asp Associated Press, 8/28/02 News Article donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant legalJustification Late August 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_390 1 false Yuval Steinitz, a Likud party member of the Knesset's Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee, suggests that the imposition of a pro-American regime in Baghdad would ease Israel's discomfort with Syria, which it views as a threat. Steinitz says, &#8220;After Iraq is taken by US troops and we see a new regime installed as in Afghanistan, and Iraqi bases become American bases, it will be very easy to pressure Syria to stop supporting terrorist organizations like Hizbullah and Islamic Jihad, to allow the Lebanese army to dismantle Hizbullah, and maybe to put an end to the Syrian occupation in Lebanon. If this happens we will really see a new Middle East.&#8221; http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0830/p08s01-wome.htm Christian Science Monitor, 8/30/02 News Article yuval_steinitz activeparticipant motivesBehindWar Late August 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_389 1 false Gideon Ezra, Israel's deputy interior minister, says, &#8220;The more aggressive the attack is, the more it will help Israel against the Palestinians. The understanding would be that what is good to do in Iraq, is also good for here.&#8221; He also says that a US invasion of Iraq would &#8220;undoubtedly deal a psychological blow&#8221; to the Palestinians. http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0830/p08s01-wome.htm Christian Science Monitor, 8/30/02 News Article gideon_ezra activeparticipant motivesBehindWar September 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_343 1 false James Woolsey tells the Washington Post: &#8220;It's pretty straightforward. France and Russia have oil companies and interests in Iraq. They should be told that if they are of assistance in moving Iraq toward decent government, we'll do the best we can to ensure that the new government and American companies work closely with them..... If they throw in their lot with Saddam, it will be difficult to the point of impossible to persuade the new Iraqi government to work with them.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A18841-2002Sep14.html The Washington Post, 9/15/02 News Article &#8220;Rep. Curt Weldon (R-Pa.) said Bush is keenly aware of Russia's economic interests in Iraq, stemming from a $7 billion to $8 billion debt that Iraq ran up with Moscow before the Gulf War. Weldon, who has cultivated close ties to Putin and Russian parliamentarians, said he believed the Russian leader will support US action in Iraq if he can get private assurances from Bush that Russia &#8216;will be made whole&#8217; financially.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A18841-2002Sep14.html The Washington Post, 9/15/02 News Article statement james_woolsey activeparticipant legalJustification September 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1213 1 false The CIA completes a highly classified report on &#8220;Iraqi Ties to Terrorism,&#8221; summarizing claims that Iraq has provided &#8220;training in poisons and gases&#8221; to members of al-Qaeda. The report warns that evidence for the claim comes from &#8220;sources of varying reliability&#8221; and has not yet been substanitated. The main source behind this allegation, Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi, who once operated bin Laden's Khalden terrorist camp in Afghanistan and who is being held in custody by the CIA, will later recant the claim (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1214 ]]). http://msnbc.msn.com/id/5305085/site/newsweek/ Newsweek, 7/5/2004 News Article http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article6587.htm The New York Times, 7/31/2004 News Article ibn_al-shaykh_al-libi passiveparticipant wmd September 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_150 1 false An unnamed Pentagon official tells USA Today that the hawks' recent assertions regarding Iraq-al Qaeda ties are &#8220;exaggeration[s].&#8221; http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2002-09-26-iraq-alqaeda_x.htm USA Today, 9/26/02 News Article unnamed_pentagon_official source terroristTies September 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_363 1 false Retired General Wesley Clark writes a piece in the Washington Monthly, titled, &#8220;An Army of One: In the war on terrorism, alliances are not an obstacle to victory. They're the key to it,&#8221; in which he argues that it is a &#8220;fundamental misjudgment&#8221; to continue the war on terrorism in the absence of NATO support. He refers to NATO's war in Kosovo repeatedly in his essay using it as an example of how he thinks a just and effective war should be fought. He also says that cooperation with its European allies is crucial if the Bush administration wants to prevent future terrorist attacks, noting that most of the terrorist planning and preparations for the 9-11 attacks took place in terrorist cells in Europe. http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/features/2001/0209.clark.html The Washington Monthly, 9/2002 News Article &#8220;The longer this war goes on-and by all accounts, it will go on for years-the more our success will depend on the willing cooperation and active participation of our allies to root out terrorist cells in Europe and Asia, to cut off funding and support of terrorists and to deal with Saddam Hussein and other threats ... We've got a problem here: Because the Bush administration has thus far refused to engage our allies through NATO, we are fighting the war on terrorism with one hand tied behind our back.&#8221; http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/features/2001/0209.clark.html Washington Monthly, 9/2002 News Article statement &#8220;The Kosovo campaign suggests alternatives in waging and winning the struggle against terrorism: greater reliance on diplomacy and law and relatively less on the military alone. Soon after September 11, without surrendering our right of self defense, we should have helped the United Nations create an International Criminal Tribunal on International Terrorism. We could have taken advantage of the outpourings of shock, grief, and sympathy to forge a legal definition of terrorism and obtain the indictment of Osama bin Laden and the Taliban as war criminals charged with crimes against humanity. Had we done so, I believe we would have had greater legitimacy and won stronger support in the Islamic world. We could have used the increased legitimacy to raise pressure on Saudi Arabia and other Arab states to cut off fully the moral, religious, intellectual, and financial support to terrorism. We could have used such legitimacy to strengthen the international coalition against Saddam Hussein. Or to encourage our European allies and others to condemn more strongly the use of terror against Israel and bring peace to that region. Reliance on a compelling UN indictment might have given us the edge in legitimacy throughout much of the Islamic world that no amount of &#8216;strategic information&#8217; and spin control can provide. On a purely practical level, we might have avoided the embarrassing arguments during the encirclement of Kandahar in early December 2001, when the appointed Afghan leader wanted to offer the Taliban leader amnesty, asking what law he had broken, while the United States insisted that none should be granted. We might have avoided the continuing difficulties of maintaining hundreds of prisoners in a legal no-man's land at Guantanamo Bay, which has undercut US legitimacy in the eyes of much of the world.&#8221; http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/features/2001/0209.clark.html Washington Monthly, 9/2002 News Article statement &#8220;Terrorists residing in Western Europe planned the September 11 attack, and the greatest concentration of their &#8216;sleeper cells&#8217; outside the Middle East is probably in Europe. Yet this is a threat that the American military can do little to combat. What we really need is closer alignment of our police and judicial activities with our friends and allies: greater cooperation in joint police investigations, sharing of evidence, harmonious evidentiary standards and procedures, as well as common definitions of crimes associated with terrorism. Through greater legal, judicial, and police coordination, we need to make the international environment more seamless for us than it is for the international terrorists we seek.&#8221; http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/features/2001/0209.clark.html Washington Monthly, 9/2002 News Article statement wesley_clark activeparticipant maintreamDissent September 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1 1 false The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) issues an 80-plus-page classified report titled, &#8220;Iraq: Key Weapons Facilities&#8212;An Operational Support Study,&#8221; concluding that there is insufficient evidence to substantiate the claim that Iraq has an ongoing chemical weapons program or that Iraq still has biological weapons capabilities. http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/unmovic/2003/0609conseq.htm US News and World Report, 6/9/03 News Article http://quote.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=10000087&amp;sid=anFlpqtus8H8&amp;refer=home# Bloomberg News, 6/6/03 News Article iraq:_key_weapons_facilities&mdash;an_operational_support_study source When this is reported in the press in June 2003, Michael Anton, a spokesman with the National Security Council, immediately denies that the report suggested the administration had misrepresented intelligence. &#8220;The entire report paints a different picture than the selective quotes would lead you to believe. The entire report is consistent with [sic] the president was saying at the time,&#8221; he claims. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,88767,00.html Fox News, 6/6/03 News Article But two Pentagon officials confirm to Fox News that according to the report, the Defense Intelligence Agency indeed had no hard evidence of Iraqi chemical weapons. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,88767,00.html Fox News, 6/6/03 News Article &#8220;What this report [September 2002 Defense Intelligence Agency report] is saying is that there's not enough reliable information to move things into the category of things we know (about WMDs in Iraq). The way it's briefed is in the category of &#8216;hey we think this is going on&#8217; (but we don't have absolute proof).&#8221; http://reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=topNews&amp;storyID=2889971 Reuters, 5/6/03 News Article statement &#8220;[A]ccording to senior intelligence officials, intelligence agencies had no direct evidence such as photographs or stolen Iraqi documents to support a firm conclusion about Iraq's weapons of mass destruction. They said the case was circumstantial, largely because UN weapons inspectors had left Iraq in 1998, shutting off the last bit of direct knowledge available to the United States.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A26487-2003Jun6.html Washington Post, 6/7/03 News Article statement &#8220;There is no reliable information on whether Iraq is producing and stockpiling chemical weapons, or whether Iraq has&#8212;or will&#8212;establish its chemical warfare agent production facilities....&#8221; http://quote.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=10000103&amp;sid=arhNn3MRS398&amp;refer=us Bloomberg News, 6/6/03 News Article http://www.usnews.com/usnews/issue/030609/usnews/9intell.htm US News and World Report, 6/9/03 News Article excerpt Iraq's ability to develop nerve agents like VX gas is &#8220;constrained by its stockpile of key chemical precursors and the destruction of all known CW production facilities during Operation Desert Storm in 1991 and during subsequent UN inspections.&#8221; http://quote.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=10000103&amp;sid=arhNn3MRS398&amp;refer=us Bloomberg News, 6/6/03 News Article excerpt &#8220;What we're saying is that as of 2002 in September, we could not reliably pin down, for somebody who was doing contingency planning, specific facilities, locations or production that was underway at a specific location at that point in time.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A26487-2003Jun6.html Washington Post, 6/7/03 News Article http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2003-06-06-iraq-intel_x.htm AP, 6/6/03 News Article statement &#8220;[A]lthough we lack any direct information, Iraq probably possesses chemical munitions, possibly including artillery shells, aerial bombs and ballistic missile warheads.&#8221; http://quote.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=10000103&amp;sid=arhNn3MRS398&amp;refer=us Bloomberg News, 6/6/03 News Article excerpt The September 2002 Defense Intelligence Agency report concluded that the agency &#8220;could not specifically pin down individual facilities operating as part of the weapons of mass destruction program, specifically the chemical warfare portion.&#8221; http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2970064.stm BBC, 6/6/03 News Article statement Iraq &#8220;probably possesses bulk chemical stockpiles, primarily containing precursors, but that also could consist of some mustard agent and VX.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A26487-2003Jun6.html Washington Post, 6/7/03 News Article excerpt &#8220;Iraq is assessed to possess biological agent stockpiles that may be weaponized and ready for use. The size of those stockpiles is uncertain and is subject to debate. The nature and condition of those stockpiles also are unknown.&#8221; http://quote.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=10000103&amp;sid=arhNn3MRS398&amp;refer=us Bloomberg News, 6/6/03 News Article excerpt iraq:_key_weapons_facilities&mdash;an_operational_support_study activeparticipant deception September 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_151 1 false A US official with inside knowledge of the interrogations of detainees at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, tells USA Today that the administration's recent assertions that Iraq has trained al-Qaeda members are based on uncorroborated information from a single detainee. The source also notes that the detainees may be lying to US authorities to encourage a US invasion of Iraq in order to add support to the al-Qaeda argument &#8220;that the United States is the mortal enemy of Muslim countries.&#8221; http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2002-09-26-iraq-alqaeda_x.htm USA Today, 9/26/02 News Article unnamed_us_official source terroristTies September 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_148 1 false Senior intelligence officials tell the Washington Post that the CIA has yet to find solid evidence that Saddam Hussein has ties to global terrorism despite substantial efforts including analysis of surveillance photos and communications intercepts. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A59403-2002Sep9.html Washington Post, 9/10/02 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A3206-2002Sep25.html Washington Post, 9/26/02 News Article unnamed_senior_intelligence_officials source saddam_hussein passiveparticipant terroristTies September 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_78 1 false Undersecretary of Defense for Policy Douglas J. Feith and Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz, adamant hawks, rename the Northern Gulf Affairs Office on the Pentagon's fourth floor (in the seventh corridor of D Ring) the &#8220;Office of Special Plans&#8221; (OSP) and increase its four-person staff to sixteen. http://www.dfw.com/mld/dfw/3871853.htm Knight Ridder Newspapers, 8/16/02 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/latimes112402b.html Los Angeles Times, 11/24/02 News Article http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030512fa_fact New Yorker, 5/5/03 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0807-02.htm Inter Press Service, 8/7/03 News Article http://amconmag.com/12_1_03/feature.html American Conservative, 12/1/03 News Article http://www.tompaine.com/feature2.cfm/ID/8725 Tom Paine [.com], 8/27/03 News Article http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html Mother Jones, 1/04 News Article greg_thielmann source unnamed_administration_official source karen_kwiatkowski source William Luti, a former navy officer and ex-aide to Vice President Cheney, is put in charge of the day-to-day operations. http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,999737,00.html Guardian, 7/17/03 News Article http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html Mother Jones, 1/04 News Article The Office of Special Plans is staffed with a tight group of like-minded neoconservative ideologues, who are known advocates of regime change in Iraq. Notably, the staffers have little background in intelligence or Iraqi history and culture. http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article4124.htm Salon, 7/16/03 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0807-02.htm Inter Press Service, 8/7/03 News Article http://amconmag.com/12_1_03/feature.html American Conservative, 12/1/03 News Article http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html Mother Jones, 1/04 News Article karen_kwiatkowski source greg_thielmann source a_pentagon_adviser source They hire &#8220;scores of temporary &#8216;consultants&#8217; ... including like-minded lawyers, congressional staffers, and policy wonks from the numerous rightwing think-tanks in the US capital.&#8221; Neoconservative ideologues, like Richard Perle and Newt Gingrich, are afforded direct input into the Office of Special Plans. http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,999737,00.html Guardian, 7/17/03 News Article http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html Mother Jones, 1/04 News Article The office works alongside the Near East and South Asia (NESA) bureau, also under the authority of Douglas Feith http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0807-02.htm Inter Press Service, 8/7/03 News Article http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html Mother Jones, 1/04 News Article karen_kwiatkowski source The official business of Special Plans is to help plan for post-Saddam Iraq. The office's staff members presumably &#8220;develop defense policies aimed at building an international coalition, prepare the secretary of defense and his top deputies for interagency meetings, coordinate troop-deployment orders, craft policies for dealing with prisoners of war and illegal combatants, postwar assistance and reconstruction policy planning, postwar governance, Iraqi oil infrastructure policy, postwar Iraqi property disputes, war crimes and atrocities, war-plan review and, in their spare time, prepare congressional testimony for their principals.&#8221; http://perspectives.zambezitimes.com/fullcom.php?id_comm=34 Insight, 12/2/03 News Article But according to numerous well-placed sources, the office becomes a source for many of the administration's prewar allegations against Iraq. It is accused of exaggerating, politicizing, and misrepresenting intelligence, which is &#8220;stovepiped&#8221; to top administration officials who use the intelligence in their policy decisions on Iraq. http://www.dfw.com/mld/dfw/3871853.htm Knight Ridder Newspapers, 8/16/02 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2002/latimes112402b.html Los Angeles Times, 11/24/02 News Article http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030512fa_fact New Yorker, 5/5/03 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0807-02.htm Inter Press Service, 8/7/03 News Article http://amconmag.com/12_1_03/feature.html American Conservative, 12/1/03 News Article http://www.tompaine.com/feature2.cfm/ID/8725 Tom Paine [.com], 8/27/03 News Article http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html Mother Jones, 1/04 News Article http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2004/07/11/wsept11.xml&amp;sSheet=/news/2004/07/11/ixnewstop.html Telegraph, 7/11/2004 News Article http://www.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/07/11/senate.pentagon/ CNN, 7/11/2004 News Article unnamed_administration_official source karen_kwiatkowski source greg_thielmann source Colin Powell is said to have felt that Cheney and the neoconservatives in this &#8220;Gestapo&#8221; office had established what was essentially a separate government. http://msnbc.msn.com/id/4761041/ Woodward, 2004 cited in Washington Post 1/18/2004 News Article top_officials_interviewed_by_washington_post_editor_bob_woodward source Some of the people associated with this office were earlier involved with the Counter Terrorism Evaluation Group, also known as the &#8220;Wurmser-Maloof&#8221; project (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_82 ]]). Among the claims critics find most troubling about the office are: The office relies heavily on accounts from Iraqi exiles and defectors associated with Ahmed Chalabi's Iraqi National Congress (INC), long considered suspect by other US intelligence agencies. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0807-02.htm Inter Press Service, 8/7/03 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,999737,00.html Guardian, 7/17/03 News Article http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article4124.htm Salon, 7/16/03 News Article http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030512fa_fact New Yorker, 5/5/03 News Article http://news.independent.co.uk/world/americas/story.jsp?story=448353 Independent, 9/30/03 News Article http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html Mother Jones, 1/04 News Article greg_thielmann source unnamed_administration_official source One defector in particular, code-named &#8220;Curve Ball,&#8221; provides as much as 98% of the intelligence on Iraq's alleged arsenal of biological weapons. http://www.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/07/11/senate.pentagon/ CNN, 7/11/2004 News Article Much of the information provided by the INC's sources consists of &#8220;misleading and often faked intelligence reports,&#8221; which often flow to Special Plans and NESA directly, &#8220;sometimes through Defense Intelligence Agency debriefings of Iraqi defectors via the Defense Human Intelligence Service and sometimes through the INC's own US-funded Intelligence Collection Program, which was overseen by the Pentagon.&#8221; http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html Mother Jones, 1/04 News Article According to Karen Kwiatkowski, the movement of intelligence from the INC to the Office of Special Plans is facilitated by Colonel Bruner, a former military aide to Gingrich. http://msnbc.msn.com/id/3660169/ Newsweek, 12/15/03 News Article http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html Mother Jones, 1/04 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0310-09.htm Salon, 3/10/2004 News Article memo source karen_kwiatkowski source Bruner &#8220;was Chalabi's handler,&#8221; Kwiatkowski will tell Mother Jones. &#8220;He would arrange meetings with Chalabi and Chalabi's folks.&#8221; http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html Mother Jones, 1/04 News Article karen_kwiatkowski source The Office of Special Plans purposefully ignores intelligence that undermines the case for war while exaggerating any leads that support it. &#8220;It wasn't intelligence,&#8212;it was propaganda,&#8221; Karen Kwiatkowski, who worked at the NESA desk, will later explain. &#8220;They'd take a little bit of intelligence, cherry-pick it, make it sound much more exciting, usually by taking it out of context, often by juxtaposition of two pieces of information that don't belong together.&#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030512fa_fact New Yorker, 5/5/03 News Article http://www.nytimes.com/2002/10/24/international/24INTE.html New York Times, 10/24/02 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0807-02.htm Inter Press Service, 8/7/03 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,999737,00.html Guardian, 7/17/03 News Article http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article4124.htm Salon, 7/16/03 News Article http://news.independent.co.uk/world/americas/story.jsp?story=448353 Independent, 9/30/03 News Article http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html Mother Jones, 1/04 News Article ellen_tauscher source unnamed_former_intelligence_official source greg_thielmann source The OSP bypasses established oversight procedures by sending its intelligence assessments directly to the White House and National Security Council without having them first vetted by a review process involving other US intelligence agencies. http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,999737,00.html Guardian, 7/17/03 News Article http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article4124.htm Salon, 7/16/03 News Article http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030512fa_fact New Yorker, 5/5/03 News Article http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html Mother Jones, 1/04 News Article unnamed_senior_officer_who_left_the_pentagon_during_the_planning_of_ the_iraq_war source david_obey source greg_thielmann source The people at Special Plans are so successful at bypassing conventional procedures, in part, because their neoconservative colleagues hold key positions in several other agencies and offices. Their contacts in other agencies include: John Bolton, Undersecretary of State for Arms Control and International; Bolton's advisor, David Wurmser, a former research fellow on the Middle East at the American Enterprise Institute, who was just recently working in a secret Pentagon planning unit at Douglas Feith's office (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_82 ]]); Elizabeth Cheney, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Near East Affairs; Stephen Hadley, the deputy national security adviser; Elliott Abrams, The National Security Council?s top Middle East aide; and Richard Perle, Newt Gingrich, James Woolsey and Kenneth Adelman of the Defense Policy Board. The office provides very little information about its work to other US intelligence offices. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0807-02.htm Inter Press Service, 8/7/03 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,999737,00.html Guardian, 7/17/03 News Article http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article4124.htm Salon, 7/16/03 News Article david_obey source greg_thielmann source karen_kwiatkowski source unnamed_an_unnamed_senior_officer_who_left_the_pentagon_during_the_planning_of_ the_iraq_war source Lastly, the people involved in Special Plans openly exhibit strong pro-Israel and anti-Arab bias. The problem, note critics, is that the analysis of intelligence is supposed to be apolitical and untainted by ideological viewpoints. http://amconmag.com/12_1_03/feature.html American Conservative, 12/1/03 News Article karen_kwiatkowski source According to a CIA intelligence official and four members of the Senate?s Intelligence Committee, Special Plans is the group responsible for the claim Bush will make in his 2003 State of the Union address that Iraq had attempted to procure uranium from an African country (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_92 ]]). http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article4123.htm Information Clearing House, 7/16/03 News Article http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml?i=20030707&amp;s=dreyfuss The Nation, 6/19/03 News Article After the existence of the Office of Special Plans is revealed to the public, the Pentagon will deny that it served as a direct conduit to the White House for misleading intelligence, instead claiming that its activities had been limited to postwar plans for Iraq. http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030512fa_fact New Yorker, 5/5/03 News Article And a December 2003 opinion piece published in Insight magazine will call the allegations surrounding the Office of Special Plans the work of conspiracy theorists. http://perspectives.zambezitimes.com/fullcom.php?id_comm=34 Insight, 12/2/03 News Article &#8220;[The OSP] brought about a crucial change of direction in the American intelligence community. These advisers and analysts, who began their work in the days after September 11, 2001, have produced a skein of intelligence reviews that have helped to shape public opinion and American policy toward Iraq. ... By last fall [2002], the operation rivaled both the CIA and the Pentagon's own Defense Intelligence Agency, the DIA, as President Bush's main source of intelligence regarding Iraq's possible possession of weapons of mass destruction and connection with al-Qaeda.&#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030512fa_fact New Yorker, 5/5/03 News Article commentary &#8220;Do they [staffers in the Office of Special Plans] have expertise in Iraqi culture? Are they missile experts? Nuclear engineers? There's no logical explanation for the office's creation except that they wanted people to find evidence to support their answers [about war].&#8221; http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article4124.htm Salon, 7/16/03 News Article commentary &#8220;The [INC's] intelligence isn't reliable at all. Much of it is propaganda. Much of it is telling the Defense Department what they want to hear. And much of it is used to support Chalabi's own presidential ambitions. They make no distinction between intelligence and propaganda, using alleged informants and defectors who say what Chalabi wants them to say, [creating] cooked information that goes right into presidential and vice-presidential speeches.&#8221; http://news.independent.co.uk/world/americas/story.jsp?story=448353 Independent, 9/30/03 News Article commentary &#8220;I came to share with many NESA colleagues a kind of unease, a sense that something was awry. What seemed out of place was the strong and open pro-Israel and anti-Arab orientation in an ostensibly apolitical policy-generation staff within the Pentagon. There was a sense that politics like these might play better at the State Department or the National Security Council, not the Pentagon, where we considered ourselves objective and hard boiled.&#8221; http://amconmag.com/12_1_03/feature.htm American Conservative, 12/1/03 News Article statement &#8220;Inter-agency discussions, Feith and the two offices communicated almost exclusively with like-minded allies in other agencies, rather than with their official counterparts, including even the DIA in the Pentagon.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0807-02.htm Inter Press Service, 8/7/03 News Article statement &#8220;They [people involved with the Pentagon's Office of Special Plans] were a pretty shadowy presence. Normally when you compile an intelligence document, all the agencies get together to discuss it. The OSP was never present at any of the meetings I attended.&#8221; http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,999737,00.html Guardian, 7/17/03 News Article statement A senior official told Newsday that the Office of Special Plans' immediate objective was seemingly to &#8220;antagonize Iran so that they get frustrated and then by their reactions harden US policy against them.&#8221; http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/08/08/1060145871467.html Newsday, 8/9/03 News Article statement &#8220;It was not a neutral, transparent link in the intelligence chain. It was staffed by people with a distinct perspective on events, so it was logical to assume that perspective would be reflected in the work.&#8221; http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article4124.htm Salon, 7/16/03 News Article commentary &#8220;The concern is they were in the cherry-picking business&#8212;cherry-picking half-truths and rumors and only highlighting pieces of information that bolstered the administration's case for war.&#8221; http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article4124.htm Salon, 7/16/03 News Article commentary People working in the Office of Special Plans &#8220;surveyed data and picked out what they liked. The whole thing was bizarre. The secretary of defense had this huge defense intelligence agency, and he went around it.&#8221; http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,999737,00.html Guardian, 7/17/03 News Article statement &#8220;The people in Rumsfeld's office and in Wolfowitz's operation cherry-picked intelligence to select the intelligence to support their views. They never did the due diligence on the intelligence that professional intelligence analysts are trained to do. [The OSP] would go through the intelligence reports including the ones that the CIA was throwing out. They stitched it together they would send it out, send it over to Cheney. All the stuff that a professional would have thrown out. As soon as 9/11 happened people like Rumsfeld saw it was opportunity. During that first week after September 11, the decision was made.&#8221; http://www.guardian.co.uk/september11/story/0,11209,1175817,00.html The Guardian, 3/23/04 News Article statement &#8220;I had observed that many of the neoconservatives in the Pentagon not only had limited military experience, if any at all, but they also advocated theories of war that struck me as rejections of classical liberalism, natural law, and constitutional strictures. More than that, the pressure of the intelligence community to conform, the rejection of it when it failed to produce intelligence suitable for supporting the &#8216;Iraq is an imminent threat to the United States&#8217; agenda, and the amazing things I was hearing in both Bush and Cheney speeches told me that not only do neoconservatives hold a theory based on ideas not embraced by the American mainstream, but they also have a collective contempt for fact.&#8221; http://amconmag.com/12_1_03/feature.htm American Conservative, 12/1/03 News Article statement &#8220;It [Office of Special Plans] was organized like a machine. The people working on the neocon agenda had a narrow, well-defined political agenda. They had a sense of mission.&#8221; http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html Mother Jones, 1/04 News Article statement People in the Office of Special Plans &#8220;would draw up &#8216;talking points&#8217; they would use and distribute to their friends. But the talking points would be changed continually, not because of new intel (intelligence), but because the press was poking holes in what was in the memos.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0807-02.htm Inter Press Service, 8/7/03 News Article statement &#8220;People were being pulled aside [and being told], &#8216;We saw your last piece and it's not what we're looking for,&#8217; &#8221; he says. &#8220;It was pretty blatant.&#8221; http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2004/01/12_405.html Mother Jones, 1/04 News Article statement &#8220;One of the reasons I left was my sense that they were using the intelligence from the CIA and other agencies only when it fit their agenda. They didn't like the intelligence they were getting, and so they brought in people to write the stuff. They were so crazed and so far out and so difficult to reason with&#8212;to the point of being bizarre. Dogmatic, as if they were on a mission from God. If it doesn't fit their theory, they don't want to accept it.&#8221; http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?030512fa_fact New Yorker, 5/5/03 News Article statement &#8220;There's a formal, well-established intelligence process in Washington, which Rumsfeld apparently wanted to circumvent. ... Their operation was virtually invisible to us; I don't remember seeing any of their intelligence information.&#8221; He added that the Office of Special Plans &#8220;had no status in the intelligence community.&#8221; http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article4124.htm Salon, 7/16/03 News Article statement &#8220;No one from the military staff heard, saw or discussed anything with&#8221; the people at the Office of Special Plans http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,999737,00.html Guardian, 7/17/03 News Article statement &#8220;That office was charged with collecting, vetting and disseminating intelligence completely outside of the normal intelligence apparatus. In fact, it appears that information collected by this office was in some instances not even shared with established intelligence agencies and in numerous instances was passed on to the national security council and the president without having been vetted with anyone other than political appointees.&#8221; http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,999737,00.html Guardian, 7/17/03 News Article statement elliott_abrams activeparticipant colin_powell activeparticipant stephen_hadley activeparticipant david_wurmser activeparticipant richard_perle activeparticipant colonel_bruner activeparticipant newt_gingrich activeparticipant james_woolsey activeparticipant elizabeth_cheney activeparticipant kenneth_adelman activeparticipant paul_wolfowitz activeparticipant abram_shulsky activeparticipant karen_kwiatkowski activeparticipant douglas_feith activeparticipant deception officeOfSpecialPlans September 1, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_372 1 false In an interview with the BBC, Powell states that he favors the return of UN inspectors as a necessary &#8220;first step&#8221; in dealing with Iraq. He says: &#8220;Iraq has been in violation of these many UN resolutions for most of the last 11 or so years. So as a first step, let's see what the inspectors find, send them back in, why are they being kept out.&#8221; Regarding the decision of whether or not the use of military action would be required, he says: &#8220;The world has to be presented with the information, with the intelligence that is available. A debate is needed within the international community so that everybody can make a judgment about this.&#8221; http://news.independent.co.uk/world/americas/story.jsp?story=329676 Independent, 9/2/03 News Article His comments directly contradict statements made by Vice President Dick Cheney in a speech to the Commonwealth Club of California in San Francisco on August 7 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_371 ]]), and another speech to the Nashville convention of the Veterans of Foreign Wars on August 26 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_121 ]]). Interestingly, it also comes one day after Scott McClellan, the White House deputy press secretary, told reporters, &#8220;The view of the administration is united and one in the same. We are singing from the same songbook.&#8221; http://www.cnn.com/2002/US/08/30/powell.iraq/ CNN, 8/30/02 News Article But commentators are concluding otherwise, which spurs another statement from Washington, this one from White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer, who the next day tells reporters as they accompany him on Air Force One: &#8220;There is no difference in position between Cheney, Powell, and President Bush. It's much ado about no difference.&#8221; http://www.cnn.com/2002/ALLPOLITICS/09/02/whitehouse.iraq/ CNN, 9/03/02 News Article scott_mcclellan activeparticipant ari_fleischer activeparticipant colin_powell activeparticipant weaponsInspections September 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_33 1 false Representatives from the Central Intelligence Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency, National Security Agency, National Imagery and Mapping Agency, the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research and the Energy Department's intelligence agency meet to discuss the draft of the 2002 National Intelligence Estimate on Iraq, which will be published the following month (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_7 ]]). Representing the DOE's intelligence service is Thomas Rider, who is temporarily filling in as the office's acting director. Significantly, Rider is a &#8220;human resources guy&#8221; with no intelligence background. &#8220;Rider is not an intelligence guy by any stretch of the imagination,&#8221; a DOE source will later explain to World Net Daily. &#8220;He [has] ... no intel background whatsoever. He [works] on all the personnel stuff&#8212;paperwork for promotions, hiring contractors, stuff like that.&#8221; At the meeting, Rider is supposed to represent the position of the DOE's scientists and intelligence officers, who believe that Iraq has not reconstituted its nuclear weapons program. Scientists in the Energy Department as well as officers in the department's intelligence office want to join the INR in its dissenting vote. One official will later explain to World Net Daily, &#8220;Senior folks in the office wanted to join INR on the footnote, and even wanted to write it with them, so the footnote would have read, &#8216;Energy and INR.&#8217; &#8221; http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=33948 World Net Daily, 8/12/03 News Article unnamed_us_official source Instead Rider will side with the other intelligence agencies who claim that Iraq has reconstituted its nuclear weapons program. An official later tells World Net Daily that when Rider and his staff were arguing over Iraq's alleged program during a pre-brief, Rider told them to &#8220;shut up and sit down.&#8221; http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=34042 World Net Daily, 8/12/03 News Article unnamed_us_official source When the voting takes place, Rider does not sign his department onto the State Department's dissenting opinion. As a result, the final vote is a near unanimous 5-1. &#8220;Time comes for the Iraq NIE, and instead of being hard-charging and proactive and pulling everybody together, he just didn't know what to do,&#8221; one source later says. &#8220;He wasn't a strong advocate. He just didn't have the background. He didn't have the gravitas.&#8221; The Department of Energy's position on the issue is considered very important. &#8220;Energy's vote on the nuclear allegation was critical, because the department is viewed as the final arbiter of technical disputes regarding nuclear-proliferation issues,&#8221; World Net Daily will note. http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=33948 World Net Daily, 8/12/03 News Article http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=34042 World Net Daily, 8/12/03 News Article unnamed_us_official source While serving in the temporary DOE position, Rider, who is said to be close to Secretary Spencer Abraham, receives bonuses totaling $20,500. Energy insiders will say they cannot remember a previous instance where an intelligence chief had been provided with such a large bonus. &#8220;That's a hell of a lot of money for an intelligence director who had no experience or background in intelligence, and who'd only been running the office for nine months,&#8221; one official says. &#8220;Something's fishy.&#8221; http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=34042 World Net Daily, 8/12/03 News Article David Albright told World Net Daily that it appeared that most of the people who had voted to include statements that Iraq had reconstituted its nuclear weapons program in the 2002 National Intelligence Estimate on Iraq &#8220;didn't have a clue about the technical issues.&#8221; http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=33948 World Net Daily, 8/6/03 News Article commentary spencer_abraham activeparticipant thomas_rider activeparticipant deception Before September 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_113 1 false According to a senior intelligence official interviewed by the Associated Press in June of 2003, the CIA shares with Britain the results of Joseph Wilson's trip to Niger (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_106 ]]), advising British intelligence that claims that Iraq attempted to procure uranium from Niger are unsubstantiated. But another report, by the Guardian in London the following month, contradicts this AP report. It cites a series of letters to the British Foreign Affairs Committee which show that the US had asked Britain not to use the Africa-uranium claim, but did not provide details about Wilson's mission to Niger. http://www.mail-archive.com/marxist-leninist-list@lists.econ.utah.edu/msg03645.html Associated Press, 6/12/03 News Article http://observer.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,6903,997243,00.html Observer, 7/13/03 News Article In spite of this warning, Britain publishes a dossier in September which includes the claim.(see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_475 ]]) joseph_c._wilson passiveparticipant africaUraniumClaim September 3, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_125 1 false During a Defense Department news briefing, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld says: &#8220;We know that they were a lot closer than any of the experts had estimated they would be with respect to [developing] a nuclear weapon. To the extent that they have kept their nuclear scientists together and working on these efforts, one has to assume they've not been playing tiddlywinks.&#8221; http://www.centcom.mil/CENTCOMNews/transcripts/20020903.htm Centcom, 9/3/2002 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/ap090302.htm Associated Press 9/3/02 News Article http://www.washtimes.com/upi-breaking/20020903-041327-7431r.htm UPI 9/3/02 News Article &#8220;We know that they were a lot closer than any of the experts had estimated they would be with respect to [developing] a nuclear weapon. To the extent that they have kept their nuclear scientists together and working on these efforts, one has to assume they've not been playing tiddlywinks.&#8221; http://www.washtimes.com/upi-breaking/20020903-041327-7431r.htm UPI 9/3/02 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/ap090302.htm Associated Press 9/3/02 News Article http://www.centcom.mil/CENTCOMNews/transcripts/20020903.htm Centcom, 9/3/2002 News Article duplicate donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant nuclearQuotes September 4, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_388 1 false The Washington Post publishes an op-ed piece by James Webb, a former assistant secretary of defense and secretary of the Navy, warning that the neoconservatives' plan to invade Iraq would commit the US to a long term occupation of Iraq. &#8220;The issue before us is not simply whether the United States should end the regime of Saddam Hussein, but whether we as a nation are prepared to physically occupy territory in the Middle East for the next 30 to 50 years. Those who are pushing for a unilateral war in Iraq know full well that there is no exit strategy if we invade and stay. This reality was the genesis of a rift that goes back to the Gulf War itself, when neoconservatives were vocal in their calls for &#8216;a MacArthurian regency in Baghdad.&#8217; Their expectation is that the United States would not only change Iraq's regime but also remain as a long-term occupation force in an attempt to reconstruct Iraqi society itself.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A34847-2002Sep3.html The Washington Post, 9/4/02 News Article james_webb activeparticipant predictions maintreamDissent September 7, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_28 1 false During a joint press conference with US President George W. Bush and British Prime Minister Tony Blair, the two leaders make 2 false and misleading statements, which are quickly contested by experts. Tony Blair states, &#8220;We only need to look at the report from the International Atomic Agency [IAEA] this morning showing what has been going on at the former nuclear weapons sites to realize that&#8221; Saddam is a real threat. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/09/20020907-2.html White House, 9/7/02 News Article But no such report exists. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0927-08.htm Washington Times, 9/27/02 News Article What Blair is actually referring to is a set of commercial satellite photographs showing signs of new construction at a site the US had bombed in 1998. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/msnbc090702.htm MSNBC 9/7/02 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/september11/story/0,11209,798175,00.html Guardian 9/9/02 News Article http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2002-09-10-iraq-weapons_x.htm Associated Press, 9/10/02 News Article That same day, Mark Gwozdecky, a spokesman for the UN agency, says the agency had drawn no conclusion from those photographs. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/msnbc090702.htm MSNBC 9/7/02 News Article On September 9, the Guardian of London will report that according to &#8220;a well-placed source&#8221; the photographs do not support Blair's statement. &#8220;You cannot draw any conclusions,&#8221; the source explains. &#8220;The satellites were only looking at the top of a roof. You cannot tell without inspectors on the ground.&#8221; http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,788469,00.html Guardian, 9/9/02 News Article http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,788469,00.html Guardian, 9/9/02 News Article The following day, Hans Blix, head of UNMOVIC, will similarly tell reporters: &#8220;... satellites don't see through roofs. So we are not drawing conclusions from them. But it would be an important element in where, maybe, we want to go to inspect and monitor.&#8221; http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2002-09-10-iraq-weapons_x.htm Associated Press, 9/10/02 News Article http://www.globeandmail.com/servlet/ArticleNews/PEstory/TGAM/20020911/UUNITN/Headlines/headdex/headdexInternational_temp/5/5/27/ The Globe and Mail, 9/11/02 News Article Bush asserts, &#8220;I would remind you that when the inspectors first went into Iraq and were denied&#8212;finally denied access [in 1998], a report came out of the Atomic&#8212;the IAEA that they were six months away from developing a weapon,&#8221; adding, &#8220;I don't know what more evidence we need.&#8221; http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/09/20020907-2.html White House, 9/7/02 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0927-08.htm Washington Times, 9/27/02 News Article But Bush's statement is quickly refuted by an MSNBC news report published later that day, which includes an excerpt from the summary of the 1998 IAEA report Bush cited. The summary reads, &#8220;[B]ased on all credible information available to date ... the IAEA has found no indication of Iraq having achieved its program goal of producing nuclear weapons or of Iraq having retained a physical capability for the production of weapon-useable nuclear material or having clandestinely obtained such material.&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/msnbc090702.htm MSNBC 9/7/02 News Article The text of the actual report, authored by IAEA Director-General Mohamed ElBaradei, reads: &#8220;There are no indications that there remains in Iraq any physical capability for the production of weapon-usable nuclear material of any practical significance.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0927-08.htm Washington Times, 9/27/02 News Article When confronted by MSNBC reporters on this point, an unnamed senior White House official states, &#8220;What happened was, we formed our own conclusions based on the report.&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/msnbc090702.htm MSNBC 9/7/02 News Article Later, when The Washington Times presses Deputy Press Secretary Scott McClellan for an explanation, he says, &#8220;[Bush is] referring to 1991 there. In '91, there was a report saying that after the war they found out they were about six months away.&#8221; But this too is challenged by Mr. Gwozdecky, spokesman for the UN agency, who says that no such report was ever published by the IAEA in 1991. Apparently the President's accusations are based on two news articles that were published more than a decade ago&#8212; &#8220;a July 16 [2001] story in the London Times by Michael Evans and a July 18 [2001] story in the New York Times by Paul Lewis.&#8221; But as The Washington Times notes, &#8220;Neither article cites an IAEA report on Iraq's nuclear-weapons program or states that Saddam was only six months away from &#8216;developing a weapon&#8217; &#8212;as claimed by Mr. Bush.&#8221; Instead the two news articles reported that at that time, UN inspectors had concluded that Iraq was only six months away from the large-scale production of enriched uranium. But as the 1998 report shows, both 1991 news stories are outdated. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0927-08.htm Washington Times, 9/27/02 News Article &#8220;We only need to look at the report from the International Atomic Energy Agency showing what has been going on at the former nuclear weapons site to realize&#8221; the seriousness of the threat posed by Saddam Hussein http://www.guardian.co.uk/september11/story/0,11209,798175,00.html Guardian 9/9/02 News Article ../../archive/2002/msnbc090702.htm MSNBC 9/7/02 News Article duplicate &#8220;Based on all credible information available to date ... the IAEA has found no indication of Iraq having achieved its program goal of producing nuclear weapons or of Iraq having retained a physical capability for the production of weapon-useable nuclear material or having clandestinely obtained such material.&#8221; ../../archive/2002/msnbc090702.htm MSNBC 9/7/02 News Article duplicate &#8220;I would remind you that when the inspectors first went into Iraq and were denied&#8212;finally denied access [in 1998], a report came out of the Atomic&#8212;the IAEA that they were six months away from developing a weapon. I don't know what more evidence we need.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0927-08.htm Washington Times 9/27/02 News Article duplicate &#8220;There are no indications that there remains in Iraq any physical capability for the production of weapon-usable nuclear material of any practical significance.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0927-08.htm Washington Times 9/27/02 News Article duplicate scott_mcclellan activeparticipant tony_blair activeparticipant mohamed_elbaradei activeparticipant george_w._bush activeparticipant mark_gwozdecky activeparticipant deception September 8, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1125 1 false National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice continues to insist Saddam Hussein remains determined to acquire nuclear weapons.&#8220;We do know that he is actively pursuing a nuclear weapon.&#8221; http://www.cnn.com/2002/ALLPOLITICS/09/08/iraq.debate/ CNN, 9/8/2002 News Article http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/weekly/aa091011a.htm US Government Info, 9/8/2002 News Article http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/09/09/wirq109.xml Telegraph, 9/9/2002 News Article http://www.house.gov/reform/min/features/iraq_on_the_record/ Iraq on the Record database, 3/16/2004 News Article &#8220;We do know that [Saddam Hussein] is actively pursuing a nuclear weapon.&#8221; http://www.house.gov/reform/min/features/iraq_on_the_record/ Iraq on the Record database, 3/16/2004 News Article http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/09/09/wirq109.xml Telegraph, 9/9/2002 News Article http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/weekly/aa091011a.htm US Government Info, 9/8/2002 News Article http://www.cnn.com/2002/ALLPOLITICS/09/08/iraq.debate/ CNN, 9/8/2002 News Article duplicate condoleezza_rice activeparticipant nuclearQuotes September 8, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_129 1 false Secretary of State Colin Powell responds to a speech former UN Chief Weapons Inspector Scott Ritter made to Iraq's parliament and a cadre of foreign reporters, in which the former weapons inspector had stated: &#8220;The truth is Iraq is not a threat to its neighbors and it is not acting in a manner which threatens anyone outside its borders. Military action against Iraq cannot be justified.&#8221; http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/attack/2002/0908exinspector.htm Associated Press 9/8/02 News Article Ritter had also stated: &#8220;The rhetoric of fear that is disseminated by my government and others has not to date been backed up by hard facts to substantiate any allegations that Iraq is today in possession of weapons of mass destruction or has links to terror groups responsible for attacking the United States. Void of such facts, all we have is speculation.&#8221; http://www.newsmax.com/showinsidecover.shtml?a=2002/9/8/110715 Newsmax 9/8/02 News Article In response, Powell says on &#8220;Fox News Sunday&#8221; : &#8220;We have facts, not speculation. Scott is certainly entitled to his opinion but I'm afraid that I would not place the security of my nation and the security of our friends in the region on that kind of an assertion by somebody who's not in the intelligence chain any longer... If Scott is right, then why are they keeping the inspectors out? If Scott is right, why don't they say, &#8216;Anytime, any place, anywhere, bring'em in, everybody come in&#8212;we are clean?&#8217; The reason is they are not clean. And we have to find out what they have and what we're going to do about it. And that's why it's been the policy of this government to insist that Iraq be disarmed in accordance with the terms of the relevant UN resolutions.&#8221; http://www.newsmax.com/showinsidecover.shtml?a=2002/9/8/110715 Newsmax 9/8/02 News Article &#8220;We have facts, not speculation. Scott is certainly entitled to his opinion but I'm afraid that I would not place the security of my nation and the security of our friends in the region on that kind of an assertion by somebody who's not in the intelligence chain any longer.... If Scott is right. Then why are they keeping the inspectors out? If Scott is right, why don't they say, &#8216;Anytime, any place, anywhere, bring'em in, everybody come in&#8212;we are clean?&#8217; The reason is they are not clean. And we have to find out what they have and what we're going to do about it. And that's why it's been the policy of this government to insist that Iraq be disarmed in accordance with the terms of the relevant UN resolutions.&#8221; http://www.newsmax.com/showinsidecover.shtml?a=2002/9/8/110715 Newsmax 9/8/02 News Article duplicate &#8220;The truth is Iraq is not a threat to its neighbors and it is not acting in a manner which threatens anyone outside its borders. Military action against Iraq cannot be justified.&#8221; http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/attack/2002/0908exinspector.htm Associated Press 9/8/02 News Article http://www.newsmax.com/showinsidecover.shtml?a=2002/9/8/110715 Newsmax 9/8/02 News Article duplicate &#8220;The rhetoric of fear that is disseminated by my government and others has not to date been backed up by hard facts to substantiate any allegations that Iraq is today in possession of weapons of mass destruction or has links to terror groups responsible for attacking the United States. Void of such facts, all we have is speculation.&#8221; http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/attack/2002/0908exinspector.htm Associated Press 9/8/02 News Article http://www.newsmax.com/showinsidecover.shtml?a=2002/9/8/110715 Newsmax 9/8/02 News Article duplicate colin_powell activeparticipant wmdQuotesGeneral September 8, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_472 1 false Dick Cheney says on NBC's &#8220;Meet the Press&#8221; : &#8220;We do know, with absolute certainty, that he [Saddam Hussein] is using his procurement system to acquire the equipment [aluminum tubes] he needs in order to enrich uranium to build a nuclear weapon.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A20194-2004Feb6.html Washington Post, 2/7/03 News Article http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2003/transcripts/s976015.htm Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 10/27/03 News Article &#8220;But we do know, with absolute certainty, that he is using his procurement system to acquire the equipment he needs in order to enrich uranium to build a nuclear weapon.&#8221; http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2003/transcripts/s976015.htm Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 10/27/03 News Article http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A20194-2004Feb6.html Washington Post, 2/7/03 News Article duplicate dick_cheney activeparticipant aluminumTubes nuclearQuotes September 8, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1124 1 false When asked if Saddam Hussein presents a &#8220;clear and present danger&#8221; to the United States, Condoleezza Rice tells Wolf Blitzer on CNN?s Late Edition there is [no doubt] that &#8220;the danger is gathering momentum.&#8221;&nbsp;&#8220;We do know that there have been shipments going ... into Iraq ... of aluminum tubes that really are only suited to&#8212;high-quality aluminum tools [sic] that are only really suited for nuclear weapons programs, centrifuge programs.&#8221; http://www.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0209/08/le.00.html CNN Late Night with Wolf Blitzer, 9/8/2002 News Article http://www.refuseandresist.org/war/art.php?aid=949 New York Times, 7/20/2003 News Article http://www.house.gov/reform/min/features/iraq_on_the_record/ Iraq on the Record database, 3/16/2004 News Article &#8220;We do know that there have been shipments going ... into Iraq ... of aluminum tubes that really are only suited to&#8212;high-quality aluminum tools [sic] that are only really suited for nuclear weapons programs, centrifuge programs.&#8221; http://www.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0209/08/le.00.html CNN Late Night with Wolf Blitzer, 9/8/2002 News Article http://www.refuseandresist.org/war/art.php?aid=949 New York Times, 7/20/2003 News Article http://www.house.gov/reform/min/features/iraq_on_the_record/ Iraq on the Record database, 3/16/2004 News Article duplicate condoleezza_rice activeparticipant nuclearQuotes aluminumTubes September 8, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_471 1 false Appearing on CNN, Condoleezza Rice states: &#8220;There have been shipments of high-quality aluminum tubes that are only really suited for nuclear weapons programs, centrifuge programs.... The problem here is that there will always be some uncertainty about how quickly he can acquire nuclear weapons, but we don't want the smoking gun to be a mushroom cloud.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A61622-2003Jul15?language=printer Washington Post, 7/16/03 News Article http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2003/transcripts/s976015.htm Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 10/27/03 News Article condoleezza_rice activeparticipant aluminumTubes nuclearQuotes September 8, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1126 1 false Asked by Wolf Blitzer how close Saddam Hussein has come to developing nuclear weapon capabilities, National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice claims, &#8220;We know that he has the infrastructure, nuclear scientists to make a nuclear weapon.&#8221; http://www.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0209/08/le.00.html CNN Late Edition with Wolf Blitzer, 9/8/2002 News Article http://www.house.gov/reform/min/features/iraq_on_the_record/ Iraq on the Record database, 3/16/2004 News Article &#8220;We know that [Saddam Hussein] has the infrastructure, nuclear scientists to make a nuclear weapon.&#8221; http://www.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0209/08/le.00.html CNN Late Edition with Wolf Blitzer, 9/8/2002 News Article http://www.house.gov/reform/min/features/iraq_on_the_record/ Iraq on the Record database, 3/16/2004 News Article duplicate condoleezza_rice activeparticipant nuclearQuotes (1:00am) September 8, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_470 1 false The New York Times publishes a front page story reporting that Iraq has attempted to obtain aluminum tubes which, US intelligence believes, were intended for use in a nuclear weapons program. The article&#8212;written by Times reporters Judith Miller and Michael Gordon&#8212;cites unnamed intelligence officials as its sources. &#8220;In the last 14 months, Iraq has sought to buy thousands of specially designed aluminum tubes, which American officials believe were intended as components of centrifuges to enrich uranium,&#8221; reports the newspaper. &#8220;The diameter, thickness and other technical specifications of the aluminum tubes had persuaded American intelligence experts that they were meant for Iraq's nuclear program ....&#8221; http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/nytimes090802.htm New York Times, 9/8/2002 News Article Houston G. Wood III, a retired Oak Ridge physicist who had filed a report with the US government more than a year before (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_44 ]]) concluding that the tubes were not meant for centrifuges, is shocked by the report. In an interview with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation more than a year later, he will recount his initial reaction: &#8220;My first thought was, &#8216;This must be some new tubes&#8217; , you know. And then...and then when I realized that these were the tubes that I had been looking at a year before, I was just ... I was ... I was just shocked. I couldn't believe that, you know, here we were, saying that these tubes were, you know, the same tubes that I'd come to the conclusion a year before were not valid for centrifuges, and here they're saying they are. So, er ... that was a real surprise.&#8221; http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2003/transcripts/s976015.htm Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 10/27/03 News Article judith_miller activeparticipant houston_g._wood_iii activeparticipant michael_gordon activeparticipant aluminumTubes September 9, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_429 1 false The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) in London concludes in a report that &#8220;Iraq does not possess facilities to produce fissile material in sufficient amounts for nuclear weapons&#8221; and that &#8220;it would require several years and extensive foreign assistance to build such fissile material production facilities.&#8221; http://www.iiss.org/news-more.php?itemID=88 International Institute for Strategic Studies, 9/9/02 News Article http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/10/12/MN186933.DTL San Francisco Chronicle, 10/12/02 News Article http://www.iiss.org/confPress-more.php?confID=50 Guardian, 9/10/02 News Article http://www.iiss.org/confPress-more.php?confID=93 Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 9/10/02 News Article http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2246441.stm BBC, 9/9/02 News Article international_institute_for_strategic_studies activeparticipant wmd September 9, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_149 1 false Canadian Primer Minister Jean Chretien and US President George Bush meet in Detroit to discuss policy towards Iraq as well as security measures along the US-Canadian border initiated after September 11. Chretien later tells reporters that Bush said that Saddam Hussein's alleged ties to terrorism was &#8220;not the angle they're exploring now. The angle they're exploring is the production of weapons of mass destruction.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A59403-2002Sep9.html Washington Post, 9/10/02 News Article http://www.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0209/09/wbr.00.html CNN, 9/10/02 News Article jean_chretien source Saddam Hussein's alleged ties to terrorism was &#8220;not the angle they're [the Bush administration] exploring now. The angle they're exploring is the production of weapons of mass destruction.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A59403-2002Sep9.html Washington Post, 9/10/02 News Article duplicate jean_chretien activeparticipant saddam_hussein passiveparticipant george_w._bush activeparticipant terroristTies September 10, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_360 1 false In an appearance on Good Morning America with Charlie Gibson, Rumsfeld dismisses the notion that the administration needs to disclose evidence about Iraq's banned weapons to the public before going to war. Gibson asks: &#8220;One of the sentinel moments of my life was when John Kennedy went on television and showed satellite photos of Soviet missiles on Cuban soil. Isn't it going to take and do you have that kind of direct evidence?&#8221;In response, Rumsfeld states: &#8220;You know, the idea of direct evidence is not like a court of law under Article 3 of our Constitution where your goal is to punish somebody for doing something wrong. That really isn't the case here. This is self defense, and the United States task is to see that we don't allow an event to happen that then one has to punish someone.&#8221; Gibson then follows with another question: &#8220;But you can't go to war without American public support and I'm asking don't you need that kind of direct evidence? Or do you have it, to get the American public support or to get a coalition?&#8221; Rumsfeld replies: &#8220;The evidence is certainly there. The President has to decide what precisely he believes is the best approach. And one thing he'd say is, the one course of action that's not acceptable is doing nothing.&#8221; http://news.ft.com/servlet/ContentServer?pagename=FT.com/StoryFT/FullStory&amp;c=StoryFT&amp;cid=1031119181922&amp;p=1012571727102 Financial Times, 9/11/02 News Article http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Sep2002/t09092002_t0909sdgma.html US Department of Defense, 9/11/02 News Article donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant legalJustification September 10, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_376 1 false Condoleezza Rice and George Tenet give a classified briefing to some members of Congress. After the briefing, several Democrats said they are unconvinced that Saddam Hussein poses an imminent threat to the US. Minority Whip Nancy Pelosi from California, the ranking Democrat on the House intelligence committee, tells The Washington Post, &#8220;I did not hear anything today that was different about [Saddam Hussein's] capabilities,&#8221; save a few &#8220;embellishments.&#8221; Democratic Senator Richard J. Durbin from Illinois tells the newspaper: &#8220;It would be a severe mistake for us to vote on Iraq with as little information as we have. This would be a rash and hasty decision&#8221; adding that he has heard &#8220;no groundbreaking news&#8221; on Iraq's capabilities. Democrat Robert Menendez, a representative from New Jersey, says he also didn't hear any new evidence. &#8220;What was described as new is not new. It was not compelling enough,&#8221; he says. &#8220;Did I see a clear and present danger to the United States? No.&#8221; And an unnamed House Republican leader also seems to believe the case Tenet and Rice presented is weak. He says, &#8220;Daschle will want to delay this and he can make a credible case for delay&#8221; . http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A64509-2002Sep10?language=printer The Washington Post, 9/10/02 News Article http://www.cnn.com/2002/ALLPOLITICS/09/10/congress.iraq/ CNN, 9/10/02 News Article george_tenet activeparticipant nancy_pelosi activeparticipant richard_durbin activeparticipant condoleezza_rice activeparticipant robert_menendez activeparticipant wmd September 12, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_45 1 false In a speech to the United Nations General Assembly, George Bush says: &#8220;Right now, Iraq is expanding and improving facilities that were used for the production of biological weapons . . . Iraq has made several attempts to buy high-strength aluminum tubes used to enrich uranium for a nuclear weapon.&#8221; http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/06/06/1054700385928.html The Age (Australia), 6/7/03 News Article wmd aluminumTubes September 12, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_117 1 false President George Bush tells the UN General Assembly, &#8220;Right now, Iraq is expanding and improving facilities that were used for the production of biological weapons.&#8221; http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/09/20020912-1.html White House, 9/12/02 News Article http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/middle_east/july-dec02/bkgdiraq_9-12.html PBS, 9/12/02 News Article http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/06/06/1054700385928.html The Age (Australia), 6/7/03 News Article &#8220;Right now, Iraq is expanding and improving facilities that were used for the production of biological weapons.&#8221; http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/06/06/1054700385928.html The Age (Australia), 6/7/03 News Article http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/09/20020912-1.html White House, 9/12/02 News Article http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/middle_east/july-dec02/bkgdiraq_9-12.html PBS, 9/12/02 News Article duplicate george_w._bush activeparticipant ChemicalBiologicalQuotes September 12, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_138 1 false The White House publishes a 26-page government white paper titled, &#8220;A Decade of Defiance and Deception,&#8221; which seeks to demonstrate that Saddam Hussein represents a serious and imminent threat to the United States and its people. Section 5 of the report deals with &#8220;Saddam Hussein's support for international terrorism,&#8221; though it makes no attempt to tie the Iraqi leader to al-Qaeda or Osama bin Laden. It includes a brief list of six points implicating Saddam Hussein in terrorist activities, some dating as far back as the '70s. One of the points criticizes Iraq for its ties to the Mujahadeen-e Khalq Organization (MKO), an obscure militant Iranian dissident group whose main office is in Baghdad. The report says: &#8220;Iraq shelters terrorist groups including the Mujahedin-e-Khalq Organization (MKO), which has used terrorist violence against Iran and in the 1970s was responsible for killing several US military personnel and US civilians.&#8221; The paper notes that the US State Department classified MKO as a &#8220;foreign terrorist organization&#8221; in 1997, &#8220;accusing the Baghdad-based group of a long series of bombings, guerilla cross-border raids and targeted assassinations of Iranian leaders.&#8221; http://www.whitehouse.gov/infocus/iraq/decade/sect5.html White House, 9/12/02 News Article http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/09.30B.nswk.bagdad.htm Newsweek, 9/26/2002 News Article richard_durbin source The administration is quickly ridiculed for making the claim when, two weeks later, Newsweek reports that MKO's front organization, the National Council of Resistance of Iran, has a small office in the National Press Building in Washington D.C. It is also reported that only two years beforehand this very group had been supported by then-Senator John Ashcroft and more than 200 other members of Congress. On several issues the senator and his colleagues had expressed solidarity with MKO at the behest of their Iranian-American constituencies. http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/09.30B.nswk.bagdad.htm Newsweek, 9/26/2002 News Article saddam_hussein passiveparticipant osama_bin_laden passiveparticipant john_ashcroft passiveparticipant terroristTies September 12, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_725 1 false In an address to the UN General Assembly, US President George Bush announces that the US &#8220;will work with the UN Security Council.&#8221; http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/09/20020912-1.html White House, 9/12/2002 News Article http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 285 News Article george_w._bush activeparticipant weaponsInspections September 13, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_377 1 false Dennis Kucinich, a Democratic representative from Ohio and outspoken critic of the administration's plan to invade Iraq, says: &#8220;There is no imminent threat by Iraq against the United States. Iraq does not have nuclear capabilities that anyone has been able to specifically determine, nor does it have the ability to deliver such a weapon, nor does it have the intent to do so. It could be said by Iraq that they are facing the imminent threat.... Oil is a factor. How much [of a factor] is anybody's guess, but to discount it as a factor is, I think, to be misleading.... It's not a conspiracy theory to bring it in because, after all, it is the second largest oil supply in the world.&#8221; http://www.cnsnews.com/Politics/archive/200209/POL20020916c.html CNS News, 9/16/02 News Article dennis_kucinich activeparticipant maintreamDissent September 15-20, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_147 1 false In closed sessions, administration officials are asked several times whether they have evidence of an imminent threat from Iraq against US citizens. US Representative Anna Eshoo, later tells the San Francisco Chronicle that the officials acknowledged they had no such evidence. &#8220;They said &#8216;no,&#8217; &#8221; she says, &#8220;Not &#8216;no, but&#8217; or &#8216;maybe,&#8217; but &#8216;no.&#8217; I was stunned. Not shocked. Not surprised. Stunned.&#8221; http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/09/20/MN92230.DTL San Francisco Chronicle, 9/20/02 News Article anna_eshoo source anna_eshoo activeparticipant terroristTies September 15, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_628 1 false In an interview with the Wall Street Journal, Lawrence Lindsey says he believes the Bush administration's planned invasion of Iraq could cost between $100 and $200 billion. But he dismisses that such spending would significantly increase interest rates, add much to the federal debt, or cause a recession. Mitch Daniels, director of the Office of Management and Budget subsequently disputes the figure, saying it is &#8220;very, very high.&#8221; He suggests the total costs would run between $50-$60 billion. http://www.wsjclassroomedition.com/wsjtoday/archive/02sep/02sep16_iraq.htm Wall Street Journal, 9/16/02 News Article http://www.webprowire.com/summaries/244422.html Reuters, 9/18/02 News Article lawrence_lindsey activeparticipant mitch_daniels activeparticipant predictions September 15, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1132 1 false In response to Tony Snow?s probing on Fox News Sunday as to whether or not President Bush was convinced there were links between Saddam Hussein and Osama bin Laden, the National Security Advisor is circumspect until she?s pressed. &#8220; He clearly has links to terrorism ... &#8212;Links to terrorism [that] would include al-Qaeda....&#8221; http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,63125,00.html Fox News, 9/15/2002 News Article http://www.cnn.com/2002/US/09/25/us.iraq.alqaeda/ CNN, 9/26/2002 News Article http://www.islam-online.net/English/News/2002-09/15/article78.shtml Islam OnLine, 9/15/2002 News Article http://www.house.gov/reform/min/features/iraq_on_the_record/ Iraq on the Record database, 3/16/2004 News Article &#8220;[Saddam Hussein]clearly has links to terrorism ... &#8212;Links to terrorism [that] would include al-Qaeda....&#8221; http://www.islam-online.net/English/News/2002-09/15/article78.shtml Islam OnLine, 9/15/2002 News Article http://www.cnn.com/2002/US/09/25/us.iraq.alqaeda/ CNN, 9/26/2002 News Article http://www.house.gov/reform/min/features/iraq_on_the_record/ Iraq on the Record database, 3/16/2004 News Article http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,63125,00.html Fox News, 9/15/2002 News Article duplicate condoleezza_rice activeparticipant terroristTiesQuotes September 16, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_191 1 false Iraqi Foreign Minister Naji Sabri meets with UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan and Arab League Secretary-General Amir Moussa and gives them a letter expressing Baghdad's willingness to readmit the UN weapons inspectors without conditions. The offer is made after Saddam Hussein convened an emergency meeting in Baghdad with his cabinet and the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC). http://highmarkfunds.stockpoint.com/highmarkfunds/newspaper.asp?Mode=news&amp;Story=20020916/259w9255.xml Associated Press, 9/16/02a News Article http://www.jamiat.org.za/news/spring/sept17b.html Independent, 9/17/02 News Article http://www.mre.gov.br/acs/interclip2/Diario-WL/Setembro-02/materias/nytimes17d.htm New York Times, 9/17/02 News Article iraq_s_september_16,_2002_letter_accepting_the_unconditional_return_of_weapons_inspectors source Iraq's letter is effectively an agreement to December 1999 UN Security Council Resolution 1284. http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/09.19B.bsh.scram.irq.htm New York Times, 9/18/02 News Article Kofi Annan tells reporters after the meeting, &#8220;I can confirm to you that I have received a letter from the Iraqi authorities conveying its decision to allow the return of the inspectors without conditions to continue their work and has also agreed that they are ready to start immediate discussions on the practical arrangements for the return of the inspectors to resume their work.&#8221; Annan credits the Arab League, which he says &#8220;played a key role&#8221; in influencing Saddam Hussein's decision to accept the inspectors, and suggests that Bush's speech also played a critical part in influencing Baghdad's decision. http://www.un.org/apps/news/infocusnewsiraq.asp?NewsID=226&amp;sID=7 UN, 9/16/02 News Article UNMOVIC Chief Weapons Inspector Hans Blix also meets with Iraqi officials and it is reportedly agreed that weapons inspectors will return to Iraq on October 19. UNMOVIC spokesman Ewen Buchanan tells the BBC, &#8220;We are ready to discuss practical measures, such as helicopters, hotels, the installation of monitoring equipment and so on, which need to be put in place.&#8221; http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2263162.stm BBC, 9/17/02 News Article The Bush administration immediately rejects the offer, calling it &#8220;a tactical step by Iraq in hopes of avoiding strong UN Security Council action,&#8221; in a statement released by the deputy press secretary. http://highmarkfunds.stockpoint.com/highmarkfunds/newspaper.asp?Mode=news&amp;Story=20020916/259w9255.xml Associated Press, 9/16/02 News Article http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/09/20020916-6.html White House, 9/16/2002 News Article And Dan Bartlett, the White House communications director, tells reporters: &#8220;We've made it very clear that we are not in the business of negotiating with Saddam Hussein. We are working with the UN Security Council to determine the most effective way to reach our goal.&#8221; He then claims Iraq's offer is a tactic to give &#8220;false hope to the international community that [President Saddam] means business this time,&#8221; adding, &#8220;Unfortunately, his more than decade of experience shows you can put very little into his words or deeds.&#8221; Two days later Bush will tell reporters that Saddam's offer is &#8220;his latest ploy, his latest attempt not to be held accountable for defying the United Nations,&#8221; adding: &#8220;He's not going to fool anybody. We've seen him before. . . . We'll remind the world that, by defying resolutions, he's become more and more of a threat to world peace. [The world] must rise up and deal with this threat, and that's what we expect the Security Council to do.&#8221; http://www.jamiat.org.za/news/spring/sept17b.html Independent, 9/17/02 News Article http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/09/19/1032054897471.html Agence France Presse, 9/19/02 News Article Later that night, Colin Powell and Condoleezza Rice reportedly hold a conference call with Kofi Annan and accuse him of taking matters into his own hands. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2004/vanityfair0504.html Vanity Fair, 5/2004, pg 285 News Article Britain supports the US position and calls for a UN resolution backed with the threat of force. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2263162.stm BBC, 9/17/03 News Article Other nations react differently to the offer. For example, Russia's Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov, says: &#8220;It's important that, through our joint efforts, we have managed to put aside the threat of a war scenario around Iraq and return the process to a political channel ... It is essential in the coming days to resolve the issue of the inspectors' return. For this, no new [Security Council] resolutions are needed.&#8221; http://www.jamiat.org.za/news/spring/sept17b.html Independent, 9/17/02 News Article http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2263162.stm BBC, 9/17/03 News Article &#8220;I believe they did expect an offer from Saddam over the inspectors, but not this fast, and not this pure. There are so many questions now. It has become a very, very fluid situation.&#8221; http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,794135,00.html Guardian, 9/18/02 News Article commentary Iraq's letter was &#8220;not a promise to disarm, not a promise to allow unfettered inspections, not a promise to disclose the state of its weapons program.&#8221; http://www.mre.gov.br/acs/interclip2/Diario-WL/Setembro-02/materias/nytimes17d.htm New York Times, 9/17/02 News Article statement &#8220;We built in some time for Saddam to play around with the UN. But not much time, and we have to convince the rest of the Security Council that the old timelines&#8212;60 days for the inspectors to &#8216;assess&#8217; what needs to be done&#8212;won't work.&#8221; http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/09.19B.bsh.scram.irq.htm New York Times, 9/18/02 News Article statement &#8220;This is not a matter of inspections. It is about disarmament of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction and the Iraqi regime's compliance with all other Security Council resolutions.&#8221; statement &#8220;We've made it very clear that we are not in the business of negotiating with Saddam Hussein. We are working with the UN Security Council to determine the most effective way to reach our goal.... [Iraq's offer is a tactic to give] false hope to the international community that [President Saddam] means business this time.... Unfortunately, his more than decade of experience shows you can put very little into his words or deeds.&#8221; http://www.jamiat.org.za/news/spring/sept17b.html Independent, 9/17/02 News Article statement Iraq's offer is &#8220;bound to be treated with a high degree of international skepticism. We shall continue to work with our international partners for an effective resolution before the security council.&#8221; http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2263162.stm BBC, 9/17/03 News Article statement &#8220;This letter emphasizes why Dick Cheney didn't want to go to the UN... Now you start to dither and dicker about how many inspections are enough. That's the road the White House opened up with Bush's speech, however much they may regret it now. ... It kicks the can down the road until Saddam makes his first mis-step. Unless and until he does, you're not going to get any consensus internationally or domestically for going to war. The administration can talk about reparations for the Kuwaitis, treatment of Iraqi minorities, prisoners of war, and all the other UN resolutions Saddam is flouting. But it all falls a little flat. These will not provide a casus belli in the eyes of the world.&#8221; http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,794135,00.html Guardian, 9/18/02 News Article commentary Saddam's offer is &#8220;his latest ploy, his latest attempt not to be held accountable for defying the United Nations.... He's not going to fool anybody. We've seen him before.... We'll remind the world that, by defying resolutions, he's become more and more of a threat to world peace. [The world] must rise up and deal with this threat, and that's what we expect the Security Council to do.&#8221; http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/09/19/1032054897471.html Agence France Presse, 9/19/02 News Article statement &#8220;I think the White House has been slightly wrong- footed. They spent so much time during the summer deciding whether to go it alone or with UN support that they did not work out the details of the tactics. There should have been a draft resolution in place. They now have to toughen things up, which I think they will succeed in doing.&#8221; http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-419073,00.html Times, 9/18/02 News Article commentary &#8220;If Mr Bush really had anticipated this, he would have handled things a little differently. For four and a half days, since his masterful speech last Thursday, he has dominated the global diplomatic agenda in a manner he has not managed since this time last year, in the days after the September 11 attacks. Suddenly, with what Colin Powell dismissively described as just &#8216;a one and a quarter page letter&#8217; , the picture has changed yet again, in a manner that must inevitably delay the administration's plan to topple Saddam Hussein&#8212;perhaps only for days if Iraq should suddenly reveal its ifs and buts, but perhaps indefinitely.&#8221; http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,794135,00.html Guardian, 9/18/02 News Article commentary &#8220;If it achieved nothing else, the offer of the Iraqi government to accept without conditions the return of United Nations weapons inspectors has exposed the most essential truth of contemporary international politics: the Bush administration wants war. Its hysterical claims of &#8216;weapons of mass destruction&#8217; have never been anything else but a means of manufacturing a public justification for war. The Bush administration has responded angrily to the diplomatic note of the Iraqi foreign minister&#8212;demanding that it be ignored by the UN&#8212;because it knows that Saddam Hussein's concession deprives the United States of the fig leaf of a pseudo-legal pretext for invading Iraq, destroying its government, seizing its oilfields and reducing the country to what would be, in effect, semi-colonial status.&#8221; http://www.wsws.org/articles/2002/sep2002/iraq-s18_prn.shtml World Socialist Web Site, 9/18/02 News Article commentary &#8220;We must seize the opportunity. Falling back on the old positions will not help now.&#8221; A military strike on Iraq would be &#8220;superfluous.&#8221; http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/09/19/1032054897471.html Agence France Presse, 9/19/02 News Article statement condoleezza_rice activeparticipant colin_powell activeparticipant hans_blix activeparticipant saddam_hussein activeparticipant scott_mcclellan activeparticipant kofi_annan activeparticipant naji_sabri activeparticipant dan_bartlett activeparticipant amir_moussa activeparticipant weaponsInspections September 16, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_192 1 false US Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld says that President Bush has not decided to go to war. http://highmarkfunds.stockpoint.com/highmarkfunds/newspaper.asp?Mode=news&amp;Story=20020916/259w9255.xml Associated Press, 9/16/02 News Article donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant george_w._bush passiveparticipant decision September 16, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1189 1 false Two days before the CIA is to issue an assessment (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_1188 ]]) on Iraq's supposed links to terrorism, Pentagon officials working in the Office of Special Plans give a briefing directly to the White House; Vice-President Dick Cheney's chief of staff, Lewis Libby; and National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice's deputy, Stephen Hadley. The briefing says that there were &#8220;fundamental problems&#8221; with CIA intelligence-gathering methods and includes a detailed breakdown of the alleged April 2001 Prague meeting between Mohammed Atta and Iraqi diplomat Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2004/07/11/wsept11.xml&amp;sSheet=/news/2004/07/11/ixnewstop.html Telegraph, 7/11/2004 News Article http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5412317/site/newsweek Newsweek, 7/19/2004 News Article lewis_libby activeparticipant stephen_hadley activeparticipant terroristTies officeOfSpecialPlans pragueConnection September 17, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_193 1 false The White House releases a detailed timeline depicting past Iraqi attempts to obstruct United Nations efforts, including Saddam's repeated refusals to provide inspectors access to sites they wanted to visit. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/09/20020917-8.html White House, 9/17/02 News Article http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/09.19B.bsh.scram.irq.htm New York Times, 9/18/02 News Article &#8220;We've really got our work cut out for us. I've always opposed going down the inspections route, because at the end of the day, you are betting that Saddam won't give in, and his past record always indicated he would give in. What's so interesting now is that he's given in at the ideal moment: really early, when it messes us up.&#8221; http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/09.19B.bsh.scram.irq.htm New York Times, 9/18/02 News Article commentary weaponsInspections September 18, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_210 1 false Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld warns the House Armed Services Committee of the serious and imminent threat that Saddam Hussein poses to the West. He says: &#8220;No terrorist state poses a greater and more immediate threat to the security of our people and the stability of the world than the regime of Saddam Hussein.&#8221; He adds: &#8220;What has not changed is Iraq's drive to acquire those weapons of mass destruction, and the fact that every approach that the United Nations has taken to stop Iraq's drive has failed. This is a critical moment for our country and for the world. Our resolve is being put to the test. It is a test unfortunately the world's free nations have failed before in recent history with unfortunate consequences.&#8221; http://www.defenselink.mil/speeches/2002/s20020918-secdef.html US Department of Defense, 9/18/02 News Article http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/09/19/wirq219.xml Telegraph, 9/19/02 News Article http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/09/19/1032054897471.html Agence France Presse, 9/19/02 News Article The Secretary of Defense also says that Congress must authorize the President to use military force against Iraq before the Security Council votes on the issue. &#8220;Delaying a vote in the Congress would send a message that the US may be unprepared to take a stand, just as we are asking the international community to take a stand and as we are cautioning the Iraqi regime to consider its options,&#8221; argues Rumsfeld, adding, &#8220;Our job today&#8212;the President's, the Congress' and the United Nations'&#8212;is to ... anticipate vastly more lethal attacks before they happen and to make the right decision as to whether or not it's appropriate for this country to take action.... The goal is not inspections, the goal is disarmament.&#8221; http://www.defenselink.mil/speeches/2002/s20020918-secdef.html US Department of Defense, 9/18/02 News Article http://www.seacoastonline.com/2002news/09192002/world/25186.htm Associated Press, 9/19/02 News Article He also tries to discredit Iraq's September 16 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_191 ]]) offer to admit UN inspectors without conditions. He says: &#8220;There's no doubt in my mind but that the inspection program that currently is on the books wouldn't work because it's so much weaker than the earlier one. The more inspectors that are in there, the less likely something is going to happen. The longer nothing happens, the more advanced their weapons programs go along.&#8221; http://www.defenselink.mil/speeches/2002/s20020918-secdef.html US Department of Defense, 9/18/02 News Article donald_rumsfeld activeparticipant legalJustification weaponsInspections imminentThreatQuotes September 19, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_194 1 false The White House delivers a draft of a strongly worded resolution to Congress authorizing the President to use &#8220;all appropriate means&#8221; against Iraq. The 20-paragraph draft includes provisions that would allow Bush to ignore the UN and &#8220;use all means that he determines to be appropriate, including force, in order to enforce&#8221; the UN's Security Council resolutions, &#8220;defend the national security interests of the United States against the threat posed by Iraq, and restore international peace and security in the region.&#8221; According to the Associated Press, &#8220;Three senior White House aides familiar with the draft said it would give Bush maximum flexibility to confront the threat posed by Iraqi weapons of mass destruction, including an explicit OK to use military force.&#8221; Although numerous congresspersons complain that the proposed wording of the resolution would provide Bush with a blank check to use military force anywhere in the Middle East and Persian Gulf, several senators&#8212;Democrats and Republicans alike&#8212;say that an amended version of the resolution would likely pass. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0920-01.htm Associated Press, 9/19/02b News Article http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-420322,00.html Times, 9/19/02 News Article http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0919-07.htm Independent, 9/19/02 News Article proposed_resolution_to_give_bush_authority_to_use_military_force_against_iraq source The draft lists several allegations against Iraq, depicting the country as an imminent threat against the US and its citizens. It states that Iraq continues to &#8220;possess and develop a significant chemical and biological weapons capability, actively seeking a nuclear weapons capability, and supporting and harboring terrorist organizations, thereby continuing to threaten the national security interests of the United States and international peace and security.&#8221; It also claims that Iraq &#8220;continues to aid and harbor other international terrorist organizations,&#8221; including members of al-Qaeda. proposed_resolution_to_give_bush_authority_to_use_military_force_against_iraq source The proposed resolution asserts that the use of military force against Iraq would constitute self-defense. It reads, &#8220;Whereas the United States has the inherent right, as acknowledged in the United Nations Charter, to use force in order to defend itself.&#8221; proposed_resolution_to_give_bush_authority_to_use_military_force_against_iraq source The draft calls on Congress to authorize the President to use military force against Iraq. &#8220;The President is authorized to use all means that he determines to be appropriate, including force, in order to enforce the United Nations Security Council Resolutions referenced above, defend the national security interests of the United States against the threat posed by Iraq, and restore international peace and security in the region.&#8221; proposed_resolution_to_give_bush_authority_to_use_military_force_against_iraq source &#8220;I'm not giving the president a blank check, period.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0920-01.htm Associated Press, 9/19/02b News Article commentary &#8220;The Gulf of Tonkin resolution ... did at least limit the president to repelling an armed attack and preventing future aggression, and to aiding certain treaty members who requested defense.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0920-01.htm Associated Press, 9/19/02b News Article commentary Bush's proposed resolution would be the &#8220;broadest possible grant of war powers to any president in the history of our Republic. The resolution is a direct insult and an affront to the powers given to Congress.&#8221; http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/09.24B.Byrd.tonkin.htm West Virginia Gazette, 9/21/02 News Article commentary &#8220;It's wide open. This resolutions says, &#8216;Mr. President, you can use force anywhere to bring peace and stability anywhere&#8217; .;.. What region? It doesn't say just Iraq. It says the region. Would it allow him to use force in Yemen? How about the Sudan? One could argue that it could.&#8221; http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0920-01.htm Associated Press, 9/19/02b News Article commentary &#8220;We should not approve such a sweeping resolution, which would commit thousands to death and extract billions from the pockets of American taxpayers. This open-ended resolution seeks broader authority than the Gulf of Tonkin resolution upon which reliance was made to wage the Vietnam War.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A41939-2002Sep19?language=printer Washington Post, 9/20/02 News Article commentary &#8220;There is absolutely no difference of opinion with regard to the threat that Saddam Hussein poses and the need to address that threat in a multitude of ways.&#8221; http://archives.tcm.ie/breakingnews/2002/09/20/story69095.asp Associated Press, 9/20/02 News Article commentary &#8220;The United Nations Charter was ratified as a treaty by the Senate after World War II, and the Constitution explicitly makes all treaties &#8216;the supreme law of the land.&#8217; The president has no power to pick and choose among the laws that bind him&#8212;unless Congress tells him otherwise. This is what makes the precise terms of any Congressional authorization for war against Iraq so important. According to judicial precedents, treaties like the United Nations Charter can be trumped only by subsequent legislation. The Charter would lose its status as governing domestic law if Congress explicitly authorizes the president to make war in violation of its terms.... In contrast, the president's proposal lets him &#8216;use all means that he determines to be appropriate, including force&#8217; &#8212;even if he fails to gain further Security Council authorization. This goes far beyond anything allowed by the Charter, which restricts the unilateral use of force to self-defense against &#8216;armed attack.&#8217; The president's resolution does not mention this crucial limitation. Instead, it converts self-defense into a broad doctrine that can justify unilateral pre-emptive strikes.&#8221; http://www.law.yale.edu/outside/html/Public_Affairs/293/yls_article.htm New York Times, 9/21/02 News Article commentary &#8220;Not only does it fail to adequately define the mission in question, it appears to actually authorize the president to do virtually anything anywhere in the Middle East, a proposal that no doubt will alarm many of our most important allies in the fight against terrorism.&#8221; http://www.intelmessages.org/Messages/National_Security/wwwboard/messages/1695.html New York Times, 9/20/02 News Article commentary &#8220;I believe if we really mean it when we say that we want the UN to be relevant, that we should not act in a manner that treats them as irrelevant.... [I]t's a lot different for Saddam Hussein to be looking down the barrel of a gun that is held by the world.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A41939-2002Sep19?language=printer Washington Post, 9/20/02 News Article commentary &#8220;I'm perfectly happy with the language.&#8221; http://archives.tcm.ie/breakingnews/2002/09/20/story69095.asp Associated Press, 9/20/02 News Article commentary legalJustification September 19, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_195 1 false UN Chief Weapons Inspector Hans Blix tells the Security Council that he intends to position an advance weapons inspection team in Iraq by October 15. He explains: &#8220;We will select some sites that we think are interesting to go to in the early phases, so it's not like it takes two months before we can send any guys out there in the field. It will be much earlier than that.&#8221; http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/2269462.stm BBC, 9/20/2002 News Article hans_blix activeparticipant weaponsInspections September 19, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_196 1 false A group of nineteen House Democrats form a coalition against war in Iraq and draft a resolution advocating multilateral diplomacy. http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/754009/posts Washington Times, 9/20/02 News Article Representative Barbara Lee of California sponsors a resolution advocating that &#8220;the United States ... work through the United Nations to seek to resolve the matter of ensuring that Iraq is not developing weapons of mass destruction, through mechanisms such as the resumption of weapons inspections, negotiation, enquiry, mediation, regional arrangements, and other peaceful means.&#8221; The resolution has twenty-six co-sponsors. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/uscongress091902.htm H. Con. Res 473 News Article &#8220;We do not have to go to war, we have alternatives.&#8221; http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/754009/posts Washington Times, 9/20/02 News Article statement &#8220;Unilateral military action by the United States against Iraq is unjustified, unwarranted and illegal. The Administration has failed to make that case that Iraq poses an imminent or immediate threat to the United States. There is no credible evidence linking Iraq to 9/11. There is no credible evidence linking Iraq to Al-Qaeda. Nor is there any credible evidence of Iraq's possession of weapons of mass destruction, their capability, or their intent to deliver such weapons.&#8221; http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/754009/posts Washington Times, 9/20/02 News Article http://www.house.gov/kucinich/press/pr-020919-kucinichstatement.htm Office of Dennis Kucinich News Article statement &#8220;We have a president who wants to go to war. There is no question about it....He denies it all over the place, but everything points to it..... That's the point&#8212;a regime change. It's not inspectors. They don't care down at the White House about whether we have disarmament or not, they want to go to war.&#8221; http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/754009/posts Washington Times, 9/20/02 News Article statement &#8220;Naked aggression is not the American way.... Fighting for oil and those dictatorships that prop up the politics of oil is not worthy of the loss of one more American life.&#8221; http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/754009/posts Washington Times, 9/20/02 News Article statement iraq_s_september_16,_2002_letter_accepting_the_unconditional_return_of_weapons_inspectors activeparticipant legalJustification September 19, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_209 1 false Iraqi foreign minister Naji Sabri tells the UN: &#8220;I hereby declare before you that Iraq is totally clear of all nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. Our country is ready to receive any scientific experts, accompanied by politicians you choose to represent any one of your countries, to tell us which places and scientific and industrial installations they would wish to see.&#8221; http://www.intelmessages.org/Messages/National_Security/wwwboard/messages/1695.html New York Times, 9/20/02 News Article The Iraq minister also states that in pursuing its aggressive policy towards Iraq, the US is &#8220;acting on behalf of Zionism which has been killing the heroic people of Palestine, destroying their property, murdering their children,&#8221; adding that Washington intends to &#8220;control Middle East oil.&#8221; His words draw the applause of several UN diplomats. http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/independent092002.htm Independent, 9/20/02 News Article naji_sabri activeparticipant weaponsInspections September 20, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_197 1 false White House and Pentagon officials publicly disclose that the Department of Defense has finished a highly detailed plan for attacking Iraq that was delivered to President Bush's desk in early September by Gen. Tommy R. Franks. White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer says, &#8220;The President has options now, and he has not made any decisions.&#8221; The New York Times interviews senior officials who explain that the plan includes specific details, including the &#8220;number of ground troops, combat aircraft and aircraft carrier battle groups that would be needed,&#8221; and the &#8220;detailed sequencing for the use of air, land, naval and Special Operations forces to attack thousands of Iraqi targets, from air-defense sites to command-and-control headquarters to fielded forces.&#8221; Officials also tell the Times that any attack would begin &#8220;with a lengthy air campaign led by B-2 bombers armed with 2,000-pound satellite-guided bombs to knock out Iraqi command and control headquarters and air defenses.&#8221; The principal goal of the air attacks, they say, &#8220;would be to sever most communications from Baghdad and isolate Saddam Hussein from his commanders in the rest of the country.&#8221; http://www.elmandjra.org/NYTimes1.htm New York Times, 9/21/02 News Article The disclosure of this information notably comes only a few days after Iraq has offered to unconditionally admit weapons inspectors (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_191 ]]). george_w._bush passiveparticipant ari_fleischer activeparticipant thomas_franks passiveparticipant decision September 20, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_211 1 false The Bush administration makes it clear that it will prevent the UN inspectors from going to Iraq under the terms of the current UN resolution. Powell tells the House International Relations Committee, &#8220;If somebody tried to move the team in now [before a UN resolution authorizing the use of force is passed], we would find ways to thwart that.&#8221; http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/world/americas/2269462.stm BBC, 9/20/02 News Article http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/09/21/wirq21.xml/ Telegraph, 9/21/02 News Article http://www.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/europe/09/29/europe.iraq/ CNN, 9/29/02 News Article colin_powell activeparticipant legalJustification September 21, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_198 1 false Iraqi Foreign Minister Naji Sabri reads the full text of a statement by Saddam Hussein before the UN secretariat-general. The statement condemns the Bush administration's attempts to provoke a war with Iraq and accuses the administration of working hand in hand with the hardline Zionists in the Israeli government http://ww.cooperativeresearch.org/archive/2002/hussein092102.htm Text of Letter News Article motivesBehindWar September 23, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_199 1 false Three retired four-star generals testify before the Senate Armed Services Committee and warn Congress that a unilateral strike against Iraq without UN approval might limit aid from allies, create more recruits for al-Qaeda and subvert long-term US diplomatic and economic interests. A fourth general urges the committee to support the use of military force against Iraq. http://www.mindfully.org/Reform/2002/Retired-Generals-Warn-Bush24sep02.htm New York Times, 9/24/02 News Article &#8220;We should not wait to be attacked with weapons of mass destruction.&#8221; http://www.mindfully.org/Reform/2002/Retired-Generals-Warn-Bush24sep02.htm New York Times, 9/24/02 News Article statement &#8220;And the Arab countries, while they are supporting us in private, have a serious problem in convincing their populations that this is the right thing to do. And so I believe that we have to give them top cover, as well, and we will do that with the United Nations.&#8221; http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/10.05B.levin.dont.p.htm Levin, 9/24/02 News Article statement &#8220;On an operational level, I would just point out this, that, for example, if you can't bring Saudi Arabia into the coalition to be able to use, at a minimum, air space, but, ideally air bases as well, the complications associated with carrying out a military campaign will grow exponentially. We need them. We need a broad base. We need it for the political reasons as well as the military reasons that we all understand. It will make the whole job a great deal easier. And, in the long run, as Wes [General Clark] said, in our relationship with these countries in the future, it will expedite and ease our ability to do business after the military campaign is over.&#8221; http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/10.05B.levin.dont.p.htm Levin, 9/24/02 News Article statement &#8220;We must continue to persuade the other members of the Security Council of the correctness of our position, and we must not be too quick to take no for an answer.&#8221; http://www.mindfully.org/Reform/2002/Retired-Generals-Warn-Bush24sep02.htm New York Times, 9/24/02 News Article statement &#8220;It's a question of what's the sense of urgency here, and how soon would we need to act unilaterally? So far as any of the information has been presented, there is nothing that indicates that in the immediate, next hours, next days, that there's going to be nuclear-tipped missiles put on launch pads to go against our forces or our allies in the region.&#8221; http://www.mindfully.org/Reform/2002/Retired-Generals-Warn-Bush24sep02.htm New York Times, 9/24/02 News Article statement &#8220;We are a global nation with global interests, and undermining the credibility of the United Nations does very little to help provide stability and security and safety to the rest of the world, where we have to operate for economic reasons and political reasons.&#8221; http://www.mindfully.org/Reform/2002/Retired-Generals-Warn-Bush24sep02.htm New York Times, 9/24/02 News Article statement naji_sabri activeparticipant kofi_annan activeparticipant amir_moussa activeparticipant wesley_clark activeparticipant predictions September 23, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_22 1 false British education secretary Estelle Morris asks during a cabinet meeting what specifically had changed over the last few years&#8212;other than George Bush's coming to office&#8212;that made military action against Iraq necessary. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1005-01.htm Sunday Times, 10/5/03 News Article http://politics.guardian.co.uk/iraq/story/0,12956,1056762,00.html Guardian, 10/6/03 News Article estelle_morris activeparticipant deception (September 24, 2002) complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_109 1 false Joe Wilson, who had been sent to Niger by the CIA in February 2002 (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_106 ]]) and who had determined that the allegations that Iraq had sought to obtain uranium from Niger were false, contacts the CIA and advises the agency to inform the British about the intelligence that had been acquired during his mission to Niger. The London Independent later reports, &#8220;When he saw ... claims [that Iraq had attempted to procure uranium from an African country] in Britain's dossier on Iraq last September, he even went as far as telling CIA officials that they needed to alert their British counterparts to his investigation.&#8221; http://www.arena.org.nz/iraqccc.htm Independent, 6/29/03 News Article joseph_c._wilson activeparticipant africaUraniumClaim September 24, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_475 1 false The British government releases an official dossier consisting of multiple allegations that Iraq has and is developing weapons of mass destruction, including a claim that Iraq attempted to obtain uranium from Africa. It is believed that the claim is based on a 1999 visit to Niger by Iraqi diplomat Wissam al-Zahawie (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_94 ]]). But according to US intelligence officials, this claim is universally regarded within intelligence circles as unsubstantiated. In fact, prior to the dossier's release, US intelligence warned the British against making this allegation (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_113 ]]). In early February 2003, the UN's International Atomic Energy Agency will report that there is no evidence that Iraq had attempted to purchase uranium from Niger (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_93 ]]). Defending Britain's decision to include the claim in the September dossier, a British Foreign Office official will explain to the Independent in August 2003: &#8220;Niger has two main exports&#8212;uranium and chickens. The Iraqi delegation did not go to Niger for chickens.&#8221; But Al-Zahawie disputes this. &#8220;My only mission was to meet the President of Niger and invite him to visit Iraq,&#8221; he tells the Independent. &#8220;The invitation and the situation in Iraq resulting from the genocidal UN sanctions were all we talked about. I had no other instructions, and certainly none concerning the purchase of uranium.... I have been cleared by everyone else, including the US and the United Nations. I am surprised to hear there are still question marks over me in Britain. I am willing to cooperate with anyone who wants to see me and find out more.&#8221; http://psychoanalystsopposewar.org/resources_files/The_Niger_Timebomb.htm Independent, 8/10/03a News Article http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?031027fa_fact New Yorker, 10/20/03 News Article unnamed_us_intelligence_sources source wissam_al-zahawie source wissam_al-zahawie activeparticipant africaUraniumClaim September 24, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_86 1 false George Tenet briefs the Senate Intelligence Committee on the 2002 National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) on Iraq (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_7 ]]). In his summary of the document, he includes the allegation that Iraq attempted to obtain uranium from Niger. He mentions that there are some doubts about the reliability of the evidence, but he does not say that the CIA had sent former diplomat Joseph C. Wilson as an envoy to Niger in February (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_106 ]]) and that the former ambassador's conclusion had been that the claims were &#8220;bogus.&#8221; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A46957-2003Jun11.html The Washington Post, 6/12/03 News Article http://abcnews.go.com/sections/wnt/World/iraq030616_uranium.html ABC News, 6/16/03 News Article joseph_c._wilson passiveparticipant george_tenet activeparticipant wmd deception africaUraniumClaim September 24, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_46 1 false The British government releases its now-infamous dossier on Saddam's unconventional weapons capabilities. In the section discussing Iraq's alleged nuclear weapons program, the document notes: &#8220;[T]here is no definitive intelligence evidence that [the specialized aluminum] is destined for a nuclear program.&#8221; http://www.number-10.gov.uk/output/Page275.asp British Government, 9/24/02 News Article aluminumTubes September 24, 2002 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_433 1 false Within &#8220;two hours and ten minutes&#8221; of the British dossier's publication, Iraqi government officials invite British journalists on a tour of the sites named in the document as suspected weapon sites. The journalists are permitted to choose which facilities, of those mentioned in the dossier, they want to visit. The first site they visit is the al-Qa'qa complex, located 30 miles south of Baghdad, which according to the British government's paper has &#8220;been repaired&#8221; and is now &#8220;operational.&#8221; &#8220;Of particular concern are elements of the phosgene production plant,&#8221; states the dossier, which makes two claims. The first is that the substance, phosgene, is being produced at the facility and can be used &#8220;as a chemical agent or as a precursor for nerve agent.&#8221; The second claim is that the facility's phosgene production plants had been &#8220;dismantled under UNSCOM