Complete 911 Timeline Complete 911 Timeline complete_911_timeline 911_project before_9/11 al-qaeda_members geopolitics_and_9/11 day_of_9/11 the_post-9/11_world December 26, 1979 Soviet Forces, Lured in by the CIA, Invade Afghanistan a122679invasion false 1 ------ The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan. They will withdraw in 1989 after a brutal 10-year war. It has been commonly believed that the invasion was unprovoked. However, in a 1998 interview, Zbigniew Brzezinski, President Jimmy Carter's National Security Adviser, will reveal that the CIA began destabilizing the pro-Soviet Afghan government six months earlier in a deliberate attempt to get the Soviets to invade and have their own Vietnam-type costly war: &#8220;What is most important to the history of the world? The Taliban or the collapse of the Soviet empire? Some stirred-up Muslems or the liberation of Central Europe and the end of the Cold War?&#8221; [[ /timeline/1990s/brezezinskiinterview1998.html | Le Nouvel Observateur, 1/98 ]] [[;method=full&amp;siteid=50143 | Mirror, 1/29/02 ]] ------ The US and Saudi Arabia give a huge amount of money (estimates range up to $40 billion total for the war) to support the mujahedeen guerrilla fighters opposing the Russians. Most of the money is managed by the ISI, Pakistan's intelligence agency. [[ /timeline/1990s/nation021599.html | Nation, 2/15/99 ]] ====== << warnings >> << saudis >> << isi >> ((+ Saudi Arabia )) ((+ United States )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Zbigniew Brzezinski )) ((- Taliban )) Early 1980 Osama bin Laden, with Saudi Backing, Supports Afghan Rebels a80osama false 1 ------ Osama bin Laden begins providing financial, organizational, and engineering aid for the mujahedeen in Afghanistan, with the advice and support of the Saudi royal family. [[ | New Yorker, 11/5/01 ]] ------ Some, including Richard Clarke, counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; during the Clinton and George W. Bush administrations, believe he was handpicked for the job by Prince Turki al-Faisal, head of Saudi Arabia's Secret Service. [[ | Sunday Times, 8/25/02 ]] [[ | New Yorker, 11/5/01 ]] ------ The Pakistani ISI want a Saudi prince as a public demonstration of the commitment of the Saudi royal family and as a way to ensure royal funds for the anti-Soviet forces. The agency fails to get royalty, but bin Laden, with his family's influential ties, is good enough for the ISI. [[ | Miami Herald, 9/24/01 ]] ------ (Clarke will argue later that the Saudis and other Muslim governments used the Afghan war in an attempt to get rid of their own misfits and troublemakers.) This multinational force later coalesces into al-Qaeda. [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 52 ]] ====== << warnings >> << saudis >> ((+ Turki bin Faisal bin Abdul Aziz al Saud )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) [[ | Osama bin Laden's father, Mohammed Awad bin Laden, was extremely powerful and influential in Saudi Arabia. ]] October 1980 Osama's Brother Allegedly Involved in October Surprise a1080octobersurprise false 1 ------ Salem bin Laden, Osama's oldest brother, described by a French secret intelligence report as one of two closest friends of Saudi Arabia's King Fahd who often performs important missions for Saudi Arabia, is involved in secret Paris meetings between US and Iranian emissaries this month, according to a French report. Frontline, which published the French report, notes that such meetings have never been confirmed. Rumors of these meetings have been called the &#8220;October Surprise&#8221; and some have speculated that in these meetings, George H. W. Bush negotiated a delay to the release of the US hostages in Iran, thus helping Ronald Reagan and Bush win the 1980 Presidential election. All of this is highly speculative, but if the French report is correct, it points to a long-standing connection of highly improper behavior between the Bush and bin Laden families. [[ | PBS Frontline, 2001 (B) ]] ====== << saudis >> << binladenFamily >> ((+ Salem bin Laden )) ((+ George Herbert Walker Bush )) ((- Ronald Reagan )) ((+ Iran )) [[ | Salem bin Laden in 1975. ]] 1982-1991 Afghan Opium Production Skyrockets a82afghanopium false 1 ------ Afghan opium production rises from 250 tons in 1982 to 2,000 tons in 1991, coinciding with CIA support and funding of the mujahedeen. Alfred McCoy, a professor of Southeast Asian history at the University of Wisconsin, says US and Pakistani intelligence officials sanctioned the rebels' drug trafficking because of their fierce opposition to the Soviets: &#8220;If their local allies were involved in narcotics trafficking, it didn't trouble [the] CIA. They were willing to keep working with people who were heavily involved in narcotics.&#8221; For instance, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, a rebel leader who received about half of all the CIA's covert weapons, was known to be a major heroin trafficker. Charles Cogan, who directs the CIA's operation in Afghanistan, later claims he was unaware of the drug trade: &#8220;We found out about it later on.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/minneapolisstartribune093001.html | Minneapolis Star-Tribune, 9/30/01 ]] [[ /timeline/1990s/atlanticmonthly0596.html | Atlantic Monthly, 5/96 ]] ====== << isi >> << drugs >> ((+ Charles Cogan )) ((+ Gulbuddin Hekmatyar )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) [[ | Gulbuddin Hekmatyar still controls part of Afghanistan. ]] 1984-1994 US Supports Militant Textbooks for Afghanistan a84textbooks false 1 ------ The US, through USAID and the University of Nebraska, spends millions of dollars developing and printing textbooks for Afghan schoolchildren. The textbooks are filled with violent images and militant Islamic teachings, part of covert attempts to spur resistance to the Soviet occupation. For instance, children are taught to count with illustrations showing tanks, missiles, and land mines. Lacking any alternative, millions of these textbooks are used long after 1994; the Taliban are still using them in 2001. In 2002, the US will start producing less violent versions of the same books, which President Bush says will have &#8220;respect for human dignity, instead of indoctrinating students with fanaticism and bigotry.&#8221; (He will fail to mention who created those earlier books). [[ | Washington Post, 3/23/02 ]] [[ | Canadian Broadcasting Corp., 5/6/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- Turkey )) ((- George W. Bush )) ((- Taliban )) ((+ USAID )) 1984 Bin Laden Develops Ties with Pakistani ISI and Afghan Warlord a84binladenisi false 1 ------ Bin Laden moves to Peshawar, a Pakistani town bordering Afghanistan, and helps run a front organization for the mujahedeen known as Maktab al-Khidamar (MAK), which funnels money, arms, and fighters from the outside world into the Afghan war. [[ | New Yorker, 1/24/00 ]] ------ &#8220;MAK [is] nurtured by Pakistan's state security services, the Inter-Services Intelligence agency, or ISI, the CIA's primary conduit for conducting the covert war against Moscow's occupation.&#8221; [[ | MSNBC, 8/24/98 ]] ------ Bin Laden becomes closely tied to the warlord Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, and greatly strengthens Hekmatyar's opium smuggling operations. [[ /timeline/2001/lemonde091401.html | Le Monde, 9/14/01 ]] ------ Hekmatyar, who also has ties with bin Laden, the CIA, and drug running, has been called &#8220;an ISI stooge and creation.&#8221; [[ | Asia Times, 11/15/01 ]] ====== << isi >> << drugs >> ((+ Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Maktab al-Khidamar )) ((+ Gulbuddin Hekmatyar )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) Mid 1980s January 1, 1985 ISI Head Regularly Meets with bin Laden amid80sisibinladen false 1 ------ According to controversial author Gerald Posner, ex-CIA officials claim that General Akhtar Abdul Rahman, Pakistani ISI's head from 1980 to 1987, regularly meets bin Laden in Peshawar, Pakistan. The ISI and bin Laden form a partnership that forces Afghan tribal warlords to pay a &#8220;tax&#8221; on the opium trade. By 1985, bin Laden and the ISI are splitting annual profits of up to $100 million a year. [[ | Posner, 2003, pp 29 ]] ====== << isi >> << drugs >> ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) ((+ Akhtar Abdul Rahman )) Mid-1980s January 1, 1985 Pakistani ISI and CIA Gain from Drug Production amid80sisiciadrugs false 1 ------ The Pakistani ISI starts a special cell of agents who use profits from heroin production for covert actions &#8220;at the insistence of the CIA.&#8221; &#8220;This cell promotes the cultivation of opium, the extraction of heroin in Pakistani and Afghan territories under mujahedeen control. The heroin is then smuggled into the Soviet controlled areas, in an attempt to turn the Soviet troops into heroin addicts. After the withdrawal of the Soviet troops, the ISI's heroin cell started using its network of refineries and smugglers for smuggling heroin to the Western countries and using the money as a supplement to its legitimate economy. But for these heroin dollars, Pakistan's legitimate economy must have collapsed many years ago.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/financialtimes081001.html | Financial Times (Asian edition), 8/10/01 ]] ------ The ISI grows so powerful on this money, that &#8220;even by the shadowy standards of spy agencies, the ISI is notorious. It is commonly branded &#8216;a state within the state,&#8217; or Pakistan's &#8216;invisible government.&#8217;&#8221; [[,13673,501020506-233999,00.html | Time, 5/6/02 ]] ====== << isi >> << drugs >> ((+ Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) Mid-1980s January 1, 1985 Osama's Brother Is Allegedly Involved in the Iran-Contra Affair amid1980ssalem false 1 ------ Quoting a French intelligence report posted by PBS Frontline, The New Yorker reports, &#8220;During the nineteen-eighties, when the Reagan administration secretly arranged for an estimated $34 million to be funneled through Saudi Arabia to the Contras in Nicaragua, [Osama's eldest brother] Salem bin Laden aided in this cause.&#8221; [[ | New Yorker, 11/5/01 ]] [[ | PBS Frontline, 2001 (B) ]] ====== << saudis >> << binladenFamily >> ((+ Reagan administration )) ((+ Salem bin Laden )) ((+ Contras )) 1985-1989 Precursor to al-Qaeda Puts Down US Roots a85azzam false 1 ------ Sheikh Abdullah Azzam, bin Laden's mentor, makes repeated trips to the US and other countries, building up his organization, Makhtab al-Khidimat (MAK), also known as the Services Office. Branches of the MAK open in over 30 US cities, as Muslim-Americans donate millions of dollars to support the Afghan war against the Soviet Union. Azzam is assassinated in a car bomb attack in late 1989. Some US intelligence officials believe bin Laden ordered the killing. Bin Laden soon takes over the MAK, which morphs into al-Qaeda. His followers take over MAK's offices in the US, and they become financial conduits for al-Qaeda operations. [[ | Lance, 2003, pp 40-41 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Makhtab al-Khidimat )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Abdullah Azzam )) [[ | Sheikh Abdullah Azzam. ]] March 1985 US Escalates War in Afghanistan a0385escalation false 1 ------ The CIA, British MI6 (Britain's intelligence agency), and the Pakistani ISI agree to launch guerrilla attacks from Afghanistan into then Soviet-controlled Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, attacking military installations, factories, and storage depots within Soviet territory, and do so until the end of the war. The CIA also begins supporting the ISI in recruiting radical Muslims from around the world to come to Pakistan and fight with the Afghan mujahedeen. The CIA gives subversive literature and Korans to the ISI, who carry them into the Soviet Union. Eventually, around 35,000 Muslim radicals from 43 Islamic countries will fight with the Afghan mujahedeen. Tens of thousands more will study in the hundreds of new madrassas funded by the ISI and CIA in Pakistan. Their main logistical base is in the Pakistani city of Peshawar. [[ /timeline/1990s/wpost071992.html | Washington Post, 7/19/92 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/pittsburghpostgazette092301.html | Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 9/23/01 ]] [[ | Honolulu Star-Bulletin, 9/23/01 ]] [[ | The Hindu, 9/27/01 ]] ------ In the late 1980s, Pakistani President Benazir Bhutto, feeling the mujahedeen network has grown too strong, tells President George H. W. Bush, &#8220;You are creating a Frankenstein.&#8221; However, the warning goes unheeded. [[ | Newsweek, 9/24/01 ]] ------ By 1993, President Bhutto tells Egyptian President Hasni Mubarak that Peshawar is under de facto control of the mujahedeen, and unsuccessfully asks for military help in reasserting Pakistani control over the city. Thousands of mujahedeen fighters return to their home countries after the war is over and engage in multiple acts of violence. One Western diplomat notes these thousands would never have been trained or united without US help, and says, &#8220;The consequences for all of us are astronomical.&#8221; [[ /timeline/1990s/atlanticmonthly0596.html | Atlantic Monthly, 5/96 ]] ====== << warnings >> << isi >> ((+ UK Secret Intelligence Service )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Benazir Bhutto )) [[ | Osama bin Laden in 1989. ]] 1986 Bin Laden Works with CIA, at Least Indirectly a86buildingkhost false 1 ------ The CIA, ISI, and bin Laden build the Khost tunnel complex in Afghanistan. This will be a major target of bombing and fighting when the US attacks the Taliban in 2001. [[ /timeline/2001/pittsburghpostgazette092301.html | Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 9/23/01 ]] [[ | Honolulu Star-Bulletin, 9/23/01 ]] [[ | The Hindu, 9/27/01 ]] ------ It will be reported in June 2001 that &#8220;bin Laden worked closely with Saudi, Pakistani, and US intelligence services to recruit mujahedeen from many Muslim countries,&#8221; but this information has not been reported much since 9/11. [[ /timeline/2001/upi061401.html?StoryID=1 | UPI, 6/14/01 ]] ------ A CIA spokesperson will later claim, &#8220;For the record, you should know that the CIA never employed, paid, or maintained any relationship whatsoever with bin Laden.&#8221; [[ | Ananova, 10/31/01 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Taliban )) September 1986 CIA Provides Afghan Rebels Stinger Missiles complete_911_timeline_0986stingers false 1 ------ Worried that the Soviets are winning the war in Afghanistan, the US decides to train and arm the mujahedeen with Stinger missiles. The Soviets are forced to stop using the attack helicopters that were being used to devastating effect. Some claim the Stingers turn the tide of the war and lead directly to Soviet withdrawal. Now the mujahedeen are better trained and armed than ever before. [[ | Coll, 2004, pp 11, 149-51 ]] [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 48-50 ]] ====== << warnings >> September 1987-March 1989 Head US Consular Official Claims He's Told to Issue Visas to Unqualified Applicants a1987springmann false 1 ------ Michael Springmann, head US consular official in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, later claims that during this period he is &#8220;repeatedly told to issue visas to unqualified applicants.&#8221; He turns them down, but is repeatedly overruled by superiors. Springmann loudly complains to numerous government offices, but no action is taken. He is fired and his files on these applicants are destroyed. He later learns that recruits from many countries fighting for bin Laden against Russia in Afghanistan were funneled through the Jeddah office to get visas to come to the US, where the recruits would travel to train for the Afghan war. According to Springmann, the Jeddah consulate was run by the CIA and staffed almost entirely by intelligence agents. This visa system may have continued at least through 9/11, and 15 of the 19 9/11 hijackers received their visas through Jeddah, possibly as part of this program. [[ | BBC, 11/6/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/ap071702b.html | Associated Press, 7/17/02 (B) ]] [[ /timeline/2002/foxnews071802.html | Fox News, 7/18/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ Michael Springmann )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ US Consulate, Jedda, Saudi Arabia Office )) 1988 Bin Ladens Bail Out George W. Bush? a1988failedman false 1 ------ Prior to this year, President George W. Bush is a failed oilman. Three times, friends and investors have bailed him out to keep his business from going bankrupt. However, in 1988, the same year his father becomes president, some Saudis buy a portion of his small company, Harken, which has never performed work outside of Texas. Later in the year, Harken wins a contract in the Persian Gulf and starts doing well financially. These transactions seem so suspicious that the Wall Street Journal in 1991 states it &#8220;raises the question of ... an effort to cozy up to a presidential son.&#8221; Two major investors in Bush's company during this time are Salem bin Laden and Khalid bin Mahfouz. [[ | Salon, 11/19/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2000/intelligencenewsletter030200.html | Intelligence Newsletter, 3/2/00 ]] ------ Salem bin Laden is Osama's oldest brother; Khalid bin Mahfouz is a Saudi banker with a 20 percent stake in BCCI. The bank will be shut down a few years later and bin Mahfouz will have to pay a $225 million fine (while admitting no wrongdoing) (see [[ a1001bccisuccessor ]])). [[ | Forbes, 3/18/02 ]] ====== << saudis >> << binladenFamily >> ((+ Khalid bin Mahfouz )) ((+ Salem bin Laden )) ((+ Harken )) ((+ George W. Bush )) [[ | Bush during his Harken days. ]] August 11, 1988 Bin Laden Forms al-Qaeda a081188alqaedaformed false 1 ------ Bin Laden conducts a meeting to discuss &#8220;the establishment of a new military group,&#8221; according to notes that are found later. Over time, this group becomes known as al-Qaeda, roughly meaning &#8220;the base&#8221; or &#8220;the foundation.&#8221; [[,2933,78937,00.html | Associated Press, 2/19/03 (B) ]] ------ It will take US intelligence years even to realize a group named al-Qaeda exists. ====== << warnings >> ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) 1989-May 2000 Hijacker Associate al-Marabh Busy Inside US a89almarabh false 1 ------ Nabil al-Marabh moves to Boston in 1989 and apparently lives there as a taxi driver and al-Qaeda sleeper agent for the next ten years. [[ /timeline/2001/nyt091801.html | New York Times, 9/18/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/bostonherald091901.html | Boston Herald, 9/19/01 ]] ------ In 1992, he learns to use weapons in an Afghan al-Qaeda training camp with an operative named Raed Hijazi. [[ /timeline/2002/chicagosuntimes090502.html | Chicago Sun-Times, 9/5/02 ]] ------ He and Hijazi live together and drive taxis at the same company in Boston for several years. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/21/01 ]] ------ A mutual friend at the same taxi company is later killed participating in a 1999 al-Qaeda attack. [[ /timeline/2001/bostonherald091901.html | Boston Herald, 9/19/01 ]] ------ Hijazi participates in a failed attempt to bomb a hotel in Jordan in November 1999 and helps plan the USS Cole bombing in October 2000 (see [[ a101200cole ]]). In May 1999, the FBI approaches al-Marabh looking for Hijazi, but al-Marabh lies and says he does not know Hijazi. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A34554-2002Sep3&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 9/4/02 ]] ------ Hijazi is arrested in Syria in October 2000 and imprisoned in Jordan for his bomb attempt there. [[ /timeline/2001/torontosun101601.html | Toronto Sun, 10/16/01 ]] ------ He begins to cooperate with investigators and identifies al-Marabh as a US al-Qaeda operative. [[ /timeline/2001/nyt091801.html | New York Times, 9/18/01 ]] ------ Operative Ahmed Ressam gives evidence helping to prove that al-Marabh sent money to Hijazi for the Jordan bombing. [[ /timeline/2001/torontosun111601.html | Toronto Sun, 11/16/01 ]] [[ | ABC News, 1/31/02 ]] ------ By February 1999, al-Marabh is driving taxis in Tampa, Florida, while maintaining a cover of living in Boston. [[ /timeline/2001/torontostar102601.html | Toronto Star, 10/26/01 ]] [[ | ABC News, 1/31/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/nyt091801.html | New York Times, 9/18/01 ]] ------ He apparently lives in Tampa at least part time until February 2000; investigators later wonder if he is an advance man for the Florida-based hijackers. [[ /timeline/2001/nyt091801.html | New York Times, 9/18/01 ]] [[ | ABC News, 1/31/02 ]] ------ Al-Marabh is living in Detroit by May 2000, though he maintains a Boston address until September 2000. [[ /timeline/2001/bostonherald091901.html | Boston Herald, 9/19/01 ]] ====== << al-Marabh >> ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Ahmed Ressam )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Nabil al-Marabh )) ((+ Syria )) ((+ Raed Hijazi )) ((+ Jordan )) [[ | Raed Hijazi. ]] January 20, 1989 George H. W. Bush Is Inaugurated US President a012089bushsrpres false 1 ------ George H. W. Bush replaces Ronald Reagan and remains president until January 1993. Many of the key members in his government will have important positions again when his son George W. Bush becomes president in 2001. For instance, Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman Colin Powell later becomes Secretary of State, and Defense Secretary Dick Cheney later becomes vice president. ====== << centralAsia >> ((+ Ronald Reagan )) ((+ George Herbert Walker Bush )) [[ | President George Herbert Walker Bush. ]] February 15, 1989 Soviet Forces Withdraw from Afghanistan a091589afghandefeat false 1 ------ Soviet forces withdraw from Afghanistan, but Afghan communists retain control of Kabul, the capital, until April 1992. [[ /timeline/1990s/wpost071992.html | Washington Post, 7/19/92 ]] ------ Richard Clarke, a counterterrorism official during the Reagan and George H. W. Bush administrations and the counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; by 9/11, later claims that the huge amount of US aid provided to Afghanistan drops off drastically as soon as the Soviets withdraw, abandoning the country to civil war and chaos. The new powers in Afghanistan are tribal chiefs, the Pakistani ISI, and the Arab war veterans coalescing into al-Qaeda. [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 52-53 ]] ====== << warnings >> << isi >> ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) ((+ Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) November 9, 1989 Cold War Ends; US Asserts World Dominance a110989powellbully false 1 ------ The Berlin Wall begins to fall in East Germany, signifying the end of the Soviet Union as a superpower. Just six days later, Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman Colin Powell presents a new strategy document to President George H. W. Bush, proposing that the US shift its strategic focus from countering Soviet attempts at world dominance to ensuring US world dominance. George H. W. Bush accepts this plan in a public speech, with slight modifications, on August 2, 1990, the same day Iraq invades Kuwait. In early 1992 (see [[ a030892dominanceplan ]]), Powell, counter to his usual public dove persona, tells congresspersons that the US requires &#8220;sufficient power&#8221; to &#8220;deter any challenger from ever dreaming of challenging us on the world stage.&#8221; He says, &#8220;I want to be the bully on the block.&#8221; Powell's early ideas of global hegemony will be formalized by others in a 1992 policy document and finally realized as policy when George W. Bush becomes president in 2001. [[ /timeline/2002/harpers1002.html | Harper's, 10/02 ]] ====== << centralAsia >> ((+ Colin Powell )) ((+ George Herbert Walker Bush )) ((- Soviet Union )) [[ | Secretary of State Colin Powell. ]] 1990 First Hijacker Enters US a1990hanjourenters false 1 ------ Hani Hanjour, who will pilot Flight 77 on 9/11, enters the US. He takes an English course in Tucson, Arizona. [[,8816,176069,00.html | Time, 9/24/01 (B) ]] [[ /timeline/2001/coxnews101501.html | Cox News Service, 10/15/01 ]] [[;position=top | New York Times, 6/19/02 ]] ------ Despite evidence to the contrary, the FBI claims Hanjour first arrived on October 3, 1991. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry092602.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/26/02 ]] ------ The 9/11 Commission does not take a position on this issue, finding only that &#8220;Hanjour came to the United States to attend school in three stints during the 1990s. His final arrival was in December 2000, through the Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky airport.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommission012604.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 1/26/04 ]] ====== << otherHijackers >> << haniHanjour >> ((+ William Safire )) [[ | A young Hani Hanjour. ]] July 1990 Blind Sheikh on Terrorist Watch List Enters US a0790abdulrahman false 1 ------ Despite being on a US terrorist watch list for three years, radical Muslim leader Sheikh Omar Abdul-Rahman enters the US on a &#8220;much-disputed&#8221; tourist visa issued by an undercover CIA agent. [[ /timeline/1990s/villagevoice033093.html | Village Voice, 3/30/93 ]] [[ /timeline/1990s/atlanticmonthly0596.html | Atlantic Monthly, 5/96 ]] [[ | Lance, 2003, pp 42 ]] ------ Abdul-Rahman was heavily involved with the CIA and Pakistani ISI efforts to defeat the Soviets in Afghanistan, and became famous traveling all over the world for five years recruiting new mujahedeen. However, he never hid his prime goals to overthrow the governments of the US and Egypt. [[ /timeline/1990s/atlanticmonthly0596.html | Atlantic Monthly, 5/96 ]] ------ He is &#8220;infamous throughout the Arab world for his alleged role in the assassination of Egyptian president Anwar el-Sadat.&#8221; Abdul-Rahman immediately begins setting up a militant Islamic network in the US. [[ /timeline/1990s/villagevoice033093.html | Village Voice, 3/30/93 ]] ------ He is believed to have befriended bin Laden while in Afghanistan, and bin Laden secretly pays Abdul-Rahman's US living expenses. [[ /timeline/1990s/atlanticmonthly0596.html | Atlantic Monthly, 5/96 ]] [[ | ABC News, 8/16/02 ]] ------ Abdul-Rahman's ties to the assassination of Rabbi Meir Kahane in 1990 are later ignored. As one FBI agent will say in 1993, he is &#8220;hands-off. It was no accident that the sheikh obtained a visa and that he is still in the country. He's here under the banner of national security, the State Department, the NSA, and the CIA.&#8221; According to a very high-ranking Egyptian official, Abdul-Rahman continues to assist the CIA in recruiting new mujahedeen after moving to the US: &#8220;We begged America not to coddle the sheikh.&#8221; Egyptian intelligence warns the US that Abdul-Rahman is planning new attacks, and on November 12, 1992, militants connected to him machine-gun a busload of Western tourists in Egypt. Still, he will continue to live freely in New York City. [[ /timeline/1990s/villagevoice033093.html | Village Voice, 3/30/93 ]] ------ He will finally be arrested in 1993 and convicted of assisting in the 1993 WTC bombing. [[ /timeline/1990s/atlanticmonthly0596.html | Atlantic Monthly, 5/96 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- National Security Agency )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- Anwar el-Sadat )) ((- US Department of State )) ((- World Trade Center )) ((+ Sheikh Omar Abdul-Rahman )) ((+ Meir Kahane )) [[ | Sheikh Omar Abdul-Rahman. ]] August 2, 1990 us_support_of_iraq_wmd_2964 false 1 ------ Iraq invades Kuwait. ====== << saudis >> August 2, 1990-March 1991 The First Gulf War a0890iraqwar false 1 ------ After Iraq invades Kuwait (see [[ us_support_of_iraq_wmd_2964 ]]), Laden, newly returned to Saudi Arabia, offers the Saudi government the use of his thousands of mujahedeen fighters to defend the country in case Iraq attacks it. The Saudi government turns him down, allowing 300,000 US soldiers on Saudi soil instead. Bin Laden is incensed, and immediately goes from ally to enemy of the Saudis. [[ | Coll, 2004, pp 221-24, 270-71 ]] ------ After a slow buildup, the US invades Iraq in March 1991 and reestablishes Kuwait. [[ | Posner, 2003, pp 40-41 ]] ------ Bin Laden soon leaves Saudi Arabia and soon forms al-Qaeda ((see [[ a91binladenleaves ]])). ====== << saudis >> ((+ Osama bin Laden )) November 5, 1990 First bin Laden-Related Terror Attack on US a110590kahane false 1 ------ Egyptian-American El Sayyid Nosair assassinates controversial right-wing Zionist leader Rabbi Meir Kahane. Kahane's organization, the Jewish Defense League, was linked to dozens of bombings and is ranked by the FBI as the most lethal domestic militant group in the US at the time. Nosair is captured after a police shoot-out. An FBI informant says he saw Nosair meeting with Muslim leader Sheikh Omar Abdul-Rahman a few days before the attack, and evidence indicating a wider plot with additional targets is found. [[ /timeline/1990s/villagevoice033093.html | Village Voice, 3/30/93 ]] ------ Files found in Nosair's possession give details of an Islamic militant cell, mention al-Qaeda, and discuss the destruction of tall US buildings. Incredibly, this vital information is not translated until years later. [[ | ABC News, 8/16/02 ]] ------ Instead, within 12 hours of the assassination, New York police declare the assassination the work of a &#8220;lone gunman&#8221; and they stick with that story. In Nosair's subsequent trial, prosecutors will choose not to introduce his incriminating possessions or his confession as evidence, and an apparent &#8220;open-and-shut case&#8221; will end with his acquittal. However, he will be sentenced to 22 years on other lesser charges. [[ /timeline/1990s/villagevoice033093.html | Village Voice, 3/30/93 ]] ------ Bin Laden contributes to Nosair's defense fund. Many of those involved in Kahane's assassination will plan the 1993 WTC bombing. As one FBI agent puts it, &#8220;The fact is that in 1990, myself and my detectives, we had in our office in handcuffs, the people who blew up the World Trade Center in '93. We were told to release them.&#8221; [[ | ABC News, 8/16/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- World Trade Center )) ((- Jewish Defense League )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((- Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ El Sayyid Nosair )) ((+ Meir Kahane )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Sheikh Omar Abdul-Rahman )) [[ | Rabbi Meir Kahane (left) and his assassin El Sayyid Nosair (right). ]] Between 1991 and 2001 NORAD Exercise Simulates Crash into Famous US Building a91famousbuilding false 1 ------ At some point between 1991 and 2001, a regional NORAD sector holds an exercise simulating a foreign hijacked airliner crashing into a prominent building in the United States, the identity of which is classified. According to military officials, the building is not the World Trade Center or the Pentagon. The exercise involves some flying of military aircraft, plus a &#8220;command post exercise&#8221; where communication procedures are rehearsed in an office environment. [[ | CNN, 4/19/04 ]] ====== << militaryExercises >> ((+ North American Aerospace Defense Command )) 1991 White House Is Protected From Airplane Attack During Gulf War a91whitehouseprotection false 1 ------ Time magazine reports in 1994, &#8220;During the Gulf War, uniformed air-defense teams could be seen patrolling the top floor [of the White House] with automatic rifles or shoulder-mounted ground-to-air missiles.&#8221; [[ /timeline/1990s/time092694.html | Time, 9/26/94 ]] ------ While a battery of surface-to-air-missiles remains permanently on the roof of the White House, the rest of these defenses are apparently removed after the war is over. [[ | Daily Telegraph, 9/16/01 ]] ------ Yet even though counterterrorism officials later call the alerts in the summer of 2001 &#8220;the most urgent in decades,&#8221; similar defensive measures will apparently not be taken. [[ | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry Report, 9/18/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> << militaryExercises >> 1991-1997 Oil Investment in Central Asia Follows Soviet Collapse a19911997 false 1 ------ The Soviet Union collapses in 1991, creating several new nations in Central Asia. Major US oil companies, including ExxonMobil, Texaco, Unocal, BP Amoco, Shell, and Enron, directly invest billions in these Central Asian nations, bribing heads of state to secure equity rights in the huge oil reserves in these regions. The oil companies commit to $35 billion in future direct investments in Kazakhstan. It is believed at the time that these oil fields will have an estimated $6 trillion potential value. US companies own approximately 75 percent of the rights. These companies, however, face the problem of having to pay exorbitant prices to Russia for use of the Russian pipelines to get the oil out. [[ | New Yorker, 7/9/01 ]] [[ | Asia Times, 1/26/02 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> ((+ Unocal )) ((+ Enron )) ((+ Soviet Union )) ((+ ExxonMobil )) ((+ Russia )) ((+ Kazakhstan )) ((+ Royal Dutch/Shell )) ((+ BP )) ((+ Texaco )) Between 1991 and 2001 NORAD Exercise Simulates Crash into Famous US Building a91famousbuildingduplicate false 1 ------ At some point between 1991 and 2001, a regional NORAD sector holds an exercise simulating a foreign hijacked airliner crashing into a prominent building in the United States, the identity of which is classified. According to military officials, the building is not the World Trade Center or the Pentagon. The exercise involves some flying of military aircraft, plus a &#8220;command post exercise&#8221; where communication procedures are rehearsed in an office environment. [[ | CNN, 4/19/04 ]] ====== << militaryExercises >> March 1991 US Military Remains in Saudi Arabia a0391iusremains false 1 ------ As the Gulf War against Iraq ends, the US stations some 15,000-20,000 soldiers in Saudi Arabia permanently. [[ /timeline/1990s/nation021599.html | Nation, 2/15/99 ]] ------ President George H. W. Bush falsely claims that all US troops have withdrawn. [[,1284,623410,00.html | Guardian, 12/21/01 ]] ------ The US troop's presence is not admitted until 1995, and there has never been an official explanation as to why they remained. The Nation postulates that they are stationed there to prevent a coup. Saudi Arabia has an incredible array of high-tech weaponry, but lacks the expertise to use it and it is feared that Saudi soldiers may have conflicting loyalties. In 1998, bin Laden will release a statement: &#8220;For more than seven years the United States has been occupying the lands of Islam in the holiest of places, the Arabian peninsula, plundering its riches, dictating to its rulers, humiliating its people, terrorizing its neighbors, and turning its bases in the peninsula into a spearhead through which to fight the neighboring Muslim peoples.&#8221; [[ /timeline/1990s/nation021599.html | Nation, 2/15/99 ]] ====== << saudis >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ George Herbert Walker Bush )) ((+ United States )) Summer 1991 Bin Laden Leaves Saudi Arabia a91binladenleaves false 1 ------ Bin Laden, recently returned to Saudi Arabia, has been placed under house arrest for his opposition to the continued presence of US soldiers on Saudi soil. [[ /timeline/2001/frontline0901.html | PBS Frontline, 9/01 ]] ------ Controversial author Gerald Posner claims that a classified US intelligence report describes a secret deal between bin Laden and Saudi intelligence minister Prince Turki al-Faisal at this time. Although bin Laden has become an enemy of the Saudi state, he is nonetheless too popular for his role with the mujahedeen in Afghanistan to be easily imprisoned or killed. According to Posner, bin Laden is allowed to leave Saudi Arabia with his money and supporters, but the Saudi government will publicly disown him. Privately, the Saudis will continue to fund his supporters with the understanding that they will never be used against Saudi Arabia. The wrath of the fundamentalist movement is thus directed away from the vulnerable Saudis. [[ | Posner, 2003, pp 40-42 ]] ------ Posner alleges the Saudis &#8220;effectively had [bin Laden] on their payroll since the start of the decade.&#8221; [[,9171,1101030908480226,00.html | Time, 8/31/03 ]] ------ This deal is reaffirmed in 1996 and 1998. Bin Laden leaves Saudi Arabia in the summer of 1991, returning first to Afghanistan. [[ | Coll, 2004, pp 229-31, 601-02 ]] ------ After staying there a few months, he moves again, settling into Sudan with hundreds of ex-mujahedeen supporters (see [[ a92sudanbase ]]). [[ /timeline/2001/frontline0901.html | PBS Frontline, 9/01 ]] ====== << saudis >> ((+ Turki bin Faisal bin Abdul Aziz al Saud )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) [[ | Prince Turki al-Faisal. ]] July 5, 1991 Outlaw BCCI Bank Is Shut Down a070591bccicloses false 1 ------ The Bank of England shuts down Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI), the largest Islamic bank in the world. Based in Pakistan, this bank financed numerous militant organizations and laundered money generated by illicit drug trafficking and other illegal activities, including arms trafficking. Bin Laden and many other militants had accounts there. [[ /timeline/2001/detroitnews093001.html | Detroit News, 9/30/01 ]] ------ One money-laundering expert claims, &#8220;BCCI did dirty work for every major terrorist service in the world.&#8221; [[ | Los Angeles Times, 1/20/02 ]] ------ American and British governments were aware of its activities yet allowed the bank to operate for years. The Pakistani ISI had major connections to the bank. However, as later State Department reports indicate, Pakistan remains a major drug trafficking and money-laundering center despite the bank's closing. [[ /timeline/2001/detroitnews093001.html | Detroit News, 9/30/01 ]] ------ &#8220;The CIA used BCCI to funnel millions of dollars to the fighters battling the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan&#8221; according to the Washington Post. A French intelligence report in 2001 suggests the BCCI network has been largely rebuilt by bin Laden (see [[ a1001bccisuccessor ]]). [[ | Washington Post, 2/17/02 ]] ------ The ruling family of Abu Dhabi, the dominant emirate in the United Arab Emirates, owned 77 percent of the bank. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 1/20/02 ]] ====== << isi >> << drugs >> ((- Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) ((+ Bank of Credit and Commerce International )) ((+ Bank of England )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- Central Intelligence Agency )) [[ | The BCCI logo on the front of one of their banks. ]] 1992-1996 Bin Laden Attacks US Interests Using Sudanese Base a92sudanbase false 1 ------ With a personal fortune of around $250 million (estimates range from $50 to $800 million [[ | Miami Herald, 9/24/01 ]] ------ ), Osama bin Laden begins plotting attacks against the US from his new base in Sudan. The first attack kills two tourists in Yemen at the end of 1992. [[ | New Yorker, 1/24/00 ]] ------ The CIA learns of his involvement in that attack in 1993, and learns that same year that he is channeling money to Egyptian extremists. US intelligence also learns that by January 1994 he is financing at least three militant training camps in North Sudan. [[ /timeline/1990s/nyt081496.html | New York Times, 8/14/96 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/frontline0901.html | PBS Frontline, 9/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) March 8, 1992 Raw US World Dominance Plan Is Leaked to the Media a030892dominanceplan false 1 ------ The Defense Planning Guidance, &#8220;a blueprint for the department's spending priorities in the aftermath of the first Gulf War and the collapse of the Soviet Union,&#8221; is leaked to the New York Times. [[ /timeline/1990s/nyt030892.html | New York Times, 3/8/92 ]] [[,0,4720975.story | Newsday, 3/16/03 ]] ------ The document causes controversy, because it hadn't yet been &#8220;scrubbed&#8221; to replace candid language with euphemisms. [[ /timeline/1990s/nyt031092.html | New York Times, 3/10/92 ]] [[ /timeline/1990s/nyt031192.html | New York Times, 3/11/92 ]] [[,3858,4388919,00.html | Observer, 4/7/02 ]] ------ The document argues that the US dominates the world as sole superpower, and to maintain that role, it &#8220;must maintain the mechanisms for deterring potential competitors from even aspiring to a larger regional or global role.&#8221; [[ /timeline/1990s/nyt030892.html | New York Times, 3/8/92 ]] [[ /timeline/1990s/nyt030892b.html | New York Times, 3/8/92 (B) ]] ------ As the Observer summarizes it, &#8220;America's friends are potential enemies. They must be in a state of dependence and seek solutions to their problems in Washington.&#8221; [[,3858,4388919,00.html | Observer, 4/7/02 ]] ------ The document is mainly written by Paul Wolfowitz and I. Lewis &#8220;Scooter&#8221; Libby, who hold relatively low posts at the time, but become deputy defense secretary and Vice President Cheney's chief of staff, respectively, under George W. Bush. [[,0,4720975.story | Newsday, 3/16/03 ]] ------ The authors conspicuously avoid mention of collective security arrangements through the United Nations, instead suggesting the US &#8220;should expect future coalitions to be ad hoc assemblies, often not lasting beyond the crisis being confronted.&#8221; [[ /timeline/1990s/nyt030892.html | New York Times, 3/8/92 ]] ------ They call for &#8220;punishing&#8221; or &#8220;threatening punishment&#8221; against regional aggressors before they act. Interests to be defended preemptively include &#8220;access to vital raw materials, primarily Persian Gulf oil, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missiles, [and] threats to US citizens from terrorism.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/harpers1002.html | Harper's, 10/02 ]] ------ Senator Lincoln Chafee (R) later says, &#8220;It is my opinion that [George W. Bush's] plan for preemptive strikes was formed back at the end of the first Bush administration with that 1992 report.&#8221; [[,0,4720975.story | Newsday, 3/16/03 ]] ------ In response to the controversy, US releases an updated version of the document in May 1992, which stresses that the US will work with the United Nations and its allies. [[ /timeline/1990s/wpost052492.html | Washington Post, 5/24/92 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/harpers1002.html | Harper's, 10/02 ]] ====== << centralAsia >> << pre911Plans >> ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) ((+ Lewis ("Scooter") Libby )) ((- Soviet Union )) ((+ United States )) June 4, 1992 FBI Investigates Ties Between George W. Bush and Saudi Money a060492bath false 1 ------ The FBI investigates connections between James Bath and George W. Bush, according to published reports. Bath is Salem bin Laden's official representative in the US. Bath's business partner contends that, &#8220;Documents indicate that the Saudis were using Bath and their huge financial resources to influence US policy,&#8221; since George W. Bush's father is president. George W. Bush denies any connections to Saudi money. What becomes of this investigation is unclear, but no charges are ever filed. [[ /timeline/1990s/houstonchronicle060492.html | Houston Chronicle, 6/4/92 ]] ====== << saudis >> << binladenFamily >> ((+ James Bath )) ((+ George W. Bush )) ((- Salem bin Laden )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) [[ | James Bath. ]] September 1, 1992 US Misses Opportunity to Stop First WTC Bombing and Discover al-Qaeda a090192ajaj false 1 ------ Al-Qaeda Operatives Ahmad Ajaj and Ramzi Yousef enter the US together. Ajaj is arrested at Kennedy Airport in New York City. Yousef is not arrested, and later, he masterminds the 1993 bombing of the WTC. &#8220;The US government was pretty sure Ajaj was a terrorist from the moment he stepped foot on US soil,&#8221; because his &#8220;suitcases were stuffed with fake passports, fake IDs and a cheat sheet on how to lie to US immigration inspectors,&#8221; plus &#8220;two handwritten notebooks filled with bomb recipes, six bomb-making manuals, four how-to videotapes concerning weaponry, and an advanced guide to surveillance training.&#8221; However, Ajaj is charged only with passport fraud, and serves a six-month sentence. From prison, Ajaj frequently calls Yousef and others in the 1993 WTC bombing plot, but no one translates the calls until long after the bombing. [[,0,999276.story | Los Angeles Times, 10/14/01 ]] ------ Ajaj is released from prison three days after the WTC bombing, but is later rearrested and sentenced to more than 100 years in prison. [[,0,999276.story | Los Angeles Times, 10/14/01 ]] ------ One of the manuals seized from Ajaj is horribly mistranslated for the trial. For instance, the title page is said to say &#8220;The Basic Rule,&#8221; published in 1982, when in fact the title says &#8220;al-Qaeda&#8221; (which means &#8220;the base&#8221; in English), published in 1989. Investigators later complain that a proper translation could have shown an early connection between al-Qaeda and the WTC bombing. [[ | New York Times, 1/14/01 ]] ------ An Israeli Newsweekly later reports that the Palestinian Ajaj may have been a mole for the Israeli Mossad. The Village Voice has suggested that Ajaj may have had &#8220;advance knowledge of the World Trade Center bombing, which he shared with Mossad, and that Mossad, for whatever reason, kept the secret to itself.&#8221; Ajaj was not just knowledgeable, but was involved in the planning of the bombing from his prison cell. [[ /timeline/1990s/villagevoice080393.html | Village Voice, 8/3/93 ]] ====== << warnings >> << israel >> ((- Israel Institute for Intelligence and Special Tasks )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Ramzi Yousef )) ((+ World Trade Center )) ((+ Ahmad Ajaj )) December 1992 First Realization That bin Laden Is Behind an Attack on a US Target a1292adenbomb false 1 ------ A bomb explodes in a hotel in Aden, Yemen, killing two tourists. US soldiers had just left the hotel for Somalia. [[ | Miami Herald, 9/24/01 ]] ------ US intelligence is still unaware of bin Laden's funding of the Rabbi Meir Kahane assassination in 1990. However, it will conclude in April 1993 that &#8220;[Bin Laden] almost certainly played a role&#8221; in this attack. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- Meir Kahane )) 1993 Khalid Shaikh Mohammed Has Ties with ISI a93ksmisi false 1 ------ US agents uncover photographs showing Khalid Shaikh Mohammed with close associates of future Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. The Financial Times later notes that Mohammed and his allies &#8220;must have felt confident that their ties to senior Pakistani Islamists, whose power had been cemented within the country's intelligence service [the ISI], would prove invaluable.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2003/financialtimes021503.html | Financial Times, 2/15/03 ]] ------ Also this year, Mohammed is involved in an operation to assassinate Benazir Bhutto, then prime minister of Pakistan (and an opponent of Sharif and the ISI). [[ | Slate, 9/21/01 ]] [[,12469,906442,00.html | Guardian, 3/3/03 (B) ]] ------ The Los Angeles Times later reports that Mohammed &#8220;spent most of the 1990s in Pakistan. Pakistani leadership through the 1990s sympathized with Osama bin Laden's fundamentalist rhetoric. This sympathy allowed Mohammed to operate as he pleased in Pakistan.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/latimes062402.html | Los Angeles Times, 6/24/02 ]] ====== << khalidShaikMohammed >> << isi >> ((+ Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((- Benazir Bhutto )) ((+ Nawaz Sharif )) 1993-1998 Al-Qaeda Double Agent Is Arrested and Then Released; Tells Secrets About al-Qaeda a93ali false 1 ------ Canadian police arrest Ali Mohamed, a high-ranking al-Qaeda figure. However, they release him when the FBI says he is a US agent. [[ | Globe and Mail, 11/22/01 ]] ------ Mohamed, a former US Army sergeant, will continue to work for al-Qaeda for a number of years. He trains bin Laden's personal body guards and trains an al-Qaeda cell in Kenya that later blows up the US embassy there. Meanwhile, between 1993 and 1997 he tells secrets to the FBI about al-Qaeda's operations. He is re-arrested in late 1998 and subsequently convicted for his role in the 1998 US embassy bombing in Kenya. [[ | CNN, 10/30/98 ]] [[ /timeline/1990s/independent110198.html | Independent, 11/1/98 ]] ------ &#8220;For five years he was moving back and forth between the US and Afghanistan. It's impossible the CIA thought he was going there as a tourist. If the CIA hadn't caught on to him, it should be dissolved and its budget used for something worthwhile,&#8221; according to a former Egyptian intelligence officer. [[ | Wall Street Journal, 11/26/01 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Ali Mohamed )) ((- Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) [[ | Ali Mohamed. ]] January 1993 Cheney Releases New Global Domination Strategy a0193cheneystrategy false 1 ------ While still serving as Defense Secretary, Dick Cheney releases a documented titled &#8220;Defense Strategy for the 1990s,&#8221; in which he reasserts the plans for US global domination outlined in the Defense Policy Guide leaked to the press in March 1992 (see [[ a030892dominanceplan ]]). [[ /timeline/2002/harpers1002.html | Harper's, 10/02 ]] ------ Clinton's inauguration as president later in the month precludes Cheney from actually implementing his plans. ====== << centralAsia >> ((+ Richard ("Dick") Cheney )) 1993-1999 Alhazmi and Almihdhar Fight for al-Qaeda a93alhazmialmihdharfight false 1 ------ Of all the 9/11 hijackers, Nawaf Alhazmi and Khalid Almihdhar have the longest records of involvement with al-Qaeda. CIA Director Tenet calls them al-Qaeda veterans. According to the CIA, Alhazmi first travels to Afghanistan in 1993 as a teenager. In 1995, he travels with Almihdhar to Bosnia and fights against the Serbs. Almihdhar makes his first visit to Afghanistan training camps in 1996, and then fights in Chechnya in 1997. Both swear loyalty to bin Laden around 1998. Alhazmi fights in Afghanistan against the Northern Alliance with his brother, Salem Alhazmi. He fights in Chechnya, probably in 1998. He returns to Saudi Arabia in early 1999 and shares information about the 1998 US embassy bombings. [[,1373,556695,00.html | Observer, 9/23/01 ]] [[ | ABC News, 1/9/02 ]] [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/1/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/cia061802.html | CIA Director Tenet Testimony, 6/18/02 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((+ Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Salem Alhazmi )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((- Northern Alliance )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) [[ | Nawaf Alhazmi (left), and Khalid Almihdhar (right). ]] 1993 Expert Panel Predicts Terrorists Will Use Planes as Weapons on Symbolic US Targets a93planesasweapons false 1 ------ An expert panel commissioned by the Pentagon postulates that an airplane could be used as a missile to bomb national landmarks. However, the panel does not publish this idea in its &#8220;Terror 2000&#8221; Report. [[ | Washington Post, 10/2/01 ]] ------ One of the authors of the report later says, &#8220;We were told by the Department of Defense not to put it in ... and I said, &#8216;It's unclassified, everything is available.&#8217; In addition, they said, &#8216;We don't want it released, because you can't handle a crisis before it becomes a crisis. And no one is going to believe you.&#8217; &#8221; [[ | ABC News, 2/20/02 ]] ------ However, in 1994, one of the panel's experts will write in Futurist magazine, &#8220;Targets such as the World Trade Center not only provide the requisite casualties but, because of their symbolic nature, provide more bang for the buck. In order to maximize their odds for success, terrorist groups will likely consider mounting multiple, simultaneous operations with the aim of overtaxing a government's ability to respond, as well as demonstrating their professionalism and reach.&#8221; [[ | Washington Post, 10/2/01 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- World Trade Center )) 1993 Bin Laden Buys Airplane From US Military to Kill US Soldiers a93arizona false 1 ------ Bin Laden buys a jet from the US military in Arizona. The US military approves the transaction. The aircraft is later used to transport missiles from Pakistan that kill American Special Forces in Somalia. A man named Essam al Ridi will testify in a US trial before 9/11 that he buys a Saber-40 aircraft for $210,000, then flies it from Texas to Khartoum, Sudan. Bin Laden wants the plane to transport Stinger missiles, and apparently it is used in to transport some kind of missile from Pakistan that kill US Special Forces in Somalia in 1993. Essam al Ridi had just taken flying lessons himself (at the Ed Boardman Aviation School in Fort Worth) in an apparently early attempt by bin Laden to get more pilots. [[ | Sunday Herald, 9/16/01 ]] [[;node=&amp;contentId=A39166-2002May18&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 5/19/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ Essam al Ridi )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) January 20, 1993 Bill Clinton Inaugurated a912093clinton false 1 ------ Bill Clinton replaces George H. W. Bush as US president. He remains president until January 2001. ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> << warnings >> << centralAsia >> ((+ William Jefferson ("Bill") Clinton )) ((+ George Herbert Walker Bush )) [[ | President Bill Clinton. ]] February 26, 1993 WTC Is Bombed but Does Not Collapse, as Bombers Had Hoped a022693wtcbombing false 1 ------ An attempt to topple the WTC fails, but six people are killed and over 1000 are injured in the misfired blast. An FBI explosives expert later states that, &#8220;If they had found the exact architectural Achilles' heel or if the bomb had been a little bit bigger, not much more, 500 pounds more, I think it would have brought her down.&#8221; Ramzi Yousef, who has close ties to bin Laden, organizes the attempt. [[ | Congressional Hearings, 2/24/98 ]] [[ /timeline/1990s/villagevoice033093.html | Village Voice, 3/30/93 ]] ------ The New York Times later reports on Emad Salem, an undercover agent who will be the key government witness in the trial against Yousef. Salem testifies that the FBI knew about the attack beforehand and told him they would thwart it by substituting a harmless powder for the explosives. However, an FBI supervisor called off this plan, and the bombing was not stopped. [[ /timeline/1990s/nyt102893.html | New York Times, 10/28/93 ]] ------ Other suspects were ineptly investigated before the bombing as early as 1990. Several of the bombers were trained by the CIA to fight in the Afghan war, and the CIA later concludes, in internal documents, that it was &#8220;partly culpable&#8221; for this bombing. [[ /timeline/1990s/independent110198.html | Independent, 11/1/98 ]] ------ US officials later state that the overall mastermind of the 9/11 attacks, Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, is a close relative, probably an uncle, of Yousef. [[ | Independent, 6/6/02 ]] [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/1/02 ]] ------ One of the attackers even leaves a message which will later be found by investigators, stating, &#8220;Next time, it will be very precise.&#8221; [[ | Associated Press, 9/30/01 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ World Trade Center )) ((+ Emad Salem )) ((- Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((+ Ramzi Yousef )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- Federal Bureau of Investigation )) [[ | Bomb damage in underground levels of the WTC in 1993. ]] Spring 1993 Blind Sheikh Plot to Crash Airplane into US Embassy in Egypt aspring93egyptplot false 1 ------ In March 1995, Emad Salem, an FBI informant and an ex-Egyptian army officer, publicly testifies in the trial of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing plotters. He mentions a 1993 plot by Islamic radicals tied to the &#8220;Blind Sheikh,&#8221; Sheikh Omar Abdul-Rahman (see [[ a0790abdulrahman ]]). A Sudanese Air Force pilot would hijack an airplane, attack Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, then crash the plane into the US Embassy in Cairo, Egypt. Siddig Siddig Ali, one of the defendants in the trial, asks Salem for help to find &#8220;gaps in the air defense in Egypt&#8221; so the pilot could &#8220;bomb the presidential house and then turn around, crash the plane into the American embassy after he ejects himself out of the plane.&#8221; Sheikh Omar Abdul-Rahman had given his approval to the plot, but apparently it never goes beyond the discussion stage. Although details of this plot are in public records of the World Trade Center bombing trial, both the 9/11 Congressional Inquiry and 9/11 Commission fail to mention it. [[ | Lance, 07/04, pp 196 ]] [[ / | Intelwire, 4/8/04 ]] ------ Abdul-Rahman was closely tied to bin Laden and in fact in 1998 there will be an al-Qaeda hijacking plot designed to free him from prison (see [[ a1998tunnels ]]). Individuals connected to Abdul-Rahman and al-Qaeda will also plot to crash an airplane into the White House in 1996 (see [[ a0196suicide ]]). ====== << warnings >> ((+ Emad Salem )) ((- World Trade Center )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Sheikh Omar Abdul-Rahman )) ((+ Siddig Siddig Ali )) ((- 9/11 Congressional Inquiry )) ((- 9/11 Commission )) June 1993-October 1994 9/11 Funder Saeed Sheikh Joins Al-Qaeda a0693saeed false 1 ------ Saeed Sheikh, a brilliant British student at the London School of Economics, drops out of school and moves to his homeland of Pakistan. Two months later, he begins training in Afghanistan at camps run by al-Qaeda and the Pakistani ISI. By mid-1994, he has become an instructor. In June 1994, he begins kidnapping Western tourists in India. In October 1994, he is captured after kidnapping three Britons and an American, and is put in an Indian maximum-security prison, where he remain for five years. The ISI pays a lawyer to defend him. [[,0,541735.story | Los Angeles Times, 2/9/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/dailymail071602.html | Daily Mail, 7/16/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/vanityfair0802.html | Vanity Fair, 8/02 ]] ------ His supervisor is Ijaz Shah, an ISI officer. [[ /timeline/2002/timesofindia031202.html | Times of India, 3/12/02 ]] [[,4273,4462107,00.html | Guardian, 7/16/02 ]] ====== << isi >> ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Saeed Sheikh )) ((+ Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) ((+ Ijaz Shah )) June 24, 1993 New York Landmark Bombing Plot Is Foiled a062493foiling false 1 ------ Eight people are arrested, foiling a plot to bomb several New York City landmarks. The targets were the United Nations building, 26 Federal Plaza, and the Lincoln and Holland tunnels. The plotters are connected to Ramzi Yousef and Sheikh Omar Abdul-Rahman. If the bombing, planned for later in the year, had been successful, thousands would have died. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ Ramzi Yousef )) ((+ Sheikh Omar Abdul-Rahman )) October 3-4, 1993 Al-Qaeda and Pakistani Leader Support Somalia Attack on US Soldiers a100393mogadishu false 1 ------ Eighteen US soldiers are attacked and killed in Mogadishu, Somalia, in a spontaneous gun battle following an unsuccessful attempt by US Army Rangers to snatch a local warlord. (This event later becomes the subject of the movie Black Hawk Down.) A 1998 US indictment will charge bin Laden and his followers with training the attackers. [[ | PBS Frontline, 10/3/02 (C) ]] ------ The link between bin Laden and the Somali killers of US soldiers appears to be Pakistani Maulana Masood Azhar. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 2/25/02 ]] ------ Azhar is associated with Pakistan's ISI. He will be imprisoned briefly after 9/11 and then released. ====== << warnings >> << isi >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- Maulana Masood Azhar )) November 1993 Enron Power Plant Creates Demand for an Afghanistan Pipeline a1193dabhol false 1 ------ The Indian government approves construction of Enron's Dabhol power plant, located near Bombay on the west coast of India. Enron has invested $3 billion, the largest single foreign investment in India's history. Enron owns 65 percent of the Dabhol liquefied natural gas power plant, intended to provide one-fifth of India's energy needs by 1997. [[ | Asia Times, 1/18/01 ]] [[ | Indian Express, 2/27/00 ]] ------ It is the largest gas-fired power plant in the world. Earlier in the year, the World Bank concluded that the plant was &#8220;not economically viable&#8221; and refused to invest in it. [[ /timeline/2001/nyt032001.html | New York Times, 3/20/01 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> ((+ World Bank )) ((+ India )) ((+ Enron )) [[ | The Dabhol power plant. ]] 1994 US Declines to Accept Documents Exposing Saudi Scandals and Ties to Islamic Militants a94defects false 1 ------ Mohammed al-Khilewi, the first secretary at the Saudi mission to the United Nations, defects and seeks political asylum in the US. He brings with him 14,000 internal government documents depicting the Saudi royal family's corruption, human-rights abuses, and financial support for Islamic militants. He meets with two FBI agents and an assistant US attorney. &#8220;We gave them a sampling of the documents and put them on the table,&#8221; says his lawyer, &#8220;but the agents refused to accept them.&#8221; [[ | New Yorker, 10/16/01 ]] ------ The documents include &#8220;details of the $7 billion the Saudis gave to [Iraq leader] Saddam Hussein for his nuclear program&#8212;the first attempt to build an Islamic Bomb.&#8221; However, FBI agents are &#8220;ordered not to accept evidence of Saudi criminal activity, even on US soil.&#8221; [[ | Palast, 2002, pp 101 ]] ====== << saudis >> ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((- Saddam Hussein )) ((+ Mohammed al-Khilewi )) Early 1994-January 1995 Khalid Shaikh Mohammed Receives Financial Support in the Philippines aearly94philippines false 1 ------ 9/11 mastermind Khalid Shaikh Mohammed lives in the Philippines for a year, planning Operation Bojinka until the plot is exposed in January 1995 and he has to flee (see [[ a0195bojinka ]]). Police later say he lives a very expensive and non-religious lifestyle. He goes to karaoke bars and go-go clubs, dates go-go dancers, stays in four-star hotels, and takes scuba diving lessons. Once he rents a helicopter just to fly it past the window of a girlfriend's office in an attempt to impress her. This appears to be a pattern; for instance, he has a big drinking party in 1998. [[ /timeline/2002/latimes062402.html | Los Angeles Times, 6/24/02 ]] ------ Officials believe his obvious access to large sums of money indicate that some larger network is backing him by this time. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 6/6/02 ]] ------ It has been suggested that Mohammed, a Pakistani, is able &#8220;to operate as he please[s] in Pakistan&#8221; during the 1990s [[ /timeline/2002/latimes062402.html | Los Angeles Times, 6/24/02 ]] ------ , and he is linked to the Pakistani ISI. His hedonistic time in the Philippines resembles reports of hijackers Mohamed Atta and Marwan Alshehhi in the Philippines in 1998-2000 <ref key="a98mabalacat"/>. Mohammed returns to the Philippines occasionally, and he is even spotted there after 9/11. [[ | Knight Ridder, 9/9/02 ]] ------ He is almost caught while visiting an old girlfriend there in 1999, and fails in a second plot to kill the Pope when the Pope cancels his visit to the Philippines that year. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/1/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/londontimes111002.html | Times of London, 11/10/02 ]] ====== << khalidShaikMohammed >> ((+ Operation Bojinka )) ((- Mohamed Atta )) ((+ Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((- Marwan Alshehhi )) [[ | Khalid Shaikh Mohammed in a 1998 FBI wanted poster. ]] 1994-September 2001 Evidence of Al-Qaeda Connections in Arizona Obtained by Local Agents Repeatedly Ignored by FBI Headquarters a94phoenixfbi false 1 ------ By 1990, Arizona became one of the main centers in the US for radical Muslims, and it remains so throughout this period. However, terrorism remains a low priority for the Phoenix, Arizona, FBI office. Around 1990, al-Qaeda operative Hani Hanjour moves to Arizona for the first time and he spends much of the next decade in the state. The FBI apparently remains oblivious of Hanjour, though one FBI informant claims that by 1998 they &#8220;knew everything about the guy.&#8221; [[;position=top | New York Times, 6/19/02 ]] ------ In 1994, the Phoenix FBI office uncovers startling evidence connecting Arizona to radical Muslim militants. The office videotapes two men trying to recruit a Phoenix FBI informant to be a suicide bomber. One of the men is linked to al-Qaeda leader Sheikh Omar Abdul-Rahman. [[ /timeline/2002/latimes052602.html | Los Angeles Times, 5/26/02 ]] [[;position=top | New York Times, 6/19/02 ]] ------ In 1998, the office's international terrorism squad investigates a possible Middle Eastern extremist taking flight lessons at a Phoenix airport. FBI agent Ken Williams initiates an investigation into the possibility of Islamic militants learning to fly aircraft, but he has no easy way to query a central FBI database about similar cases. Because of this and other FBI communication problems, he remains unaware of most US intelligence reports about the potential use of airplanes as weapons, as well as other, specific FBI warnings issued in 1998 and 1999 concerning Islamic militants training at US flight schools. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ====== << warnings >> << haniHanjour >> ((+ William Safire )) ((+ Ken Williams )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((- Sheikh Omar Abdul-Rahman )) March 1994 FBI Begins to Focus on Radical Fundamentalism a0394radical false 1 ------ The FBI creates the Radical Fundamentalist Unit to investigate international radical fundamentalism, including al-Qaeda. (An FBI unit focusing on bin Laden will not be created until 1999.) [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Radical Fundamentalist Unit )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) April 1994 Disgruntled Worker Tries to Fly Passenger Jet Into Memphis Building a94fedexpress false 1 ------ A flight engineer at Federal Express who is facing a potentially career-ending disciplinary hearing boards a DC-10 as a passenger, storms the cockpit with a hammer, and hits each of the three members of the cockpit crew in the head. He severely injures all of them, but they nonetheless are able to wrestled him down and regain control of the plane. Company employees claim he was trying to hit a company building in Memphis, Tennessee. [[ | New York Times, 10/3/01 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- Federal Express )) April 9, 1994 The Saudi Government Publicly Breaks with Osama bin Laden a040994citizenship false 1 ------ The Saudi government revokes bin Laden's citizenship and moves to freeze his assets in Saudi Arabia because of his support for Muslim fundamentalist movements. [[ /timeline/1990s/nyt041094.html | New York Times, 4/10/94 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/frontline0901.html | PBS Frontline, 9/01 ]] ------ However, allegedly, this is only a public front and they privately continue to support him as part of a secret deal allegedly made in 1991 (see [[ a91binladenleaves ]]). ====== << saudis >> << binladenFamily >> ((+ Saudi Arabia )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) August 1994-July 2001 Possible Terrorist Front Man with Saudi Backing Settles in San Diego a0894dallahavco false 1 ------ A Saudi named Omar al-Bayoumi arrives in San Diego, California. He will later become well known for his suspicious connections to both some 9/11 hijackers and the Saudi government, although the 9/11 Commission asserts that it received no evidence that he was involved in terrorism or the 9/11 attacks. [[ | 9/11 Commission Report, 6/16/04 ]] ------ Acquaintances in San Diego long suspect he is a Saudi government spy reporting on the activities of Saudi-born college students. [[ | San Diego Union-Tribune, 9/14/02 ]] [[ | Newsweek, 11/22/02 ]] [[ | San Diego Magazine, 9/03 ]] ------ Says one witness, &#8220;He was always watching [young Saudi college students], always checking up on them, literally following them around and then apparently reporting their activities back to Saudi Arabia.&#8221; [[ | Newsweek, 11/24/02 ]] ------ Just prior to moving to the US, he worked for the Saudi Ministry of Defense and Aviation, headed by Prince Sultan. His salary in this job is approved by Hamid al-Rashid, a Saudi government official whose son, Saud al-Rashid, is strongly suspected of al-Qaeda ties (see [[ a081502alrashid ]]). [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ Once in San Diego, al-Bayoumi tells people that he's a student or a pilot, and even claims to be receiving monthly payments from &#8220;family in India&#8221; (despite being Saudi). However, he is none of those things [[ /timeline/2001/sundaymercury102101.html | Sunday Mercury, 10/21/01 ]] [[ | Wall Street Journal, 8/11/03 ]] ------ In fact, as he tells some people, he receives a monthly stipend from Dallah Avco, a Saudi aviation company that has extensive ties to the same Saudi Ministry of Defense and Aviation. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/1/02 ]] [[ | Newsweek, 11/24/02 ]] ------ From early 1995 until 2002, he is paid about $3,000 a month for a project in Saudi Arabia even though he is living in the US. According to the New York Times, Congressional officials believe he is a &#8220;ghost employee&#8221; doing no actual work. The classified section of the 9/11 Congressional Inquiry report notes that his payments increase significantly just after he comes into contact with two hijackers in early 2000. [[ | New York Times, 8/2/03 ]] ------ The FBI is investigating possible ties between Dallah Avco and al-Qaeda. [[ | Newsweek, 10/29/02 ]] ------ The firm's owner, Saudi billionaire Saleh Abdullah Kamel, has denied the accusation. [[ | Newsweek, 7/28/03 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> << saudis >> ((+ Omar al-Bayoumi )) ((- Sultan bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud )) ((- Hamid al-Rashid )) ((+ Saleh Abdullah Kamel )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Saud al-Rashid )) ((+ Abdullah )) ((+ Dallah Avco )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) [[ | Dallah Avco logo. ]] September 1994 ISI Creates the Taliban, Helps Them Begin Afghanistan Conquest a0994taliban false 1 ------ Starting as Afghan exiles in Pakistan religious schools, the Taliban begin their conquest of Afghanistan. [[ /timeline/2001/msnbc100201.html | MSNBC, 10/2/01 ]] ------ &#8220;The Taliban are widely alleged to be the creation of Pakistan's military intelligence [the ISI], which, according to experts, explains the Taliban's swift military successes.&#8221; [[ | CNN, 10/5/96 ]] ------ Richard Clarke, a counterterrorism official during the Reagan and George H. W. Bush administrations and the counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; by 9/11, later claims that not only does the ISI create the Taliban, but they also facilitate connections between the Taliban and al-Qaeda to help the Taliban achieve victory. [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 53 ]] ------ An edition of the Wall Street Journal will state in November 2001, &#8220;Despite their clean chins and pressed uniforms, the ISI men are as deeply fundamentalist as any bearded fanatic; the ISI created the Taliban as their own instrument and still support it.&#8221; [[ | Asia Times, 11/15/01 ]] ------ ISI support of the Taliban is backed by the CIA. A long-time regional expert with extensive CIA ties later says, &#8220;I warned them that we were creating a monster.&#8221; He adds that even years later, &#8220;the Taliban are not just recruits from &#8216;madrassas&#8217; (Muslim theological schools) but are on the payroll of the ISI.&#8221; [[ | Times of India, 3/7/01 ]] ------ The same claim is made on CNN in February 2002. [[ /timeline/2002/cnn022702.html | CNN, 2/27/02 ]] ====== << isi >> << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) ((+ Taliban )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) September 11, 1994 Suicidal Man Attempts to Crash Small Airplane into White House a091194frankcorder false 1 ------ A suicidal and apparently apolitical pilot named Frank Corder steals a single-engine plane from an airport north of Baltimore, Maryland, and attempts to crash it into the White House. He crashes into a wall two stories below the presidential bedroom (President Clinton is not there at the time). Corder is killed on impact. . [[ | New York Times, 10/3/01 ]] [[ /timeline/1995/time092694.html | Time, 9/26/94 ]] ------ A Time magazine story shortly after the incident notes, &#8220;The unlikely incident confirmed all too publicly what security officials have long feared in private: the White House is vulnerable to sneak attack from the air. &#8216;For years I have thought a terrorist suicide pilot could readily divert his flight from an approach to Washington to blow up the White House,&#8217; said Richard Helms, CIA director from 1966 to 1972.&#8221; The article further notes that an attack of this type had been a concern since 1974, when a disgruntled US Army private staged an unauthorized helicopter landing on the South Lawn. Special communcations lines were established between the Secret Service and Washington's National Airport control tower to the Secret Service operations center, but the line is ineffective in this case because no flight controller pays attention to the flight in time. [[ /timeline/1995/time092694.html | Time, 9/26/94 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- Secret Service )) ((- William Jefferson ("Bill") Clinton )) ((+ Frank Corder )) ((- Richard Helms )) [[ | Frank Corder piloted this Cessna, which crashed into the White House lawn and skidded up to the side of the building. ]] November 1994-December 1999 9/11 Funder Saeed Sheikh Is Captured; Makes Connections in Indian Prison a1194saeedprison false 1 ------ Saeed Sheikh is imprisoned in India for kidnapping Westerners. While there, he meets Aftab Ansari, another prisoner, an Indian gangster who will be released from prison near the end of 1999. [[ /timeline/2002/indiatoday022502.html | India Today, 2/25/02 ]] ------ Saeed also meets another prisoner named Asif Raza Khan, who also is released in 1999. [[ | Rediff, 11/17/01 ]] ------ After Saeed is rescued from prison at the end of 1999, he works with Ansari and Khan to kidnap Indians and then uses some of the profits to fund the 9/11 attacks. [[ | Frontline, 2/2/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/indiatoday021402.html | India Today, 2/14/02 ]] ------ Saeed also becomes good friends with prisoner Maulana Masood Azhar, a militant with al-Qaeda connections. [[ /timeline/2002/sundaytimes042102.html | Sunday Times, 4/21/02 ]] ------ Saeed will later conduct operations together with Azhar's group, Jaish-e-Mohammed. [[ | Independent, 2/26/02 ]] ====== << isi >> ((+ Aftab Ansari )) ((+ Asif Raza Khan )) ((+ Maulana Masood Azhar )) ((- Jaish-e-Mohammed )) ((+ Saeed Sheikh )) [[ | Saeed in an Indian hospital shortly after being arrested in 1994. He was shot while being captured. ]] December 12, 1994 Operation Bojinka Trial Run Fails, but Kills One a121294bojinkatrial false 1 ------ Ramzi Yousef attempts a trial run of Operation Bojinka, planting a small bomb on a Philippine Airlines flight to Tokyo, and disembarking on a stopover before the bomb is detonated. The bomb explodes, killing one man and injuring several others. It would have successfully caused the plane to crash if not for the heroic efforts of the pilot. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/1/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ Operation Bojinka )) ((+ Ramzi Yousef )) [[ | One of Ramzi Yousef's timers seized by Philippines police in January 1995. ]] December 16, 1994-May 1995 Osama's Brother-in-Law Held in US, Then Let Go Despite Ties to Islamic Militancy a121694khalifaarrest false 1 ------ Mohammed Jamal Khalifa, a brother-in-law to bin Laden, is arrested in the US. Khalifa, who financed the Abu Sayyaf militant group in the Philippines, has recently been sentenced to death in Jordan for funding a group that staged a series of bombings in that country. The FBI finds and quickly translates literature in Khalifa's luggage advocating training in assassination, explosives, and weapons, bombing churches, and murdering Catholic priests. Over the next weeks, they discover his ties to funding bin Laden's activities, as well as to Ramzi Yousef and other Operation Bojinka plotters (see [[ a121694khalifaphone ]]). [[ | Lance, 2003, pp 233-35 ]] [[ | New York Times, 5/2/02 (B) ]] ------ Bin Laden could be connected to many Islamic militant activities through Khalifa's connections. Yet, in January 1995, Secretary of State Warren Christopher writes to Attorney General Janet Reno asking for Khalifa's deportation to Jordan for the sake of international cooperation against terrorism. By April, Khalifa's conviction in Jordan is overturned, and the evidence of his ties to Islamic militancy is growing. For instance, US media accounts in April allege he &#8220;bankrolls a network of Arab terrorists&#8221; including Ramzi Yousef, plus &#8220;violent Muslim extremists&#8221; in the Philippines, the Mideast, Russia, Romania, Albania, and the Netherlands. It is noted that he denies &#8220;any nefarious link with his brother-in- law, Osama bin Laden, who financed Arab volunteers to fight the Soviet army in Afghanistan.&#8221; [[ /timeline/1990s/sfchronicle041895.html | San Francisco Chronicle, 4/18/95 ]] [[ /timeline/1995/ap042695.html | Associated Press, 4/26/95 ]] ------ Yet the US government's attempt to deport him to Jordan continues. Khalifa is sent to Jordan in May 1995. In a later retrial there, he is set free. Says one expert working at the CIA's Counter Terrorism Center at the time, &#8220;I remember people at the CIA who were ripsh_t at the time. Not even speaking in retrospect, but contemporaneous with what the intelligence community knew about bin Laden, Khalifa's deportation was unreal.&#8221; [[ | Lance, 2003, pp 233-35 ]] [[ | New York Times, 5/2/02 (B) ]] [[ /timeline/1990s/sfchronicle041895.html | San Francisco Chronicle, 4/18/95 ]] [[ /timeline/1995/ap042695.html | Associated Press, 4/26/95 ]] ------ The Saudi government claims that they jailed Khalifa after 9/11, but in fact he appears to be free and running a seafood restaurant in that country. [[ | New York Times, 5/2/02 (B) ]] [[,1,7589348.story | Chicago Tribune, 2/22/04 ]] ====== << saudis >> << warnings >> << binladenFamily >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Warren Christopher )) ((- Ramzi Yousef )) ((+ Sheik Mohammed ibn Rashid al Maktum )) ((+ Mohammed Jamal Khalifa )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) [[ | Mohammed Jamal Khalifa. ]] December 16, 1994-February 1995 Phone Numbers Link Bin Laden Bother-in-Law to Bojinka Plotters a121694khalifaphone false 1 ------ When bin Laden's brother-in-law Mohamed Jamal Khalifa is arrested in San Francisco, his phonebook and electronic organizer are found. They contain phone numbers to Bojinka plotter Wali Khan Amin Shah, associates of Bojinka plotter Ramzi Yousef, and Osama bin Laden's phone number. When the Manila apartment used by these two plotters is raided, Yousef's computer contains Khalifa's phone number. Wali Khan Shah is arrested several days later, and his phone book and phone bills contain five phone numbers for Khalifa, plus Khalifa's business card. Phone bills also show frequent telephone traffic between Khalifa and Khan's apartment in Manila in November 1994. When Yousef is arrested in February 1995 (see [[ a020795ramzi ]]), he has Khalifa's phone number and address, and more information on him in an encrypted computer file. Not surprisingly given all these links, Yousef is questioned about his ties to Khalifa within hours of being taken into US custody. He admits that he knew the name bin Laden, and knew him to be a relative of Khalifa's. [[ timeline/2002/fbiaffadavit042902.pdf | FBI Affadavit, 4/29/02 ]] [[ /timeline/1990s/sfchronicle041895.html | San Francisco Chronicle, 4/18/95 ]] [[ /timeline/1995/ap042695.html | Associated Press, 4/26/95 ]] ------ Khalifa has already been tied to two others convicted of the 1993 WTC bombing. Yet despite these ties to Islamic militancy, and others, he will be deported from the US. ====== << saudis >> << warnings >> << binladenFamily >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- Wali Khan Amin Shah )) ((- Ramzi Yousef )) ((+ Mohammed Jamal Khalifa )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) December 24, 1994 Al-Qaeda Connected Militants Attempt to Crash Passenger Jet into Eiffel Tower a122494eiffelcrash false 1 ------ An Air France Airbus A300 carrying 227 passengers and crew is hijacked in Algiers, Algeria by four Algerians wearing security guard uniforms. They are members of a militant group linked to al-Qaeda. They land in Marseille, France, and demand a very large amount of jet fuel. During a prolonged standoff, the hijackers kill two passengers and release 63 others. They are heavily armed with 20 sticks of dynamite, assault rifles, hand genades, and pistols. French authorities later determine their aim is to crash the plane into the Eiffel Tower in Paris, but French Special Forces storm the plane before it can depart from Marseille. [[ | New York Times, 10/3/01 ]] [[ /timeline/1995/time010295.html | Time, 1/2/95 ]] ------ Time magazine details the Eiffel Tower suicide plan in a cover story. A week later, Philipine investigators breaking up the Bojinka plot in Manila find a copy of the Time story in bomber Ramzi Yousef's possessions. Author Peter Lance notes that Yousef had close ties to Algerian Islamic militants and may have been connected to or inspired by the plot. [[ /timeline/1995/time010295.html | Time, 1/2/95 ]] [[ | Lance, 2003, pp 258 ]] ------ Even though this is the third attempt in 1994 to crash an airplane into a building, the New York Times notes after 9/11 that &#8220;aviation security officials never extrapolated any sort of pattern from those incidents.&#8221; [[ | New York Times, 10/3/01 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ Ramzi Yousef )) ((- Eiffel Tower )) ((- al-Qaeda )) 1995 US Declines to Accept Sudanese Files on al-Qaeda Leaders a95sudan false 1 ------ The government of Sudan offers the US all its files on bin Laden. He had been living in Sudan since 1991 partly because there were no visa requirements to live there. Sudanese officials had been monitoring him, collecting a &#8220;vast intelligence database on Osama bin Laden and more than 200 leading members of his al-Qaeda terrorist network. ... [The US was] offered thick files, with photographs and detailed biographies of many of his principal cadres, and vital information about al-Qaeda's financial interests in many parts of the globe.&#8221; The US apparently declines to accept the Sudanese government's offer. After 9/11, a US agent who has seen the files on bin Laden's men in Khartoum says that some files were &#8220;an inch and a half thick.&#8221; [[,1373,560675,00.html | Guardian, 9/30/01 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> << warnings >> ((+ United States )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Sudan )) ((- al-Qaeda )) 1995-November 2001 US Lobbies India Over Enron Power Plant a95enronlobbying false 1 ------ Enron's $3 billion Dabhol, India power plant runs into trouble in 1995 when the Indian government temporarily cancels an agreement. The plant is projected to get its energy from the proposed Afghan pipeline and deliver it to the Indian government. Enron leader Ken Lay travels to India with Commerce Secretary Ron Brown the same year, and heavy lobbying by US officials continue in subsequent years. By summer 2001, the National Security Council leads a &#8220;Dabhol Working Group&#8221; with officials from various cabinet agencies to get the plant completed and functioning. US pressure on India intensifies until shortly before Enron files for bankruptcy in December 2001. US officials later claim their lobbying merely supported the $640 million of US government investment in the plant. But critics say the plant received unusually strong support under both the Clinton and Bush administrations. [[ | New York Daily News, 1/18/02 ]] [[;node=&amp;contentId=A5322-2002Jan18&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 1/19/02 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> ((- Clinton administration )) ((+ Donald L. Evans )) ((+ India )) ((+ Kenneth Lay )) ((+ National Security Council )) ((- Bush administration )) ((+ Enron )) 1995-2001 Persian Gulf Elite Go Hunting with bin Laden in Afghanistan a95hunting false 1 ------ After the Taliban takes control of the area around Kandahar, Afghanistan, in September 1994, prominent Persian Gulf state officials and businessmen, including high-ranking United Arab Emirates and Saudi government ministers, such as Saudi intelligence minister Prince Turki al-Faisal, frequently secretly fly into Kandahar on state and private jets for hunting expeditions. [[,0,7388562.story | Los Angeles Times, 11/18/01 ]] ------ General Wayne Downing, Bush's former national director for combating terrorism, says: &#8220;They would go out and see Osama, spend some time with him, talk with him, you know, live out in the tents, eat the simple food, engage in falconing, some other pursuits, ride horses. One noted visitor is Sheik Mohammed ibn Rashid al Maktum, United Arab Emirates Defense Minister and Crown Prince for the emirate of Dubai.&#8221; [[ | MSNBC, 9/5/03 ]] ------ While there, some develop ties to the Taliban and al-Qaeda and give them money. Both bin Laden and Taliban leader Mullah Omar sometimes participate in these hunting trips. Former US and Afghan officials suspect that the dignitaries' outbound jets may also have smuggled out al-Qaeda and Taliban personnel. [[,0,7388562.story | Los Angeles Times, 11/18/01 ]] ------ On one occasion, the US will decide not to attack bin Laden with a missile because he's falconing with important members of the United Arab Emirates' royal family (see [[ a0299gulfroyalty ]]). ====== << saudis >> ((+ Turki bin Faisal bin Abdul Aziz al Saud )) ((+ United Arab Emirates )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Sheik Mohammed ibn Rashid al Maktum )) ((- Taliban )) ((+ Mullah Omar )) ((- al-Qaeda )) 1995-1998 Darkazanli Receives Large Sums From Saudi Intelligence Front Company a95saudifrontcompany false 1 ------ A Saudi company called the Twaik Group deposits more than $250,000 in bank accounts controlled by Mamoun Darkazanli, a Syrian-born businessman suspected of belonging to the Hamburg, Germany, al-Qaeda cell that Mohamed Atta is also a part of. In 2004, the Chicago Tribune will reveal evidence that German intelligence has concluded that Twaik, a $100 million-a-year conglomerate, serves as a front for the Saudi Arabian intelligence agency. It has ties to that agency's longtime chief, Prince Turki al-Faisal. Before 9/11, at least two of Twaik's managers are suspected by various countries' intelligence agencies of working for al-Qaeda. One Twaik employee, who is later accused of helping to finance the financing of the 2003 Bali bombing (see [[ a101202balibombing ]]), repeatedly flies on aircraft operated by Saudi intelligence. In roughly the same time period, hundreds of thousands of additional dollars are deposited into Darkazanli's accounts from a variety of suspicious entities, including a Swiss bank owned by Middle Eastern interests with links to terrorism and a radical Berlin imam. Darkazanli is later accused not just of financially helping the Hamburg 9/11 hijackers, but also of helping to choose them for al-Qaeda. [[ /timeline/2004/chicagotribune033104.html | Chicago Tribune, 3/31/04 ]] [[ | Chicago Tribune, 10/12/03 ]] ====== << alQaedaInGermany >> << saudis >> ((+ Mamoun Darkazanli )) ((- Mohamed Atta )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Twaik Group )) ((- Turki bin Faisal bin Abdul Aziz al Saud )) 1995 French Intelligence Begin Compiling Moussaoui's Ties to Terrorism a95frenchmoussaoui false 1 ------ French intelligence begins tracking Zacarias Moussaoui, who is a French national. Over the next few years they develop a substantial dossier on him, including information demonstrating that he has links to al-Qaeda, has made several journeys to Afghanistan, and has undertaken training there at a terrorism camp. This information will be passed to the FBI's Minnesota field office (see [[ a082201french ]]), and to the counterterrorism section at FBI headquarters in late August 2001. [[ | Seattle Times, 7/7/02 ]] ====== << moussaoui >> ((+ Zacarias Moussaoui )) ((+ France )) ((- al-Qaeda )) January 6, 1995 Pope Assassination and Bojinka Plot to Bomb a Dozen Airplanes Is Foiled a0195bojinka false 1 ------ Responding to an apartment fire, Philippine investigators uncover an al-Qaeda plot to assassinate the Pope that is scheduled to take place when he visits the Philippines one week later. While investigating that scheme, they also uncover Operation Bojinka, planned by the same people: 1993 WTC bomber Ramzi Yousef and 9/11 mastermind Khalid Shaikh Mohammed. [[ | Independent, 6/6/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/latimes062402.html | Los Angeles Times, 6/24/02 ]] [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/1/02 ]] ------ The first phase of the plan is to explode 11 or 12 passenger planes over the Pacific Ocean. [[ /timeline/2001/afp120801.html | Agence France-Presse, 12/8/01 ]] ------ Had this plot been successful, up to 4,000 people would have been killed in planes flying to Los Angeles, San Francisco, Honolulu, and New York. [[ | Insight, 5/27/02 ]] ------ All the bombs would be planted at about the same time, but some would be timed to go off weeks or even months later. Presumably worldwide air travel could be interrupted for months. [[ | Lance, 2003, pp 260-61 ]] ------ This phase of Operation Bojinka was scheduled to go forward just two weeks later on January 21. [[ | Insight, 5/27/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> << khalidShaikMohammed >> ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Operation Bojinka )) ((+ Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((+ Ramzi Yousef )) ((- World Trade Center )) [[ | A 1998 CNN map of likely flights to be hijacked in one version of Operation Bojinka. ]] January 20, 1995 First Hints of Bojinka Second Wave Revealed a012095secondwave false 1 ------ Philippine and US investigators learn that Ramzi Yousef, Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, and their fellow plotters were actually planning three different attacks when they were foiled in early January. In addition to the planned assassination of the Pope, and the first phase of Operation Bojinka previously discovered, they also planned to crash about a dozen passenger planes into prominent US buildings. It is often mistakenly believed that there is one Bojinka plan to blow up some planes and crash others into buildings, but in fact these different forms of attack are to take place in two separate phases. [[ | Lance, 2003, pp 259 ]] ------ Philippine investigator Colonel Rodolfo Mendoza learns about this second phase through the examination of recently captured Bojinka plotter Abdul Hakim Murad. On January 20, Mendoza writes a memo about Murad's latest confession, saying, &#8220;With regards to their plan to dive-crash a commercial aircraft at the CIA headquarters, subject alleged that the idea of doing same came out during his casual conversation with [Yousef ] and there is no specific plan yet for its execution. What the subject [has] in his mind is that he will board any American commercial aircraft pretending to be an ordinary passenger. Then he will hijack said aircraft, control its cockpit, and dive it at the CIA headquarters. He will use no bomb or explosives. It is simply a suicidal mission that he is very much willing to execute.&#8221; [[ | Lance, 2003, pp 277-78 ]] [[ | Insight, 5/27/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> << khalidShaikMohammed >> ((+ Abdul Hakim Murad )) ((+ Operation Bojinka )) ((- Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((+ Rodolfo Mendoza )) ((- Ramzi Yousef )) [[ | Abdul Hakim Murad. ]] January 24, 1995 Clinton Tries to Stop Terrorist Funding with Executive Order a012495executiveorder false 1 ------ President Clinton issues Executive Order No. 12947, making it a felony to raise or transfer funds to designated terrorist groups or their front organizations. [[ | White House, 1/24/95 ]] [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 98 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ William Jefferson ("Bill") Clinton )) February 1995 Bojinka Second Wave Fully Revealed to Philippines Investigators; Information Given to US a0295thirdplot false 1 ------ As Colonel Mendoza, the Philippines investigator, continues to interrogate Operation Bojinka plotter Abdul Hakim Murad, details of a post-Bojinka &#8220;second wave&#8221; emerge. Author Peter Lance calls this phase &#8220;a virtual blueprint of the 9/11 attacks.&#8221; Murad reveals a plan to hijack commercial airliners at some point after the effect of Bojinka dies down. Murad himself had been training in the US for this plot. He names the buildings that would be targeted for attack: CIA headquarters, the Pentagon, an unidentified nuclear power plant, the Transamerica Tower in San Francisco, the Sears Tower, and the World Trade Center. Murad continues to reveal more information about this plot until he is handed over to the FBI in April. [[ | Lance, 2003, pp 278-80 ]] ------ He identifies approximately ten other men who met him at the flight schools or were getting similar training. They came from Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan. Apparently none of these pilots match the names of any of the 9/11 hijackers. However, he also gives information pointing to the al-Qaeda operative Hambali through a front company named Konsonjaya. Hambali later hosts an important al-Qaeda meeting attended by two of the 9/11 hijackers. [[ | Associated Press, 3/5/02 (B) ]] ------ Colonel Mendoza even makes a flow chart connecting many key players together, including bin Laden, bin Laden's brother-in-law Mohammed Jamal Khalifa, Ramzi Yousef, and 9/11 mastermind Khalid Shaikh Mohammed (named as Salem Ali a.k.a. Mohmad). Philippine authorities later claim that they provide all of this information to US authorities, but the US fails to follow up on any of it. [[ | Lance, 2003, pp 303-4 ]] ------ Khalifa is in US custody and released even after the Philippine authorities provide this information about him. ====== << warnings >> << khalidShaikMohammed >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((- Ramzi Yousef )) ((+ Rodolfo Mendoza )) ((- World Trade Center )) ((+ Operation Bojinka )) ((- Sears Tower )) ((+ Abdul Hakim Murad )) ((- Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Nurjaman Riduan Isamuddin )) ((- Pentagon )) ((- Mohammed Jamal Khalifa )) [[ | Colonel Rodolfo Mendoza. ]] After February 7, 1995-January 1996 Ramzi Yousef Arrest Points Investigators to Khalid Shaikh Mohammed a020795yousefksm false 1 ------ Shortly after bomber Ramzi Yousef is arrested, investigators discover a computer file of a letter on his laptop that is signed by &#8220;Khalid Sheikh, and Bojinka.&#8221; An eyewitness account of the arrest is given to Time magazine by a &#8220;Khalid Sheikh,&#8221; who is also staying in the same building. [[ | McDermott, 2005, pp 154, 162 ]] ------ Investigators also discover that he had frequently visited Yousef's apartment in Manila, Philippines, where the bombs for the Bojinka plot were being made. [[ | PBS Frontline, 10/3/02 (C) ]] ------ They also find Yousef had written down a phone number for &#8220;Khalid Doha.&#8221; Doha is the capital of Qatar. Shortly after being apprehended, Yousef calls this number in Qatar and asks to speak to a &#8220;Khalid.&#8221; Further intelligence this year connects him to the 1993 World Trade Center bombing when records are found of money wired from a "Khaled Shaykh" in Doha, Qatar, to one of the bombing suspects several days before the bombing. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] ------ At first, investigators don't know exactly who this person is. But there is an entry in Yousef's seized telephone directory for a Zahed Sheikh Mohammed, Yousef's uncle and Khalid Shaikh Mohammed's brother. Not long after this discovery is made, Pakistani investigators raid Zahed's offices in Peshawar, Pakistan, but Zahed has already fled. Nevertheless, apparently by the end of 1995 investigators make the connection between Zahed and Khalid, and they begin to build a case against Khalid. [[ | McDermott, 2005, pp 154, 162 ]] ------ The FBI successfully arranges for a photograph to be taken of Mohammed. He is positively identified from the photo in December 1995. This results in his indictment in January 1996 for his role in the 1993 WTC bombing. US intelligence labels him a &#8220;top priority,&#8221; according the 9/11 Congressional Inquiry. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] [[ | Los Angeles Times, 12/22/02 ]] ====== << khalidShaikMohammed >> ((+ Ramzi Yousef )) ((+ Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((+ Zahed Sheikh Mohammed )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) February 7, 1995 Yousef Is Arrested and Talks, but Hides Operation Bojinka Second Wave and bin Laden Ties a020795ramzi false 1 ------ Ramzi Yousef is arrested in Pakistan. At the time, Khalid Shaikh Mohammed is staying in the same building, and brazenly gives an interview to Time magazine as &#8220;Khalid Sheikh,&#8221; describing Yousef's capture. [[ | Lance, 2003, pp 328 ]] ------ Yousef had recruited Istaique Parker to implement a limited version of Operation Bojinka. Parker was to place bombs on board two flights bound from Bangkok to the US, but got cold feet and instead turned in Yousef. [[ | Lance, 2003, pp 284-85 ]] ------ The next day, as Yousef is flying over New York City on his way to a prison cell, an FBI agent says to him, &#8220;You see the Trade Centers down there, they're still standing, aren't they?&#8221; Yousef responds, &#8220;They wouldn't be if I had enough money and enough explosives.&#8221; [[ | MSNBC, 9/23/01 ]] [[ | Miller, Stone, and Mitchell, 2002, pp 135 ]] ------ Yousef also soon admits to ties with Wali Khan Shah, who fought with bin Laden in Afghanistan, and Mohammed Jamal Khalifa, one of bin Laden's brothers-in-law, who is being held by the US at the time. Despite Yousef's confession, Khalifa is released later in the year. Although Yousef talks freely, he makes no direct mention of bin Laden, or the planned second wave of Operation Bojinka that closely parallels the later 9/11 plot. [[ | Lance, 2003, pp 297-98 ]] ====== << warnings >> << khalidShaikMohammed >> ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((- Mohammed Jamal Khalifa )) ((+ Operation Bojinka )) ((+ Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((+ Ramzi Yousef )) ((- Wali Khan Amin Shah )) [[ | Ramzi Yousef. ]] March 1995 US Ignores Information About al-Qaeda in Training Manual a0395belgian false 1 ------ Belgian investigators find a CD-ROM of an al-Qaeda training manual and begin translating it a few months later. Versions of the manual are circulated widely and are seized by the police all over Europe. A former CIA official claims the CIA does not obtain a copy of the manual until the end of 1999: &#8220;The truth is, they missed for years the largest terrorist guide ever written.&#8221; He blames CIA reluctance to scrutinize its support for the anti-Soviet jihad in the 1980s. The CIA, however, claims that the manual is not that important, and that in any case it had copies for years. [[ | New York Times, 1/14/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/cbs022002.html | CBS News, 2/20/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- al-Qaeda )) March 1995-February 1996 Hijacker Jarrah Living in New York or Lebanon? a0395jarrahdouble false 1 ------ A man named &#8220;Ziad Jarrah&#8221; rents an apartment in Brooklyn, New York. [[ | Longman, 2002, pp 90 ]] ------ The landlords later identify his photograph as being that of the 9/11 hijacker. A Brooklyn apartment lease bears Ziad Jarrah's name. [[ | Boston Globe, 9/25/01 ]] ------ &#8220;Another man named Ihassan Jarrah lived with Ziad, drove a livery cab and paid the 800-dollar monthly rent. The men were quiet, well-mannered, said hello and good-bye. Ziad Jarrah carried a camera and told his landlords that he was a photographer. He would disappear for a few days on occasion, then reappear. Sometimes a woman who appeared to be a prostitute arrived with one of the men. &#8216;Me and my brother used to crack jokes that they were terrorists,&#8217; said Jason Matos, a construction worker who lived in a basement there, and whose mother owned the house.&#8221; However, another Ziad Jarrah is still in his home country of Lebanon at this time. He is studying in a Catholic school in Beirut, and is in frequent contact with the rest of his family. His parents drive him home to be with the family nearly every weekend, and they are in frequent contact by telephone as well. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 10/23/01 ]] ------ Not until April 1996 does this Ziad Jarrah leave Lebanon for the first time to study in Germany. [[ | Boston Globe, 9/25/01 ]] ------ His family believes that the New York lease proves that there were two &#8220;Ziad Jarrahs.&#8221; [[ | CNN, 9/18/01 (B) ]] ------ Evidence seems to indicate Jarrah was also in two places at the same time from November 2000 to January 2001 (see [[ a1100jarrahconflict ]]). ====== << otherHijackers >> << ziadJarrah >> ((+ Ziad Jarrah )) ((+ Ihassan Jarrah )) Spring 1995 More Evidence That the WTC Remains an Target aspring95wtctarget false 1 ------ In the wake of uncovering the Operation Bojinka plot, Philippine authorities find a letter on a computer disc written by the plotters of the failed 1993 WTC bombing. This letter apparently was never sent, but its contents are revealed in 1998 congressional testimony. [[ | Congressional Hearings, 2/24/98 ]] ------ The Manila police chief also reports discovering a statement from bin Laden around this time that, although they failed to blow up the WTC in 1993, &#8220;on the second attempt they would be successful.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/afp091301.html | Agence France-Presse, 9/13/01 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- Operation Bojinka )) April 3, 1995 Time Magazine and Senator Highlight Author's Flying Bomb Idea a040395time false 1 ------ Time magazine's cover story reports on the potential for anti-American militants to kill thousands in highly destructive acts. Senator Sam Nunn (D) outlines a scenario in which terrorists destroy the US Capitol Building by crashing a radio-controlled airplane into it. &#8220;It's not far-fetched,&#8221; he says. His idea was taken from Tom Clancy's book Debt of Honour published in August 1994. [[ /timeline/1990s/time040395.html | Time, 4/3/95 ]] ------ High-ranking al-Qaeda leaders will claim later that Flight 93's target was the Capitol Building. [[,1284,788431,00.html | Guardian, 9/9/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- World Trade Center )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Sam Nunn )) April 19, 1995 Oklahoma City Bombing; Possible Middle East Connection a041995okbombing false 1 ------ The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City is bombed. US citizen Timothy McVeigh is convicted of the bombing, but some maintain there is a Middle Eastern connection. For instance, Richard Clarke, counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; during the Clinton and George W. Bush administrations, says the possibility is intriguing and he has been unable to disprove it. [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 127 ]] ------ The bombing leads to a surge in concern about terrorism. The Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act becomes law as a result of such concern. However, many anti-terrorism provisions Clinton seeks are not approved by the Republican-controlled Congress. Many politicians agree with the National Rifle Association that proposed restrictions on bomb-making would infringe on the constitutional right to bear arms. [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 98-99 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- US Congress )) ((+ Timothy McVeigh )) ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) May 11, 1995 FBI Memo Fails to Mention Operation Bojinka Second Wave a051195muradinterrmemo false 1 ------ FBI agents, having held Operation Bojinka plotter Abdul Hakim Murad for about a month, write a memo containing what they have learned from interrogating him. The memo contains many interesting revelations, including that Ramzi Yousef, a mastermind of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, &#8220;wanted to return to the United States in the future to bomb the World Trade Center a second time.&#8221; However, this memo does not contain a word about the second wave of Operation Bojinka&#8212; to fly about 12 hijacked airplanes into prominent US buildings&#8212;even though Murad had recently fully confessed this plot to Philippines investigators, who claim they turned over tapes, transcripts, and reports with Murad's confessions of the plot to the US when they handed over Murad. It has not been explained why this plot is not mentioned in the FBI's summary of Murad's interrogation. [[ | Lance, 2003, pp 280-82 ]] ------ After 9/11, a Philippine investigator will refer to this third plot when he says of the 9/11 attacks, &#8220;It's Bojinka. We told the Americans everything about Bojinka. Why didn't they pay attention?&#8221; [[;node=&amp;contentId=A10840-2001Sep22 | Washington Post, 9/23/01 ]] ------ In an interview after 9/11, Khalid Shaikh Mohammed will claim that the 9/11 attacks were a refinement and resurrection of this plot. [[ /timeline/2002/australian090902.html | Australian, 9/9/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((- World Trade Center )) ((- Operation Bojinka )) ((+ Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((+ Ramzi Yousef )) ((+ Abdul Hakim Murad )) June 1995 US Considers Bombing bin Laden for Sponsoring Assassination Attempt mubarakassassination false 1 ------ There is a failed assassination attempt on Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak as he visits Ethiopia. The CIA concludes bin Laden authorized the operation, and they plan a retaliation attack. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] ------ Evidence suggests that the government of Sudan and Hassan al-Turabi, Sudan's leader, know where bin Laden is living and helped support the plot. The United Nations Security Council places sanctions on Sudan as a result. The US examines options for attacking bin Laden and/or al-Turabi's facilities in the Sudanese capital. The options developed by the US military are rejected for being unstealthy and a de facto war on Sudan. In the ensuing months, there are reports of Egyptian covert operations against bin Laden and an Egyptian military build-up on the Sudanese border. These factors influence bin Laden's decision to move to Afghanistan in 1996 (see [[ a051896sudan ]]). [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 140-41 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- Hassan al-Turabi )) ((+ United Nations Security Council )) ((+ Hosni Mubarak )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Sudan )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) [[ | Hassan al-Turabi. ]] July 1995 US Intelligence Report Concludes Terrorists Intent on Attacking Inside US a0795estimate false 1 ------ A US National Intelligence Estimate concludes that the most likely terrorist threat will come from emerging &#8220;transient&#8221; terrorist groupings that are more fluid and multinational than older organizations and state-sponsored surrogates. This &#8220;new terrorist phenomenon&#8221; is made up of loose affiliations of Islamist extremists violently angry at the US. Lacking strong organization, they get weapons, money, and support from an assortment of governments, factions, and individual benefactors. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommission032404.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 ]] ------ The estimate warns that terrorists are intent on striking specific targets inside the US, especially landmark buildings in Washington and New York. In 1997, the intelligence estimate is updated with bin Laden mentioned on the first page as an emerging threat and points out he might be interested in attacks inside the US. However, this new estimate is only two sentences long and lacks any strategic analysis on how to address the threat. [[,1280,-3983783,00.html | Associated Press, 4/16/04 ]] ====== << warnings >> September-October 1995 Unocal Obtains Turkmenistan Pipeline Deal a0995turkenistandeal false 1 ------ Oil company Unocal signs an $8 billion deal with Turkmenistan to construct two pipelines (one for oil, one for gas), as part of a larger plan for two pipelines intended to transport oil and gas from Turkmenistan through Afghanistan and into Pakistan. Before proceeding further, however, Unocal needs to execute agreements with Pakistan and Afghanistan; Pakistan and Ahmed Shah Massoud's government in Afghanistan, however, have already signed a pipeline deal with an Argentinean company. Henry Kissinger, hired as speaker for a special dinner in New York to announce the Turkmenistan pipeline deal, says the Unocal plan represents a &#8220;triumph of hope over experience.&#8221; Unocal will later open an office in Kabul, weeks after the Taliban capture of the capital in late 1996 and will interact with the Taliban, seeking support for its pipeline until at least December 1997. [[ | Coll, 2004, pp 301-13, 329, 338, 364-66 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> ((- Ahmed Shah Massoud )) ((+ Henry A. Kissinger )) ((- Afghanistan )) ((- Pakistan )) ((- Taliban )) ((+ Unocal )) ((+ Turkmenistan )) November 13, 1995 Al-Qaeda Bombing in Saudi Arabia, US Realizes bin Laden Is More Than Financier a111395truck false 1 ------ Two truck bombs kill five Americans and two Indians in the US-operated Saudi National Guard training center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Al-Qaeda is blamed for the attacks. [[,1282,-1957592,00.html | Associated Press, 8/19/02 ]] ------ The attack changes US investigators' views of the role of bin Laden, from al-Qaeda financier to its leader. [[ | Miller, Stone, and Mitchell, 2002, pp 150 ]] ------ The Vinnell Corporation, thought by some experts to be a CIA front, owns the facility that was attacked. [[,,3-679768,00.html | Times of London, 5/14/03 ]] ====== << warnings >> << saudis >> ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((- Vinnell Corporation )) ((- Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) [[ | Destruction at the Saudi National Guard training center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. ]] December 1995 Caspian Sea Said to Contain Two-Thirds of World's Known Oil Reserves a1295twothirds false 1 ------ The American Petroleum Institute asserts that the states bordering the Caspian Sea, north of Afghanistan, contain two-thirds of the world's known reserves, or 659 billion barrels. Such numbers spur demand for an Afghan pipeline. However, by April 1997, estimates drop to 179 billion barrels. [[ /timeline/2000/middleeastjournal092200.html | Middle East Journal, 9/22/00 ]] ------ This is still substantial, but the estimates continue to drop in future years (see [[ a110102overestimate ]]). ====== << pipelinePolitics >> Late 1995 Illness of Saudi King Generates Long-Term Power Struggle alate95fahdstroke false 1 ------ King Fahd of Saudi Arabia suffers a severe stroke. Afterwards, he is able to sit in a chair and open his eyes, but little more, and recovers slowly. The resulting lack of leadership begins a behind-the-scenes struggle for power and leads to increased corruption. Crown Prince Abdullah has been urging his fellow princes to address the problem of corruption in the kingdom&#8212;so far unsuccessfully. A former White House adviser says: &#8220;The only reason Fahd's being kept alive is so Abdullah can't become king.&#8221; [[ | New Yorker, 10/16/01 ]] ------ This internal power struggle persists on 9/11, and continues through at least mid-2004. ====== << saudis >> ((+ Fahd Bin Abdul Aziz )) ((+ Abdullah bin Abdulaziz al-Saud )) [[ | King Fahd (left) with Bakh bin Laden (right), a brother of Osama bin Laden, in the mid-1990's. ]] 1996 US Intelligence Learns that Mohammed and bin Laden Have Traveled Together a96traveltogether false 1 ------ Prior to this year, US intelligence is uncertain whether Khalid Shaikh Mohammed is connected to al-Qaeda. But this changes when a foreign government shares information that bin Laden and Mohammed had traveled together to a foreign country the previous year. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] ====== << khalidShaikMohammed >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((- al-Qaeda )) Early 1996-October 1998 US Tracks bin Laden's Satellite Phone Calls a96ladensatellite false 1 ------ During this period, bin Laden and Mohammed Atef, his military commander, use a satellite phone provided by a friend to direct al-Qaeda's operations. Its use is discontinued two months after a US missile strike against bin Laden's camps on August 20, 1998, when an unnamed senior official boasts that the US can track his movements through the use of the phone. [[ /timeline/2002/sundaytimes032402.html | Sunday Times, 3/24/02 ]] ------ Records show &#8220;Britain was at the heart of the terrorist's planning for his worldwide campaign of murder and destruction.&#8221; 260 calls were made to 27 phone numbers in Britain. The other countries called were Yemen (over 200 calls), Sudan (131), Iran (106), Azerbaijan (67), Pakistan (59), Saudi Arabia (57), a ship in the Indian Ocean (13), the US (6), Italy (6), Malaysia (4), and Senegal (2). &#8220;The most surprising omission is Iraq, with not a single call recorded.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/sundaytimes032402.html | Sunday Times, 3/24/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Mohammed Atef )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) January 1996 Muslim Extremists Plan Suicide Attack on White House a0196suicide false 1 ------ US intelligence obtains information concerning a suicide attack on the White House planned by individuals connected with Sheikh Omar Abdul-Rahman and a key al-Qaeda operative. The plan is to fly from Afghanistan to the US and crash into the White House. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ Sheikh Omar Abdul-Rahman )) 1996 Saudi Regime Goes "to the Dark Side" a96darkside false 1 ------ The Saudi Arabian government, which allegedly initiated payments to al-Qaeda in 1991 (see [[ a91binladenleaves ]]), increases its payments in 1996, becoming al-Qaeda's largest financial backer. It also gives money to other extremist groups throughout Asia, vastly increasing al-Qaeda's capabilities. [[ | New Yorker, 10/16/01 ]] ------ Presumably, two meetings in early summer bring about the change. Says one US official, &#8220;[19]96 is the key year. ... Bin Laden hooked up to all the bad guys&#8212;it's like the Grand Alliance&#8212;and had a capability for conducting large-scale operations.&#8221; The Saudi regime, he says, had &#8220;gone to the dark side.&#8221; Electronic intercepts by the NSA &#8220;depict a regime increasingly corrupt, alienated from the country's religious rank and file, and so weakened and frightened that it has brokered its future by channeling hundreds of millions of dollars in what amounts to protection money to fundamentalist groups that wish to overthrow it.&#8221; US officials later privately complain &#8220;that the Bush administration, like the Clinton administration, is refusing to confront this reality, even in the aftermath of the September 11th terrorist attacks.&#8221; [[ | New Yorker, 10/16/01 ]] ====== << saudis >> ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Saudi Arabia )) ((+ National Security Agency )) ((+ Clinton administration )) ((- Bush administration )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) 1996 FBI Fumbles Flight School Investigation; Ten al-Qaeda Pilots Training in US a96flightschoolfumbles false 1 ------ Finding a business card for a US flight school in the possession of Operation Bojinka plotter Abdul Hakim Murad, the FBI investigates the US flight schools Murad attended. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A10840-2001Sep22 | Washington Post, 9/23/01 ]] ------ He had trained at about six flight schools off and on, starting in 1990. Apparently, the FBI closes the investigation when they fail to find any other potential suspects. [[ | Insight, 5/27/02 ]] ------ However, Murad had already confessed to Philippine authorities the names of about ten other al-Qaeda operatives learning to fly in the US, and the Philippine authorities had asserted that they provided this information to the US. An assistant manager at a Schenectady, New York, flight school where Murad trained later recalls, &#8220;There were several [Middle Eastern pilot students] here. At one point three or four were here. Supposedly they didn't know each other before, they just happened to show up here at the same time. But they all obviously knew each other.&#8221; However, US investigators somehow fail to detect any of these suspects before 9/11, despite being given their names. [[ | Associated Press, 3/5/02 (B) ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ Abdul Hakim Murad )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) 1996-December 2000 Majority of Hijackers Disappear into Chechnya a96hijackerschechnya false 1 ------ At least 11 of the 9/11 hijackers travel to Chechnya between 1996 and 2000: --- * --- Nawaf Alhazmi fights in Chechnya, Bosnia, and Afghanistan for several years, starting around 1995. [[,1373,556695,00.html | Observer, 9/23/01 ]] [[ | ABC News, 1/9/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/cia061802.html | CIA Director Tenet Testimony, 6/18/02 ]] --- * --- Khalid Almihdhar fights in Chechnya, Bosnia, and Afghanistan for several years, usually with Nawaf Alhazmi. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/1/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/cia061802.html | CIA Director Tenet Testimony, 6/18/02 ]] --- * --- Salem Alhazmi spends time in Chechnya with his brother Nawaf Alhazmi. [[ | ABC News, 1/9/02 ]] ------ He also possibly fights with his brother in Afghanistan. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] --- * --- Ahmed Alhaznawi leaves for Chechnya in 1999 [[ | ABC News, 1/9/02 ]] ------ , and his family loses contact with him in late 2000. [[ /timeline/2001/arabnews092201.html | Arab News, 9/22/01 ]] --- * --- Hamza Alghamdi leaves for Chechnya in early 2000 [[ | Independent, 9/27/01 ]] [[;node=&amp;contentId=A19549-2001Sep24&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 9/25/01 ]] ------ or sometime around January 2001. He calls home several times until about June 2001, saying he is in Chechnya. [[;ArY=2001&amp;ArM=10&amp;ArD=1 | Arab News, 9/18/01 ]] --- * --- Mohand Alshehri leaves to fight in Chechnya in early 2000. [[ /timeline/2001/arabnews092201.html | Arab News, 9/22/01 ]] --- * --- Ahmed Alnami leaves home in June 2000, and calls home once in June 2001 from an unnamed location. [[;ArY=2001&amp;ArM=9&amp;ArD=19 | Arab News, 9/19/01 ]] [[;node=&amp;contentId=A19549-2001Sep24&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 9/25/01 ]] --- * --- Fayez Ahmed Banihammad leaves home in July 2000 saying he wants to participate in a holy war or do relief work. [[ | St. Petersburg Times, 9/27/01 ]] [[;node=&amp;contentId=A19549-2001Sep24&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 9/25/01 ]] ------ He calls his parents one time since. [[;ArY=2001&amp;ArM=10&amp;ArD=1 | Arab News, 9/18/01 ]] --- * --- Ahmed Alghamdi leaves his studies to fight in Chechnya in 2000, and is last seen by his family in December 2000. He calls his parents for the last time in July 2001, but does not mention being in the US. [[;ArY=2001&amp;ArM=10&amp;ArD=1 | Arab News, 9/18/01 ]] [[ | Arab News, 9/20/01 ]] --- * --- Waleed M. Alshehri disappears with Wail Alshehri in December 2000, after speaking of fighting in Chechnya. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A19549-2001Sep24&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 9/25/01 ]] [[;ArY=2001&amp;ArM=10&amp;ArD=1 | Arab News, 9/18/01 ]] --- * --- Wail Alshehri, who had psychological problems, went with his brother to Mecca to seek help and both disappear, after speaking of fighting in Chechnya. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A19549-2001Sep24&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 9/25/01 ]] --- * --- Majed Moqed is last seen by a friend in 2000 in Saudi Arabia, after communicating a &#8220;plan to visit the United States to learn English.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/arabnews092201.html | Arab News, 9/22/01 ]] ------ Clearly, there is a pattern: eleven hijackers appear likely to have fought in Chechnya, and two others are known to have gone missing. It is possible that others have similar histories, but this is hard to confirm because &#8220;almost nothing [is] known about some.&#8221; [[ | New York Times, 9/21/01 ]] ------ Indeed, a colleague claims that hijackers Mohamed Atta, Marwan Alshehhi, Ziad Jarrah and would-be hijacker Ramzi Bin al-Shibh wanted to fight in Chechnya but were told in early 2000 that they were needed elsewhere. [[ | Washington Post, 10/23/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/reuters102902.html | Reuters, 10/29/02 ]] ------ Reuters has reported, &#8220;Western diplomats play down any Chechen involvement by al-Qaeda.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/reuters102402.html | Reuters, 10/24/02 ]] ====== << otherHijackers >> ((- Ramzi Bin al-Shibh )) ((- Mohamed Atta )) ((+ Majed Moqed )) ((+ Fayez Ahmed Banihammad )) ((+ Waleed M. Alshehri )) ((+ Wail Alshehri )) ((- Marwan Alshehhi )) ((- Ziad Jarrah )) ((+ Ahmed Alghamdi )) ((+ Hamza Alghamdi )) ((+ Salem Alhazmi )) ((+ Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((+ Mohand Alshehri )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ Ahmed Alhaznawi )) ((+ Ahmed Alnami )) [[ | Saeed Alghamdi training in an Afghaninstan al-Qaeda camp. ]] Early 1996 CIA Forms New Counterterrorism bin Laden Unit aearly96newunit false 1 ------ The CIA's Counter Terrorism Center creates a special unit focusing specifically on bin Laden. It is informally called Alex Station. About 10 to 15 individuals are assigned to the unit initially. This grows to about 35 to 40 by 9/11. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] ------ The unit is set up &#8220;largely because of evidence linking [bin Laden] to the 1993 bombing of the WTC.&#8221; [[;node=&amp;contentId=A61219-2001Oct2Found=true | Washington Post, 10/3/01 (C) ]] ------ By early 1997, the unit is certain that bin Laden is not just a financier but an organizer of terrorist activity. It knows that al-Qaeda has a military committee planning operations against US interests worldwide. Although this information is disseminated in many reports, the unit's sense of alarm about bin Laden isn't widely shared or understood within the intelligence and policy communities. Employees in the unit feel their zeal attracts ridicule from their peers. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404c.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (C) ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) 1996 British Intelligence and al-Qaeda Allegedly Cooperate in Plot to Assassinate Libyan Leader a96libya false 1 ------ Al-Muqatila, a cover for a Libyan al-Qaeda cell, tries to kill Libyan leader Colonel Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi. Al-Qadhafi survives, but several militants and innocent bystanders are killed. [[ | Dawn, 10/30/02 ]] ------ According to David Shayler, a member of the British intelligence agency MI5, and Jean-Charles Brisard and Guillaume Dasqui&#233;, authors of the controversial book The Forbidden Truth, the British intelligence agency MI6 pays al-Qaeda the equivalent of $160,000 to help fund this assassination attempt. Shayler later goes to prison for revealing this information and the British press is banned from discussing the case (see [[ a110502shaylerconvicted ]]). (( Guillaume Dasquie )) (( Jean-Charles Brisard )) (( David Shayler )) [[ /timeline/1990s/nyt080598.html | New York Times, 8/5/98 ]] [[,9174,837333,00.html | Observer, 11/10/02 ]] ------ Anas al-Liby, a member of the group, is given political asylum in Britain and lives there until May 2000 despite suspicions that he is an important al-Qaeda figure (see [[ alate96anasalliby ]]). [[,9174,837333,00.html | Observer, 11/10/02 ]] [[ | FBI, 2002 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Britain )) ((+ UK Secret Intelligence Service )) ((+ UK Security Service )) ((+ Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi )) ((+ Al-Muqatila )) January-May 1996 US Fails to Capture Mohammed Living Openly in Qatar a96qatar false 1 ------ Since Operation Bojinka was uncovered in the Philippines (see [[ a0195bojinka ]]), nearly all of the plot's major planners, including Ramzi Yousef, are found and arrested. The one exception is 9/11 mastermind Khalid Shaikh Mohammed. He flees to Qatar in the Persian Gulf, where he lives openly using his real name, enjoying the patronage of Abdallah bin Khalid al-Thani, Qatar's Interior Minister and a member of the royal family. [[ | ABC News, 2/7/03 ]] ------ In January 1996, he is indicted in the US for his role in the 1993 WTC bombing, and in the same month, the US determines his location in Qatar. FBI Director Louis Freeh sends a letter to the Qatari government asking for permission to send a team after him. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 12/22/02 ]] ------ One of Freeh's diplomatic notes states that Mohammed was involved in a conspiracy to &#8220;bomb US airliners&#8221; and is believed to be &#8220;in the process of manufacturing an explosive device.&#8221; [[ | New Yorker, 5/27/02 ]] ------ Qatar confirms that Mohammed is there and is making explosives, but they delay handing him over. After waiting several months, a high-level meeting takes place in Washington to consider a commando raid to seize him. However, the raid is deemed too risky, and another letter is sent to the Qatari government instead. One person at the meeting later states, &#8220;If we had gone in and nabbed this guy, or just cut his head off, the Qatari government would not have complained a bit. Everyone around the table for their own reasons refused to go after someone who fundamentally threatened American interests...&#8221; [[ | Los Angeles Times, 12/22/02 ]] ------ Around May 1996, Mohammed's patron, Abdallah bin Khalid al-Thani, makes sure that Mohammed and four others are given blank passports and a chance to escape. Qatar's police chief later says the other men include Ayman al-Zawahiri and Mohammed Atef, al-Qaeda's number two and number three leaders, respectively. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/1/02 ]] [[ | ABC News, 2/7/03 ]] ------ Bin Laden twice visits al-Thani in Qatar. [[ | New York Times, 6/8/02 ]] [[ | ABC News, 2/7/03 ]] ====== << khalidShaikMohammed >> ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Abdallah bin Khalid al-Thani )) ((+ Ayman al-Zawahiri )) ((+ Mohammed Atef )) ((+ Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((+ Louis J. Freeh )) ((- Ramzi Yousef )) [[ | Abdallah al-Thani. ]] 1996 Pakistan and Saudi Arabia Said to Make Secret Deals with Taliban and al-Qaeda a061404secretdeals false 1 ------ In June 2004, the Los Angeles Times will report that, according to some 9/11 Commission members and US counterterrorism officials, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia cut secret deals with the Taliban and bin Laden before 9/11. These deals date to this year, if not earlier, and will successfully shield both countries from al-Qaeda attacks until long after 9/11. &#8220;Saudi Arabia provid[es] funds and equipment to the Taliban and probably directly to bin Laden, and [doesn't] interfere with al-Qaeda's efforts to raise money, recruit and train operatives, and establish cells throughout the kingdom, commission and US officials [say]. Pakistan provide[s] even more direct assistance, its military and intelligence agencies often coordinating efforts with the Taliban and al-Qaeda, they [say].&#8221; The two countries will become targets of al-Qaeda attacks only after they launch comprehensive efforts to eliminate the organization's domestic cells. In Saudi Arabia, such efforts won't begin until late 2003. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 6/20/04 ]] ------ However, such allegations go completely unmentioned in the 9/11 Commission's final report, which only includes material unanimously agreed upon by the ten commissioners. [[ | 9/11 Commission Final Report, 7/24/04 ]] ====== << saudis >> << isi >> ((+ Taliban )) ((+ Pakistan )) ((+ Saudi Arabia )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) March 1996 US, Sudan Squabble over bin Laden's Fate a0396sudansquabble false 1 ------ The US pressures Sudan to do something about bin Laden, who is currently based in that country. According to some accounts, Sudan readily agrees, not wanting to be labeled a terrorist nation. Sudan's defense minister engages in secret negotiations with the CIA in Washington. Sudan offers to extradite bin Laden to anywhere he might stand trial. Some accounts claim that Sudan offers bin Laden to the US, but the US decides not to take him because they do not have enough evidence at the time to charge him with a crime [[ | Village Voice, 10/31/01 ]] [[;articleid=A61251-2001Oct2&amp;node=nation/specials/attacked/archive | Washington Post, 10/3/01 ]] ------ Richard Clarke, counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; for both Clinton and George W. Bush, calls this story a &#8220;fable&#8221; invented by the Sudanese and Americans friendly to Sudan. He points out that bin Laden &#8220;was an ideological blood brother, family friend, and benefactor&#8221; to Sudanese leader Hassan al-Turabi, so any offers to hand him over may have been disingenuous. [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 142-43 ]] ------ (CIA Director Tenet later denies that Sudan made any &#8220;direct offers to hand over bin Laden.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry101702.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 10/17/02 ]] ------ ) The US reportedly asks Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Jordan to accept bin Laden into custody, but is refused by all three governments. [[ | Coll, 2004, pp 323 ]] ------ The 9/11 Commission later claims it finds no evidence that Sudan offers bin Laden directly to the US, but it does find evidence that Saudi Arabia is discussed as an option. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommission032304.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/23/04 ]] ------ US officials insist that bin Laden leave the country for anywhere but Somalia. One US intelligence source in the region later states: &#8220;We kidnap minor drug czars and bring them back in burlap bags. Somebody didn't want this to happen.&#8221; [[ | Village Voice, 10/31/01 ]] [[;articleid=A61251-2001Oct2&amp;node=nation/specials/attacked/archive | Washington Post, 10/3/01 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Sudan )) ((+ George Tenet )) ((+ Hassan al-Turabi )) ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ United States )) ((+ Egypt )) ((+ Jordan )) ((+ Saudi Arabia )) April 1996 US and Britain Again Decline to Accept al-Qaeda Files a0496sudan false 1 ------ As in 1995, the US again rejects Sudan's offer to turn over voluminous files about bin Laden and al-Qaeda. An American involved in the secret negotiations later says that the US could have used Sudan's offer to keep an eye on bin Laden, but that another arm of the federal government blocks the efforts. &#8220;I've never seen a brick wall like that before. Somebody let this slip up,&#8221; he says. &#8220;We could have dismantled his operations and put a cage on top. It was not a matter of arresting bin Laden but of access to information. That's the story, and that's what could have prevented September 11. I knew it would come back to haunt us.&#8221; [[ | Village Voice, 10/31/01 ]] [[;articleid=A61251-2001Oct2&amp;node=nation/specials/attacked/archive | Washington Post, 10/3/01 ]] ------ Around this time, MI6, the British intelligence agency, also rebuffs Sudan's offer to provide al-Qaeda intelligence. Sudan makes a standing offer: &#8220;If someone from MI6 comes to us and declares himself, the next day he can be in [the capital city] Khartoum.&#8221; A Sudanese government source later adds, &#8220;We have been saying this for years.&#8221; The offer is not taken up until after 9/11. [[,1373,560675,00.html | Guardian, 9/30/01 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ UK Secret Intelligence Service )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Clinton administration )) ((+ Sudan )) April 1996-March 1997 Yousef Communicates with Islamic Militants from Within Maximum Security Prison Using Telephone Provided by FBI complete_911_timeline_0496maximumsecurity false 1 ------ Ramzi Yousef, mastermind along with Khalid Shaikh Mohammed of the 1993 WTC bombing and the Operation Bojinka plots, is in a maximum-security prison, sentenced to hundreds of years of prison time for his plots. However, he can communicate with Gregory Scarpa Jr., a mob figure in the cell next to him. The FBI sets up a sting operation with Scarpa's cooperation to learn more of what and whom Yousef knows. Scarpa is given a telephone, and he allows Yousef to use it. However, Yousef uses the sting operation for his own ends, communicating with operatives on the outside in code language without giving away their identities. He attempts to find passports to get co-conspirators into the US, and there is some discussion about imminent attacks on US passenger jets. Realizing the scheme has backfired, the FBI terminates the telephone sting in late 1996, but Yousef manages to keep communicating with the outside world for several more months. [[ | Lance, 2003, pp 280-82 ]] [[ /timeline/2000/nydailynews092400.html | New York Daily News, 9/24/00 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/nydailynews012102.html | New York Daily News, 1/21/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Ramzi Yousef )) ((+ Gregory Scarpa Jr. )) May 1996 Saudis and al-Qaeda Allegedly Strike a Secret Deal a0596paris false 1 ------ French intelligence secretly monitors a meeting of Saudi billionaires at the Hotel Royale Monceau in Paris this month with the financial representative of al-Qaeda. &#8220;The Saudis, including a key Saudi prince joined by Muslim and non-Muslim gun traffickers, [meet] to determine who would pay how much to Osama. This [is] not so much an act of support but of protection&#8212;a payoff to keep the mad bomber away from Saudi Arabia.&#8221; [[ | Palast, 2002, pp 100 ]] ------ Participants also agree that bin Laden should be rewarded for promoting Wahhabism (an austere form of Islam that requires literal interpretation of the Koran) in Chechnya, Kashmir, Bosnia, and other places. [[ | Canadian Broadcasting Corp., 10/29/03 (C) ]] ------ This extends an alleged secret deal first made between the Saudi government and bin Laden in 1991. Later, 9/11 victims' relatives will rely on the &#8220;nonpublished French intelligence report&#8221; of this meeting in their lawsuit against important Saudis. [[ | Minneapolis Star-Tribune, 8/16/02 ]] ------ According to French terrorism expert Jean-Charles Brisard and/or reporter Greg Palast, there are about 20 people at the meeting, including an unnamed brother of bin Laden and an unnamed representative from the Saudi Defense Ministry. [[ | Canadian Broadcasting Corp., 10/29/03 (C) ]] ------ Palast, noting that the French monitored the meeting, asks, &#8220;Since US intelligence was thus likely informed, the question becomes why didn't the government immediately move against the Saudis?&#8221; [[ | Palast, 2002, pp 100 ]] ====== << saudis >> << binladenFamily >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Saudi Arabia )) [[ | The Hotel Royale Monceau. ]] May 1996 US Seeks Stability in Afghanistan for Unocal Pipeline a0596stability false 1 ------ Robin Raphel, Deputy Secretary of State for South Asia, speaks to the Russian Deputy Foreign Minister about Afghanistan. She says that the US government &#8220;now hopes that peace in the region will facilitate US business interests,&#8221; such as the proposed Unocal gas pipeline from Turkmenistan through Afghanistan to Pakistan. [[ | Coll, 2004, pp 330 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> ((+ Unocal )) ((+ Robin Raphel )) ((+ Russia )) May 18, 1996 Sudan Expels bin Laden; US Fails to Stop His Flight to Afghanistan a051896sudan false 1 ------ After Sudan asks bin Laden to leave the country, he moves to Afghanistan. He departs along with many other al-Qaeda members, plus much money and resources. Bin Laden flies to Afghanistan in a C-130 transport plane with an entourage of about 150 men, women, and children, stopping in Doha, Qatar, to refuel, where governmental officials greet him warmly. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/1/02 ]] [[ | Coll, 2004, pp 325 ]] ------ The US knows in advance that bin Laden is going to Afghanistan, but does nothing to stop him. Elfatih Erwa, Sudan's minister of state for defense at the time, later says in an interview, &#8220;We warned [the US]. In Sudan, bin Laden and his money were under our control. But we knew that if he went to Afghanistan no one could control him. The US didn't care; they just didn't want him in Somalia. It's crazy.&#8221; [[ | Village Voice, 10/31/01 ]] [[;articleid=A61251-2001Oct2&amp;node=nation/specials/attacked/archive | Washington Post, 10/3/01 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- Somalia )) ((+ Sudan )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) June 1996 Informant Exposes al-Qaeda Secrets to US; No Apparent Response Ensues a0696alfadl false 1 ------ Jamal al-Fadl, an al-Qaeda operative from al-Qaeda's first meeting in the late 1980s until 1995, tells the US everything he knows about al-Qaeda. Before al-Fadl's debriefings, US intelligence had amassed thick files on bin Laden and his associates and contacts. However, they had had no idea how the many pieces fit together. &#8220;Al-Fadl was the Rosetta Stone,&#8221; an official says. &#8220;After al-Fadl, everything fell into place.&#8221; [[ | Miller, Stone, and Mitchell, 2002, pp 154-65 ]] ------ By late 1996, based largely on al-Fadl's information, the CIA definitively confirms that bin Laden is more of a operative than just a financier of the organization. The agency also learns the term &#8220;al-Qaeda&#8221; for the first time. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] ------ Yet the US will not take &#8220;bin Laden or al-Qaeda all that seriously&#8221; until after the bombing of US embassies in Africa in 1998. [[ | Miller, Stone, and Mitchell, 2002, pp 213 ]] ------ It takes two years to turn al-Fadl's information into the first US indictment of bin Laden. [[ /timeline/2001/nyt093001b.html | New York Times, 09/30/01 (B) ]] [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] [[ /timeline/2001/frontline0901.html | PBS Frontline, 9/01 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> << warnings >> ((+ Jamal al-Fadl )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) Mid-1996-October 2001 June 1, 1996 Ariana Airlines Becomes Transport Arm of al-Qaeda a1996ariana false 1 ------ In 1996, al-Qaeda assumes control of Ariana Airlines, Afghanistan's national airline, for use in its illegal trade network. Passenger flights become few and erratic, as planes are used to fly drugs, weapons, gold, and personnel, primarily between Afghanistan, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Pakistan. The Emirate of Sharjah, in the UAE, becomes a hub for al-Qaeda drug and arms smuggling. Typically, &#8220;large quantities of drugs&#8221; are flown from Kandahar, Afghanistan, to Sharjah, and large quantities of weapons are flown back to Afghanistan. [[,0,7388562.story | Los Angeles Times, 11/18/01 ]] ------ About three to four flights run the route each day. Many weapons come from Victor Bout, a notorious Russian arms dealer based in Sharjah. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 1/20/02 ]] ------ Afghan taxes on opium production are paid in gold, and then the gold bullion is flown to Dubai, UAE, and laundered into cash. [[ | Washington Post, 2/17/02 ]] ------ Taliban officials regularly provide militants with false papers identifying them as Ariana Airlines employees so they can move freely around the world. A former National Security Council official later claims the US is well aware at the time that al-Qaeda agents regularly fly on Ariana Airlines, but the US fails to act for several years. The US does press the UAE for tighter banking controls, but moves &#8220;delicately, not wanting to offend an ally in an already complicated relationship,&#8221; and little changes by 9/11. [[,0,7388562.story | Los Angeles Times, 11/18/01 ]] ------ Much of the money for the 9/11 hijackers flows though these Sharjah, UAE, channels. There also are reports suggesting that Ariana Airlines might have been used to train Islamic militants as pilots. The illegal use of Ariana Airlines helps convince the United Nations to impose sanctions against Afghanistan in 1999, but the sanctions lack teeth and do not stop the airline. A second round of sanctions finally stops foreign Ariana Airlines flights, but its charter flights and other charter services keep the illegal network running. [[,0,7388562.story | Los Angeles Times, 11/18/01 ]] ====== << isi >> << drugs >> << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Ariana Airlines )) ((- United Arab Emirates )) ((+ Taliban )) ((+ United Nations )) ((+ Victor Bout )) [[ | Victor Bout. ]] June 1996 Informant's Clues Point to Khalid Shaikh Mohammed a0696alfadlshah false 1 ------ While al-Qaeda operative Jamal al-Fadl gives a treasure trove of useful information on al-Qaeda to US intelligence (see [[ a0696alfadl ]]), one person he describes in detail is Wali Khan Amin Shah. Shah was one of the plotters of the Operation Bojinka plot (see [[ a020795ramzi ]]). Al-Fadl reveals that Shah has al-Qaeda ties. Author Peter Lance notes that US intelligence should have concluded that Shah's fellow Operation Bojinka plotter, Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, also has al-Qaeda ties. However, there is no new effort to find Mohammed, and he later goes on to mastermind the 9/11 attacks. [[ | Lance, 2003, pp 330-31 ]] ====== << khalidShaikMohammed >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Jamal al-Fadl )) ((- Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((- Wali Khan Amin Shah )) [[ | Wali Khan Shah. ]] Mid-1996-September 11, 2001 June 1, 1996 Mohammed Travels World; Involved in Many Al-Qaeda Operations amid96mohammed false 1 ------ After fleeing Qatar, Khalid Shaikh Mohammed travels the world and plans many al-Qaeda operationss. He previously was involved in the 1993 WTC bombing, and the Operation Bojinka plot. [[ | Time, 1/20/03 ]] ------ And now, he is apparently involved in the 1998 US embassy bombings (see [[ a080798embassy ]]), the 2000 USS Cole bombing (see [[ a101200cole ]]), and other attacks. One US official says, &#8220;There is a clear operational link between him and the execution of most, if not all, of the al-Qaeda plots over the past five years.&#8221; [[ | Los Angeles Times, 12/22/02 ]] ------ He lives in Prague, Czech Republic, through much of 1997. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/1/02 ]] ------ By 1999, he is living in Germany and visiting with the hijackers there. [[ | New York Times, 9/22/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/nyt060802b.html | New York Times, 6/8/02 (B) ]] ------ Using 60 aliases and as many passports, he travels through Europe, Africa, the Persian Gulf, Southeast Asia and South America, personally setting up al-Qaeda cells. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 12/22/02 ]] [[ | Time, 1/20/03 ]] ====== << khalidShaikMohammed >> ((+ Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((- USS Cole )) June 1996 Bin Laden Meets with Pakistani Military Leaders a0696zubaidapakistan false 1 ------ Controversial author Gerald Posner claims bin Laden and al-Qaeda leader Abu Zubaida meet with senior members of Pakistan's military, including Mushaf Ali Mir, who becomes chief of Pakistan's air force in 2000. Bin Laden had moved to Afghanistan the month before, and the Pakistanis offer bin Laden protection if he allies with the Taliban. The alliance proves successful, and bin Laden calls it &#8220;blessed by the Saudis,&#8221; who are already giving money to both the Taliban and al-Qaeda. [[ | Posner, 2003, pp 105-06 ]] [[,9171,1101030908480226,00.html | Time, 8/31/03 ]] ------ Perhaps not coincidentally, this meeting comes only one month after a deal is reportedly made that reaffirms Saudi support for al-Qaeda. Bin Laden is initially based in Jalalabad, which is free of Taliban control, but after the deal he moves his base to Kandahar, which is the center of Taliban power. [[ | Asia Times, 9/17/03 ]] ====== << isi >> << saudis >> ((+ Mushaf Ali Mir )) ((- Taliban )) ((+ Abu Zubaida )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) June 24, 1996 Uzbekistan Cuts a Deal with Enron a062496enron false 1 ------ Uzbekistan signs a deal with Enron &#8220;that could lead to joint development of the Central Asian nation's potentially rich natural gas fields.&#8221; [[ /timeline/1990s/houstonchronicle062596.html | Houston Chronicle, 6/25/96 ]] ------ The $1.3 billion venture teams Enron with the state companies of Russia and Uzbekistan. [[ /timeline/1990s/houstonchronicle063096.html | Houston Chronicle, 6/30/96 ]] ------ On July 8, 1996, the US government agrees to give $400 million to help Enron and an Uzbek state company develop these natural gas fields. [[ /timeline/1990s/oilandgasjournal070896.html | Oil and Gas Journal, 7/8/96 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> ((+ Enron )) ((+ Uzbekistan )) June 25, 1996 Khobar Towers Are Bombed; Culprit Is Unclear a062596khobar false 1 ------ Explosions destroy the Khobar Towers in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, killing 19 American soldiers and wounding 500. [[ | CNN, 6/26/96 ]] ------ Saudi officials later interrogate the suspects, declare them guilty, and execute them&#8212;without letting the FBI talk to them. [[ | PBS Frontline, 2001 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/irishtimes111901.html | Irish Times, 11/19/01 ]] ------ Saudis blame Hezbollah, the Iranian-influenced group, but US investigators still believe bin Laden was somehow involved. [[ | Seattle Times, 10/29/01 ]] ------ Bin Laden admits instigating the attacks in a 1998 interview. [[ | Miami Herald, 9/24/01 ]] ------ Ironically, the bin Laden family is later awarded the contract to rebuild the installation. [[ | New Yorker, 11/5/01 ]] ------ In 1997, Canada catches one of the Khobar Tower attackers and extradites him to the US. However, in 1999, he is shipped back to Saudi Arabia before he can reveal what he knows about al-Qaeda and the Saudis. One anonymous insider calls it, &#8220;President Clinton's parting kiss to the Saudis.&#8221; [[ | Palast, 2002, pp 102 ]] ------ In June 2001, a US grand jury will indict 13 Saudis for the bombing. According to the indictment, Iran and Hezbollah were also involved in the attack. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] ====== << warnings >> << saudis >> ((- Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Hezbollah )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((- William Jefferson ("Bill") Clinton )) [[ | Destruction at the Khobar Towers, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. ]] July 6-August 11, 1996 Atlanta Rules Established to Protect Against Attacks Using Planes as Flying Weapons a070696atlanta false 1 ------ US officials identify crop dusters and suicide flights as potential weapons that could threaten the Olympic Games in Atlanta, Georgia. They take steps to prevent any air attacks. They ban planes from getting too close to Olympic events. During the games, they deploy Black Hawk helicopters and US Customs Service jets to intercept suspicious aircraft over the Olympic venues. Agents monitor crop-duster flights within hundreds of miles of downtown Atlanta. They place armed fighter jets on standby at local air bases. Flights to Atlanta get special passenger screening. Law enforcement agents also fan out to regional airports throughout northern Georgia &#8220;to make sure nobody hijacked a small aircraft and tried to attack one of the venues,&#8221; says Woody Johnson, the FBI agent in charge. Counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; Richard Clarke uses this same security blanket approach to other major events, referring to the approach as &#8220;Atlanta Rules.&#8221; [[ | Chicago Tribune, 11/18/01 ]] [[,,SB108077920066470982,00.html | Wall Street Journal, 4/1/04 ]] [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 108-09 ]] ====== << warnings >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Woody Johnson )) ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) July 7, 1996 A Clean Break Outlines New Middle East Strategy for Israel a96cleanbreak false 1 ------ The Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies, an Israeli think tank, publishes a paper entitled &#8220;A Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm.&#8221; [[ | Chicago Sun-Times, 3/6/03 ]] ------ Lead author Richard Perle will later become chairman of President Bush's influential Defense Policy Board. Several other co-authors will hold key positions in Washington after Bush's election. In the paper, Perle and his co-authors advise the new, right wing Israeli leader Benjamin Netanyahu to make a complete break with the past by adopting a strategy &#8220;based on an entirely new intellectual foundation, one that restores strategic initiative and provides the nation the room to engage every possible energy on rebuilding Zionism. ...&#8221; The first step is to be the removal of Saddam Hussein in Iraq. A war with Iraq will destabilize the entire Middle East, allowing governments in Syria, Iran, Lebanon, and other countries to be replaced. &#8220;Israel will not only contain its foes; it will transcend them,&#8221; the paper concludes [[,7792,785394,00.html | Guardian, 9/3/02 ]] ------ , citing the original paper at [[ /timeline/1990s/cleanbreak070896.html | The Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies, 7/8/96 ]] ------ . Perle will be instrumental is moving Bush's US policy toward war with Iraq after the 9/11 attacks. ====== << centralAsia >> ((- Benjamin Netanyahu )) ((- Saddam Hussein )) ((- Syria )) ((- Israel )) ((- Lebanon )) ((- Iran )) ((+ Richard Perle )) ((+ Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies )) [[ | Richard Perle. ]] July 17, 1996-September 1996 TWA Flight 800 Crashes; Counterterrorism Funding Boosted in Response a071796flight800 false 1 ------ TWA Flight 800 crashes off the coast of Long Island, New York, killing the 230 people on board. The cause of the crash is debated for a long time afterward, and terrorism is considered a possibility. With this accident in mind, President Clinton requests, and Congress approves, over $1 billion in counter-terrorism-related funding in September 1996. [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 130 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> << warnings >> ((+ William Jefferson ("Bill") Clinton )) ((+ US Congress )) August 1996 Bin Laden Calls for Attack on Western Targets in Arabia a0896fatwa false 1 ------ Osama bin Laden issues a public fatwa, or religious decree, authorizing attacks on Western military targets in the Arabian Peninsula. This eliminates any doubts that bin Laden is merely a financier of attacks, rather than an active militant. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> << saudis >> ((+ Osama bin Laden )) August 13, 1996 Unocal, Delta Oil Plan Afghan Pipeline a081396unocaldeltaoil false 1 ------ Unocal and Delta Oil of Saudi Arabia reach agreement with state companies in Turkmenistan and Russia to build a natural gas pipeline from Turkmenistan to Pakistan via Afghanistan; the agreement is finalized in 1997. [[ | Unocal website, 8/13/96 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> ((+ Saparmurat Niyazov )) ((+ Unocal )) September 5, 1996 Yousef Trial Ignores Bojinka 9/11 Blueprint Plot a090596ramzi false 1 ------ Ramzi Yousef and two other defendants, Abdul Hakim Murad, and Wali Khan Amin Shah, are convicted of crimes relating to Operation Bojinka. [[ | CNN, 9/5/96 ]] ------ In the nearly 6,000-page transcript of the three-month Bojinka trial, there is not a single mention of the &#8220;second wave&#8221; of Bojinka that closely paralleled the 9/11 plot. Interrogations by Philippine investigator Colonel Rodolfo Mendoza had exposed the details of this plot quite clearly (see [[ a012095secondwave ]]). However, not only does the FBI not call Mendoza to testify, but his name is not even mentioned in the trial, not even by his assistant, who does testify. &#8220;The FBI seemed to be going out of its way to avoid even a hint of the plot that was ultimately carried out on 9/11,&#8221; notes author Peter Lance. [[ | Lance, 2003, pp 350-51 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Ramzi Yousef )) ((+ Wali Khan Amin Shah )) ((+ Abdul Hakim Murad )) ((+ Rodolfo Mendoza )) ((+ Operation Bojinka )) September 11, 1996 Investigation of bin Laden Family Members Is Closed a96wamy false 1 ------ The FBI investigation into two relatives of bin Laden, begun in February 1996, is closed. The FBI wanted to learn more about Abdullah bin Laden, &#8220;because of his relationship with the World Assembly of Muslim Youth [WAMY]&#8212;a suspected terrorist organization.&#8221; [[,4273,4293682,00.html | Guardian, 11/7/01 ]] ------ Abdullah was the US director of WAMY and lived with his brother Omar in Falls Church, Virginia, a suburb of Washington. The coding on a leaked FBI document about the case, marked secret, indicates the case related to national security. WAMY's office address is 5613 Leesburg Pike. It is later determined that four of the 9/11 hijackers lived at 5913 Leesburg Pike at the same time the two bin Laden brothers were there. WAMY has been banned in Pakistan by this time. [[ | BBC Newsnight, 11/6/01 ]] [[,4273,4293682,00.html | Guardian, 11/7/01 ]] ------ The Indian and Philippine governments have also cited WAMY for funding Islamic militancy. The 9/11 Commission later hears testimony that WAMY &#8220;has openly supported Islamic terrorism. There are ties between WAMY and 9/11 hijackers. It is a group that has openly endorsed the notion that Jews must be killed. ... [It] has consistently portrayed the United States, Jews, Christians, and other infidels as enemies who have to be defeated or killed. And there is no doubt, according to US intelligence, that WAMY has been tied directly to terrorist attacks.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2003/independentcommission070903.html | 9/11 Commission, 7/9/03, pp 66 ]] ------ &#8220;WAMY was involved in terrorist-support activity,&#8221; says a security official who later serves under President Bush. &#8220;There's no doubt about it.&#8221; [[ | Vanity Fair, 10/03 ]] ------ After 9/11, a high-placed intelligence official will tell the Guardian: &#8220;There were always constraints on investigating the Saudis. There were particular investigations that were effectively killed.&#8221; [[,4273,4293682,00.html | Guardian, 11/7/01 ]] ------ An unnamed US source will tell the BBC, &#8220;There is a hidden agenda at the very highest levels of our government.&#8221; [[ | BBC Newsnight, 11/6/01 ]] ------ The Bosnian government will say in September 2002 that a charity with Abdullah bin Laden on its board had channeled money to Chechen guerrillas, something that &#8220;is only possible because the Clinton CIA gave the wink and nod to WAMY and other groups who were aiding Bosnian guerrillas when they were fighting Serbia, a US-approved enemy.&#8221; The investigation into WAMY is only restarted a few days after 9/11, around the same time these bin Ladens leave the US. [[ | Palast, 2002, pp 96-99 ]] ------ (Note that this Abdullah bin Laden is possibly bin Laden's cousin, not brother, and is not the same as the Abdullah bin Laden who serves as the bin Laden family spokesperson. [[ | Palast, 2002, pp 98-99 ]] ------ ) WAMY is still not listed by the US as a terrorist organization. ====== << saudis >> << binladenFamily >> ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((- Clinton administration )) ((- Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- World Assembly of Muslim Youth )) ((+ Omar bin Laden )) ((- Abdullah bin Laden )) [[ | WAMY logo. ]] September 27, 1996 Victorious Taliban Supported by Pakistan; Viewed by US, Unocal as Stabilizing Force a092796kabul false 1 ------ The Taliban conquer Kabul [[,1282,-1957592,00.html | Associated Press, 8/19/02 ]] ------ , establishing control over much of Afghanistan. A surge in the Taliban's military successes at this time is later attributed to an increase in direct military assistance from Pakistan's ISI. [[ | New York Times, 12/8/01 ]] ------ The oil company Unocal is hopeful that the Taliban will stabilize Afghanistan and allow its pipeline plans to go forward. According to some reports, &#8220;preliminary agreement [on the pipeline] was reached between the [Taliban and Unocal] long before the fall of Kabul . ... Oil industry insiders say the dream of securing a pipeline across Afghanistan is the main reason why Pakistan, a close political ally of America's, has been so supportive of the Taliban, and why America has quietly acquiesced in its conquest of Afghanistan.&#8221; [[ | Daily Telegraph, 10/11/96 ]] ------ The 9/11 Commission later concludes that some State Department diplomats are willing to &#8220;give the Taliban a chance&#8221; because it might be able to bring stability to Afghanistan, which would allow a Unocal oil pipeline to be built through the country. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommission032404.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> << isi >> ((+ Taliban )) ((+ Unocal )) ((+ Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) ((+ US Department of State )) October 1996 Iranian Hijacking Plot Uncovered a1096iranianplot false 1 ------ US intelligence learns of an Iranian plot to hijack a Japanese plane over Israel and crash it into Tel Aviv. While the plot was never carried out, it is one more example of intelligence agencies being aware that planes could be used as suicide weapons. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> October 1996-early 2002 Arms Dealer Aligns with Taliban and ISI a1096bout false 1 ------ Russian arms merchant Victor Bout, who has been selling weapons to Afghanistan's Northern Alliance since 1992, switches sides, and begins selling weapons to the Taliban and al-Qaeda instead. [[ /timeline/2002/guardian041702.html | Guardian, 4/17/02 ]] [[ | Los Angeles Times, 1/20/02 ]] [[ | Los Angeles Times, 5/17/02 ]] ------ The deal comes immediately after the Taliban captures Kabul in late October 1996 and gains the upper hand in Afghanistan's civil war. In one trade in 1996, Bout's company delivers at least 40 tons of Russian weapons to the Taliban, earning about $50 million. [[,4273,4357318,00.html | Guardian, 2/16/02 ]] ------ Two intelligence agencies later confirm that Bout trades with the Taliban &#8220;on behalf of the Pakistan government.&#8221; In late 2000, several Ukrainians sell 150 to 200 T-55 and T-62 tanks to the Taliban in a deal conducted by the ISI, and Bout helps fly the tanks to Afghanistan. [[ /timeline/2002/montrealgazette020502.html | Montreal Gazette, 2/5/02 ]] ------ Bout formerly worked for the Russian KGB, and now operates the world's largest private weapons transport network. Based in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Bout operates freely there until well after 9/11. The US becomes aware of Bout's widespread illegal weapons trading in Africa in 1995, and of his ties to the Taliban in 1996, but they fail to take effective action against him for years. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 5/17/02 ]] ------ US pressure on the UAE in November 2000 to close down Bout's operations there is ignored. Press reports calling him &#8220;the merchant of death&#8221; also fail to pressure the UAE. [[ /timeline/2000/financialtimes061000.html | Financial Times, 6/10/00 ]] [[,3604,415125,00.html | Guardian, 12/23/00 ]] ------ After President Bush is elected, it appears the US gives up trying to get Bout, until after 9/11. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A2005-2002Feb25&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 2/26/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/guardian041702.html | Guardian, 4/17/02 ]] ------ Bout moves to Russia in 2002. He is seemingly protected from prosecution by the Russian government, which in early 2002 will claim, &#8220;There are no grounds for believing that this Russian citizen has committed illegal acts.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/guardian041702.html | Guardian, 4/17/02 ]] ------ The Guardian suggests that Bout may have worked with the CIA when he traded with the Northern Alliance, and this fact may be hampering current international efforts to catch him. [[ /timeline/2002/guardian041702.html | Guardian, 4/17/02 ]] ====== << isi >> ((+ Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) ((+ United Arab Emirates )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Taliban )) ((+ Victor Bout )) ((+ George W. Bush )) ((- Northern Alliance )) ((+ Russia )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) October 7, 1996 Future Bush Envoy to Afghanistan Wants US to Help Taliban Unify Country, Build Pipeline a100796zalmayeditorial false 1 ------ In a Washington Post op-ed, Zalmay Khalilzad calls on the US to deal with the Taliban in Afghanistan. &#8220;It is time for the United States to reengage. ...The Taliban does not practice the anti-US style of fundamentalism practiced by Iran &#8212; it is closer to the Saudi model.&#8221; He calls on the US to help the Taliban &#8220;put Afghanistan on a path toward peace,&#8221; noting that continuing violence &#8220;has been a source of regional instability and an obstacle to building pipelines to bring Central Asian oil and gas to Pakistan and the world markets.&#8221; [[ /timeline/1990s/wpost100796.html | Washington Post, 10/7/96 ]] ------ However, by 2000, Khalilzad will sour on the Taliban. In a speech in March 2000, he will state, &#8220;Afghanistan was and is a possible corridor for the export of oil and gas from the Central Asian states down to Pakistan and to the world. A California company called Unocal was interested in exploring that option, but because of the war in Afghanistan, because of the instability that's there, those options, or that option at least, has not materialized.&#8221; [[ | Los Angeles World Affairs Council, 3/9/00 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> ((- Taliban )) ((- Unocal )) ((+ Zalmay M. Khalilzad )) ((- United States )) October 11, 1996 Afghan Pipeline Key to &#8216;One of the Great Prizes of the 21st Century&#8217; a101196pipelinepolitics false 1 ------ The Daily Telegraph publishes an interesting article about pipeline politics in Afghanistan. &#8220;Behind the tribal clashes that have scarred Afghanistan lies one of the great prizes of the 21st century, the fabulous energy reserves of Central Asia. ... &#8216;The deposits are huge,&#8217; said a diplomat from the region. &#8216;Kazakhstan alone may have more oil than Saudi Arabia. Turkmenistan is already known to have the fifth largest gas reserves in the world.&#8217; &#8221; [[ | Daily Telegraph, 10/11/96 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> November 24, 1996 Passenger Plane Suicide Attack Narrowly Averted a112496ethiopiaair false 1 ------ Several Ethiopians take over a passenger airliner and let it run out of fuel. Hijackers fight with the pilot as the hijackers try to steer the plane into a resort on a Comoros Islands beach in the Indian Ocean, but seconds before reaching the resort the pilot is able to crash the plane into shallow waters instead, 500 yards short of the resort. One hundred and twenty-three of the 175 passengers and crew die. [[ /timeline/1996/nyt112596.html | New York Times, 11/25/96 ]] [[ /timeline/1990s/australian112696.html | Australian, 11/26/96 ]] [[ /timeline/1996/houstonchronicle112696.html | Houston Chronicle, 11/26/96 ]] ====== << warnings >> [[ | A hijacked airliner crashes into the shallow waters off the coast of a resort in the Comoros Islands. ]] Late 1996 Bin Laden Becomes Active in Opium Trade a1996opium false 1 ------ Bin Laden establishes and maintains a major role in opium drug trade, soon after moving the base of his operations to Afghanistan. Opium money is vital to keeping the Taliban in power and funding bin Laden's al-Qaeda network. Yossef Bodansky, Director of the Congressional Task Force on Terrorism and Unconventional Warfare and author of a 1999 biography on bin Laden, says bin Laden takes a 15 percent cut of the drug trade money in exchange for protecting smugglers and laundering their profits. [[ /timeline/2001/minneapolisstartribune093001.html | Minneapolis Star-Tribune, 9/30/01 ]] ------ Another report estimates that bin Laden takes up to 10 percent of Afghanistan's drug trade by early 1999. This would give him a yearly income of up to $1 billion out of $6.5 to $10 billion in annual drug profits from within Afghanistan. [[ | Financial Times, 11/28/01 ]] ====== << isi >> << drugs >> ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Taliban )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) Late 1996-May 2000 British Intelligence and al-Qaeda Allegedly Cooperate in Plot to Assassinate Libyan Leader alate96anasalliby false 1 ------ Anas al-Liby, member of a Libyan al-Qaeda cell called Al-Muqatila, lives in Britain during this time. He had stayed with bin Laden in Sudan until bin Laden moved to Afghanistan in 1996 (see [[ a051896sudan ]]). Then, as the Observer puts it, &#8220;Astonishingly, despite suspicions that he was a high-level al-Qaeda operative, al-Liby was given political asylum in Britain and lived in Manchester until May of 2000 when he eluded a police raid on his house and fled abroad. The raid discovered a 180-page al-Qaeda &#8216;manual for jihad&#8217; containing instructions for terrorist attacks.&#8221; He was apparently involved in a plot with the British intelligence agency to assassinate Libyan leader Colonel Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi in 1996 (see [[ a96libya ]]) and presumably his ability to live in Britain was connected to that plot. [[,9174,837333,00.html | Observer, 11/10/02 ]] ------ After the failed assassination attempt, the British allegedly continued to support Al-Muqatila&#8212;for instance, the group openly published a newsletter from a London office. [[ | Brisard, Dasquie and Madsen, 2002, pp 97-98 ]] ------ Whistleblower David Shayler had given British authorities details of this Libya plot in 1998 and again in 1999, and later serves a short prison sentence for revealing this information to the public (see [[ a110502shaylerconvicted ]]). [[,4273,4055752,00.html | Observer, 8/27/00 ]] ------ Well after the failed attempt, the British allegedly continue to support Al-Muqatila&#8212;for instance, the group openly publishes a newsletter from a London office. [[ | Brisard, Dasquie and Madsen, 2002, pp 97-98 ]] ------ Al-Liby remains on the US government's most wanted list with a reward of $25 million for his capture. He is wanted for his involvement in the 1998 African embassy bombings. [[,9174,837333,00.html | Observer, 11/10/02 ]] [[ | FBI, 2002 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- David Shayler )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Al-Muqatila )) ((- Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi )) ((+ Britain )) [[ | Anas al-Liby. ]] 1997-July 2001 Hanjour Associate Freely Travels in and out of US a97hanjourfriend false 1 ------ Hijacker Hani Hanjour begins associating with an unnamed individual who is later mentioned in FBI agent Ken Williams' famous &#8220;Phoenix memo&#8221; (see [[ a071001williams ]]). Hanjour and this individual train at flight schools in Arizona. Several flight instructors later note the two were associates and may have carpooled together. They are known to share the same airplane on one occasion in 1999, and are at the school together on other occasions. The unnamed individual leaves the US in April 2000. In May 2001, the FBI attempts to investigate this person, but after finding out that he has left the US, the FBI declines to open a formal investigation. The name of this person is not placed on a watch list, so the FBI is unaware that the person returns in June and stays in the US for another month. By this time, this person is an experienced flight instructor who is certified to fly Boeing 737s. The FBI speculates the person may return to evaluate Hanjour's flying skills or provide final training before 9/11. There is considerable circumstantial evidence placing this person near Hanjour during this month. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ====== << otherHijackers >> << haniHanjour >> ((+ William Safire )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) 1997 Bin Laden Family Financial Connection With Osama Continues Until At Least This Year a97familymoney false 1 ------ In 2004, Osama bin Laden's half brother Yeslam Binladin admits that he and other bin Laden family members share a Swiss bank account with Osama bin Laden from 1990 until 1997. The bin Laden family claims to have disowned Osama bin Laden in 1994, and the US government officially designated him as a financier of terrorism in 1996. Yeslam had previously denied any financial dealings with Osama at this late date until evidence of this bank account was uncovered by French private investigator Jean-Charles Brisard. In December 2001, French authorities will open an investigation into the financial dealings of the Saudi Investment Company (SICO) run by Yeslam Binladin. [[ | Agence France-Presse, 7/26/04 ]] [[ | Scotsman, 9/28/04 ]] ------ In 2002, his house will be raided by French police. [[ | Associated Press, 3/20/2 ]] ------ No charges have been made as of yet, but the investigation will continue and in fact widen its scope in late 2004. A French magistrate will claim he is looking into &#8220;other instances of money laundering&#8221; apparently involving financial entities connected to Yeslam and other bin Laden family members. [[ | Reuters, 12/26/04 ]] ------ Yeslam claims he's had no contact with Osama in 20 years. Yet, in 2004, when asked if he would turn in Osama if given the chance, he replies, &#8220;What do you think? Would you turn in your brother?&#8221; [[ | MSNBC, 7/10/04 ]] ------ His ex-wife Carmen Binladin will also comment around the same time, &#8220;From what I have seen and what I have read, I cannot believe that [the rest of the bin Laden family] have cut off Osama completely. ... And I cannot believe that some of the sisters [don't support him.] They are very close to Osama.&#8221; [[ | Salon, 7/10/04 ]] ====== << saudis >> << binladenFamily >> ((+ Bin Laden Family )) ((+ Yeslam Binladin )) ((+ Saudi Investment Company )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Carmen Binladin )) ((+ Jean-Charles Brisard )) 1997 CIA Re-opens Afghanistan Operations a97paramilitary false 1 ------ Special CIA paramilitary teams enter Afghanistan again in 1997. [[ | Washington Post, 11/18/01 ]] ------ (The CIA's anti-Soviet covert operations officially ended in January 1992. [[ | Coll, 2004, pp 233 ]] ------ ) Around 1998 there will be a push to recruit more agents capable of operating or traveling in Afghanistan. Many locals are recruited, including some Taliban military leaders. However, apparently none is close to bin Laden. This problem is not fixed in succeeding years. [[ | Washington Post, 2/22/04 ]] [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404c.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (C) ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Taliban )) 1997 Possible Unmanned Aerial Attacks Raise Concerns at FBI, CIA a1997unmanned false 1 ------ FBI and CIA are concerned that an unnamed militant group, which has apparently purchased an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), will use it for attacks against US interests. At the time, the agencies believed that the only reason to use this UAV would be for either reconnaissance or attack. The primary concern is that it will be used to attack outside the United States, for example, by flying a UAV into a US Embassy or a visiting US delegation. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) 1997 Al-Qaeda Still Not Recognized as Terrorist Organization by State Department a1997alqaedanotrecognized false 1 ------ While the State Department listed bin Laden as a financier of terror in its 1996 survey of terrorism, al-Qaeda is not included on the 1997 official US list of terrorist organizations subject to various sanctions. Al-Qaeda will not be officially recognized as a terrorist organization until 1998. [[ | New York Times, 12/30/01 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ US Department of State )) January 20, 1997 Clinton Re-inaugurated; Atlanta Rules Applied at This and Other Events a012097inauguration false 1 ------ Bill Clinton is re-inaugurated as president. An extensive set of security measures to prevent airplanes as weapons crashing into the inauguration is used. These measures, first used in the 1996 Atlanta Olympics and thus referred to as the &#8220;Atlanta Rules,&#8221; include the closing of nearby airspace, the use of intercept helicopters, the basing of armed fighters nearby, and more. This plan will later be used for the 1999 North Atlantic Treaty Organization's 50th anniversary celebration in Washington, the 2000 Republican convention in Philadelphia, the 2000 Democratic convention in New York, and the George W. Bush inauguration in 2001. [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 110-11 ]] [[,,SB108077920066470982,00.html | Wall Street Journal, 4/1/04 ]] ------ At some point near the end of the Clinton administration, the Secret Service and Customs Service agree to create a permanent air defense unit to protect Washington. However, these agencies are part of the Treasury Department, and the leadership there refuses to fund the idea. The permanent unit is not created until after 9/11. [[,,SB108077920066470982,00.html | Wall Street Journal, 4/1/04 ]] ====== << warnings >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ William Jefferson ("Bill") Clinton )) ((+ Clinton administration )) ((- George W. Bush )) ((+ Secret Service )) February 12, 1997 Vice President Gore's Aviation Security Report Released a021297aviation false 1 ------ The White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security, led by Vice President Al Gore, issues its final report, which highlights the risk of terrorist attacks in the US. The report references Operation Bojinka, the failed plot to bomb twelve American airliners out of the sky over the Pacific Ocean, and calls for increased aviation security. The commission reports that [it] &#8220;believes that terrorist attacks on civil aviation are directed at the United States, and that there should be an ongoing federal commitment to reducing the threats that they pose.&#8221; [[ /timeline/1990s/gorecommission021297.html | Gore Commission, 2/12/97 ]] ------ However, the report has little practical effect: &#8220;Federal bureaucracy and airline lobbying [slow] and [weaken] a set of safety improvements recommended by a presidential commission&#8212;including one that a top airline industry official now says might have prevented the September 11 terror attacks.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/latimes100601.html | Los Angeles Times, 10/6/01 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ Al Gore )) ((+ Commission on Aviation Safety and Security )) ((- Operation Bojinka )) March 1997 German Government Investigates Hamburg al-Qaeda Cell a0397zammar false 1 ------ Investigation of al-Qaeda contacts in Hamburg by the Office for the Protection of the Constitution (BfV), Germany's domestic intelligence service, begins at least by this time (Germany refuses to disclose additional details). [[;position=top | New York Times, 1/18/03 ]] ------ Telephone intercepts show that a German investigation into Mohammed Haydar Zammar is taking place this month. It is later believed that Zammar, a German of Syrian origin, is a part of the Hamburg al-Qaeda cell. [[,0,2368574.story?coll=la-headlines-world-manual | Los Angeles Times, 1/14/03 ]] ------ He later claims he recruited Mohamed Atta and others into the cell [[;node=&amp;contentId=A7829-2002Jun18&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 6/19/02 ]] ------ Germany authorities had identified Zammar as a militant a decade earlier. [[;position=top | New York Times, 1/18/03 ]] ------ From 1995-2000, he makes frequent trips to Afghanistan. [[;position=top | New York Times, 1/18/03 ]] [[ /timeline/2003/stern081303.html | Stern, 8/13/03 ]] ------ German intelligence is aware that he was personally invited to Afghanistan by bin Laden. [[ /timeline/2003/faz020203.html | Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 2/2/03 ]] ------ Spanish investigators later say Zammar is a longtime associate of Barakat Yarkas, the alleged boss of the al-Qaeda cell in Madrid, Spain. In 1998, Germany is given more evidence of his ties to Islamic militants, and surveillance intensifies. He is periodically trailed, and all his calls are recorded. [[ /timeline/2003/stern081303.html | Stern, 8/13/03 ]] ------ It is not clear if or when the investigation ends, but it continues until at least September 1999. [[ /timeline/2002/ap062202.html | Associated Press, 6/22/02 ]] ====== << alQaedaInGermany >> ((- Barakat Yarkas )) ((+ Office for the Protection of the Constitution )) ((- Mohamed Atta )) ((+ Mohammed Haydar Zammar )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) [[ | Mohammed Haydar Zammar. ]] May 22, 1997 FBI: Terrorists Are Operating in US With Capability to Attack a052297terroristsinus false 1 ------ The Associated Press reports that senior FBI officials have determined that militant Islamic groups are operating in America. FBI agent John O'Neill is quoted as saying, &#8220;Almost every one of these groups has a presence in the United States today. A lot of these groups now have the capacity and the support infrastructure in the United States to attack us here if they choose to.&#8221; [[ | PBS Frontline, 10/3/02 (C) ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ John O'Neill )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) May 26, 1997 Taliban Government Is Officially Recognized by Saudis a052697talibanrecognized false 1 ------ The Saudi government becomes the first country to extend formal recognition of the Taliban government of Afghanistan. Pakistan and the United Arab Emirates will follow suit. On 9/11, these three countries are the only countries that officially recognize the Taliban. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> << saudis >> ((+ Saudi Arabia )) ((+ United Arab Emirates )) ((+ Pakistan )) ((+ Taliban )) June 3, 1997 PNAC Think Tank Issues Statement of Principles a060397pnacprinciples false 1 ------ The Project for the New American Century (PNAC), a neoconservative think tank formed in the spring of 1997, issues its statement of principles. PNAC's stated aims are: --- * --- to &#8220;shape a new century favorable to American principles and interests&#8221; --- * --- to achieve &#8220;a foreign policy that boldly and purposefully promotes American principles abroad&#8221; --- * --- to &#8220;increase defense spending significantly&#8221; --- * --- to challenge &#8220;regimes hostile to US interests and values&#8221; --- * --- to &#8220;accept America's unique role in preserving and extending an international order friendly to our security, our prosperity, and our principles.&#8221; [[ | Project For A New American Century, 6/3/97 ]] ------ The Statement of Principles is significant, because it is signed by a group who will become &#8220;a roll call of today's Bush inner circle.&#8221; [[,12271,903075,00.html | Guardian, 2/26/03 ]] ------ ABC's Ted Koppel will later say PNAC's ideas have &#8220;been called a secret blueprint for US global domination.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2003/abcnews030503b.html | ABC News, 3/5/03 (B) ]] ====== << centralAsia >> ((+ Project for the New American Century )) [[ | William Kristol, one of the founders and leaders of PNAC. ]] August 1997 CIA Monitors Central Asia for Oil Reserves a0897sniffout false 1 ------ The CIA creates a secret task force to monitor Central Asia's politics and gauge its wealth. Covert CIA officers, some well-trained petroleum engineers, travel through southern Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan to sniff out potential oil reserves. [[ /timeline/1990s/time050498.html | Time, 5/4/98 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) October 1997 Brzezinski Highlights the Importance of Central Asia to Achieving World Domination a1097chessboard false 1 ------ Former National Security Adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski publishes a book in which he portrays the Eurasian landmass as the key to world power, and Central Asia with its vast oil reserves as the key to domination of Eurasia. He states that for the US to maintain its global primacy, it must prevent any possible adversary from controlling that region. He notes, &#8220;The attitude of the American public toward the external projection of American power has been much more ambivalent. The public supported America's engagement in World War II largely because of the shock effect of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.&#8221; He predicts that because of popular resistance to US military expansionism, his ambitious Central Asian strategy can not be implemented &#8220;except in the circumstance of a truly massive and widely perceived direct external threat.&#8221; [[ | Brzezinski, 1997, pp 24-25, 210-11 ]] ====== << centralAsia >> ((+ Zbigniew Brzezinski )) [[ | Zbigniew Brzezinski. ]] October 27, 1997 Halliburton Announces Turkmenistan Project; Unocal and Delta Oil Form Consortium a102797centgas false 1 ------ Halliburton, a company headed by future Vice President Dick Cheney, announces a new agreement to provide technical services and drilling for Turkmenistan. The press release mentions, &#8220;Halliburton has been providing a variety of services in Turkmenistan for the past five years.&#8221; On the same day, a consortium to build a pipeline through Afghanistan is formed. It is called CentGas, and the two main partners are Unocal and Delta Oil of Saudi Arabia. [[ | Halliburton press release, 10/27/97 ]] [[ | CentGas press release, 10/27/97 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> ((- Richard ("Dick") Cheney )) ((+ Energy Information Agency )) ((+ Halliburton, Inc. )) ((+ Turkmenistan )) November 1997 Enron and bin Laden Family Team Up for Project a112697newsletter false 1 ------ Industry newsletter reports that Saudi Arabia has abandoned plans for open bids on a $2 billion power plant near Mecca, deciding that the government will build it instead. Interestingly, one of the bids was made by a consortium of Enron, the Saudi Binladin Group (run by Osama's family), and Italy's Ansaldo Energia. [[ | Alexander's Gas and Oil Connections, 1/22/98 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> << binladenFamily >> ((+ Saudi Arabia )) ((+ Enron )) ((+ Office for the Protection of the Constitution )) ((+ Saudi Binladin Group )) December 1997-November 1998 Moroccan Man Ties Hamburg and Milan al-Qaeda Cells Together a1297mohameddaki false 1 ------ Records indicate that would-be Ramzi Bin al-Shibh lives at the same Hamburg, Germany, address as a Moroccan named Mohamed Daki during this time. Daki will be arrested in April 2003, and admits to knowing bin al-Shibh and some others in the Hamburg cell. In April 1999 Daki obtains a visa to travel to the US, but it isn't known if he goes there. It is generally assumed by the press that the Hamburg cell keep themselves separate from other al-Qaeda cells in Europe. However, Daki is an expert document forger and a member of al-Qaeda's Milan cell. There is considerable evidence that the Milan cell has foreknowledge of the 9/11 plot. The cell is under heavy surveillance by Italian intelligence before 9/11 (see [[ a081200italy ]]) (see [[ a012401italy ]]), but apparently the connection between the Milan and Hamburg cells through Daki is not made. German authorities interview him after 9/11, and he admits ties to bin al-Shibh, but he is let go, not investigated further, and not put on any watch lists. He will later come under investigation in Italy for recruiting fighters to combat the US in Iraq. He will finally be arrested and charged for that, and not for his 9/11 connections. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 3/22/04 ]] [[ | New York Times, 3/22/04 ]] ====== << alQaedaInGermany >> ((+ Mohamed Daki )) ((+ Ramzi Bin al-Shibh )) ((- al-Qaeda )) December 1997 Unocal Establishes Pipeline Training Facility Near bin Laden's Compound a1297unocalfacility false 1 ------ Unocal pays University of Nebraska $900,000 to set up a training facility near bin Laden's Kandahar compound, to train 400 Afghan teachers, electricians, carpenters and pipe fitters in anticipation of using them for their pipeline in Afghanistan. One hundred and fifty students are already attending classes. [[ | Daily Telegraph, 12/14/97 ]] [[ | Coll, 2004, pp 364 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Turkey )) ((+ Unocal )) December 4, 1997 Taliban Representatives Visit Unocal in Texas a120497texasvisit false 1 ------ Representatives of the Taliban are invited guests to the Texas headquarters of Unocal to negotiate their support for the pipeline. Future President George W. Bush is Governor of Texas at the time. The Taliban appear to agree to a $2 billion pipeline deal, but will do the deal only if the US officially recognizes the Taliban regime. The Taliban meet with US officials. According to the Daily Telegraph, &#8220;the US government, which in the past has branded the Taliban's policies against women and children &#8216;despicable,&#8217; appears anxious to please the fundamentalists to clinch the lucrative pipeline contract.&#8221; A BBC regional correspondent says that &#8220;the proposal to build a pipeline across Afghanistan is part of an international scramble to profit from developing the rich energy resources of the Caspian Sea.&#8221; [[ | BBC, 12/4/97 ]] [[ | Daily Telegraph, 12/14/97 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> ((+ Clinton administration )) ((+ Taliban )) ((+ Unocal )) ((- George W. Bush )) [[ | Taliban representatives in Texas, 1997. ]] Early 1998 Prosecutors Turn Down Deal That Could Reveal Bojinka Third Plot aearly98nodeal false 1 ------ Abdul Hakim Murad, a conspirator in the 1995 Bojinka plot with Ramzi Yousef, Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, and others, was convicted in 1996 of his role in the Bojinka plot (see [[ a0195bojinka ]]). He is about to be sentenced for that crime. He offers to cooperate with federal prosecutors in return for a reduction in his sentence, but prosecutors turn down his offer. Dietrich Snell, the prosecutor who convicted Murad, says after 9/11 that he doesn't remember any such offer. But court papers and others familiar with the case later confirmed that Murad does offer to cooperate at this time. Snell claimed he only remembers hearing that Murad had described an intention to hijack a plane and fly it into CIA headquarters. However, in 1995 Murad had confessed to Philippine investigators that this would have been only one part of a larger plot to crash a number of airplanes into prominent US buildings, including the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, a plot that Khalid Shaikh Mohammed later adjusts and turns into the 9/11 plot (see [[ a012095secondwave ]]) (see [[ a0295thirdplot ]]). While Philippine investigators claim this information was passed on to US intelligence, it's not clear just which US officials may have learned this information and what they did with it, if anything. [[ /timelnie/2001/nydailynews092501 | New York Daily News, 9/25/01 ]] ------ Murad is sentenced in May 1998 and given life in prison plus 60 years. [[;category=FRONTPG&amp;BCCode=HOME&amp;newsdate=9/22/2002 | Albany Times-Union, 9/22/02 ]] ------ After 9/11, Snell goes on to become Senior Counsel and a team leader for the 9/11 Commission. Author Peter Lance later calls Snell &#8220;one of the fixers, hired early on to sanitize the Commission's final report.&#8221; Lance says Snell ignored evidence presented to the Commission that shows direct ties between the Bojinka plot and 9/11, and in so doing covers up Snell's own role in the failure to make more use of evidence learned from Murad and other Bojinka plotters. [[ | FrontPage Magazine, 1/27/05 ]] ====== << warnings >> << khalidShaikMohammed >> ((+ Dietrich Snell )) ((+ Abdul Hakim Murad )) ((- Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((- 9/11 Congressional Inquiry )) ((- Pentagon )) ((- Ramzi Yousef )) ((- World Trade Center )) [[ | Dietrich Snell. ]] Early 1998 US Official Meets with Taliban; Promote Afghan Pipeline aearly98richardson false 1 ------ Bill Richardson, the US Ambassador to the UN, meets Taliban officials in Kabul. (All such meetings are illegal, because the US still officially recognizes the government the Taliban ousted as the legitimate rulers of Afghanistan.) US officials at the time call the oil and gas pipeline project a &#8220;fabulous opportunity&#8221; and are especially motivated by the &#8220;prospect of circumventing Iran, which offers another route for the pipeline.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/bostonglobe092001.html | Boston Globe, 9/20/01 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> ((+ Bill Richardson )) ((+ Taliban )) 1998 FAA Testing Reveals Frightening Airport Security Lapses; Little Done in Response Except Small Penalties a1998redteams false 1 ------ The FAA creates &#8220;Red Teams&#8221; &#8212;small, secretive teams traveling to airports and attempting to foil their security systems&#8212;in response to the 1988 bombing of a Pan Am 747 over Scotland. According to later reports, the Red Teams conduct extensive testing of screening checkpoints at a large number of domestic airports in 1998. The results were frightening: &#8220;We were successful in getting major weapons&#8212;guns and bombs&#8212;through screening checkpoints with relative ease, at least 85 percent of the time in most cases. At one airport, we had a 97 percent success rate in breaching the screening checkpoint. ... The individuals who occupied the highest seats of authority in the FAA were fully aware of this highly vulnerable state of aviation security and did nothing.&#8221; [[;ei=1&amp;en=821ad3dfb4097a52 | New York Times, 2/27/02 ]] ------ In 1999, the New York Port Authority and major airlines at Boston's Logan Airport will be &#8220;fined a total of $178,000 for at least 136 security violations [between 1999-2001]. In the majority of incidents, screeners hired by the airlines for checkpoints in terminals routinely [fail] to detect test items, such as pipe bombs and guns.&#8221; [[ | Associated Press, 9/12/01 (C) ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ New York Port Authority )) ((+ Federal Aviation Administration )) Early 1998 CIA Ignores Ex-Agent's Warning 9/11 Mastermind Is "Going to Hijack Some Planes," Visiting Germany a1297baer false 1 ------ in December 1997, CIA agent Robert Baer, newly retired from the CIA and working as a terrorism consultant, meets a former police chief from the Persian Gulf nation of Qatar. He learns that Khalid Shaikh Mohammed was being sheltered by then Qatari Interior Minister Abdallah bin Khalid al-Thani in 1996 (see [[ a96qatar ]]). However, the ex-police chief knows other details, based on what Qatari police and intelligence learned when Mohammed was in the country. Mohammed was leading an al-Qaeda cell in Qatar together with Shawqui Islambuli, the brother of the Egyptian who had killed Anwar el-Sadat. They also were linked to bomber Ramzi Yousef. But what worries the former police chief is that Mohammed and Islambuli are experts in hijacking commercial planes. He tells Baer that Mohammed &#8220;is going to hijack some planes.&#8221; Further, he is told that Mohammed has moved to the Czech Republic, and has also travelled to Germany to meet bin Laden associates there. In early 1998 Baer sends this information to a friend in the CIA Counterterrorist Center, who forwards the information to his superiors. Baer doesn't hear back. He says, &#8220;There was no interest.&#8221; [[ | UPI, 9/30/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/vanityfair0202.html | Vanity Fair, 2/02 ]] [[ | Baer, 2002, pp 270-71 ]] ------ Baer also tries to interest reporter Daniel Pearl in a story about Mohammed before 9/11, but Pearl is still working on it when he is kidnapped and later murdered in early 2002. [[ | UPI, 9/30/02 ]] ------ Baer's source later disappears, presumably kidnapped in Qatar. It has been speculated that the CIA turned on the source to protect its relationship with the Qatari government. [[ | Gertz, 2002, pp 55-58 ]] ------ It appears bin Laden visits al-Thani in Qatar between the years 1996 and 2000. [[ | ABC News, 2/7/03 ]] ------ Al-Thani continues to support al-Qaeda, providing Qatari passports and more than $1 million in funds to al-Qaeda. Even after 9/11, Mohammed is provided shelter in Qatar for two weeks in late 2001. [[;position=top | New York Times, 2/6/03 ]] ------ Yet the US still has not frozen al-Thani's assets or taken other action. ====== << khalidShaikMohammed >> << warnings >> ((+ Qatar )) ((+ Counterterrorist Center )) ((+ Daniel Pearl )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Shawqui Islambuli )) ((- Anwar el-Sadat )) ((- Ramzi Yousef )) ((+ Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((+ Persian Gulf )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Abdallah bin Khalid al-Thani )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Robert Baer )) [[ | Robert Baer. ]] 1998 By Some Accounts, al-Qaeda Begins Planning for 9/11 a98startplanning false 1 ------ According to closed-session testimony by CIA, FBI and NSA heads, al-Qaeda begins planning the 9/11 attacks this year. [[ /timeline/2002/usatoday061802.html | USA Today, 6/18/02 ]] ------ In a June 2002 interview, 9/11 mastermind Khalid Shaikh Mohammed also asserts that planning for the attacks begin at this time. [[ /timeline/2002/ap090802.html | Associated Press, 9/8/02 ]] ------ However, it appears the targeting of the WTC and pilot training began even earlier. An al-Qaeda operative in Spain will later be found with videos filmed in 1997 of major US structures (including &#8220;innumerable takes from all distances and angles&#8221; of the WTC). There are numerous connections between Spain and the 9/11 hijackers, including an important meeting there in July 2001. [[ /timeline/2002/ap071702.html | Associated Press, 7/17/02 ]] ------ Hijacker Waleed Alshehri was living in Florida since 1995, started training for his commercial pilot training degree in 1996, and obtained his license in 1997. [[ | Sunday Herald, 9/16/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/bostonglobe091401.html | Boston Globe, 9/14/01 ]] ====== << otherHijackers >> ((- World Trade Center )) ((+ Waleed M. Alshehri )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) 1998 Information on Hanjour Apparently Ignored by FBI a98collins false 1 ------ American Muslim Aukai Collins later says he reports to the FBI on hijacker Hani Hanjour for six months this year. [[ /timeline/2002/ap052402.html | Associated Press, 5/24/02 ]] ------ The FBI later acknowledges they paid Collins to monitor the Islamic and Arab communities in Phoenix between 1996 and 1999. [[ /timeline/2002/ap052402.html | Associated Press, 5/24/02 ]] [[ | ABC News, 5/23/02 ]] ------ Collins claims that he is a casual acquaintance of Hanjour while Hanjour is taking flying lessons. [[ /timeline/2002/ap052402.html | Associated Press, 5/24/02 ]] ------ Collins sees nothing suspicious about Hanjour as an individual, but he tells the FBI about him because Hanjour appears to be part of a larger, organized group of Arabs taking flying lessons. [[ /timeline/2002/foxnews052402.html | Fox News, 5/24/02 ]] ------ He says the FBI &#8220;knew everything about the guy,&#8221; including his exact address, phone number, and even what car he drove. The FBI denies Collins told them anything about Hanjour, and denies knowing about Hanjour before 9/11. [[ | ABC News, 5/23/02 ]] ------ Collins later calls Hanjour a &#8220;hanky panky&#8221; hijacker: &#8220;He wasn't even moderately religious, let alone fanatically religious. And I knew for a fact that he wasn't part of al-Qaeda or any other Islamic organization; he couldn't even spell jihad in Arabic.&#8221; [[ | Collins, 2003, pp 248 ]] ====== << otherHijackers >> << haniHanjour >> ((+ Aukai Collins )) ((+ William Safire )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) [[ | Aukai Collins. ]] 1998 Indonesia Gives US Warning of 9/11 Attack? a1998hendro false 1 ------ Hendropriyono, the Indonesian chief of intelligence, will later claim that, &#8220;[w]e had intelligence predicting the September 11 attacks three years before it happened but nobody believed us.&#8221; He says Indonesian intelligence agents identify bin Laden as the leader of the group plotting the attack and that the US disregards the warning, but otherwise offers no additional details. The Associated Press notes, &#8220;Indonesia's intelligence services are not renowned for their accuracy.&#8221; [[ | Associated Press, 7/9/03 (C) ]] ====== << warnings >> << foreignIntelligence >> ((+ Hendropriyono )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) 1998 Hijacking Proposed to Obtain Release of Blind Sheikh a1998tunnels false 1 ------ A son of Sheikh Omar Abdul-Rahman, the al-Qaeda leader convicted in 1995 of conspiring to blow up tunnels and other New York City landmarks, is heard to say that the best way to free his father from a US prison might be to hijack an American plane and exchange the hostages. This is mentioned in President Bush's August 2001 briefing titled &#8220;Bin Laden Determined to Strike in US&#8221; [[;node=&amp;contentId=A35744-2002May17&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 5/18/02 (B) ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- George W. Bush )) ((- Sheikh Omar Abdul-Rahman )) ((- al-Qaeda )) 1998 US and Uzbekistan Conduct Joint Operations Against Taliban a98uzbekistan false 1 ------ Beginning in 1998, if not before, Uzbekistan and the US conduct joint covert operations against Afghanistan's Taliban regime and bin Laden. [[ | Times of India, 10/14/01 ]] [[ | Washington Post, 10/14/01 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> << centralAsia >> ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Uzbekistan )) ((+ Taliban )) ((+ United States )) January 8, 1998 Mohammed Revealed as Major Al-Qaeda Operative at Yousef Sentencing ksmrevealed false 1 ------ Islamic militant Ramzi Yousef is sentenced to 240 years for his role in the 1993 WTC bombing. At the same time, prosecutors unseal an indictment against Khalid Shaikh Mohammed for participating with Yousef in the 1995 Operation Bojinka plot (see [[ a0195bojinka ]]). In unsealing this, US Attorney Mary Jo White calls Mohammed a &#8220;major player&#8221; and says he is believed to be a relative of Yousef. [[ /timeline/1998/wpost010998.html | Washington Post, 1/9/98 ]] ------ The US announces a $2 million reward for his capture in 1998 and wanted posters with his picture are distributed. [[ | New York Times, 6/5/02 ]] ------ This contradicts the FBI's claim after 9/11 that they did not realize he was a major terrorist before 9/11. [[ | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 12/11/02 ]] ------ For instance, a senior FBI official later says, &#8220;He was under everybody's radar. We don't know how he did it. We wish we knew. ... He's the guy nobody ever heard of.&#8221; [[ | Los Angeles Times, 12/22/02 ]] ------ However, another official says, &#8220;We have been after him for years, and to say that we weren't is just wrong. We had identified him as a major al-Qaeda operative before September 11.&#8221; [[ | New York Times, 9/22/02 ]] ------ Yet strangely, despite knowing Mohammed is a major al-Qaeda operations planner and putting out a large reward for his capture at this time, there is no worldwide public manhunt for him as there successfully was for his nephew Ramzi Yousef. Mohammed's name remains obscure and he isn't even put on the FBI's Most Wanted Terrorists list until one month after 9/11. [[ | Lance, 2003, pp 327-30 ]] ====== << khalidShaikMohammed >> ((- Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((- Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Mary Jo White )) ((+ Ramzi Yousef )) [[ | FBI reward notice for Khalid Shaikh Mohammed. ]] February 12, 1998 Unocal VP Advocates Afghan Pipeline Before Congress a021298unocal false 1 ------ Unocal Vice President John J. Maresca&#8212;later to become a Special Ambassador to Afghanistan&#8212;testifies before the House of Representatives that until a single, unified, friendly government is in place in Afghanistan, the trans-Afghan pipeline will not be built. He suggests that with a pipeline through Afghanistan, the Caspian basin could produce 20 percent of all the non-OPEC oil in the world by 2010. [[ /timeline/1990s/marescatestimony021298.html | House International Relations Committee testimony, 2/12/98 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> ((+ John J. Maresca )) ((+ Unocal )) ((+ US Congress )) February 22, 1998 Bin Laden Expands Fatwa Against US, Allies a022298fatwaexpands false 1 ------ Bin Laden issues a fatwa, declaring it the religious duty of all Muslims &#8220;to kill the Americans and their allies&#8212;civilians and military ... in any country in which it is possible.&#8221; [[ | PBS Frontline, 2001 ]] [[ | Sunday Herald, 9/16/01 ]] [[ /timeline/1990s/alqudsalarabi022398.html | al-Quds al-Arabi, 2/23/98 ]] ------ This is an expansion of an earlier fatwa issued in August 1996, which had called for attacks in the Arabian Peninsula only. ====== << warnings >> ((+ Osama bin Laden )) Spring 1998 Bin Laden's Stepmother Visits Afghanistan aspring98stepmother false 1 ------ Sources who know bin Laden claim his stepmother, Al-Khalifa bin Laden, has the first of two meetings with her stepson in Afghanistan during this period. This trip was arranged by Prince Turki al-Faisal, then the head of Saudi intelligence. Turki was in charge of the &#8220;Afghanistan file&#8221; for Saudi Arabia, and had long-standing ties to bin Laden and the Taliban since 1980. [[ | New Yorker, 11/5/01 ]] ====== << saudis >> << binladenFamily >> ((+ Turki bin Faisal bin Abdul Aziz al Saud )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((- Taliban )) Spring 1998 Experts Warn FAA of Potential Massive Kamikaze Attack aspring98expertswarnfaa false 1 ------ Three terrorism specialists present an analysis of security threats to FAA security officials. Their analysis describes two scenarios involving planes as weapons. In one, hijacked planes are flown into nuclear power plants along the East Coast. In the other, hijackers commandeer Federal Express cargo planes and simultaneously crash them into the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, the White House, the Capitol, the Sears Tower, and the Golden Gate Bridge. Stephen Gale, one of the specialists, later says the analysis is based in part upon attempts that had been made in 1994 to crash airplanes in the Eiffel Tower and the White House (see [[ a091194frankcorder ]]) (see [[ a122494eiffelcrash ]]). Gale later recalls that one FAA official responds to the presentation by saying, &#8220;You can't protect yourself from meteorites.&#8221; [[;node=&amp;contentId=A39166-2002May18&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 5/19/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- Eiffel Tower )) ((- Golden Gate Bridge )) ((- Sears Tower )) ((- Federal Express )) ((+ Federal Aviation Administration )) ((+ James L. Jones )) ((- World Trade Center )) ((- Pentagon )) April 1998 Hijacker Associate Receives Saudi Money; FBI Fails to Investigate a0498basnan false 1 ------ Osama Basnan, a Saudi living in California, claims to write a letter to Saudi Arabian Prince Bandar bin Sultan and his wife, Princess Haifa bint Faisal, asking for financial help because his wife needs thyroid surgery. The Saudi embassy sends Basnan $15,000 and pays the surgical bill. However, according to University of California at San Diego hospital records, Basnan's wife, Majeda Dweikat, is not treated until April 2000. [[ /timeline/2002/latimes112402.html | Los Angeles Times, 11/24/02 ]] ------ Basnan will later come under investigation for possibly using some of this money to support two of the 9/11 hijackers who arrive in San Diego, although the 9/11 Commission has concluded that evidence does not support these charges. [[ | 9/11 Commission Report, 6/16/04 ]] ------ Prior to this time, the FBI had several chances to investigate Basnan, but failed to do so. In 1992, they received information suggesting a connection between him and a militant group later associated with bin Laden. In 1993, they received reports that Basnan hosted a party for al-Qaeda leader Sheikh Omar Abdul-Rahman the year before, but again they failed to investigate. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ According to one US official, Basnan later &#8220;celebrate[s] the heroes of September 11&#8221; and talks about &#8220;what a wonderful, glorious day it had been&#8221; at a party shortly after 9/11. [[ | Newsweek, 11/24/02 ]] [[ | San Diego Magazine, 9/03 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> << saudis >> ((+ Osama Basnan )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Sheikh Omar Abdul-Rahman )) ((+ Majeda Dweikat )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Haifa bint Faisal )) ((+ Bandar bin Sultan )) ((+ Saudi Arabia )) April 15, 1998 Libya Issues First Arrest Warrant for bin Laden a041598interpol false 1 ------ The first Interpol (international police) arrest warrant for bin Laden is issued&#8212;by Libya. [[,9174,837333,00.html | Observer, 11/10/02 ]] ------ According to the authors of the controversial book The Forbidden Truth, British and US intelligence agencies play down the arrest warrant, and have the public version of the warrant stripped of important information, such as the summary of charges and the fact that Libya requested the warrant. At this point, no Western country has yet issued a warrant for bin Laden, even though he publicly called for attacks on Western targets beginning in 1996. The arrest warrant is issued for the 1994 murder of two German antiterrorism agents. Allegedly, Britain and the US aren't interested in catching bin Laden at this time due to his involvement with Britain in attempts to assassinate Libyan leader Colonel Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi in 1996 (see [[ a96libya ]]). [[ | Brisard, Dasquie and Madsen, 2002, pp 97-98 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Britain )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ UK Secret Intelligence Service )) ((+ United States )) ((- Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi )) [[ | Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi. ]] May 1998 FBI Gives Counterterrorism Top Priority but No Extra Resources a0598noresources false 1 ------ The FBI issues a strategic, five-year plan that designates national and economic security, including counterterrorism, as its top priority for the first time. However, it is later determined that neither personnel nor resources are shifted accordingly. FBI counterterrorism spending remains constant from this point until 9/11. Only about six percent of the FBI's agent work force is assigned to counterterrorism on 9/11. [[ | 9/11 Commission Report, 4/13/04 ]] [[ | New York Times, 4/18/04 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) May 15, 1998 Oklahoma FBI Memo Warns of Potential Terrorist-Related Flight Training; No Investigation Ensues a051898oklahoma false 1 ------ An FBI pilot sends his supervisor in the Oklahoma City FBI office a memo warning that he has observed &#8220;large numbers of Middle Eastern males receiving flight training at Oklahoma airports in recent months.&#8221; The memo, titled &#8220;Weapons of Mass Destruction,&#8221; further states this &#8220;may be related to planned terrorist activity&#8221; and &#8220;light planes would be an ideal means of spreading chemicals or biological agents.&#8221; The memo does not call for an investigation, and none occurs. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] [[ /timeline/2002/newsok052902.html | NewsOK, 5/29/02 ]] ------ The memo is &#8220;sent to the bureau's Weapons of Mass Destruction unit and forgotten.&#8221; [[ | New York Daily News, 9/25/02 ]] ------ In 1999, it is learned that an al-Qaeda agent has studied flight training in Norman, Oklahoma. Hijackers Mohamed Atta and Marwan Alshehhi will briefly visit the same school in 2000; Zacarias Moussaoui trains at the school in 2001. ====== << warnings >> ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Mohamed Atta )) ((+ Marwan Alshehhi )) ((+ Zacarias Moussaoui )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) After May 15, 1998 FBI Again Ignores Warnings About Islamic Militants Planning to Obtain US Pilot Training aafter051598warn false 1 ------ The FBI receives reports that a militant Islamic organization might be planning to bring students to the US for flight training, at some point in 1998 after the May 15 memo (see [[ a051898oklahoma ]]) warns about Middle Eastern men training at US flight schools. [[ | New York Daily News, 9/25/02 ]] ------ The FBI is aware that people connected to this unnamed organization have performed surveillance and security tests at airports in the US and made comments suggesting an intention to target civil aviation. Apparently, this warning is not shared with other FBI offices or the FAA, and a connection with the Oklahoma warning is not made; a similar warning will follow in 1999. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) May 22, 1998 Clinton Creates Counterterrorism Post, Selects Richard Clarke a052298tsar false 1 ------ President Clinton creates the new post of National Coordinator for Counterterrorism. He names Richard Clarke for the job, and Clarke soon becomes known as the counterterrorism &#8220;tsar.&#8221; [[ | Washington Post, 4/20/00 ]] ------ This is outlined in a new presidential directive on counterterrorism that also outlines goals of fighting terrorism and attempts to strengthen interagency coordination of counterterrorism efforts. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404d.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (D) ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) ((+ William Jefferson ("Bill") Clinton )) May 26, 1998 Bin Laden Promises to Bring Jihad to US a052698home false 1 ------ Bin Laden discusses &#8220;bringing the war home to America,&#8221; in a press conference from Afghanistan. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] ------ He indicates the results of his jihad will be &#8220;visible&#8221; within weeks. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] ------ Two US embassies will be bombed in August. ====== << warnings >> ((+ Osama bin Laden )) May 28, 1998 Bin Laden Wants to Use Missiles Against US Aircraft a052898missiles false 1 ------ Bin Laden indicates he may attack a US military passenger aircraft using antiaircraft missiles, in an interview with ABC News reporter John Miller. In the subsequent media coverage, Miller repeatedly refers to bin Laden as &#8220;the world's most dangerous terrorist,&#8221; and &#8220;the most dangerous man in the world.&#8221; [[ | ABC News, 5/28/98 ]] [[ | ABC News, 6/12/98 ]] [[ | Esquire, 2/99 ]] [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] ------ Bin Laden admits to knowing Wali Khan Amin Shah, one of the Bojinka plotters, but denies having met Bojinka plotter Ramzi Yousef or knowing about the plot itself. [[ | PBS Frontline, 10/3/02 (C) ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- Ramzi Yousef )) ((- Wali Khan Amin Shah )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) May 28, 1998 Pakistan Tests Nuclear Bomb a052898pakistannuke false 1 ------ Pakistan conducts a successful nuclear test. Former Clinton official Karl Inderfurth later notes that concerns about an Indian-Pakistani conflict, or even nuclear confrontation, compete with efforts to press Pakistan on terrorism. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] ====== << isi >> ((+ Pakistan )) June 1998 Enron Shuts Down Uzbekistan Pipeline Project a0698enronshutdown false 1 ------ Enron's agreement from 1996 (see [[ a062496enron ]]) to develop natural gas with Uzbekistan is not renewed. Enron closes its office there. The reason for the &#8220;failure of Enron's flagship project&#8221; is an inability to get the natural gas out of the region. Uzbekistan's production is &#8220;well below capacity&#8221; and only 10 percent of its production is being exported, all to other countries in the region. The hope was to use a pipeline through Afghanistan, but &#8220;Uzbekistan is extremely concerned at the growing strength of the Taliban and its potential impact on stability in Uzbekistan, making any future cooperation on a pipeline project which benefits the Taliban unlikely.&#8221; A $12 billion pipeline through China is being considered as one solution, but that wouldn't be completed until the end of the next decade at the earliest. [[ /timeline/1990s/alexanders101298.html | Alexander's Gas and Oil Connections, 10/12/98 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> ((- China )) ((+ Enron )) ((- Taliban )) ((+ Uzbekistan )) June 1998 US Develops Plan to Capture bin Laden a0698captureplan false 1 ------ In 1997 and early 1998, the US had developed a plan to capture bin Laden in Afghanistan. A CIA-owned aircraft was stationed in a nearby country, ready to land on a remote landing strip long enough to pick him up. However, problems with having to hold bin Laden too long in Afghanistan made the operation unlikely. The plan morphs into using a team of Afghan informants to kidnap bin Laden from inside his heavily defended farm. In this month, the plan is given to CIA Director Tenet for approval, but he rejects it without showing it to President Clinton. It is thought unlikely to succeed and the Afghan allies are considered unreliable. [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 220-21 ]] [[ | Washington Post, 2/22/04 ]] ------ It is later speculated that the airstrip used for these purposes is occupied and used as a base of operations early in the post-9/11 Afghan war. [[ | Washington Post, 12/19/01 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ George Tenet )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- William Jefferson ("Bill") Clinton )) June 1998 Saudi Benefactor Offers Funding for Mosque if Suspected Advance Man Is Retained as Building Manager a0698unknownbenefactor false 1 ------ An Unknown Saudi benefactor pays a Saudi, Saad Al-Habeeb, to buy a building in San Diego, California, for a new Kurdish community mosque. However, the approximately $500,000 will only be given on the condition that Omar al-Bayoumi be installed as the building's maintenance manager with a private office at the mosque. After taking the job, al-Bayoumi rarely shows up for work. [[ | Newsweek, 11/24/02 ]] [[ | San Diego Magazine, 9/03 ]] ------ This means he has two jobs at once. The people in the mosque eventually begin a move to replace al-Bayoumi, but he moves to Britain in July 2001 before this can happen. [[ | Newsweek, 11/24/02 ]] ------ An anonymous federal investigator states, &#8220;Al-Bayoumi came here, set everything up financially, set up the San Diego [al-Qaeda] cell and set up the mosque.&#8221; An international tax attorney notes that anyone handling business for a mosque or a church could set it up as a tax-exempt charitable organization &#8220;and it can easily be used for money laundering.&#8221; [[ | San Diego Union-Tribune, 10/27/01 ]] [[ | San Diego Union-Tribune, 10/22/02 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> << saudis >> ((+ Omar al-Bayoumi )) ((+ Saad Al-Habeeb )) June 1998 US Learns That bin Laden Is Considering Attacks Against Washington, New York a0698washingtonnewyork false 1 ------ US intelligence obtains information from several sources that bin Laden is considering attacks in the US, including Washington and New York. This information is given to senior US officials in July 1998. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] ------ Information mentions an attack in Washington, probably against public places. US intelligence assumes that bin Laden places a high priority on conducting attacks in the US. More information about a planned al-Qaeda attack on a Washington government facility will be uncovered in the spring of 1999. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ Osama bin Laden )) June 1998 Taliban and Saudis Discuss bin Laden a0698secretmeeting false 1 ------ Relations between Taliban head Mullah Omar and bin Laden grow tense, and Omar discusses a secret deal with the Saudis, who have urged the Taliban to expel bin Laden from Afghanistan. Head of Saudi intelligence Prince Turki al-Faisal travels to Kandahar, Afghanistan, and brokers the deal. According to Prince Turki, he seeks to have the Taliban turn bin Laden over to Saudi custody. Omar agrees in principle, but requests that the parties establish a joint commission to work out how bin Laden would be dealt with in accordance with Islamic law. [[ | Coll, 2004, pp 400-02 ]] ------ Note that some reports of this meeting&#8212;and the deal discussed&#8212;vary significantly from Prince Turki's version. However, before a deal can be reached, the US strikes Afghanistan in August in retaliation for the US African embassy bombings (see [[ a082098misslestrike ]]), driving Omar and bin Laden back together. Prince Turki later states that &#8220;the Taliban attitude changed 180 degrees,&#8221; and that Omar is &#8220;absolutely rude&#8221; to him when he visits again in September. [[ /timeline/2001/guardian110501.html | Guardian, 11/5/01 ]] [[,,3-373034,00.html | Times of London, 8/3/02 ]] ====== << saudis >> ((- Taliban )) ((+ Turki bin Faisal bin Abdul Aziz al Saud )) ((+ Saudi Arabia )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Mullah Omar )) Summer 1998 One of Bin Laden's Four Holy War Goals is to Bring Down US Airliners asummer98bringdown false 1 ------ Bin Laden sends a fax from Afghanistan to Sheik Omar Bakri Mohammed, a London-based Muslim cleric who dubs himself the &#8220;mouth, eyes, and ears of Osama bin Laden.&#8221; Bakri publicly releases what he calls bin Laden's four specific objectives for a holy war against the US. The instruction reads, &#8220;Bring down their airliners. Prevent the safe passage of their ships. Occupy their embassies. Force the closure of their companies and banks.&#8221; Noting this, the Los Angeles Times wryly comments that &#8220;Bin Laden hasn't been shy about sharing his game plan.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/latimes101401.html | Los Angeles Times, 10/14/01 ]] ------ In 2001, FBI agent Ken Williams will grow concerned about some Middle Eastern students training in Arizona flight schools. He links several of them to Al-Muhajiroun, an extremist group founded by Bakri. Williams quotes several fatwas (calls to action) from Bakri in his July 2001 memo (see [[ a071001williams ]]). However, he apparently isn't aware of this particular call to action. These students linked to Bakri's group apparently have no connection to any of the 9/11 hijackers. In another interview before 9/11, Bakri will boast of recruiting &#8220;kamikaze bombers ready to die for Palestine.&#8221; (see [[ a0901dodwarning ]]) [[ /timeline/2002/ap052302.html | Associated Press, 5/23/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ Al-Muhajiroun )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Ken Williams )) ((+ Sheik Omar Bakri Mohammed )) [[ | Sheik Omar Bakri Mohammed. ]] June 8, 1998 Grand Jury Issues Sealed Indictment Against bin Laden and Others a060898indictment false 1 ------ A US grand jury issues a sealed indictment, charging bin Laden and other al-Qaeda leaders with conspiracy to attack the United States. [[ | PBS Frontline, 10/3/02 (C) ]] ------ The grand jury took two years to reach an indictment, largely based on information from Jamal al-Fadl, a former al-Qaeda operative. [[ /timeline/2001/nyt093001b.html | New York Times, 09/30/01 (B) ]] [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] [[ /timeline/2001/frontline0901.html | PBS Frontline, 9/01 ]] ------ This secret indictment will be superseded by a public one issued in November 1998. [[ | PBS Frontline, 10/3/02 (C) ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Jamal al-Fadl )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) June 23, 1998 Future VP Cheney Raves About Caspian Sea Opportunities a062398cheney false 1 ------ Future Vice President Cheney, currently running the Halliburton energy company, states, &#8220;I can't think of a time when we've had a region emerge as suddenly to become as strategically significant as the Caspian. It's almost as if the opportunities have arisen overnight.&#8221; [[ | Cato Institute Library ]] [[ /timeline/2000/chicagotribune081000.html | Chicago Tribune, 8/10/00 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> ((+ Richard ("Dick") Cheney )) July 1998 Taliban and Saudis Meet and Purportedly Make a Deal a0798secretmeeting false 1 ------ Taliban officials allegedly meet with Prince Turki, head of Saudi intelligence, to continue talks concerning the Taliban's ouster of bin Laden from Afghanistan. Reports on the location of this meeting, and the deal under discussion differ. According to some reports, including documents exposed in a later lawsuit, this meeting takes place in Kandahar. Those present include Prince Turki al-Faisal, head of Saudi Arabian intelligence, Taliban leaders, senior officers from the ISI, and bin Laden. According to these reports, Saudi Arabia agrees to give the Taliban and Pakistan &#8220;several hundred millions&#8221; of dollars, and in return, bin Laden promises no attacks against Saudi Arabia. The Saudis also agree to ensure that requests for the extradition of al-Qaeda members will be blocked and promise to block demands by other countries to close down bin Laden's Afghan training camps. Saudi Arabia had previously given money to the Taliban and bribe money to bin Laden, but this ups the ante. [[ | Sunday Times, 8/25/02 ]] ------ A few weeks after the meeting, Prince Turki sends 400 new pickup trucks to the Taliban. At least $200 million follow. [[ | Honolulu Star-Bulletin, 9/23/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/nypost082502.html | New York Post, 8/25/02 ]] ------ Controversial author Gerald Posner gives a similar account said to come from high US government officials, and adds that al-Qaeda leader Abu Zubaida also attends the meeting. [[ | Posner, 2003, pp 189-90 ]] ------ Note that reports of this meeting seemingly contradict reports of a meeting the month before between Turki and the Taliban, in which the Taliban agreed to get rid of bin Laden (see [[ a0698secretmeeting ]]). ====== << isi >> << saudis >> ((+ Taliban )) ((+ Turki bin Faisal bin Abdul Aziz al Saud )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Pakistan )) ((+ Abu Zubaida )) ((+ Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) July 7, 1998 Stolen Passport Shows Ties Between Hijackers and Spanish Terrorist Cells a070798passport false 1 ------ Thieves snatch a passport from a car driven by a US tourist in Barcelona, Spain, which later finds its way into the hands of would-be hijacker Ramzi Bin al-Shibh. Bin al-Shibh allegedly uses the name on the passport in the summer of 2001 as he wires money to pay flight school tuition for Zacarias Moussaoui in Oklahoma. Investigators believe the movement of this passport shows connections between the 9/11 plotters in Germany and a support network in Spain, made up mostly by ethnic Syrians. &#8220;Investigators believe that the Syrians served as deep-cover mentors, recruiters, financiers and logistics providers for the hijackers&#8212;elite backup for an elite attack team.&#8221; [[,0,2368574.story?coll=la-headlines-world-manual | Los Angeles Times, 1/14/03 ]] ------ Mohamed Atta twice travels to Spain in 2001, perhaps to make contact with members of this Spanish support team. ====== << otherHijackers >> ((+ Ramzi Bin al-Shibh )) ((+ Mohamed Atta )) ((+ Zacarias Moussaoui )) August 1998 Germany Investigates Hamburg al-Qaeda Cell Member a0898motassadeqinquiry false 1 ------ A German inquiry into Mounir El Motassadeq, an alleged member of the Hamburg al-Qaeda cell with Mohamed Atta, begins by this time. Although Germany will not reveal details, documents show that by August 1998, Motassadeq is under surveillance. &#8220;The trail soon [leads] to most of the main [Hamburg] participants&#8221; in 9/11. Surveillance records Motassadeq and Mohammed Haydar Zammar, who had already been identified by police as a suspected extremist, as they meet at the Hamburg home of Said Bahaji, who is also under surveillance that same year. (Bahaji will soon move into an apartment with Atta and other al-Qaeda members.) German police monitor several other meetings between Motassadeq and Zammar in the following months. [[;position=top | New York Times, 1/18/03 ]] ------ Motassadeq is later convicted in August 2002 in Germany for participation in the 9/11 attacks, but his conviction is later overturned (see [[ a030304motassadeqoverturn ]]). ====== << alQaedaInGermany >> ((- Mohamed Atta )) ((+ Mounir El Motassadeq )) ((+ Mohammed Haydar Zammar )) ((+ Said Bahaji )) [[ | Mounir El Motassadeq. ]] August 1998 CIA Warns That Arab Militants Plan to Fly Bomb-Laden Plane From Libya into WTC a0898planeintowtc false 1 ------ A foreign intelligence agency warns the FBI's New York office that Arab militants plan to fly a bomb-laden aircraft from Libya into the World Trade Center. The FBI and the FAA do not take the threat seriously because of the state of aviation in Libya. Later, other intelligence information connects this group to al-Qaeda. The CIA includes the same information in an intelligence report. [[ | New York Times, 9/18/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2005/fbireport060905.pdf | FBI Report, 6/9/05, pp 97-98 ]] ------ An FBI spokesperson says the report &#8220;was not ignored, it was thoroughly investigated by numerous agencies&#8221; and found to be unrelated to al-Qaeda. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A36754-2002Sep18&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 9/19/02 (B) ]] ------ However, the 9/11 Congressional Inquiry comes to the conclusion that the group in fact did have ties to al-Qaeda. [[ | New York Times, 9/18/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- World Trade Center )) ((+ Federal Aviation Administration )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) August 4, 1998 Threat Precedes Embassy Bombings a080498embassythreat false 1 ------ The Egyptian Islamic Jihad, a terror group that has joined forces with al-Qaeda, issues a statement threatening to retaliate against the US for its involvement rounding up three of its members helping Muslim forces fight in Albania. The group announces, &#8220;We wish to inform the Americans ... of preparations for a response which we hope they read with care, because we shall write it with the help of God in the language they understand.&#8221; US embassy bombings follow three days later. [[ /timeline/2001/cnn0101.html | CNN, 1/01 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Egyptian Islamic Jihad )) August 7, 1998 Al-Qaeda Bombs US Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania a080798embassy false 1 ------ Two US embassies in Africa are bombed almost simultaneously. The attack in Nairobi, Kenya, kills 213 people, including 12 US nationals, and injures more than 4,500. The attack in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, kills 11 and injures 85. The attack is blamed on al-Qaeda. [[ | PBS Frontline, 2001 ]] ------ The attack shows al-Qaeda has a capability for simultaneous attacks. A third attack against the US embassy in Uganda fails. [[ /timeline/1998/ap092598.html | Associated Press, 9/25/98 ]] ====== << warnings >> << huntForBinLaden >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> << pipelinePolitics >> ((+ al-Qaeda )) [[ | Bombings of the Nairobi, Kenya, US embassy (left), and the Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, US embassy (right). ]] August 9, 1998 Northern Alliance Stronghold Conquered by Taliban; Pipeline Project Now Looks Promising a080998mazarisharif false 1 ------ The Northern Alliance capital of Afghanistan, Mazar-i-Sharif, is conquered by the Taliban. Military support of Pakistan's ISI plays a large role; there is even an intercept of an ISI officer stating, &#8220;My boys and I are riding into Mazar-i-Sharif.&#8221; [[ | New York Times, 12/8/01 ]] ------ This victory gives the Taliban control of 90 percent of Afghanistan, including the entire proposed pipeline route. CentGas, the consortium behind the gas pipeline that would run through Afghanistan, is now &#8220;ready to proceed. Its main partners are the American oil firm Unocal and Delta Oil of Saudi Arabia, plus Hyundai of South Korea, two Japanese companies, a Pakistani conglomerate and the Turkmen government.&#8221; However, the pipeline cannot be financed unless the government is officially recognized. &#8220;Diplomatic sources said the Taliban's offensive was well prepared and deliberately scheduled two months ahead of the next UN meeting&#8221; where members are to decide whether the Taliban should be recognized. [[ /timeline/1990s/telegraph081398.html | Daily Telegraph, 8/13/98 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> << isi >> ((+ Taliban )) ((+ Energy Information Agency )) ((+ Northern Alliance )) ((+ Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) Mid-August 1998-2000 August 15, 1998 US Submarines Ready to Attack bin Laden a0898subsready false 1 ------ Within days of the US African embassy bombings, the US permanently stations two submarines, reportedly in the Indian Ocean, ready to hit al-Qaeda with cruise missiles on short notice. Missiles are fired from these subs later in the month in a failed attempt to assassinate bin Laden. Six to ten hours' advance warning is now needed to review the decision, program the cruise missiles, and have them reach their target. However, in every rare opportunity when the possibility of attacking bin Laden occurs, CIA Director Tenet says the information is not reliable enough and the attack cannot go forward. [[ | Washington Post, 12/19/01 ]] [[ | New York Times, 12/30/01 ]] ------ At some point in 2000, the submarines are withdrawn, apparently because the Navy wants to use them for other purposes. Therefore, when the unmanned Predator spy plane flies over Afghanistan in late 2000 and identifies bin Laden, there is no way to capitalize on that opportunity. [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 220-21 ]] ------ The Bush administration fails to resume the submarine patrol. Lacking any means to attack bin Laden, military plans to strike at him are no longer updated after March 2001. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404b.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (B) ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ George Tenet )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- Bush administration )) ((+ Clinton administration )) Mid-August 1998 August 15, 1998 Clinton Authorizes Assassination of bin Laden a0898authorization false 1 ------ President Clinton signs a Memorandum of Notification, which authorizes the CIA to plan the capture of bin Laden using force. The CIA draws up detailed profiles of bin Laden's daily routines, where he sleeps, and his travel arrangements. The assassination never happens, supposedly because of inadequate intelligence. However, as one officer later says, &#8220;you can keep setting the bar higher and higher, so that nothing ever gets done.&#8221; An officer who helped draw up the plans says, &#8220;We were ready to move&#8221; but &#8220;we were not allowed to do it because of this stubborn policy of risk avoidance... It is a disgrace.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/philadelphiainquirer091601.html | Philadelphia Inquirer, 9/16/01 ]] ------ Additional memoranda quickly follow that authorize the assassination of up to ten other al-Qaeda leaders, and authorize the shooting down of private aircraft containing bin Laden. [[ | Washington Post, 12/19/01 ]] ------ However, &#8220;These directives [lead] to nothing.&#8221; [[ | New Yorker, 7/28/03 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ William Jefferson ("Bill") Clinton )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- Central Intelligence Agency )) August 20, 1998 US Fires on al-Qaeda's Afghan Training Camps, Sudanese Facility a082098misslestrike false 1 ------ The US fires 66 missiles at six al-Qaeda training camps in Afghanistan and 13 missiles at a pharmaceutical factory in Khartoum, Sudan, in retaliation for the US embassy bombings. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A61219-2001Oct2Found=true | Washington Post, 10/3/01 (C) ]] ------ The US insists the attacks are aimed at terrorists &#8220;not supported by any state,&#8221; despite obvious evidence to the contrary. The Sudanese factory is hit in the middle of the night when it is unoccupied. About 30 people are killed in the Afghanistan attacks, but no important al-Qaeda figures die. [[ /timeline/1990s/observer082398.html | Observer, 8/23/98 ]] [[ | New Yorker, 1/24/00 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> << isi >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> << pipelinePolitics >> ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Clinton administration )) [[ | El Shifa Plant in Sudan. ]] August 20, 1998 ISI Alerts the Taliban to Incoming Missiles Targeting Their Shared Training Camps a082098isitipoff false 1 ------ The US missile strike on Afghanistan on this day inadvertently reveals connections between al-Qaeda and the ISI. Two of the four camps in Afghanistan hit had strong connections to the ISI, and five ISI officers and some twenty trainees are killed. The US also loses the element of surprise. General Joseph Ralston, the vice-chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, was purposely scheduled to eat dinner with General Jehangir Karamat, the Pakistani Army's chief of staff, in Islamabad, Pakistan the night of the missile strike. At one point during the dinner, Ralston looks at his watch and announces that in ten minutes about sixty cruise missiles will be entering Pakistan's airspace on their way to Afghanistan. This is done to make sure the missiles wouldn't be misidentified and shot down. [[ | New Yorker, 1/24/00 ]] ------ But this carefully timed ploy is not successful. Counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; Richard Clarke claims he was promised by the Navy that it would fire their missiles from below the ocean surface. However, in fact, many destroyers fired their missiles from the surface. [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 188-89 ]] ------ He adds, &#8220;not only did they use surface ships&#8212;they brought additional ones in, because every captain wants to be able to say he fired the cruise missile.&#8221; [[ | New Yorker, 7/28/03 ]] ------ As a result, the ISI (or bin Laden sympathizers within) had many hours to alert bin Laden. Clarke says he believes that &#8220;if the [ISI] wanted to capture bin Laden or tell us where he was, they could have done so with little effort. They did not cooperate with us because ISI saw al-Qaeda as helpful in pressuring India, particularly in Kashmir.&#8221; [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 188-89 ]] ------ In 1999 the US will intercept communications suggesting that Hamid Gul, ISI Director in the early 1990's, played a role in forewarning the Taliban about the missile strike which may even had predated the firing of the cruise missiles (see [[ a0799hamidgul ]]). ====== << huntForBinLaden >> << isi >> ((+ Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) ((+ Jehangir Karamat )) ((+ Taliban )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- Hamid Gul )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Joseph Ralston )) August 24, 1998 Bombed Training Camps Were Built by US and Allies a082498camps false 1 ------ The New York Times reports that the training camps recently attacked by the US in Afghanistan were built by the US and its allies, years before. The US and Saudi Arabia gave the Afghans between $6 billion and $40 billion to fight the Soviets in the 1980s (see [[ a122679invasion ]]). Many of the people targeted by the missile attacks were trained and equipped by the CIA years before. [[ /timeline/1990s/nyt082498.html | New York Times, 8/24/98 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((- Soviet Union )) ((- Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- United States )) ((- Saudi Arabia )) [[ | A satellite image of the Zhawar Kili training camp in Afghanistan, taken shortly before it was hit by a US missile strike in August, 1998. ]] August 27, 1998 Delenda Plan to Combat al-Qaeda Is Prepared a082798delenda false 1 ------ Following the cruise missile attack on al-Qaeda targets on August 20 (see [[ a082098isitipoff ]]), immediate plans are made for follow up attacks to make sure bin Laden is killed. However, on this day, Defense Secretary William Cohen is advised that available targets are not promising. Some question the use of expensive missiles to hit very primitive training camps, and there is the concern that if bin Laden is not killed, his stature will only grow further. As discussions continue, counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; Richard Clarke prepares a plan he calls &#8220;Delenda,&#8221; which means &#8220;to destroy&#8221; in Latin. His idea is to have regular, small strikes in Afghanistan whenever the intelligence warrants it. The plan is rejected. Counterterrorism officials in the Defense Secretary's office independently create a similar plan, but it too is rejected. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404b.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (B) ]] ------ The Delenda Plan also calls for diplomacy against the Taliban, covert action focused in Afghanistan, and financial measures to freeze bin Laden-related funds. These aspects are not formally adopted, but they guide future efforts. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404d.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (D) ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((- Taliban )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) ((+ William S. Cohen )) ((+ Military Industrial Corporation )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) Late August 1998 Captured Al-Qaeda Operatives Leads US to Safe House Phone Number a0898captured false 1 ------ An al-Qaeda operative involved in the bombing of the US embassy in Nairobi is captured and interrogated by the FBI. The FBI learns the telephone number of a safe house in Yemen, owned by bin Laden associate Ahmed al-Hada, hijacker Khalid Almihdhar's father-in-law [[ | Newsweek, 6/2/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/diezeit100102.html | Die Zeit, 10/1/02 ]] ------ US intelligence also learns that the safe house is an al-Qaeda &#8220;logistics center,&#8221; used by agents around the world to communicate with each other and plan attacks. [[ | Newsweek, 6/2/02 ]] ------ It is later revealed that bin Laden called the safe house dozens of times from 1996 to 1998 (the two years he had a traced satellite phone). [[ /timeline/2002/sundaytimes032402.html | Sunday Times, 3/24/02 ]] [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/1/02 ]] ------ The NSA and CIA jointly plant bugs inside the house, tap the phones, and monitor visitors with spy satellites. [[ /timeline/2002/mirror060902.html | Mirror, 6/9/02 ]] ------ The NSA later records Khalid Almihdhar and other hijackers calling this house, including calls from the US. In late 1999, the phone line will lead the CIA to an important al-Qaeda meeting in Malaysia. [[ | Newsweek, 6/2/02 ]] ------ It appears al-Qaeda continues to use this phone line until the safe house is raided by the Yemeni government in February 2002. [[ | CBS News, 2/13/02 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ Ahmed al-Hada )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ National Security Agency )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) Late August 1998 CIA Learns That Mohammed Was Involved in the African Embassy Bombings a0898ksmnairobi false 1 ------ A foreign government sends the CIA a list of the names of individuals who flew into Nairobi before the al-Qaeda attack on the US embassy there (see [[ a080798embassy ]]). Based on information from another agency, the CIA recognizes one of the passenger's names as an alias for Khalid Shaikh Mohammed. The other agency also describes Mohammed as being close to bin Laden. This information is given to the FBI and other US intelligence agencies. However, the 9/11 Commission claims that such information does not generate an aggressive investigative response. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] ====== << khalidShaikMohammed >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ 9/11 Commission )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) Late August 1998 Al-Qaeda Planning US Attack, but Not Yet Ready a0898notready false 1 ------ The FBI learns that al-Qaeda is planning an attack on the US, but &#8220;things are not ready yet. We don't have everything prepared,&#8221; according to a captured member of the al-Qaeda cell that bombed the US embassy in Kenya. [[ | USA Today, 8/29/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) September 1998 Memo Outlines al-Qaeda's US Infrastructure a0998memorandum false 1 ------ US intelligence authors a memorandum detailing al-Qaeda's infrastructure in the US. This memo, which includes information regarding al-Qaeda's use of fronts for terrorist activities [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] ------ , is provided to senior US officials. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- al-Qaeda )) September 1998-July 1999 FBI Conducts Inquiry of Suspected al-Qaeda Advance Man a0998bayoumiinquiry false 1 ------ The FBI conducts a counterterrorism inquiry on Omar al-Bayoumi, suspected al-Qaeda advance man, and possible Saudi agent. The FBI discovers he has been in contact with several people also under investigation. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ The FBI is given a tip that he was sent a suspicious package filled with wire from the Middle East, and that large numbers of Arab men routinely meet in his apartment. His landlord notices that he switches from driving a beat up old car to a new Mercedes [[ | Newsweek, 7/28/03 ]] ------ According to the 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, the FBI notes that al-Bayoumi has &#8220;access to seemingly unlimited funding from Saudi Arabia.&#8221; For instance, an FBI source identifies him as a person who has delivered about $500,000 from Saudi Arabia to buy a mosque in June 1998 (see [[ a0698unknownbenefactor ]]). However, the FBI closes the inquiry &#8220;for reasons that remain unclear .&#8221; [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ Also in 1999, al-Bayoumi is working as an employee of the Saudi company Dallah Avco but apparently is doing no work. Someone in the company tries to fire him and sends a note to the Saudi government about this, since the company is so closely tied to the government. However, Mohammed Ahmed al-Salmi, the Director General of Civil Aviation, replies that it is &#8220;extremely urgent&#8221; his job is renewed &#8220;as quickly as possible,&#8221; and so he keeps his job. [[ | Wall Street Journal, 8/11/03 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Omar al-Bayoumi )) ((+ Dallah Avco )) ((+ Mohammed Ahmed al-Salmi )) [[ | Omar al-Bayoumi. ]] September 1998 Bin Laden's Next Operations May Involve Crashing Airplane into US Airport a0998airportcrash false 1 ------ US intelligence uncovers information that bin Laden's next operation could possibly involve crashing an aircraft loaded with explosives into a US airport. This information is provided to senior US officials. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] [[;node=&amp;contentId=A36754-2002Sep18&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 9/19/02 (B) ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) Autumn 1998 Rumors of bin Laden Plot Involving Aircraft in New York and Washington Surface Again aautumn98newyork false 1 ------ US intelligence hears of a bin Laden plot involving aircraft in the New York and Washington areas. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] [[ | New York Times, 9/18/02 ]] ------ In December it will learn that al-Qaeda plans to hijack US aircraft are proceeding well and that two individuals have successfully evaded checkpoints in a dry run at a New York airport. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) September 20, 1998 Al-Qaeda Operative Arrest in Germany Leads to New German Suspects a092098salim false 1 ------ Mamdouh Mahmud Salim, an al-Qaeda operative from the United Arab Emirates connected to the 1998 US embassy bombings, is arrested near Munich, Germany. [[ | PBS Newshour, 9/30/98 ]] ------ In retrospect, it appears he was making one of many visits to the al-Qaeda cells in Germany. [[ | Corbin, 2003, pp 147 ]] ------ US investigators later call him bin Laden's &#8220;right hand man.&#8221; [[ | New York Times, 9/29/01 ]] ------ However, the FBI is unwilling to brief their German counterparts on what they know about Salim and al-Qaeda, despite learning much that could have been useful as part of their investigation into the US embassy bombings. By the end of the year, German investigators learn that Salim has a Hamburg bank account. [[ | New York Times, 9/29/01 ]] ------ The cosignatory on the account is businessman Mamoun Darkazanli, whose home number had been programmed into Salim's cell phone. [[ /timeline/2002/chicagotribune111702.html | Chicago Tribune, 11/17/02 ]] ------ US intelligence had first investigated Darkazanli in 1993, when a suspect was found with his telephone number [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ , and German authorities had begun to suspect Darkazanli of money laundering for Islamic militant groups in 1996. Wadih El-Hage, a former personal secretary to bin Laden, is also arrested in the wake of the embassy bombings. El-Hage had created a number of shell companies as fronts for al-Qaeda activities, and one of these uses the address of Darkazanli's apartment. [[ /timeline/2002/chicagotribune111702.html | Chicago Tribune, 11/17/02 ]] ------ Darkazanli's phone number and Deutsche Bank account number are also found in El-Hage's address book. [[ | CNN, 10/16/01 ]] ------ The FBI also discovers that Darkazanli had power of attorney over a bank account of Hajer, a person on al-Qaeda's supreme council. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ Based on these new connections, investigators ask a federal prosecutor for permission to open a formal investigation against Darkazanli. An investigation reportedly begins, at the insistence of the US, though Germany has claimed the request for the investigation was rejected [[ /timeline/2001/afp102801.html | Agence France-Presse, 10/28/01 ]] [[;position=top | New York Times, 1/18/03 ]] ------ German investigators also learn of a connection between Salim and Mohammed Haydar Zammar, who is already identified by police in 1997 as a suspected extremist. [[ /timeline/2002/ap062202.html | Associated Press, 6/22/02 ]] [[;position=top | New York Times, 1/18/03 ]] ====== << alQaedaInGermany >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Mamdouh Mahmud Salim )) ((+ Mohammed Haydar Zammar )) ((- Deutsche Bank )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Germany )) ((+ Wadih El-Hage )) ((- Mamoun Darkazanli )) [[ | Mamdouh Mahmud Salim. ]] September 23, 1998 US Administration Officials Confirm No Direct bin Laden Link to Sudanese Factory a092398shifa false 1 ------ Senior Clinton administration officials admit they had no evidence directly linking bin Laden to the Al Shifa factory at the time of retaliatory strikes on August 20. However, intelligence officials assert that they found financial transactions between bin Laden and the Military Industrial Corporation&#8212;a company run by the Sudan's government. [[ /timeline/1998/nyt092398.html | New York Times, 9/23/98 ]] [[ | PBS Frontline, 2001 ]] ------ A soil sample is said to show that the pharmaceutical factory was producing chemical weapons, but many doubts about the sample later arise. [[ /timeline/1990s/nyt092198.html | New York Times, 9/21/98 ]] [[ | New Yorker, 10/12/98 ]] ------ The US later unfreezes the bank accounts of the nominal factory owner and takes other conciliatory actions, but admits no wrongdoing. It is later learned that of the six camps targeted in Afghanistan, only four were hit, and of those, only one had definitive connections to bin Laden. Clinton declares that the missiles were aimed at a &#8220;gathering of key terrorist leaders,&#8221; but it is later revealed that the referenced meeting took place a month earlier, in Pakistan. [[ /timeline/1990s/observer082398.html | Observer, 8/23/98 ]] [[ | New Yorker, 1/24/00 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ William Jefferson ("Bill") Clinton )) ((- Military Industrial Corporation )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Clinton administration )) October 1998 Chicago FBI Investigation of al-Qaeda Funding Is Thwarted a1098alqadi false 1 ------ FBI agents Robert Wright and John Vincent, tracking a terrorist cell in Chicago, are told to simply follow suspects around town and file reports. The two agents believe some of the money used to finance the 1998 US embassy bombing in Africa leads back to Chicago and Saudi multimillionaire businessman Yassin al-Qadi. Supervisors try, but temporarily fail, to halt the investigation into al-Qadi's possible terrorist connections. However, at this time, a supervisor prohibits Wright and Vincent from making any arrests connected to the bombings, or opening new criminal investigations. Even though they believe their case is growing stronger, in January 2001, Wright is told that the Chicago case is being closed and that &#8220;it's just better to let sleeping dogs lie.&#8221; Wright tells ABC: &#8220;Those dogs weren't sleeping, they were training, they were getting ready. ... September the 11th is a direct result of the incompetence of the FBI's International Terrorism Unit. ... Absolutely no doubt about that.&#8221; Chicago federal prosecutor Mark Flessner, also working on the case, says there &#8220;were powers bigger than I was in the Justice Department and within the FBI that simply were not going to let [the building of a criminal case] happen.&#8221; Wright will write an internal FBI memo harshly criticizing their decisions regarding the case in June 2001. Al-Qadi is named in a March 2000 affidavit as a source of terrorist funds in Chicago. [[ | ABC News, 11/26/02 ]] [[ | ABC News, 12/19/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/abcnews121902b.html | ABC News, 12/19/02 (B) ]] ------ He is also on secret US and UN lists of major al-Qaeda financiers. His charity, the Muwafaq Foundation, is allegedly an al-Qaeda front that transferred $820,000 to the Palestinian group Hamas through a Muslim foundation called the Quranic Literacy Institute. (The date of the transfer has not been released.) [[ | CNN, 10/15/01 (B) ]] ------ Al-Qadi says he shut down Muwafaq in 1996, but the charity has received money from the United Nations since then. [[ | BBC, 10/20/01 ]] [[ | CNN, 10/15/01 (B) ]] ====== << saudis >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ US Department of Justice )) ((+ International Terrorism Unit )) ((+ Muwafaq Foundation )) ((+ Mark Flessner )) ((+ John Vincent )) ((+ Robert Wright )) ((+ Hamas )) ((- Yassin al-Qadi )) ((+ Quranic Literacy Institute )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) [[ | FBI agents John Vincent (left), and Robert Wright (right). ]] October-November 1998 Al-Qaeda US-based Recruiting Efforts Uncovered a1098within false 1 ------ US intelligence learns al-Qaeda is trying to establish a cell within the US. There are indications that the organization might be trying to recruit US citizens. In the next month, there is information that a terror cell in the United Arab Emirates is attempting to recruit a group of five to seven young men from the US to travel to the Middle East for training. This is part of a plan to strike a US domestic target. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- al-Qaeda )) October 1998 Military Analyst Goes Where Spies Fail to Go, but Her Efforts Are Rejected a1098juliesirrs false 1 ------ Julie Sirrs, a military analyst for the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), travels to Afghanistan. Fluent in local languages and knowledgeable about the culture, she had made a previous undercover trip there in October 1997. She is surprised that the CIA was not interested in sending in agents after the failed missile attack on bin Laden in August 1998, so she returns at this time. Traveling undercover, she meets with Northern Alliance leader Ahmed Shah Massoud. She sees a terrorist training center in Taliban-controlled territory. Sirrs claims, &#8220;The Taliban's brutal regime was being kept in power significantly by bin Laden's money, plus the narcotics trade, while [Massoud's] resistance was surviving on a shoestring. With even a little aid to the Afghan resistance, we could have pushed the Taliban out of power. But there was great reluctance by the State Department and the CIA to undertake that.&#8221; She partly blames the interest of the US government and the oil company Unocal to see the Taliban achieve political stability to enable a trans-Afghanistan pipeline (see [[ a0596stability ]]) (see [[ a092796kabul ]]). She claims, &#8220;Massoud told me he had proof that Unocal had provided money that helped the Taliban take Kabul.&#8221; She also states, &#8220;The State Department didn't want to have anything to do with Afghan resistance, or even, politically, to reveal that there was any viable option to the Taliban.&#8221; After two weeks, she returns with a treasure trove of maps, photographs, and interviews. [[ /timeline/2004/nyobserver031104.html | New York Observer, 3/11/04 ]] [[ | ABC News, 2/18/02 ]] ------ By interviewing captured al-Qaeda operatives, she learns that the official Afghanistan airline, Ariana Airlines, is being used to ferry weapons and drugs, and learns that bin Laden goes hunting with &#8220;rich Saudis and top Taliban officials&#8221; (see [[ a1996ariana ]]) (see [[ a95hunting ]]). [[,0,7388562.story | Los Angeles Times, 11/18/01 (B) ]] ------ When she returns from Afghanistan, her material is confiscated and she is accused of being a spy. Says one senior colleague, &#8220;She had gotten the proper clearances to go, and she came back with valuable information,&#8221; but high level officials &#8220;were so intent on getting rid of her, the last thing they wanted to pay attention to was any information she had.&#8221; She is cleared of wrongdoing, but her security clearance is pulled. She eventually quits the DIA in frustration. [[ /timeline/2004/nyobserver031104.html | New York Observer, 3/11/04 ]] [[ | ABC News, 2/18/02 ]] ------ She claims that US intelligence on bin Laden and the Taliban relied too heavily on the ISI for its information. [[ /timeline/2002/abcnews021802b.html | ABC News, 2/18/02 (B) ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> << drugs >> << pipelinePolitics >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Taliban )) ((- Northern Alliance )) ((+ Ahmed Shah Massoud )) ((- Ariana Airlines )) ((- US Department of State )) ((- Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Julie Sirrs )) ((+ Defense Intelligence Agency )) ((- Unocal )) [[ | Julie Sirrs. ]] October 8, 1998 FAA Warns of al-Qaeda Threat to US Civil Aviation a100898warnings false 1 ------ The FAA issues the first of three 1998 warnings to US airports and airlines urging a &#8220;high degree of vigilance&#8221; against threats to US civil aviation from al-Qaeda. It specifically warns against a possible terrorist hijacking &#8220;at a metropolitan airport in the Eastern United States.&#8221; The information is based on statements made by bin Laden and other Islamic leaders and intelligence information obtained after the US cruise missile attacks in August. All three warnings come in late 1998, well before 9/11. [[ /timeline/2002/bostonglobe052602.html | Boston Globe, 5/26/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Federal Aviation Administration )) November 1, 1998-February 2001 Atta and Other Islamic Militants Are Monitored by US and Germany in Hamburg Apartment a110198marien false 1 ------ Mohamed Atta and al-Qaeda operatives Said Bahaji and Ramzi Bin al-Shibh move into a four bedroom apartment at 54 Marienstrasse, in Hamburg, Germany, and stay there until February 2001 (Atta is already living primarily in the US well before this time). Investigators believe this move marks the formation of their Hamburg al-Qaeda cell [[ | Los Angeles Times, 1/27/02 ]] [[ | New York Times, 9/10/02 ]] ------ Up to six men at a time live at the apartment, including other al-Qaeda agents such as hijacker Marwan Alshehhi and cell member Zakariya Essabar. [[ | New York Times, 9/15/01 (F) ]] ------ During the 28 months Atta's name is on the apartment lease, 29 Middle Eastern or North African men register the apartment as their home address. From the very beginning, the apartment was officially under surveillance by German intelligence, because of investigations into businessman Mamoun Darkazanli that connect to Said Bahaji. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A39318-2001Oct23&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 10/23/01 ]] ------ The Germans also suspect connections between Bahaji and al-Qaeda operative Mohammed Haydar Zammar. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/1/02 ]] ------ German intelligence monitors the apartment off and on for months, and wiretaps Mounir El Motassadeq, an associate of the apartment-mates who is later put on trial in August 2002 for assisting the 9/11 plot, but apparently do not find any indication of suspicious activity. [[,0,5055267.story?coll=chi-newsspecials-hed | Chicago Tribune, 9/5/02 ]] ------ Bahaji is directly monitored at least for part of 1998, but German officials have not disclosed when the probe began or ended. That investigation is dropped for lack of evidence. [[ /timeline/2002/ap062202.html | Associated Press, 6/22/02 ]] [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/1/02 ]] ------ It is now clear that investigators would have found evidence if they looked more thoroughly. For instance, Zammar, a talkative man who has trouble keeping secrets, is a frequent visitor to the many late night meetings there. [[,0,5055267.story?coll=chi-newsspecials-hed | Chicago Tribune, 9/5/02 ]] [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/1/02 ]] [[ | Miller, Stone, and Mitchell, 2002, pp 259-60 ]] ------ Another visitor later recalls Atta and others discussing attacking the US. [[ | Knight Ridder, 9/9/02 ]] ------ 9/11 mastermind Khalid Shaikh Mohammed is in Hamburg several times in 1999, and comes to the apartment. However, although there was a $2 million reward for Mohammed since 1998, the US apparently fails to tell Germany what it knows about him (see [[ a1999ksmvisit ]]). [[ | New York Times, 11/4/02 ]] [[ | Newsweek, 9/4/02 ]] ------ Hijacker Waleed Alshehri also apparently stays at the apartment &#8220;at times.&#8221; [[ | Washington Post, 9/14/01 ]] [[ | Washington Post, 9/16/01 (B) ]] ------ The CIA also starts monitoring Atta while he is living at this apartment, and does not tell Germany of the surveillance. Remarkably, the German government will claim it knew little about the Hamburg al-Qaeda cell before 9/11, and nothing directed them towards the Marienstrasse apartment. [[ /timeline/2001/telegraph112401.html | Daily Telegraph, 11/24/01 ]] ====== << alQaedaInGermany >> << mohamedAtta >> << marwanAlshehhi >> ((+ Mohamed Atta )) ((+ Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((+ Zakariya Essabar )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Ramzi Bin al-Shibh )) ((+ Germany )) ((+ Mounir El Motassadeq )) ((+ Said Bahaji )) ((+ Mohammed Haydar Zammar )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Marwan Alshehhi )) ((- Mamoun Darkazanli )) [[ | The Marienstrasse building. ]] November 1998 Turkish Extremists' Plan to Crash Airplane into Famous Tomb Uncovered a1198turkish false 1 ------ US intelligence learns that a Turkish extremist group named Kaplancilar had planned a suicide attack. The conspirators, who were arrested, planned to crash an airplane packed with explosives into a famous tomb during a government ceremony. The Turkish press said the group had cooperated with bin Laden and the FBI includes this incident in a bin Laden database. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- Kaplancilar )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) November 1998 Former President George H. W. Bush Meets with bin Laden Family a1198bushbinladen false 1 ------ Former President George H. W. Bush meets with the bin Laden family on behalf of the Carlyle Group. The meeting takes place in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. [[ | Sunday Herald, 10/7/01 ]] ====== << saudis >> << binladenFamily >> ((+ Bin Laden Family )) ((+ George Herbert Walker Bush )) ((+ Carlyle Group )) November 4, 1998 US Issues Public Indictment of bin Laden, Others for Embassy Bombings a110498indictment false 1 ------ The US publicly indicts bin Laden, Mohammed Atef, and others for the US embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania. Bin Laden had been secretly indicted on different charges earlier in the year in June. Record $5 million rewards are announced for information leading to his arrest and the arrest of Mohammed Atef. [[ | PBS Frontline, 2001 ]] ------ Shortly thereafter, bin Laden allocates $9 million in reward money for the assassinations of four US government officials in response to the reward on him. A year later, it is learned that the secretary of state, defense secretary, FBI director, and CIA director are the targets. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/msnbc091802.html | MSNBC, 9/18/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ United States )) ((- Mohammed Atef )) ((- George Tenet )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((- Louis J. Freeh )) ((- Madeleine Albright )) ((- William S. Cohen )) December 1998 US Locates bin Laden; Declines to Strike a1298nostrike false 1 ------ US intelligence learns that bin Laden is staying at a particular location in Afghanistan, and missile strikes are readied against him. However, principal advisers to President Clinton agree not to recommend a strike because of doubts about the intelligence and worries about collateral damage. In the wake of this incident, officials attempt to find alternatives to cruise missiles, such a precision strike aircraft. However, US Central Command Chief General Anthony Zinni is apparently opposed to deployment of these aircraft near Afghanistan, and they are not deployed. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404b.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (B) ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ Anthony Zinni )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Clinton administration )) December 1, 1998 Bin Laden Actively Planning Attacks Inside US a120198assessment false 1 ------ According to a US intelligence assessment, &#8220;[bin Laden] is actively planning against US targets and already may have positioned operatives for at least one operation. ... Multiple reports indicate [he] is keenly interested in striking the US on its own soil ... Al-Qaeda is recruiting operatives for attacks in the US but has not yet identified potential targets.&#8221; Later in the month, a classified document prepared by the CIA and signed by President Clinton states: &#8220;The intelligence community has strong indications that bin Laden intends to conduct or sponsor attacks inside the US&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] [[;node=&amp;contentId=A36754-2002Sep18&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 9/19/02 (B) ]] [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] ====== << warnings >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ William Jefferson ("Bill") Clinton )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) December 4, 1998 CIA Issues Ineffective Declaration of War on al-Qaeda a120498ciadeclareswar false 1 ------ CIA Director Tenet issues a &#8220;declaration of war&#8221; on al-Qaeda, in a memorandum circulated in the intelligence community. This is ten months after bin Laden's fatwa on the US (see [[ a022298fatwaexpands ]]), which is called a &#8220;de facto declaration of war&#8221; by a senior US official in 1999. Tenet says, &#8220;We must now enter a new phase in our effort against bin Laden. ... each day we all acknowledge that retaliation is inevitable and that its scope may be far larger than we have previously experienced. ... We are at war. ... I want no resources or people spared in this efforts [sic], either inside CIA or the [larger intelligence] community.&#8221; Yet a Congressional joint committee later finds that few FBI agents ever hear of the declaration. Tenet's fervor does not &#8220;reach the level in the field that is critical so [FBI agents] know what their priorities are.&#8221; In addition, even as the counterterrorism budget continues to grow generally, there is no massive shift in budget or personnel until after 9/11. For example, the number of CIA personnel assigned to the Counter Terrorism Center (CTC) stays roughly constant until 9/11, then nearly doubles from approximately 400 to approximately 800 in the wake of 9/11. The number of CTC analysts focusing on al-Qaeda rises from three in 1999 to five by 9/11. [[ | New York Times, 9/18/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Counterterrorist Center )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ George Tenet )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) December 5, 1998 Unocal Abandons Afghan Pipeline Project a120598unocalwithdraw false 1 ------ Unocal announces it is withdrawing from the CentGas pipeline consortium, and closing three of its four offices in Central Asia. President Clinton refuses to extend diplomatic recognition to the Taliban, making business there legally problematic. A concern that Clinton will lose support among women voters for upholding the Taliban plays a role in the cancellation. [[ /timeline/1990s/nyt120598.html | New York Times, 12/5/98 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> ((+ Unocal )) ((+ Taliban )) ((+ William Jefferson ("Bill") Clinton )) ((+ Energy Information Agency )) December 21, 1998 Bin Laden May Be Planning Attacks on New York and Washington a122198huntforosama false 1 ------ In a Time magazine cover story entitled &#8220;The Hunt for Osama,&#8221; it is reported that intelligence sources &#8220;have evidence that bin Laden may be planning his boldest move yet&#8212;a strike on Washington or possibly New York City in an eye-for-an-eye retaliation. &#8216;We've hit his headquarters, now he hits ours,&#8217; says a State Department aide.&#8221; [[ /timeline/1990s/time122198.html | Time, 12/21/98 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) Late 1998 Al-Qaeda Leader Located in Sudan, but US Does Not Try to Capture Him alate98atef false 1 ------ Intelligence agents learn Mohammed Atef (also known as Abu Hafs)&#8212;head of Islamic Jihad and one of the top three leaders of al-Qaeda [[ | ABC News, 11/17/01 ]] ------ &#8212; is staying in a particular hotel room in Khartoum, Sudan. White House officials ask that Atef be killed or captured and interrogated. International capture operations of wanted militants, a practice known as &#8220;rendition,&#8221; have become routine by the mid-1990s (see [[ torture,_rendition,_and_other_abuses_against_captives_in_iraq,_afghanistan,_and_elsewhere_854 ]]), but in this case, both the Defense Department and the CIA are against it, although Atef does not even have bodyguards. The CIA puts the operation in the &#8220;too hard to do box,&#8221; according to one former official. The CIA says it is incapable of conducting such an operation in Sudan, but in the same year, the CIA conducts another spy mission in the same city. [[ | New York Times, 12/30/01 ]] [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 143-46 ]] ------ A plan is eventually made to seize him, but by then he has left the country. [[ | New York Times, 12/30/01 ]] ------ Atef is considered a top planner of the 9/11 attacks, and is later killed in a bombing raid in November 2001 (see [[ a111501atefdead ]]). ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ US Department of Defense )) ((+ Clinton administration )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Mohammed Atef )) Late 1998-2000 US Administration Officials Seek Ground-Based Plan to Kill bin Laden alate98blackninjas false 1 ------ National Security Adviser Sandy Berger and Secretary of State Madeleine Albright repeatedly seek consideration of a &#8220;boots on the ground&#8221; option to kill bin Laden, using the elite Delta Force. Clinton also supports the idea, telling Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman Henry Shelton, &#8220;You know, it would scare the sh_t out of al-Qaeda if suddenly a bunch of black ninjas rappelled out of helicopters into the middle of their camp.&#8221; However, Shelton says he wants &#8220;nothing to do&#8221; with such an idea. He calls it naive, and ridicules it as &#8220;going Hollywood.&#8221; He says he would need a large force, not just a small team. [[ | Washington Post, 12/19/01 ]] ------ US Central Command chief General Anthony Zinni is considered the chief opponent to the &#8220;boots on the ground&#8221; idea. [[ | Washington Post, 10/2/02 ]] ------ Clinton orders &#8220;formal planning for a mission to capture the al-Qaeda leadership.&#8221; Reports are contradictory, but some claim Clinton was told such plans were drawn up when in fact they were not. [[ /timeline/2002/time080402.html | Time, 8/4/02 ]] [[ | Washington Post, 10/2/02 ]] ------ In any event, no such plans are implemented. ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ Henry H. Shelton )) ((+ William Jefferson ("Bill") Clinton )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Sandy Berger )) ((- Delta Force )) ((- Anthony Zinni )) ((+ Madeleine Albright )) [[ | Henry Shelton. ]] Late 1998 Failed Missile Attack Said to Increase bin Laden's Stature in Muslim World alate98binladenstature false 1 ------ According to reports, the failed US missile attack against bin Laden on August 20, 1998 greatly elevates bin Laden's stature in the Muslim world. A US defense analyst later states, &#8220;I think that raid really helped elevate bin Laden's reputation in a big way, building him up in the Muslim world. ... My sense is that because the attack was so limited and incompetent, we turned this guy into a folk hero.&#8221; [[;node=&amp;contentId=A61219-2001Oct2Found=true | Washington Post, 10/3/01 (C) ]] ------ An Asia Times article published just prior to 9/11 suggests that because of the failed attack, &#8220;a very strong Muslim lobby emerge[s] to protect [bin Laden's] interests. This includes Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah, as well as senior Pakistani generals. Crown Prince Abdullah has good relations with bin Laden as both are disciples of slain Sheikh Abdullah Azzam (see [[ a85azzam ]]).&#8221; [[ | Asia Times, 8/22/01 ]] ------ In early 1999, Pakistani President Musharraf complains that by demonizing bin Laden, the US has turned him into a cult hero. The US decides to play down the importance of bin Laden. [[ /timeline/2001/upi061401.html?StoryID=1 | UPI, 6/14/01 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> << saudis >> << isi >> ((- Abdullah Azzam )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Pervez Musharraf )) ((- Abdullah bin Abdulaziz al-Saud )) Late 1998 Taliban Stall Pipeline Negotiations to Keep Western Powers at Bay alate98atefmemo false 1 ------ During the investigation of the August 7, 1998 US embassy bombings (see [[ a080798embassy ]]), FBI counterterrorism expert John O'Neill finds a memo by al-Qaeda leader Mohammed Atef on a computer. The memo shows that bin Laden's group has a keen interest in and detailed knowledge of negotiations between the Taliban and the US over an oil and gas pipeline through Afghanistan. Atef's analysis suggests that the Taliban are not sincere in wanting a pipeline, but are dragging out negotiations to keep Western powers at bay. [[ | Salon, 6/5/02 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ Mohammed Atef )) ((- United States )) ((+ John O'Neill )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((- Taliban )) Late 1998 Clinton Signs More Directives Authorizing CIA to Plan bin Laden Assassination alate98moredirectives false 1 ------ President Clinton signs additional, more explicit directives authorizing the CIA to plan the assassination of bin Laden. The initial emphasis is on capturing bin Laden and only killing him if the capture attempt is unsuccessful. The military is unhappy about this, so Clinton continues to sign additional directives before leaving office, each one authorizing the use of lethal force more clearly than the one before. [[ | Washington Post, 2/22/04 (B) ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ William Jefferson ("Bill") Clinton )) Late 1998 Key Embassy Bombing Witnesses Are Beheaded Before They Can Talk to FBI alate98oneillfrustrated false 1 ------ FBI counterterrorism expert John O'Neill and his team investigating the 1998 US embassy bombings are repeatedly frustrated by the Saudi government. Guillaume Dasqui&#233;, one of the authors of The Forbidden Truth, later tells the Village Voice: &#8220;We uncovered incredible things. ... Investigators would arrive to find that key witnesses they were about to interrogate had been beheaded the day before.&#8221; [[ | Village Voice, 1/2/02 ]] [[ | Brisard, Dasquie and Madsen, 2002, pp xxix ]] ====== << saudis >> ((+ John O'Neill )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) 1999 FBI Creates bin Laden Unit a1999focus false 1 ------ The FBI creates its own unit to focus specifically on bin Laden, three years after the CIA created such a special unit. By 9/11, 17 to 19 people are working in this unit out of over 11,000 FBI staff. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) 1999 Neighbors Report Suspicious Activities to CIA; No Apparent Response a99orrinstreet false 1 ------ Diane and John Albritton later say they call the CIA and police several times this year to report suspicious activity at a neighbor's home, but authorities fail to respond. [[ | MSNBC, 9/23/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/nydailynews091501.html | New York Daily News, 9/15/01 ]] ------ Hijacker Waleed Alshehri is renting the house on Orrin Street in Vienna, Virginia, at the time (three blocks from a CIA facility). [[ | Associated Press, 9/15/01 (B) ]] ------ He makes his neighbors nervous. &#8220;There were always people coming and going,&#8221; said Diane Albritton. &#8220;Arabic people. Some of them never uttered a word; I don't know if they spoke English. But they looked very focused. We thought they might be dealing drugs, or illegal immigrants.&#8221; [[ | New York Times, 9/15/01 (B) ]] ------ Ahmed Alghamdi lived at the same address until July 2000. [[ /timeline/2002/foxnews060602.html | Fox News, 6/6/02 ]] [[ | World Net Daily, 9/14/01 ]] ------ Waleed Alshehri lived with Ahmed Alghamdi in Florida for seven months in 1997. [[ /timeline/2001/telegraph092001.html | Daily Telegraph, 9/20/01 ]] ------ Albritton says they observed a van parked outside the home at all hours of the day and night. A Middle Eastern man appeared to be monitoring a scanner or radio inside the van. Another neighbor says, &#8220;We thought it was a drug house. All the cars parked on the street were new BMWs, new Mercedes. People were always walking around out front with cell phones.&#8221; There were frequent wild parties, numerous complaints to authorities, and even a police report about a woman shooting a gun into the air during a party. [[ | World Net Daily, 9/14/01 ]] ------ Other neighbors also called the police about the house. [[ /timeline/2001/ap091401b.html | Associated Press, 9/14/01 (B) ]] ------ &#8220;Critics say [the case] could have made a difference [in stopping 9/11] had it been handled differently.&#8221; Standard procedures require the CIA to notify the FBI of such domestic information. However, FBI officials have not been able to find any record that the CIA shared the information. [[ /timeline/2002/foxnews060602.html | Fox News, 6/6/02 ]] ------ FBI Director Mueller has said &#8220;the hijackers did all they could to stay below our radar.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/mueller050802.html | Senate Judiciary Statement, 5/8/02 ]] ====== << otherHijackers >> ((+ Robert S. Mueller III )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Waleed M. Alshehri )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Diane Albritton )) ((+ Ahmed Alghamdi )) ((+ John Albritton )) [[ | The Vienna, Virginia, house where Waleed Alshehri and Ahmed Alghamdi lived. ]] 1999 CIA Purportedly Establishes Network of Agents Throughout Afghanistan, Central Asia a99agentnetwork false 1 ------ CIA Director Tenet later claims that in this year, the CIA establishes a network of local agents throughout Afghanistan and other countries aimed at capturing bin Laden and his deputies. (( George Tenet )) [[ | UPI, 10/17/02 ]] ------ Tenet states that by 9/11, &#8220;a map would show that these collection programs and human networks were in place in such numbers to nearly cover Afghanistan. This array means that, when the military campaign to topple the Taliban and destroy al-Qaeda [begins in October 2001], we [are] able to support it with an enormous body of information and a large stable of assets.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry101702.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 10/17/02 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((- Taliban )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) 1999 US Ready to Fight For Oil, Especially in Persian Gulf and Caspian Regions a99uswantsoil false 1 ------ A top level US policy document explicitly confirms the US military's readiness to fight a war for oil. The report, Strategic Assessment 1999, prepared for the US Joint Chiefs of Staff and the secretary of defense, states, &#8220;energy and resource issues will continue to shape international security,&#8221; and if an oil &#8220;problem&#8221; arises, &#8220;US forces might be used to ensure adequate supplies.&#8221; Oil conflicts over production facilities and transport routes, particularly in the Persian Gulf and Caspian regions, are specifically envisaged. [[ | Sydney Morning Herald, 5/20/03 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> << iraq >> << motivesBehindWar >> ((+ United States )) 1999 British Intelligence Warns al-Qaeda Plans to Use Aircraft, Possibly as Flying Bombs a99flyingbombs false 1 ------ MI6, the British intelligence agency, gives a secret report to liaison staff at the US embassy in London. The reports states that al-Qaeda has plans to use &#8220;commercial aircraft&#8221; in &#8220;unconventional ways,&#8221; &#8220;possibly as flying bombs.&#8221; [[ | Sunday Times, 6/9/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> << foreignIntelligence >> ((+ UK Secret Intelligence Service )) ((- al-Qaeda )) 1999 Joint CIA-NSA Project Taps into al-Qaeda's Tactical Radios a99radios false 1 ------ A joint project team run by the CIA and NSA slips into Afghanistan and places listening devices within range of al-Qaeda's tactical radios. [[ | Washington Post, 12/19/01 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ National Security Agency )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- al-Qaeda )) 1999 French Observe Moussaoui Traveling Between London, Pakistan, and Afghanistan a99moussaoui false 1 ------ Zacarias Moussaoui, living in London, is observed by French intelligence making several trips to Pakistan and Afghanistan. French investigators later claim the British spy agency MI5 was alerted and requested to place Moussaoui under surveillance. The request appears to have been ignored. [[ | Independent, 12/11/01 ]] ====== << moussaoui >> ((+ France )) ((+ Zacarias Moussaoui )) ((+ UK Security Service )) [[ | Zacarias Moussaoui in 1989. ]] Early 1999 Memo Calls for New Approach on bin Laden; Focuses on State-Sponsorship, Money Trail a1999sheehan false 1 ------ State Department Coordinator for Counterterrorism Michael Sheehan writes a memo calling for a new approach in containing bin Laden. He urges a series of actions the US could take toward Pakistan, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen to persuade them to help isolate al-Qaeda. He calls Pakistan the key country and urges that terrorism be made the central issue with them. He advises the US to work with all these countries to curb money laundering. However, a former official says Sheehan's plan lands &#8220;with a resounding thud.&#8221; Pakistan continues to &#8220;feign cooperation but [does] little&#8221; about its support for the Taliban. [[ | New York Times, 10/29/01 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- Taliban )) ((+ Michael Sheehan )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Afghanistan )) ((- United Arab Emirates )) ((- Saudi Arabia )) ((+ Clinton administration )) ((+ Pakistan )) ((- Yemen )) 1999 Mohammed Repeatedly Visits Atta, Others in al-Qaeda's Hamburg Cell a1999ksmvisit false 1 ------ Khalid Shaikh Mohammed &#8220;repeatedly&#8221; visits Mohamed Atta and others in the Hamburg al-Qaeda cell. [[ | Associated Press, 8/24/02 ]] ------ US and German officials say a number of sources place Mohammed at Atta's Hamburg apartment, although when he visits, or who he visits while he is there, is unclear. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 6/6/02 ]] [[ | New York Times, 11/4/02 ]] ------ However, it would be logical to conclude that he visits Atta's housemate Ramzi Bin al-Shibh, since investigators believe he is the &#8220;key contact between the pilots&#8221; and Mohammed. [[ /timeline/2003/latimes012703.html | Los Angeles Times, 1/27/03 ]] ------ Mohammed is living elsewhere in Germany at the time. [[ | New York Times, 9/22/02 ]] ------ German intelligence monitors the apartment in 1999 but apparently does not notice Mohammed. US investigators have been searching for Mohammed since 1996, but apparently never tell the Germans what they know about him. [[ | New York Times, 11/4/02 ]] ------ Even after 9/11, German investigators complain that US investigators do not tell them what they know about Mohammed living in Germany until they read it in the newspapers in June 2002. [[ /timeline/2002/nyt061102.html | New York Times, 6/11/02 ]] ====== << khalidShaikMohammed >> << mohamedAtta >> ((+ Ramzi Bin al-Shibh )) ((+ Mohamed Atta )) ((+ Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) 1999 FBI Learns of Militant Group's Plans to Send Students to US for Aviation Training; Investigation Opportunity Bungled a99aviationtraining false 1 ------ The FBI receives reports that a militant organization is planning to send students to the US for aviation training. The organization's name remains classified, but apparently it is a different organization than one mentioned in a very similar warning the year before. The purpose of this training is unknown, but the organization viewed the plan as &#8220;particularly important&#8221; and it approved open-ended funding for it. The Counterterrorism Section at FBI headquarters issues a notice instructing 24 field offices to pay close attention to Islamic students from the target country engaged in aviation training. Ken Williams's squad at the Phoenix FBI office receives this notice, although Williams does not recall reading it. Williams will later write a memo on this very topic in July 2001. The 9/11 Congressional Inquiry later concludes, &#8220;There is no indication that field offices conducted any investigation after receiving the communication.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] ------ However, an analyst at FBI headquarters conducts a study and determines that each year there are about 600 Middle Eastern students attending the slightly over 1,000 US flight schools. [[ | New York Times, 5/4/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] ------ In November 2000, a notice will be issued to the field offices, stating that it has uncovered no indication that the militant group is recruiting students. Apparently, Williams will not see this notice either. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ Ken Williams )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) Between 1999 and September 11, 2001 NORAD Practices Live-Fly Mock Shootdown of a Poison-Filled Jet a99liveflypoisonjet false 1 ------ At some point during the two-year period preceding 9/11, NORAD fighters perform a mock shootdown over the Atlantic Ocean of a jet loaded with chemical poisons heading toward the US. [[ | USA Today, 4/18/04 ]] ====== << militaryExercises >> ((+ North American Aerospace Defense Command )) 1999-September 11, 2001 NORAD Exercise Simulates Crashes into US Buildings; One of Them Is the World Trade Center a99wtccrashsimulation false 1 ------ According to USA Today, &#8220;In the two years before the Sept. 11 attacks, the North American Aerospace Defense Command conduct[s] exercises simulating what the White House [later] says was unimaginable at the time: hijacked airliners used as weapons to crash into targets and cause mass casualties.&#8221; One of these imagined targets is the World Trade Center. According to NORAD, these scenarios are regional drills, rather than regularly scheduled continent-wide exercises. They utilize &#8220;[n]umerous types of civilian and military aircraft&#8221; as mock hijacked aircraft, and test &#8220;track detection and identification; scramble and interception; hijack procedures; internal and external agency coordination; and operational security and communications security procedures.&#8221; The main difference between these drills and the 9/11 attacks is that the planes in the drills are coming from another country, rather than from within the US. Before 9/11, NORAD reportedly conducts four major exercises at headquarters level per year. Most of them are said to include a hijack scenario (see [[ a01multiplehijackings ]]). [[ | USA Today, 4/18/04 ]] [[ | CNN, 4/19/04 ]] ====== << militaryExercises >> ((+ North American Aerospace Defense Command )) ((- World Trade Center )) 1999 9/11 Funder Returns to Britain Without Being Arrested a99saeedinformant false 1 ------ The London Times later claims that British intelligence secretly offers 9/11 paymaster Saeed Sheikh (imprisoned in India from 1994 to December 1999 for kidnapping Britons and Americans) amnesty and the ability to &#8220;live in London a free man&#8221; if he will reveal his links to al-Qaeda. He apparently refuses. [[ /timeline/2002/dailymail071602.html | Daily Mail, 7/16/02 ]] [[,,171-357086,00.html | Times of London, 7/16/02 ]] ------ Yet after he is rescued in a hostage swap deal in December, the press reports that he, in fact, is freely able to return to Britain. [[ /timeline/2000/pti010300.html | Press Trust of India, 1/3/00 ]] ------ He visits his parents there in 2000 and again in early 2001. [[ /timeline/2002/vanityfair0802.html | Vanity Fair, 8/02 ]] [[ | BBC, 7/16/02 (B) ]] [[ | Daily Telegraph, 7/16/02 ]] ------ He is not charged with kidnapping until well after 9/11. Saeed's kidnap victims call the government's decision not to try him a &#8220;disgrace&#8221; and &#8220;scandalous.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2000/pti010300.html | Press Trust of India, 1/3/00 ]] ------ The Pittsburgh Tribune-Review later suggests that not only is Saeed closely tied to both the ISI and al-Qaeda, but may also have been working for the CIA: &#8220;There are many in Musharraf's government who believe that Saeed Sheikh's power comes not from the ISI, but from his connections with our own CIA. The theory is that ... Saeed Sheikh was bought and paid for.&#8221; [[ | Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, 3/3/02 ]] ====== << isi >> ((- Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) ((+ Britain )) ((+ Saeed Sheikh )) ((- al-Qaeda )) Early 1999 NSA Monitoring Hears 9/11 Hijacker Names, This Information Is Not Shared with CIA or FBI aearly99nsamonitors false 1 ------ As the NSA continues to monitor an al-Qaeda safe house in Yemen owned by hijacker Khalid Almihdhar's father-in-law, they find references to Almihdhar and the hijacker brothers, Salem and Nawaf Alhazmi. According to analysts, around late 1999 these men are among their very best sources on al-Qaeda, with &#8220;notorious&#8221; links to the organization and direct links to the 1998 US embassy bombings. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommission012604.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 1/26/04 ]] ------ In early 1999, the NSA intercepts communications mentioning the full name &#8220;Nawaf Alhazmi.&#8221; More communications involving the names Nawaf, Salem, and Khalid together and alone are intercepted during 1999. However, this information is not shared with the CIA or FBI. As a result, as an important al-Qaeda meeting approaches in Malaysia (see [[ a010500malaysiameeting ]]), the CIA does not know the last name of the &#8220;Nawaf&#8221; attending the meeting. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/ap092502.html | Associated Press, 9/25/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/senatecommittee101702b.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 10/17/02 (B) ]] ------ In mid-January, after the Malaysian meeting is over, the CIA reports to the NSA what it has learned about Almihdhar, and asks the NSA for information about him. Some information about him is given back and some is not. The NSA still fails to report Alhazmi's last name. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ The NSA continues to monitor calls from these hijackers to this safe house after they move to the US in the first half of 2000. ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((+ Salem Alhazmi )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ National Security Agency )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) January 31, 1999 Germany Monitors Hijacker's Calls, Shares Information with CIA a013199zammaraalshehhi false 1 ------ German intelligence is tapping the telephone of al-Qaeda operative Mohammed Haydar Zammar, and on this date, Zammar gets a call from a &#8220;Marwan.&#8221; This is later found to be hijacker Marwan Alshehhi. Marwan talks about mundane things, like his studies in Bonn, Germany, and promises to come to Hamburg in a few months. German investigators trace the telephone number and determine the call came from a mobile phone registered in the United Arab Emirates. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] [[,,2-10-1462_1401481,00.html | Deutsche Presse-Agenteur, 8/13/03 ]] [[ | New York Times, 2/24/04 ]] ------ German intelligence will pass this information to the CIA about one month later, but the CIA apparently fails to capitalize on it (see [[ a0399marwanname ]]). ====== << alQaedaInGermany >> << marwanAlshehhi >> ((+ Germany )) ((+ Marwan Alshehhi )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Mohammed Haydar Zammar )) February 1999 Pilot Suicide Squad Rumored in Iraq a0299iraqsquad false 1 ------ US Intelligence obtains information that Iraq has formed a suicide pilot unit that it plans to use against British and US forces in the Persian Gulf. The CIA comments that this report is highly unlikely and is probably disinformation. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) February 1999 Bin Laden Missile Strike Called Off for Fear of Hitting Persian Gulf Royalty a0299gulfroyalty false 1 ------ Intelligence reports foresee the presence of bin Laden at a desert hunting camp in Afghanistan for about a week. Information on his presence appears reliable, so preparations are made to target his location with cruise missiles. However, intelligence also puts an official aircraft of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and members of the royal family from that country in the same location. Bin Laden is hunting with the Emirati royals, as he did with leaders from the UAE and Saudi Arabia on other occasions (see [[ a95hunting ]]). Policy makers are concerned that a strike might kill a prince or other senior officials, so the strike never happens. A top UAE official at the time denies that high-level officials are there, but evidence subsequently confirms their presence. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404b.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (B) ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) February 17, 1999 Germans Intercept al-Qaeda Calls, One Mentions Atta's Name a021799phonecalls false 1 ------ German intelligence is periodically tapping suspected al-Qaeda operative Mohammed Haydar Zammar's telephone. On this day, investigators hear a caller being told Zammar is at a meeting with &#8220;Mohamed, Ramzi, and Said,&#8221; and can be reached at the phone number of the Marienstrasse apartment where all three of them live. This refers to Mohamed Atta, Ramzi Bin al-Shibh, and Said Bahaji, all members of the Hamburg al-Qaeda cell. However, apparently the German police fail to grasp the importance of these names, even though Said Bahaji is also under investigation. [[ /timeline/2002/ap062202.html | Associated Press, 6/22/02 ]] [[;position=top | New York Times, 1/18/03 ]] ------ Atta's last name is given as well. Agents check the phone number and confirm the street address, but it is not known what they make of the information. [[ /timeline/2003/derspiegel020303.html | Der Spiegel, 2/3/03 ]] ====== << alQaedaInGermany >> << mohamedAtta >> ((+ Said Bahaji )) ((+ Mohammed Haydar Zammar )) ((+ Mohamed Atta )) ((+ Ramzi Bin al-Shibh )) [[ | Said Bahaji, computer expert for the Hamburg cell. ]] March 1999 Plot to Use Hang Glide Bomb Tested, Thwarted a0399hangglide false 1 ------ US intelligence learns of plans by an al-Qaeda member who is also a US citizen to fly a hang glider into the Egyptian Presidential Palace and then detonate the explosives he is carrying. The individual, who received hang glider training in the US, brings a hang glider back to Afghanistan, but various problems arise during the testing of the glider. This unnamed person is subsequently arrested and is in custody abroad. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- al-Qaeda )) Spring 1999 New Jersey HMO Is Possibly Funding al-Qaeda aspring99newjerseyhmo false 1 ------ Randy Glass is a con artist turned government informant participating in a sting called Operation Diamondback. [[ /timeline/2001/palmbeachpost092901.html | Palm Beach Post, 9/29/01 ]] ------ He discusses an illegal weapons deal with an Egyptian-American named Mohamed el Amir. In wiretapped conversations, Mohamed discusses the need to get false papers to disguise a shipment of illegal weapons. His brother, Dr. Magdy el Amir, has been a wealthy neurologist in Jersey City for the past twenty years. Two other weapons dealers later convicted in a sting operation involving Glass also lived in Jersey City, and both el Amirs admit knowing one of them, Diaa Mohsen. Mohsen has been paid at least once by Dr. el Amir. In 1998, Congressman Ben Gilman was given a foreign intelligence report suggesting that Dr. el Amir owns an HMO that is secretly funded by bin Laden, and that money is being skimmed from the HMO to fund al-Qaeda activities. The state of New Jersey later buys the HMO and determines that $15 million were unaccounted for and much of that has been diverted into hard-to-trace offshore bank accounts. However, investigators working with Glass are never given the report about Dr. el Amir. Neither el Amir has been charged with any crime. Mohamed now lives in Egypt and Magdy continues to practice medicine in New Jersey. Glass's sting, which began in late 1998, will uncover many interesting leads before ending in June 2001. [[ /timeline/2002/msnbc080202.html | MSNBC, 8/2/02 ]] ====== << isi >> << randyGlass >> ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Diaa Mohsen )) ((+ Mohamed el Amir )) ((+ Randy Glass )) ((+ Operation Diamondback )) ((- Magdy el Amir )) Spring 1999 US Uncovers bin Laden Plans to Attack Washington aspring99attackplan false 1 ------ US intelligence learns of a planned bin Laden attack on a US government facility in Washington (the specific facility targeted has not been identified). [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] [[ | New York Times, 9/18/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) March 1999 Germany Provides CIA Hijacker's Name and Telephone Number a0399marwanname false 1 ------ German intelligence gives the CIA the first name of hijacker Marwan Alshehhi and his telephone number in the United Arab Emirates. The Germans learned the information from surveillance of suspected Islamic militants. They tell the CIA that Alshehhi has been in contact with suspected al-Qaeda members Mohammed Haydar Zammar and Mamoun Darkazanli. He is described as a United Arab Emirates student who has spent some time studying in Germany. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] [[,,2-10-1462_1401481,00.html | Deutsche Presse-Agenteur, 8/13/03 ]] [[ | New York Times, 2/24/04 ]] ------ The Germans consider this information &#8220;particularly valuable&#8221; and ask the CIA to track Alshehhi, but the CIA never responds until after the 9/11 attacks. The CIA decides at the time that this &#8220;Marwan&#8221; is probably an associate of bin Laden but never track him down. It is not clear why the CIA fails to act, or if they learn his last name before 9/11. [[ | New York Times, 2/24/04 ]] ------ The Germans monitor other calls between Alshehhi and Zammar, but it isn't clear if the CIA is also told of these or not (see [[ a092199zammarcall ]]). ====== << alQaedaInGermany >> << marwanAlshehhi >> << warnings >> << foreignIntelligence >> ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((- Mohammed Haydar Zammar )) ((- Marwan Alshehhi )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Germany )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- Mamoun Darkazanli )) March 3, 1999 New Pearl Harbor Needed to Change US Military Policies, Says Expert a030399newpearlharbor false 1 ------ Andrew Krepinevich, Executive Director of the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, testifies before the Senate Armed Services Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities: &#8220;There appears to be general agreement concerning the need to transform the US military into a significantly different kind of force from that which emerged victorious from the Cold and Gulf Wars. Yet this verbal support has not been translated into a defense program supporting transformation ... the &#8216;critical mass&#8217; needed to effect it has not yet been achieved. One may conclude that, in the absence of a strong external shock to the United States&#8212;a latter-day &#8216;Pearl Harbor&#8217; of sorts&#8212;surmounting the barriers to transformation will likely prove a long, arduous process.&#8221; [[,_/T.19990305.Emerging_Threats,_.htm | CSBA, 3/5/99 ]] ------ This is very similar to what strategists at PNAC have said (see [[ a060397pnacprinciples ]]). ====== << centralAsia >> ((+ Senate Armed Services Committee )) ((+ Andrew Krepinevich )) April 1, 1999 Hijacker Jarrah Photographs Wedding Party a040199jarrahphoto false 1 ------ Ziad Jarrah has an unofficial wedding with his girlfriend, Aisel Senguen. Interestingly, a photo apparently taken by Jarrah at the wedding is found by German intelligence several days after 9/11. An undercover agent is able immediately to identify ten of the 18 men in the photo, as well as where it was taken: the prayer room of Hamburg's Al-Quds mosque. He is also able to identify which of them attended Mohamed Atta's study group. He knows even &#8220;seemingly trivial details&#8221; of some of the men, showing that &#8220;probably almost all members of the Hamburg terror cell&#8221; has been watched by German state intelligence since this time, if not before. The head of the state intelligence had previously maintained that they knew nothing of any of these men. [[ /timeline/2003/faz020203.html | Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 2/2/03 ]] ====== << alQaedaInGermany >> << mohamedAtta >> << ziadJarrah >> ((+ Mohamed Atta )) ((+ Ziad Jarrah )) [[ | Friends of Ziad Jarrah taken on April 1, 1999. Third from left in back row is Abdelghani Mzoudi, fifth from is Mounir El Motassadeq; seventh is Ramzi bin al-Shibh; the man on far right in middle row is Mohamed Atta; Atta rests his hands on Mohammed Raji, ]] April 3-7, 1999 Three Hijackers Obtain US Visas a0499hijackervisas false 1 ------ Hijackers Nawaf Alhazmi, Salem Alhazmi, and Khalid Almihdhar obtain US visas through the US Consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] ------ All three are already &#8220;al-Qaeda veterans&#8221; and battle-hardened killers. Almihdhar's visa is issued on April 7, and he thereafter leaves and returns to the US multiple times until April 6, 2000. [[ /timeline/2003/stern081303.html | Stern, 8/13/03 ]] ------ Nawaf Alhazmi gets the same kind of visa; details about Salem are unknown. The CIA claims the hijackers then travel to Afghanistan to participate in &#8220;special training&#8221; with at least one other suicide bomber on a different mission. The training is led by Khallad bin Attash. The US learns about Almihdhar's visa in January 2000. The Jeddah Consulate keeps in its records the fact that Nawaf and Alhazmi obtain US visas several days before Almihdhar, but apparently these records are never searched before 9/11. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((+ US Consulate, Jedda, Saudi Arabia Office )) ((+ Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((+ Salem Alhazmi )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) May 1999 US Intelligence Provides bin Laden's Location; CIA Fails to Strike a0599nostrike false 1 ------ US intelligence obtains detailed reporting on where bin Laden is located for five consecutive nights. CIA Director Tenet decides against acting three times, because of concerns about collateral damage and worries about the veracity of the single source of information. Frustration mounts. One CIA official writes to a colleague in the field, &#8220;having a chance to get [bin Laden] three times in 36 hours and foregoing the chance each time has made me a bit angry...&#8221; There is one more opportunity to strike bin Laden in July 1999, but after that there is apparently no intelligence good enough to justify considering a strike. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommission032404.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ George Tenet )) Summer 1999 US Intelligence Links Zammar to Senior bin Laden Operatives, Fails to Share Information asummer99zammar false 1 ------ Around this time, US intelligence notes that a man in Hamburg, Germany, named Mohammed Haydar Zammar is in direct contact with one of bin Laden's senior operational coordinators. Zammar is an al-Qaeda recruiter with links to Mohamed Atta and the rest of the Hamburg terror cell. The US had noted Zammar's terror links on &#8220;numerous occasions&#8221; before 9/11. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ However, apparently the US does not share their information on Zammar with German intelligence. Instead, the Germans are given evidence from Turkey that Zammar is running a travel agency as a terror front in Hamburg. In 1998, they get information from Italy confirming he is an Islamic militant . However, his behavior is so suspicious that they have already started monitoring him closely. [[ /timeline/2003/stern081303.html | Stern, 8/13/03 ]] [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ====== << alQaedaInGermany >> ((+ Turkey )) ((+ Mohammed Haydar Zammar )) ((+ Italy )) ((+ Mohamed Atta )) ((+ Germany )) June 1999-March 2000 FBI Investigates Muslim Leader a0699aulaqi false 1 ------ The FBI conducts a counterterrorism inquiry into imam Anwar Al Aulaqi. From about February 2000, he serves as the &#8220;spiritual leader&#8221; to several of the hijackers while they live in San Diego, and again in March 2001 when he and they move to the East Coast. During the investigation, the FBI discovers he is in contact with a number of other people being investigated. For instance, in early 2000 he is visited by an associate of Sheikh Omar Abdul-Rahman. However, as the 9/11 Congressional Inquiry later notes, the investigation is closed &#8220;despite the imam's contacts with other subjects of counterterrorism investigations and reports concerning the imam's connection to suspect organizations.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Anwar Al Aulaqi )) ((+ Sheikh Omar Abdul-Rahman )) [[ | Anwar Al Aulaqi. ]] June 1999 Bin Laden Wants All US Males Killed a0799allmaleskilled false 1 ------ In an interview with an Arabic-language television station, bin Laden steps up his rhetoric and issues a further threat indicating that all US males should be killed. [[ | MSNBC, 12/11/01 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ Osama bin Laden )) June 1999 CIA Reports That bin Laden Plans Attack in US a0699attackinus false 1 ------ In testimony before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and in a briefing to House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence staffers one month later, the chief of the CIA's Counter Terrorism Center describes reports that bin Laden and his associates are planning attacks in the US. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) June 1999 Enron Plans Power Plant with bin Laden Family a0699powerplant false 1 ------ Enron announces an agreement to build a $140 million power plant in the Gaza Strip, between Israel and Egypt. One of the major financiers for the project is the Saudi Binladin Group, a company owned by bin Laden's family. This is the second attempted project between these two companies. Ninety percent complete, the construction will be halted because of Palestinian-Israeli violence and then Enron's bankruptcy. [[ | Washington Post, 3/2/02 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> << binladenFamily >> ((+ Enron )) ((+ Saudi Binladin Group )) June 7, 1999 Bin Laden Finally Makes FBI's 10 Most Wanted a060799wanted false 1 ------ The FBI puts bin Laden on its &#8220;10 Most Wanted List.&#8221; This is almost a year and a half after bin Laden's &#8220;declaration of war&#8221; against the US on February 22, 1998 (see [[ a022298fatwaexpands ]]), and about six months after the CIA's &#8220;declaration of war against al-Qaeda&#8221; in December 1998 (see [[ a120498ciadeclareswar ]]). It is also three years after an internal State Department document connected bin Laden to financing and planning numerous terrorist attacks. [[ | PBS Frontline, 10/3/02 (C) ]] [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) June 8, 1999 New York Emergency Command Center Opened in WTC Building 7 complete_911_timeline_060899commandcenter false 1 ------ New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani opens a $13 million emergency Command Center on the 23rd floor of World Trade Center Building 7. [[ | Newsday, 9/12/01 ]] ------ The center is intended to coordinate responses to various emergencies, including natural disasters like hurricanes or floods, and terrorist attacks. The 50,000 square foot center has reinforced, bulletproof, and bomb-resistant walls, its own air supply and water tank, and three backup generators. This Command Center is to be staffed around the clock and is intended as a meeting place for city leaders in the event of an act of terrorism. [[ | CNN, 6/7/99 ]] [[,,21-111604,00.html | Times of London, 9/12/01 ]] ------ The center is ridiculed as &#8220;Rudy's bunker.&#8221; [[ | Time, 12/31/01 ]] ------ Most controversial is the 6,000-gallon fuel tank. In 1998 and 1999, Fire Department officials warn that the fuel tank violates city fire codes and poses a hazard. According to one Fire Department memorandum, if the tank were to catch fire it could produce &#8220;disaster.&#8221; Building 7 will be destroyed late in the day on 9/11; some suspect this tank helps explains why. [[ | New York Times, 12/20/01 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Rudolph ("Rudy") Giuliani )) ((+ World Trade Center )) [[ | Giuliani's emergency command center. ]] July 1999 Ex-ISI Head Is Providing Taliban Information on US Missile Launches a0799hamidgul false 1 ------ The US gains information that former ISI head Hamid Gul contacts Taliban leaders at this time and advises them that the US is not planning to attack Afghanistan to get bin Laden. He assures them that he will provide them three or four hours warning of any future US missile launch, as he did &#8220;last time.&#8221; Counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; Richard Clarke later suggests Gul gave al-Qaeda warning about the missile strike in August 1998. [[ | New Yorker, 7/28/03 ]] ====== << isi >> << huntForBinLaden >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Taliban )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Hamid Gul )) [[ | Hamid Gul. ]] July 4, 1999 Executive Order Issued Against Taliban a070499prohibiting false 1 ------ With the chances of a pipeline deal with the Taliban looking increasingly unlikely, President Clinton finally issues an executive order prohibiting commercial transactions with the Taliban. The order also freezes the Taliban's US assets. Clinton blames the Taliban for harboring bin Laden. [[ | Executive Order, 7/4/99 ]] [[ | CNN, 7/6/99 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ William Jefferson ("Bill") Clinton )) ((+ Taliban )) July 14, 1999 Pakistani ISI Agent Promises Attack on WTC in Recorded Conversation a071499abbas false 1 ------ US government informant Randy Glass records a conversation at a dinner attended by him, illegal arms dealers Diaa Mohsen, Mohammed Malik, a former Egyptian judge named Shireen Shawky, and ISI agent Rajaa Gulum Abbas, held at a restaurant within view of the WTC. FBI agents pretending to be restaurant customers sit at nearby tables. [[ /timeline/2002/wpbf080502.html | WPBF Channel 25, 8/5/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/msnbc080202.html | MSNBC, 8/2/02 ]] ------ Abbas says he wants to buy a whole shipload of weapons stolen from the US military to give to bin Laden. [[ /timeline/2002/coxnews080202.html | Cox News Service, 8/2/02 ]] ------ Abbas points to the WTC and says, &#8220;Those towers are coming down.&#8221; This ISI agent later makes two other references to an attack on the WTC. [[ /timeline/2002/wpbf080502.html | WPBF Channel 25, 8/5/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/coxnews080202.html | Cox News Service, 8/2/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/palmbeachpost101702.html | Palm Beach Post, 10/17/02 ]] ------ Abbas also says, &#8220;Americans [are] the enemy,&#8221; and &#8220;We would have no problem with blowing up this entire restaurant because it is full of Americans.&#8221; [[ | MSNBC, 3/18/03 ]] ------ The meeting is secretly recorded, and parts are shown on television in 2003. [[ /timeline/2003/msnbc031803b.html | MSNBC, 3/18/03 (B) ]] ====== << isi >> << randyGlass >> ((- World Trade Center )) ((+ Randy Glass )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Rajaa Gulum Abbas )) ((+ Shireen Shawky )) ((+ Diaa Mohsen )) ((+ Mohammed Malik )) [[ | Shireen Shawky holding a guided missile system (left), and Mohammed Malik (right). ]] July 14, 1999 Pakistani Intelligence Agent Promises Attack on WTC in Recorded Conversation a071499abbas_short false 1 ------ In a conversation recorded by US government agents as part of a sting operation, a Pakistani ISI agent named Rajaa Gulum Abbas points to the WTC and says, &#8220;Those towers are coming down.&#8221; He later makes two other references to an attack on the WTC (for more details on this sting operation, (see [[ aspring99newjerseyhmo ]]), (see [[ a071499abbas ]]), and (see [[ a061201sting ]])). [[ /timeline/2002/wpbf080502.html | WPBF Channel 25, 8/5/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/coxnews080202.html | Cox News Service, 8/2/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/palmbeachpost101702.html | Palm Beach Post, 10/17/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- World Trade Center )) ((+ Rajaa Gulum Abbas )) [[ | Rajaa Gulum Abbas. ]] August 17, 1999 Arms Merchants Seek Nuclear Materials in US; Report Is Sanitized a081799sting false 1 ------ A group of illegal arms merchants, including an ISI agent with foreknowledge of 9/11, had met in a New York restaurant the month before (see [[ a071499abbas ]]). This same group meets at this time in a West Palm Beach, Florida, warehouse, and it is shown Stinger missiles as part of a sting operation. [[,0,2428638.story?coll=sfla-news-palm | South Florida Sun-Sentinel, 3/20/03 ]] ------ US intelligence soon discovers connections between two in the group, Rajaa Gulum Abbas and Mohammed Malik, Islamic militant groups in Kashmir (where the ISI assists them in fighting against India), and the Taliban. Mohamed Malik suggests in this meeting that the Stingers will be used in Kashmir or Afghanistan. His colleague Diaa Mohsen also says Abbas has direct connections to &#8220;dignitaries&#8221; and bin Laden. Abbas also wants heavy water for a &#8220;dirty bomb&#8221; or other material to make a nuclear weapon. He says he will bring a Pakistani nuclear scientist to the US to inspect the material. [[ /timeline/2002/msnbc080202.html | MSNBC, 8/2/02 ]] [[ | MSNBC, 3/18/03 ]] ------ Government informant Randy Glass passes these warnings on before 9/11, but he claims, &#8220;The complaints were ordered sanitized by the highest levels of government.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/wpbf080502.html | WPBF Channel 25, 8/5/02 ]] ------ In June 2002, the US secretly indicts Abbas, but apparently they aren't trying very hard to find him: In August 2002, MSNBC is easily able to contact Abbas in Pakistan and speak to him by telephone. [[ /timeline/2002/msnbc080202.html | MSNBC, 8/2/02 ]] ====== << isi >> << randyGlass >> ((+ Rajaa Gulum Abbas )) ((+ Mohammed Malik )) ((+ Diaa Mohsen )) ((+ Randy Glass )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- Taliban )) ((- Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) [[ | Randy Glass, holding a Stinger missile. ]] September 1999 US Report Predicts Spectacular Attack on Washington a0999reportpredicts false 1 ------ A report prepared for US intelligence titled the &#8220;Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism&#8221; is completed. It states, &#8220;Al-Qaeda's expected retaliation for the US cruise missile attack ... could take several forms of terrorist attack in the nation's capital. Al-Qaeda could detonate a Chechen-type building-buster bomb at a federal building. Suicide bomber(s) belonging to al-Qaeda's Martyrdom Battalion could crash-land an aircraft packed with high explosives (C-4 and Semtex) into the Pentagon, the headquarters of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), or the White House. Whatever form an attack may take, bin Laden will most likely retaliate in a spectacular way.&#8221; The report is by the National Intelligence Council, which advises the president and US intelligence on emerging threats. [[ | Associated Press, 4/18/02 ]] ------ The Bush administration later claims to have never heard of this report until May 2002, despite the fact that it had been publicly posted on the Internet since 1999, and &#8220;widely shared within the government&#8221; according to the New York Times. [[ | CNN, 5/18/02 ]] [[ | New York Times, 5/18/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Bush administration )) ((- Pentagon )) September 1999 FBI Investigates Flight School Attendee Connected to bin Laden a0999flightschool false 1 ------ Agents from Oklahoma City FBI office visit the Airman Flight School in Norman, Oklahoma to investigate Ihab Ali Nawawi, who has been identified as bin Laden's former personal pilot in a recent trial. The agents learned that Nawawi received his commercial pilot's license at the school 1993, then traveled to another school in Oklahoma City to qualify for a rating to fly small business aircraft. He is later named as an unindicted coconspirator in the 1998 US Embassy bombing in Kenya. The trial witness who gave this information, Essam al Ridi, also attended flight school in the US, then bought a plane and flew it to Afghanistan for bin Laden to use (see [[ a93arizona ]]). [[ | CNN, 10/16/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/bostonglobe091801.html | Boston Globe, 9/18/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry101702.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 10/17/02 ]] [[;node=&amp;contentId=A39166-2002May18&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 5/19/02 ]] ------ When Nawawi was arrested in May 1999, he was working as a taxi driver in Orlando, Florida. Investigators discover recent ties between him and high-ranking al-Qaeda leaders, and suspect he was a &#8220;sleeper&#8221; agent. [[ | St. Petersburg Times, 10/28/01 ]] ------ However, the FBI agent visiting the school is not given most background details about him. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] ------ It is not known if these investigators are aware of a terrorist flight school warning given by the Oklahoma City FBI office in 1998. Hijackers Mohamed Atta and Marwan Alshehhi later visit the Airman school in July 2000 but ultimately decide to train in Florida instead. [[ /timeline/2001/bostonglobe091801.html | Boston Globe, 9/18/01 ]] ------ Al-Qaeda agent Zacarias Moussaoui takes flight lessons at Airman in February 2001. One of the FBI agents sent to visit the school at this time visits it again in August 2001 asking about Moussaoui, but he fails to make a connection between the two visits. ====== << warnings >> ((- Zacarias Moussaoui )) ((- Mohamed Atta )) ((+ Ihab Ali )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((- Essam al Ridi )) ((- Marwan Alshehhi )) September 1999 Bin Laden to Attack in US Possibly in California and New York City a0999caandny false 1 ------ US intelligence obtains information that bin Laden and others are planning an attack in the US, possibly against specific landmarks in California and New York City. The reliability of the source is unknown. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) September 15, 1999 Bipartisan Commission Concludes Terrorist Attack Will Occur on US Soil, Killing Many a091599report false 1 ------ The first phase of the US Commission on National Security/21st Century, co-chaired by former Senators Gary Hart (D) and Warren Rudman (R), is issued. It concludes: &#8220;America will be attacked by terrorists using weapons of mass destruction and Americans will lose their lives on American soil, possibly in large numbers.&#8221; [[ /timeline/1990s/uscns091599.html | USCNS Report, 9/15/99 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ Commission on National Security/21st Century )) ((+ Gary Hart )) ((+ Warren Rudman )) September 21, 1999 German Intelligence Records Calls Between Hijacker and Others Linked to al-Qaeda a092199zammarcall false 1 ------ German intelligence is periodically tapping suspected al-Qaeda operative Mohammed Haydar Zammar's telephone, and on this day investigators hear Zammar call hijacker Marwan Alshehhi. Officials initially claim that the call also mentions hijacker Mohamed Atta, but only his first name. [[ /timeline/2001/telegraph112401.html | Daily Telegraph, 11/24/01 ]] [[;position=top | New York Times, 1/18/03 ]] ------ However, his full name, &#8220;Mohamed Atta Al Amir,&#8221; is mentioned in this call and in another recorded call. [[ /timeline/2003/faz020203.html | Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 2/2/03 ]] ------ Alshehhi makes veiled references to plans to travel to Afghanistan. He also hands the phone over to Said Bahaji (another member of the Hamburg cell under investigation at the time), so he can talk to Zammar. [[ /timeline/2003/stern081303.html | Stern, 8/13/03 ]] ------ German investigators still do not know Alshehhi's full name, but they recognize this &#8220;Marwan&#8221; also called Zammar in January, and they told the CIA about that call. Alshehhi, living in the United Arab Emirates at the time, calls Zammar frequently. German intelligence asks the United Arab Emirates to identify the number and the caller, but the request is not answered. [[ /timeline/2003/derspiegel020303.html | Der Spiegel, 2/3/03 ]] ====== << alQaedaInGermany >> << mohamedAtta >> << marwanAlshehhi >> ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Mohammed Haydar Zammar )) ((+ Said Bahaji )) ((- Mohamed Atta )) ((+ Marwan Alshehhi )) ((+ United Arab Emirates )) October 1999 Joint US-ISI Operation to Kill Osama Falters a1099jointop false 1 ------ The CIA readies an operation to capture or kill bin Laden, secretly training and equipping approximately 60 commandos from the Pakistani ISI. Pakistan supposedly agrees to this plan in return for the lifting of economic sanctions and more economic aid. The plan is ready to go by this month, but it is aborted because on October 12, General Musharraf takes control of Pakistan in a coup. Musharraf refuses to continue the operation despite the promise of substantial rewards. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A61219-2001Oct2Found=true | Washington Post, 10/3/01 (C) ]] ------ Some US officials later say the CIA was tricked, that the ISI just feigned to cooperate as a stalling tactic, and never intended to get bin Laden. [[ | New York Times, 10/29/01 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> << isi >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- Pervez Musharraf )) October 1999 CIA Considers Increased Aid to Northern Alliance a1099increasedaid false 1 ------ Worried about intercepts showing a growing likelihood of al-Qaeda attacks around the millennium, the CIA steps up ties with Ahmed Shah Massoud, leader of the Northern Alliance fighting the Taliban. The CIA sends a team of agents to his headquarters in a remote part of northern Afghanistan, seeking his help to capture or kill bin Laden. Massoud complains that the US is too focused on bin Laden, and isn't interested in the root problems of Taliban, Saudi, and Pakistani support for terrorism that is propping him up. He agrees to help nonetheless, and the CIA gives him more aid in return. However, the US is officially neutral in the Afghan civil war and the agents are prohibited from giving any aid that would &#8220;fundamentally alter the Afghan battlefield.&#8221; [[ | Washington Post, 2/23/04 ]] ------ DIA agent Julie Sirrs, newly retired, is at Massoud's headquarters at the same time as the CIA team. She gathers valuable intelligence from captured al-Qaeda soldiers while the CIA agents stay in their guesthouse. She publishes much of what she learned on this trip and other trips in the summer of 2001. [[ | Washington Post, 2/28/04 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- Northern Alliance )) ((+ Julie Sirrs )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Ahmed Shah Massoud )) ((- Taliban )) [[ | Ahmed Shah Massoud. ]] October 5, 1999 Bin Laden Might Be Planning Major Attack in US a100599worried false 1 ------ The highly respected Jane's Terrorism and Security Monitor reports that US intelligence is worried that bin Laden is planning a major attack on US soil. They are said to be particularly concerned about some kind of attack on New York, and they have recommended stepped-up security at the New York Stock Exchange and the Federal Reserve. [[ /timeline/1990s/newsmax100599.html | NewsMax, 10/5/99 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- New York Stock Exchange )) October 8, 1999 Al-Qaeda Declared Foreign Terrorist Organization a100899state false 1 ------ The secretary of state finally legally declares al-Qaeda a foreign terrorist organization that is threatening to the US. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommission032404.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Madeleine Albright )) October 12, 1999 General Musharraf Takes Control of Pakistan; Ousted ISI Leader Has Curious Finances a101299pakistancoup false 1 ------ General Pervez Musharraf becomes leader of Pakistan in a coup. One major reason for the coup is the ISI felt the previous ruler had to go &#8220;out of fear that he might buckle to American pressure and reverse Pakistan's policy [of supporting] the Taliban.&#8221; [[ | New York Times, 12/8/01 ]] ------ Shortly thereafter Musharraf replaces the leader of the ISI, Brig Imtiaz, because of his close ties to the previous leader. Imtiaz is arrested and convicted of &#8220;having assets disproportionate to his known sources of income.&#8221; It comes out that he was keeping tens of millions of dollars earned from heroin smuggling in a Deutsche Bank account. This is interesting because insider trading just prior to 9/11 will later connect to a branch of Deutsche Bank recently run by &#8220;Buzzy&#8221; Krongard, now executive director of the CIA. [[ /timeline/2001/financialtimes081001.html | Financial Times (Asian edition), 8/10/01 ]] ------ The new director of the ISI is Lieutenant General Mahmood Ahmed, a close ally of Musharraf who is instrumental in the success of the coup. [[ /timeline/2001/guardian100901.html | Guardian, 10/9/01 ]] ====== << isi >> ((+ Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) ((+ Brig Imtiaz )) ((+ Pervez Musharraf )) ((- Taliban )) ((+ Mahmood Ahmed )) ((- Deutsche Bank )) [[ | Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf. ]] October 31, 1999 Suicide Pilot Crashes Commercial Airliner into Ocean a103199suicide false 1 ------ EgyptAir Flight 990 crashes into the ocean off the coast of Massachusetts, killing all 217 people on board. It is immediately suspected that one of the pilots purposely crashed the plane, and this is the eventual conclusion of a National Transportation Safety Board investigation. Thirty-three Egyptian military officers were aboard the plane, leading to suspicions that killing them was the motive for crashing the plane. No connections between the suicide pilot and militancy are found. [[ /timeline/1990s/abc110299.html | ABC, 11/2/99 ]] [[ /timeline/2000/ap012100.html | Associated Press, 1/21/00 ]] [[ | Atlantic Monthly, 11/01 ]] [[ | Aviation Week And Space Technology, 3/25/02 ]] ------ Bin Laden's military operations chief is inspired to use the idea of planes as weapons after reports of this incident. The US learns of Atef's interest from the interrogation of al-Qaeda suspects in Jordan, but it hasn't been reported if this is learned before or after 9/11. [[ | Washington Post, 9/11/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- Mohammed Atef )) [[ | Gameel el-Batouti was suspected of purposely crashing Egyptair 990 (left). Wreckage of the plane (right). ]] November 1999 Hijackers Said to Lease Apartment in San Diego, Two Months Before Alleged Arrival in US a1199sandiegolease false 1 ------ The Washington Post refers to hijackers Nawaf Alhazmi and Khalid Almihdhar when it later reports, &#8220;In November 1999, two Saudi Arabian men moved into a ground-floor apartment at the Parkwood Apartments, a town house complex near a busy commercial strip in San Diego .&#8221; [[ | Washington Post, 9/30/01 ]] ------ Alhazmi's name is on the apartment lease beginning in November 1999. [[ | Washington Post, 10/01 ]] ------ The Los Angeles Times similarly notes, &#8220;A man by [the name Alhazmi] moved to the Parkwood Apartments in San Diego in 1999, according to manager Holly Ratchford.&#8221; [[,0,3617363.story | Los Angeles Times, 9/15/01 ]] ------ Some reports even have them visiting the US as early as 1996. [[ | Wall Street Journal, 9/17/01 ]] [[ | Las Vegas Review Journal, 10/26/01 ]] ------ However, FBI Director Mueller has stated the two hijackers did not arrive in the US until the middle of January 2000, after an important meeting in Malaysia. While some news reports mention that the hijackers first arrive in late 1999 [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/1/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/latimes112402.html | Los Angeles Times, 11/24/02 ]] ------ , over time, mentions of the lease beginning in 1999 will slowly fade from media accounts. ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ Nawaf Alhazmi )) November 14, 1999 Limited UN Sanctions on Afghanistan a111499sanctions false 1 ------ United Nations sanctions against Afghanistan take effect. The sanctions freeze Taliban assets and impose an air embargo on Ariana Airlines in an effort to force the Taliban to hand over bin Laden. [[ | BBC, 2/6/00 ]] ------ However, Ariana keeps its illegal trade network flying, until stricter sanctions ground it in 2001. ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ Taliban )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Ariana Airlines )) ((+ United Nations )) November 29, 1999 UN Says ISI Makes Billions from Drugs a112999isidrugs false 1 ------ The United Nations Drug Control Program determines that the ISI makes around $2.5 billion annually from the sale of illegal drugs. [[ | Times of India, 11/29/99 ]] ====== << isi >> << drugs >> ((- Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) ((+ United Nations )) Late November 1999 Hamburg Cell Members Arrive in Afghanistan for Training a1199afghantrain false 1 ------ Investigators believe hijackers Mohamed Atta, Marwan Alshehhi, and Ziad Jarrah and associates Ramzi Bin al-Shibh and Said Bahaji (all members of the same Hamburg, Germany, cell) arrive separately in Afghanistan around this time. They meet with bin Laden and train for several months. [[ | CBS News, 10/9/02 ]] [[ | New York Times, 9/10/02 ]] ------ In a 2002 interview with Al Jazeera, bin al-Shibh says, &#8220;We had a meeting attended by all four pilots including Nawaf Alhazmi, Atta's right-hand man.&#8221; The Guardian interprets this to mean that Alhazmi flew Flight 77, not Hani Hanjour as popularly believed. [[,1284,788431,00.html | Guardian, 9/9/02 ]] ====== << alQaedaInGermany >> << mohamedAtta >> << marwanAlshehhi >> << ziadJarrah >> << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((- William Safire )) ((+ Said Bahaji )) ((+ Mohamed Atta )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Ramzi Bin al-Shibh )) ((+ Ziad Jarrah )) ((+ Marwan Alshehhi )) ((- Nawaf Alhazmi )) November 30, 1999 Jordan Thwarts al-Qaeda Plot a113099radisson false 1 ------ Jordanian officials successfully uncover an al-Qaeda plot to blow up the Radisson Hotel in Amman, Jordan, and other sites on January 1, 2000. [[ | PBS Frontline, 10/3/02 (C) ]] ------ A call between al-Qaeda leader Abu Zubaida and a suspected Jordanian terrorist exposes the plot. In the call, Zubaida states, &#8220;The grooms are ready for the big wedding.&#8221; [[ | Seattle Times, 6/23/02 ]] ------ This call reflects an extremely poor code system, because the FBI had already determined in the wake of the 1998 US embassy bombings that &#8220;wedding&#8221; was the al-Qaeda code word for bomb. [[ | Miller, Stone, and Mitchell, 2002, pp 214 ]] ------ Furthermore, it appears al-Qaeda fails to later change the system, because the code-name for the 9/11 attack is also &#8220;The Big Wedding.&#8221; [[,0,5055267.story?coll=chi-newsspecials-hed | Chicago Tribune, 9/5/02 ]] ------ This attempt also reveals to investigators the important role of Abu Zubaida in al-Qaeda plots. A January 2001 New York Times article about the attempt will call Zubaida &#8220;a crucial link between local initiative and central command.&#8221; [[ | New York Times, 1/15/01 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Abu Zubaida )) ((+ Jordan )) ((- Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) Early December 1999 US Takes Action to Stop al-Qaeda Millennium Bombing Plot a1299neutralizethreat false 1 ------ The CIA learns from the Jordanian government about an al-Qaeda millennium bombing plot. Counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; Richard Clarke is told of this, and he implements a plan to neutralize the threat. [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 205, 211 ]] ------ The plan, approved by President Clinton, focuses on harassing and disrupting al-Qaeda members throughout the world. The FBI is put on heightened alert, counterterrorism teams are dispatched overseas, a formal ultimatum is given to the Taliban to keep al-Qaeda under control, and friendly intelligence agencies are asked to help. There are Cabinet-level meetings nearly every day dealing with terrorism [[ | Washington Post, 4/20/00 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/ap062802.html | Associated Press, 6/28/02 ]] ------ All US embassies, military bases, police departments, and other agencies are given a warning to be on the lookout for signs of an al-Qaeda millennium attack. One alert border agent responds by arresting terrorist Ahmed Ressam (see [[ a121499ressam ]]), which leads to the unraveling of several bombing plots (see [[ a121431thwarted ]]). No terror attacks occur. However, Clarke claims the FBI generally remains unhelpful. For example, around this time the FBI says there are no websites in the US soliciting volunteers for training in Afghanistan or money for terrorist front groups. Clarke has a private citizen check to see if this is true, and within days, he is given a long list of such websites. The FBI and Justice Department apparently fail to do anything with the information. [[ | Newsweek, 3/31/04 (B) ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) ((+ William Jefferson ("Bill") Clinton )) ((- Jordan )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Taliban )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Ahmed Ressam )) ((+ US Department of Justice )) December 1999 US Intelligence Learns of Planned al-Qaeda Meeting Involving Future Hijackers a1299safehouse false 1 ------ A Yemeni safe house telephone monitored by the FBI and CIA reveals that there will be an important al-Qaeda meeting in Malaysia in January 2000 (see [[ a010500malaysiameeting ]]), and that a &#8220;Khalid,&#8221; a &#8220;Nawaf,&#8221; and a &#8220;Salem&#8221; will attend. One intelligence agent notes at the time, &#8220;Salem may be Nawaf's younger brother.&#8221; It turns out they are brothers&#8212;and the future hijackers Khalid Almihdhar, and Nawaf and Salem Alhazmi. US intelligence is already referring to both of them as &#8220;terrorist operatives&#8221; because the safe house is known to be such a hotbed of al-Qaeda activity. Their last names are not yet known to the CIA, even though the NSA has learned Nawaf's last name. However, Khalid Almihdhar is at the safe house at the time, and as he travels to Malaysia, he is watched and followed. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ National Security Agency )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((- Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((- Salem Alhazmi )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) December 1999 CIA Attempts to Recruit Man with Links to Atta and Hamburg Cell a1299informer false 1 ------ The CIA begins &#8220;persistent&#8221; efforts to recruit German businessman Mamoun Darkazanli as an informant. Darkazanli knows Mohamed Atta and the other members of the Hamburg al-Qaeda cell. US and German intelligence had previously opened investigations into Darkazanli in September 1998. Agents occasionally followed him, but Darkazanli obviously noticed the tail on him at least once. More costly and time-consuming electronic surveillance is not done however, and by the end of 1999, the investigation has produced little of value. German law does not allow foreign governments to have informants in Germany. So this month, Thomas Volz, the undercover CIA representative in Hamburg, appears at the headquarters of the Hamburg state domestic intelligence agency, the LfV, responsible for tracking terrorists and domestic extremists. He tells them the CIA believes Darkazanli has knowledge of an unspecified terrorist plot and encourages that he be &#8220;turned&#8221; against his al-Qaeda comrades. A source later recalls he says, &#8220;Darkazanli knows a lot.&#8221; Efforts to recruit him will continue in the spring next year. The CIA has not admitted this interest in Darkazanli. [[ /timeline/2002/chicagotribune111702.html | Chicago Tribune, 11/17/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2003/stern081303.html | Stern, 8/13/03 ]] ====== << alQaedaInGermany >> ((+ Mamoun Darkazanli )) ((- Mohamed Atta )) ((+ Office for the Protection of the Constitution )) ((+ Thomas Volz )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) December 4, 1999 Saudi Ambassador's Wife Gives Funds That Are Possibly Passed to Hijackers a120499princess false 1 ------ Princess Haifa bint Faisal, the wife of Prince Bandar, the Saudi ambassador to the US, begins sending monthly cashier's checks of between $2,000 and $3,500 (accounts differ) to Majeda Dweikat, the Jordanian wife of Osama Basnan, a Saudi living in San Diego. Accounts also differ over when the checks were first sent (between November 1999 and about March 2000; a Saudi government representative has stated December 4, 1999 [[,2933,71273,00.html | Fox News, 11/23/02 ]] ------ ). Basnan's wife signs many of the checks over to her friend Manal Bajadr, the wife of Omar al-Bayoumi. [[ | Washington Times, 11/26/02 ]] [[ | Newsweek, 11/22/02 ]] [[ | Newsweek, 11/24/02 ]] [[,12469,846881,00.html | Guardian, 11/25/02 ]] ------ Some later suggest that the money from the wife of the Saudi ambassador passes through the al-Bayoumi and Basnan families as intermediaries and ends up in the hands of the two hijackers. The payments from Princess Haifa continue until May 2002 and may total $51,000, or as much as $73,000. [[ | Newsweek, 11/22/02 ]] [[ | MSNBC, 11/27/02 ]] ------ While living in the San Diego area, al-Bayoumi and Basnan are heavily involved in helping with the relocation of, and offering financial support to, Saudi immigrants in the community. [[ /timeline/2002/latimes112402.html | Los Angeles Times, 11/24/02 ]] ------ In late 2002, al-Bayoumi claims he did not pass any money along to the hijackers. [[ | Washington Times, 12/04/02 ]] ------ Basnan has variously claimed to know al-Bayoumi, not to know him at all, or to know him only vaguely. [[ | Arab News, 11/26/02 ]] [[ | ABC News, 11/26/02 ]] [[ | ABC News, 11/25/02 ]] [[ | MSNBC, 11/27/02 ]] ------ However, earlier reports say Basnan and his wife were &#8220;very good friends&#8221; of al-Bayoumi and his wife. Both couples lived at the Parkwood Apartments at the same time as the two hijackers; prior to that, the couples lived together in a different apartment complex. In addition, the two wives were arrested together in April 2001 for shoplifting. [[ | San Diego Union-Tribune, 10/22/02 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> << saudis >> ((+ Majeda Dweikat )) ((+ Osama Basnan )) ((+ Omar al-Bayoumi )) ((+ Manal Bajadr )) ((+ Haifa bint Faisal )) [[ | Prince Bandar (pictures of his wife and Osama Basnan are not available). ]] December 11, 1999 Watch List Importance Is Stressed but Procedures Are Not Followed a121199procedures false 1 ------ The CIA's Counter Terrorism Center sends a cable reminding all personnel about various reporting obligations. The cable clearly states that it is important to share information so suspected members of US-designated terrorist groups can be placed on watch lists. The US keeps a number of watch lists; the most important one, TIPOFF, contains about 61,000 names of suspected terrorists by 9/11. [[ /timeline/2002/latimes092202.html | Los Angeles Times, 9/22/02 ]] [[ | Knight Ridder, 1/27/04 ]] ------ The list is checked whenever someone enters or leaves the US &#8220;The threshold for adding a name to TIPOFF is low,&#8221; and even a &#8220;reasonable suspicion&#8221; that a person is connected with a US-designated terrorist group warrants being added to the database. [[ /timeline/2002/senatecommittee092002.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/20/02 ]] ------ Within a month, two future hijackers, Nawaf Alhazmi and Khalid Almihdhar, are identified, but the cable's instructions are not followed for them. The CIA initially tells the 9/11 Congressional Inquiry that no such guidelines existed, and CIA Director Tenet fails to mention the cable in his testimony. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] [[;position= | New York Times, 5/15/03 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((- 9/11 Congressional Inquiry )) ((+ Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((+ TIPOFF )) ((- George Tenet )) December 14, 1999 Al-Qaeda Operative Planning LAX Attack Is Arrested a121499ressam false 1 ------ Al-Qaeda operative Ahmed Ressam is arrested in Port Angeles, Washington, attempting to enter the US with components of explosive devices. One hundred and thirty pounds of bomb-making chemicals and detonator components are found inside his rental car. He subsequently admits he planned to bomb Los Angeles International Airport on December 31, 1999. [[ | New York Times, 12/30/01 ]] ------ Alert border patrol agent Diana Dean stops him; she and other agents nationwide had been warned recently to look for suspicious activity. Ressam's bombing would have been part of a wave of attacks against US targets over the New Year's weekend (see [[ a121431thwarted ]]). He is later connected to al-Qaeda and convicted. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] [[ | PBS Frontline, 10/3/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> << warnings >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Ahmed Ressam )) ((- Los Angeles International Airport )) ((+ Diana Dean )) [[ | Diana Dean. ]] December 14-31, 1999 FBI Thwarts Additional Millennium Attack Plots a121431thwarted false 1 ------ In the wake of the arrest of Ahmed Ressam (see [[ a121499ressam ]]), FBI investigators work frantically to uncover more millennium plots before they are likely to take place at the end of the year. Documents found with Ressam lead to co-conspirators in New York, then Boston and Seattle. Enough people are arrested to prevent any attacks. Counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; Richard Clarke later says, &#8220;I think a lot of the FBI leadership for the first time realized that ... there probably were al-Qaeda people in the United States. They realized that only after they looked at the results of the investigation of the millennium bombing plot.&#8221; [[ | PBS Frontline, 10/3/02 ]] ------ Yet Clinton's National Security Adviser Sandy Berger later claims that the FBI will still repeatedly assure the Clinton White House until Clinton leaves office that al-Qaeda lacks the ability to launch a domestic strike (see [[ a00clintontold ]]). ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> << warnings >> ((- Ahmed Ressam )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Sandy Berger )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) [[ | Ahmed Ressam. ]] December 20, 1999 Iran Said to Be Supporting Conflict in Afghanistan to Further Their Own Pipeline Plans a122099iran false 1 ------ The BBC explains one reason why the Northern Alliance has been able to hold out for so long in its civil war against the Taliban in Afghanistan: &#8220;Iran has stirred up the fighting in order to make sure an international oil pipeline [goes] through its territory and not through Afghanistan.&#8221; [[ | BBC, 12/20/99 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> ((- Taliban )) ((- Northern Alliance )) ((- Iran )) December 24-31, 1999 Hijacked Flight Leads to Freeing of Future 9/11 Funder a122499hijack false 1 ------ An Indian Airlines flight is hijacked and flown to Afghanistan where 155 passengers are held hostage for eight days. They are freed in return for the release of three militants held in Indian prisons. One of the hostages is killed. One of the men freed in the exchange is 9/11 paymaster Saeed Sheikh. [[ | BBC, 12/31/99 ]] ------ Another freed militant is Maulana Masood Azhar. Azhar emerges in Pakistan a few days later, and tells a crowd of 10,000, &#8220;I have come here because this is my duty to tell you that Muslims should not rest in peace until we have destroyed America and India.&#8221; [[ | Associated Press, 1/5/00 ]] ------ He then tours Pakistan for weeks under the protection of the ISI. [[ /timeline/2002/vanityfair0802.html | Vanity Fair, 8/02 ]] ------ The ISI and Saeed helps Azhar form a new Islamic militant group called Jaish-e-Mohammed, and Azhar is soon plotting attacks again. [[ | Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, 3/3/02 ]] [[,4273,4462107,00.html | Guardian, 7/16/02 ]] [[ | Washington Post, 2/8/03 ]] ====== << isi >> ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) ((+ Maulana Masood Azhar )) ((+ Saeed Sheikh )) ((+ Jaish-e-Mohammed )) [[ | Hijackers threaten the Indian Airlines plane, under Taliban supervision. ]] Late 1999 Saudis Claim to Add Two Hijackers to Watch List and Inform CIA alate99saudiclaim false 1 ------ Former Saudi Intelligence Minister Prince Turki al Faisal later claims that around this time his intelligence agency tells the CIA that hijackers Nawaf Alhazmi and Khalid Almihdhar have been put on a Saudi terror watch list. Turki says, &#8220;What we told [the CIA] was these people were on our watch list from previous activities of al-Qaeda, in both the [1998] embassy bombings and attempts to smuggle arms into the kingdom in 1997.&#8221; However, the CIA strongly denies any such warning. (( Turki bin Faisal bin Abdul Aziz al Saud )) [[,1282,-3272648,00.html | Associated Press, 10/16/03 ]] ------ Turki admits no documents concerning this were sent to the US, but claims the information was passed via word of mouth. [[ | Salon, 10/18/03 ]] ------ The US does not put these two on their watch list until August 2001. ====== << saudis >> << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((+ Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) December 31, 1999-January 1, 2000 Attacks Against American Targets Avoided Through Alerts and Luck a123199millennium false 1 ------ Earlier in December, the CIA estimated that al-Qaeda would launch between five and 15 attacks against American targets around the world over the New Year's weekend. &#8220;Because the US is [bin Laden]'s ultimate goal ... we must assume that several of these targets will be in the US...&#8221; [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] [[ /timeline/2002/time080402.html | Time, 8/4/02 ]] ------ Since late 1999, there has been intelligence that targets in Washington and New York would be attacked at this time. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] ------ There in fact are a number of planned attacks, including bomb attacks on the Boston and Los Angeles airports, a hotel in Jordan, and a naval ship in Yemen. However, all of the attacks are foiled, thanks to alerts and luck. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A8734-2002Jan19 | Washington Post, 1/20/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) Late 1999 Hijackers Clear Their Passport Records a1999passports false 1 ------ Hijackers Mohamed Atta and Marwan Alshehhi report their passports missing; Ziad Jarrah reports his missing in February 2000. [[ | South Florida Sun-Sentinel, 9/28/01 ]] [[ | Der Spiegel, 2002, pp 257-58 ]] ------ Alshehhi receives a replacement passport on December 26, 1999. [[ /timeline/2001/londontimes092001.html | Times of London, 9/20/01 ]] ====== << otherHijackers >> << marwanAlshehhi >> << mohamedAtta >> << ziadJarrah >> ((+ Marwan Alshehhi )) ((+ Ziad Jarrah )) ((+ Mohamed Atta )) January 1, 2000-September 11, 2001 Following Release from Prison, Saeed Sheikh Lives Openly; Supports Future 9/11 Hijackers a010100saeedreleased false 1 ------ After being released from prison at the end of 1999, Saeed Sheikh stays in Kandahar, Afghanistan, for several days and meets with Taliban leader Mullah Omar. He also meets with bin Laden, who is said to call Saeed &#8220;my special son.&#8221; He then travels to Pakistan and is given a house by the ISI. [[ /timeline/2002/vanityfair0802.html | Vanity Fair, 8/02 ]] ------ He lives openly and opulently in Pakistan, even attending &#8220;swanky parties attended by senior Pakistani government officials.&#8221; US authorities conclude he is an asset of the ISI. [[ /timeline/2002/newsweek031302.html | Newsweek, 3/13/02 ]] ------ Amazingly, he is allowed to travel freely to Britain, and visits family there at least twice. [[ /timeline/2002/vanityfair0802.html | Vanity Fair, 8/02 ]] ------ He works with Ijaz Shah, a former ISI official in charge of handling two militant groups; Lieutenant-General Mohammed Aziz Khan, former deputy chief of the ISI in charge of relations with Jaish-e-Mohammed; and Brigadier Abdullah, a former ISI officer. He is well known to other senior ISI officers. He regularly travels to Afghanistan and helps train new al-Qaeda recruits in training camps there. [[ | New York Times, 2/25/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/nationalpost022602.html | National Post, 2/26/02 ]] [[,4273,4462107,00.html | Guardian, 7/16/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/indiatoday022502.html | India Today, 2/25/02 ]] ------ Saeed helps train the 9/11 hijackers also, presumably in Afghanistan. [[ | Daily Telegraph, 9/30/01 ]] ------ He also helps al-Qaeda develop a secure web-based communications system, and there is talk that he could one day succeed bin Laden. [[ /timeline/2002/vanityfair0802.html | Vanity Fair, 8/02 ]] [[ | Daily Telegraph, 7/16/02 ]] ------ He wires money to the 9/11 hijackers in August 2001 and possibly several other times. Presumably, he sends the money from the United Arab Emirates during his many trips there. [[,7541,647496,00.html | Guardian, 2/9/02 ]] ====== << isi >> ((+ Mohammed Aziz Khan )) ((+ Ijaz Shah )) ((+ Abdullah )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) ((+ Saeed Sheikh )) ((+ Mullah Omar )) 2000 Head of Milan al-Qaeda Cell Under Investigation in Hamburg by This Time a00mahdjoub false 1 ------ Abderazek Mahdjoub, an Algerian living in Hamburg, Germany, attends the al-Quds mosque and has ties to some of the 9/11 hijackers. According to a senior German intelligence official, Mahdjoub is under observation by German domestic intelligence since at least this year. However, he is also connected to the al-Qaeda cell in Milan and in fact is believed to be the head of that cell. There is considerable evidence that the Milan cell has foreknowledge of the 9/11 plot. The cell is under heavy surveillance by Italian intelligence before 9/11 (see [[ a081200italy ]]) (see [[ a012401italy ]]). But apparently the connection between the Milan and Hamburg cells through Mahdjoub is not made. He is also tied to Mohamed Daki, another member of the Milan cell periodically living in Hamburg before 9/11. He apparently continues to be a major organizer after 9/11, and the Italian and German governments fail to share information about him. He is suspected of leading European recruitment of those who want to fight the US in Iraq. In late 2003, he will finally be arrested trying to cross the border into Iraq. He is put in German custody. [[ | New York Times, 3/22/04 ]] [[ | New York Times, 11/29/03 ]] ====== << alQaedaInGermany >> ((- Germany )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- Mohamed Daki )) [[ | Abderazek Mahdjoub. ]] 2000-September 10, 2001 Hijackers Possibly Spend Time in Philippines a2000philippines false 1 ------ The names of four hijackers are later discovered in Philippines immigration records, according to Philippine Immigration Commissioner Andrea Domingo. However, whether these are the hijackers or just other Saudis with the same names has not been confirmed. Abdulaziz Alomari visits the Philippines once in 2000, then again in February 2001, leaving on February 12. [[ | Associated Press, 9/19/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/telegraph092001.html | Daily Telegraph, 9/20/01 ]] [[ | Philippines Daily Inquirer, 9/19/01 ]] ------ Ahmed Alghamdi visits Manila, Philippines, more than 13 times in the two years before 9/11. He leaves the Philippines the day before the attacks. [[ | Arizona Daily Star, 9/28/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/telegraph092001.html | Daily Telegraph, 9/20/01 ]] ------ Fayez Ahmed Banihammad visits the Philippines on October 17-19, 2000. [[ | Arizona Daily Star, 9/28/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/telegraph092001.html | Daily Telegraph, 9/20/01 ]] ------ Saeed Alghamdi visits the Philippines on at least 15 occasions in 2001, entering as a tourist. The last visit ends on August 6, 2001. [[ /timeline/2001/telegraph092001.html | Daily Telegraph, 9/20/01 ]] ------ Hijackers Mohamed Atta and Marwan Alshehhi may also have been living in the Philippines, and 9/11 mastermind Khalid Shaikh Mohammed occasionally stays there. While in the Philippines, it is possible the hijackers meet with associates of Mohammed Jamal Khalifa, bin Laden's brother-in-law (see [[ a121694khalifaarrest ]]). Khalifa has been closely linked with the Philippines chapter of the International Islamic Relief Organization, which gets much of its money from the Saudi Arabian government. The organization has recently been accused of being a front for al-Qaeda. Amongst other connections to terrorism, Khalifa helped fund the Islamic Army of Aden, a group that claimed responsibility for the bombing of the USS Cole. [[ | Boston Herald, 10/14/01 ]] ------ Khalifa has been connected through phone calls to Hambali, a major terrorist who attended a planning meeting for the 9/11 attacks in Malaysia (see [[ a010500malaysiameeting ]]), also attended by two hijackers connected to the Islamic Army of Aden. [[ | PBS Frontline, 10/3/02 (C) ]] [[ /timeline/2001/coxnews102101.html | Cox News Service, 10/21/01 ]] ------ (The US had Khalifa in custody for about six months in 1995.) Nothing more has been heard to confirm or deny the hijackers' Philippines connections since these reports. ====== << otherHijackers >> ((- International Islamic Relief Organization )) ((+ Ahmed Alghamdi )) ((+ Mohammed Jamal Khalifa )) ((+ Abdulaziz Alomari )) ((+ Saeed Alghamdi )) ((+ Ahmed )) ((+ Marwan Alshehhi )) ((- Nurjaman Riduan Isamuddin )) ((+ Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((+ Mohamed Atta )) ((- Islamic Army of Aden )) ((+ Fayez Ahmed Banihammad )) January 2000 Former President Bush Meets with bin Laden Family on Behalf of Carlyle Group a0100bushsr false 1 ------ Former President George H. W. Bush meets with the bin Laden family on behalf of the Carlyle Group. He had also met with them in November 1998 (see [[ a1198bushbinladen ]]), but it is not known if he meets with them again after this. Bush denies this meeting took place until a thank you note is found confirming that it took place. [[ | Wall Street Journal, 9/27/01 ]] [[,1300,583869,00.html | Guardian, 10/31/01 ]] ====== << saudis >> << binladenFamily >> ((+ Carlyle Group )) ((+ George Herbert Walker Bush )) ((+ Bin Laden Family )) [[ | Ex-President Bush Sr. meeting with Saudi Arabia's King Fahd on behalf of the Carlyle Group in 2000. ]] January 2000 Israeli Spy Ring Begins Penetrating US a0100spyringbegins false 1 ------ A DEA government document later leaked to the press [[ /timeline/2001/dea0601.html | DEA report, 6/01 ]] ------ suggests that a large Israeli spy ring starts penetrating the US from at least this time, if not earlier. This ring, which will later become popularly known as the &#8220;art student spy ring,&#8221; is later shown to have strange connections to the events of 9/11. [[ | Insight, 3/11/02 ]] ====== << israel >> ((+ "Israeli art students" )) ((+ Drug Enforcement Agency )) ((+ United States )) [[ | States the Israeli spy ring were known to have operated in, according to a June 2001 Drug Enforcement Administration report (this Fox news graphic was based on information from that report). ]] 2000 German Intelligence Issues Report on al-Qaeda Connections in Germany a00bkareport false 1 ------ The BKA, the German counterpart to the FBI, prepares an extensive report on al-Qaeda's connections in Germany. The BKA warns that &#8220;Unknown structures&#8221; are preparing to stage attacks abroad. However, the German federal prosecutor's office rejects a proposed follow-up investigation. One of the persons named in the BKA report supposedly had contacts with the Hamburg terror cell. [[ /timeline/2001/berlinerzeitung092401.html | Berliner Zeitung, 9/24/01 ]] ====== << alQaedaInGermany >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Bundeskriminalamt Germany )) 2000 FBI Repeatedly Tells Clinton That Al-Qaeda Is Unable to Attack Inside US a00clintontold false 1 ------ In the wake of disrupting Ahmed Ressam's millennium bomb plot at the end of 1999 and arresting his cohorts (see [[ a121499ressam ]]) (see [[ a121431thwarted ]]), US intelligence remains concerned that al-Qaeda sleeper cells remain in the US (see [[ a03100bergerreview ]]). However, Clinton's National Security Adviser Sandy Berger later claims that the FBI still repeatedly assures the Clinton White House that al-Qaeda lacks the ability to launch a domestic strike. [[ | New York Times, 9/22/02 ]] ------ He says, &#8220;Until the very end of our time in office, the view we received from the [FBI] was that al-Qaeda had limited capacity to operate in the US and any presence here was under surveillance.&#8221; No analysis is done before 9/11 to investigate just how big that presence might be. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A41919-2002Sep19&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 9/20/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Sandy Berger )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Clinton administration )) January-March 2000 Hijacker Atta Begins E-mailing US Flight Schools, Seeking Pilot Training a0100attaemails false 1 ------ Hijacker Mohamed Atta, who is under CIA surveillance at this time, begins sending e-mails to US flight schools, inquiring about their pilot training programs. One e-mail states, &#8220;We are a small group (2-3) of young men from different arab [sic] countries.&#8221; &#8220;Now we are living in Germany since a while for study purposes. We would like to start training for the career of airline professional pilots. In this field we haven't yet any knowledge, but we are ready to undergo an intensive training program.&#8221; Apparently, multiple e-mails are sent from the same Hotmail account. Some e-mails are signed &#8220;M. Atta,&#8221; while others are signed &#8220;Mahmoud Ben Hamad.&#8221; [[ | Chicago Tribune, 2/25/03 ]] ====== << alQaedaInGermany >> << mohamedAtta >> ((- Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Mohamed Atta )) Early 2000 US Builds Up Influence in Central Asia aearly00centralasia false 1 ------ By the start of this year, the US has already begun &#8220;to quietly build influence&#8221; in Central Asia. The US has established significant military-to-military relationships with Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan. Americans have trained soldiers from those countries. The militaries of all three have an ongoing relationship with the National Guard of a US state&#8212;Kazakhstan with Arizona, Kyrgyzstan with Montana, and Uzbekistan with Louisiana. The countries also participate in NATO's Partnership for Peace program. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A64817-2002Aug26&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 8/27/02 ]] ====== << centralAsia >> ((+ Kazakhstan )) ((+ Kyrgyzstan )) ((+ United States )) ((+ Uzbekistan )) 2000 Attempted Flight Simulator Purchase Hints at Pilot Training a2000flightsimulator false 1 ------ At some point during this year, an FBI internal memo states that a Middle Eastern nation has been trying to purchase a flight simulator in violation of US restrictions. The FBI refuses to disclose the date or details of this memo. [[ /timeline/2002/latimes053002.html | Los Angeles Times, 5/30/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) 2000 $250 Million Bank Transfer Suggests Links Between Bin Laden, His Family, and Unnamed Pakistani a00bigbanktransfer false 1 ------ A transfer of 241 million euros (over $250 million) is made to Pakistan in this year from a Swiss bank account belonging jointly to Osama bin Laden and an unnamed person of Pakistani nationality. This Deutsche Bank joint account belongs to a company called Cambridge, which is a subsidiary of the Saudi Binladin Group, the bin Laden family company. After French investigators discover records of this money transfer in late 2004, a French judge authorizes widening a probe into the financial network surrounding the bin Laden family. [[ | Reuters, 12/26/04 ]] ------ The discovery of this sizable joint bank account contradicts the conclusions of the 9/11 Commission, which claims that bin Laden inherited far less than is commonly reported and never had a fortune in the hundreds of millions of dollars. [[ | Agence France-Presse, 7/26/04 ]] ====== << saudis >> << isi >> << binladenFamily >> ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Cambridge )) ((- 9/11 Commission )) ((- Bin Laden Family )) ((+ Deutsche Bank )) January-May 2000 CIA Has Atta Under Surveillance a0100ciaatta false 1 ------ Hijacker Mohamed Atta is put under surveillance by the CIA while living in Germany. [[ /timeline/2001/afp092201.html | Agence France-Presse, 9/22/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/focus092401.html | Focus, 9/24/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/berlinerzeitung092401.html | Berliner Zeitung, 9/24/01 ]] ------ He is &#8220;reportedly observed buying large quantities of chemicals in Frankfurt, apparently for the production of explosives [and/or] for biological warfare.&#8221; &#8220;The US agents reported to have trailed Atta are said to have failed to inform the German authorities about their investigation,&#8221; even as the Germans are investigating many of his associates. &#8220;The disclosure that Atta was being trailed by police long before 11 September raises the question why the attacks could not have been prevented with the man's arrest.&#8221; [[,6903,560733,00.html | Observer, 9/30/01 ]] ------ A German newspaper adds that Atta is able to get a visa into the US on May 18. According to some reports, the surveillance stops when he leaves for the US at the start of June. However, &#8220;experts believe that the suspect [remains] under surveillance in the United States.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/berlinerzeitung092401.html | Berliner Zeitung, 9/24/01 ]] ------ A German intelligence official also states, &#8220;We can no longer exclude the possibility that the Americans wanted to keep an eye on Atta after his entry in the US&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/focus092401.html | Focus, 9/24/01 ]] ------ This correlates with a Newsweek claim that US officials knew Atta was a &#8220;known [associate] of Islamic terrorists well before [9/11].&#8221; [[ | Newsweek, 9/20/01 ]] ------ However, a congressional inquiry later reports that the US &#8220;intelligence community possessed no intelligence or law enforcement information linking 16 of the 19 hijackers [including Atta] to terrorism or terrorist groups.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/senatecommittee092002.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/20/02 ]] ====== << alQaedaInGermany >> << mohamedAtta >> << warnings >> ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Mohamed Atta )) January 2-5, 2000 CIA Tracks Alhazmi and Almihdhar to al-Qaeda Meeting; Fails to Place Them on Terror Watch List a010500tomeeting false 1 ------ Hijackers Nawaf Alhazmi and Khalid Almihdhar travel to an important al-Qaeda meeting (see [[ a010500malaysiameeting ]]) in Malaysia. Alhazmi is in Pakistan with a ticket to Malaysia for January 2. CIA and Pakistani officials plan to have his passport scrutinized as he passes through the airport, but he changes his ticket departure date twice. Officials get confused and are not there when he leaves the country, so they still don't learn his last name. Meanwhile, Almihdhar is watched when he leaves a safe house in Yemen. Agents from eight CIA offices and six friendly foreign intelligence services are all asked to help track him, in the hopes he will lead them to bigger al-Qaeda figures. [[ /timeline/2003/stern081303.html | Stern, 8/13/03 ]] ------ United Arab Emirates officials secretly make copies of his passport as he is passing through the Dubai airport on his way to Malaysia and immediately report this to the CIA. Therefore, by the time he reaches Malaysia, the CIA knows his full name, and the fact that he has a multiple entry visa to the US that is valid from April 1999 to April 2000. Even though the CIA now knows Almihdhar has a one-year visa to the US and presumably plans to travel there, they do not place him on a terror watch list, despite receiving guidelines the previous month on the importance of doing so. [[ | Bamford, 2004, pp 224 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ United Arab Emirates )) ((+ Nawaf Alhazmi )) January 3, 2000 Al-Qaeda Attack on USS The Sullivans Fails; Remains Undiscovered a010300sullivans false 1 ------ An al-Qaeda attack on USS The Sullivans in Yemen's Aden harbor fails when their boat filled with explosives sinks. The attack remains undiscovered, and a duplication of the attack by the same people later successfully hits the USS Cole in October 2000. [[ | PBS Frontline, 10/3/02 (C) ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- USS Cole )) ((+ USS The Sullivans )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) January 5-8, 2000 Al-Qaeda Summit in Malaysia Monitored by Authorities; Information Passed to US a010500malaysiameeting false 1 ------ About a dozen of bin Laden's trusted followers hold a secret, &#8220;top-level al-Qaeda summit&#8221; in the city of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. [[ | CNN, 8/30/02 ]] [[ | San Diego Union-Tribune, 9/27/02 ]] ------ Plans for the October 2000 bombing of the USS Cole (see [[ a101200cole ]]) and the 9/11 attacks are discussed. [[ /timeline/2002/usatoday021202.html | USA Today, 2/12/02 ]] [[ | CNN, 8/30/02 ]] ------ At the request of the CIA, the Malaysian Secret Service monitors the meeting and then passes the information on to the US. Attendees of the meeting include: --- Hijackers Nawaf Alhazmi and Khalid Almihdhar --- The CIA and FBI will later miss many opportunities to foil the 9/11 plot through Alhazmi and Almihdhar and the knowledge of their presence at this meeting. The CIA already knows many details about these two by the time the meeting begins. --- Khalid Shaikh Mohammed --- A top al-Qaeda leader and the alleged &#8220;mastermind&#8221; of the 9/11 attacks. The US has known Mohammed is an Islamic militant since the exposure of Operation Bojinka in January 1995 (see [[ a0195bojinka ]]), and knows what he looks like. US officials have stated that they only realized the meeting was important in the summer of 2001, but the presence of Mohammed should have proved the meeting's importance. [[ /timeline/2002/latimes020202.html | Los Angeles Times, 2/2/02 ]] ------ Although the possible presence of Mohammed at this meeting is highly disputed by US officials, one terrorism expert testifies before the 9/11 Commission in 2003 that he has access to transcripts of Mohammed's interrogations since his capture, and that Mohammed admits leading this meeting. [[ | Newsweek, 7/9/03 ]] [[ | New York Post, 7/10/03 ]] ------ Many media reports identify him there as well [[ | Independent, 6/6/02 ]] [[ | CNN, 8/30/02 ]] [[ | CNN, 11/7/02 ]] [[ | Canadian Broadcasting Corp., 10/29/03 ]] ------ (for instance, according to Newsweek, &#8220;Mohammed's presence would make the intelligence failure of the CIA even greater. It would mean the agency literally watched as the 9/11 scheme was hatched&#8212;and had photographs of the attack's mastermind ... doing the plotting.&#8221; [[ | Newsweek, 7/9/03 ]] --- * --- Riduan Isamuddin, an Indonesian militant better known as Hambali. [[ | BBC, 8/15/03 ]] ------ He was the main financier of Operation Bojinka. [[ | CNN, 8/30/02 ]] [[ | CNN, 3/14/02 ]] ------ Philippine intelligence officials learned of Hambali's importance in 1995, but did not track him down or share information about him. He will be arrested by Thai authorities in August 2003. [[ | CNN, 8/14/03 ]] [[ | CBS News, 8/15/03 ]] --- Yazid Sufaat, --- A Malaysian man who owned the condominium where the meeting was held. [[ | New York Times, 1/31/02 ]] [[ | Newsweek, 6/2/02 ]] ------ A possibility to expose the 9/11 plot through Sufaat's presence at this meeting is later missed in September. Sufaat will travel to Afghanistan in June 2001 and be arrested by Malaysian authorities when he returns to Malaysia in late 2001. [[ /timeline/2002/australian122402.html | Australian, 12/24/02 ]] --- Fahad al-Quso --- A top al-Qaeda operative. [[ | Newsweek, 9/20/01 ]] ------ Al-Quso will be arrested by Yemeni authorities in December 2000, but the FBI is not given a chance to interrogate him before 9/11. He will escape from prison in 2003. [[ | CNN, 5/15/03 ]] --- Tawifiq bin Attash --- Better known by his alias &#8220;Khallad.&#8221; Bin Attash, a &#8220;trusted member of bin Laden's inner circle,&#8221; was in charge of bin Laden's bodyguards, and served as bin Laden's personal intermediary at least for the USS Cole attack. [[ | Newsweek, 9/20/01 ]] ------ He is also thought to be a &#8220;mastermind&#8221; of that attack. Attash is reportedly planning to be one of the hijackers, but will be unable to get a US visa. [[ | 9/11 Commission Report, 6/16/04 (B) ]] ------ US intelligence had been aware of his identity as early as 1995 [[ 2002/senatecommittee091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] ------ A possibility to expose the 9/11 plot through bin Attash's presence at this meeting is later missed in January 2001. Bin Attash had been previously arrested in Yemen for suspected terror ties, but let go. [[ /timeline/2002/contemporarysoutheastasia120102.html | Contemporary Southeast Asia, 12/1/02 ]] ------ He will be captured in Pakistan by the US in April 2003. [[ | New York Times, 5/1/03 ]] --- Ramzi Bin al-Shibh --- Investigators believe he wanted to be the twentieth hijacker. His presence at the meeting may not have been realized until after 9/11, despite the fact that US intelligence had a picture of him next to bin Attash, and had video footage of him. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A1503-2002Jul13&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 7/14/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/time091502.html | Time, 9/15/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/diezeit100102.html | Die Zeit, 10/1/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/newsweek112601.html | Newsweek, 11/26/01 ]] [[ | CNN, 11/7/02 ]] ------ German police have credit card receipts indicating bin al-Shibh is in Malaysia at the same time. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/1/02 ]] ------ Another account noting he was photographed at the meeting further notes that he entered and left Thailand three times in the first three weeks of January 2000. [[,1,5057995.story | Los Angeles Times, 10/17/01 ]] ------ Anonymous Malaysian officials claim he is there, but US officials deny it. [[ /timeline/2002/ap092002.html | Associated Press, 9/20/02 ]] ------ One account says he is recognized at the time of the meeting, which makes it hard to understand why he is not tracked back to Germany and the Hamburg cell with Mohamed Atta and other hijackers. [[ /timeline/2002/derspiegel100102.html | Der Spiegel, 10/1/02 ]] ------ Another opportunity to expose the 9/11 plot through bin al-Shibh's presence at this meeting will be missed in June. It appears bin al-Shibh and Almihdhar are directly involved in the attack on the USS Cole in October 2000 [[ | Newsweek, 9/4/02 ]] [[;node=&amp;contentId=A1503-2002Jul13&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 7/14/02 ]] [[,4273,4277367,00.html | Guardian, 10/15/01 ]] ------ , so better surveillance or follow-up from this meeting could have prevented that attack as well. --- Ahmad Hikmat Shakir --- An al-Qaeda agent of Iraqi nationality, may have attended this meeting, according to some documents [[ /timeline/2002/newsweek100702.html | Newsweek, 10/7/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/australian122402.html | Australian, 12/24/02 ]] ------ , but his presence at the meeting is uncertain. [[ | Associated Press, 10/2/02 ]] ------ After 9/11, he will be linked to the 1993 World Trade Center bombing and 1995 Bojinka plot. Jordan will arrest him and let him go after the US says they don't want to take custody of him (see [[ a091701shakirarrest ]]). --- Salem Alhazmi --- He is possibly at the meeting, although very few accounts mention it. [[ /timeline/2002/australian122402.html | Australian, 12/24/02 ]] ------ US intelligence intercepts from before the meeting indicate that he had plans to attend the meeting. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] --- Abu Bara al Taizi --- A Yemeni al-Qaeda agent, is also said to attend. He is reportedly meant to be one of the hijackers, but will be unable to enter the US due to greater scrutiny for Yemenis. [[ | 9/11 Commission Report, 6/16/04 (B) ]] --- More? --- Unnamed members of the Egyptian-based Islamic Jihad are also known to have been at the meeting. [[ /timeline/2001/coxnews102101.html | Cox News Service, 10/21/01 ]] ------ (The Islamic Jihad had merged with al-Qaeda in February 1998. [[ | ABC News, 11/17/01 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> << khalidShaikMohammed >> ((+ Malaysian Secret Service )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((+ Ramzi Bin al-Shibh )) ((+ Fahad al-Quso )) ((+ Ahmad Hikmat Shakir )) ((+ Yazid Sufaat )) ((+ Nurjaman Riduan Isamuddin )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Salem Alhazmi )) ((+ Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ Abu Bara al Taizi )) ((+ Egyptian Islamic Jihad )) ((+ Nurjaman Riduan Isamuddin )) ((- Mohamed Atta )) [[ | Attendees of the Malaysian meeting. From left to right top row: Nawaf Alhazmi, Khalid Almihdhar, Khalid Shaikh Mohammed. Left to right bottom row: Hambali, Yazid Sufaat, and Ramzi bin al-Shibh. No pictures of bin Atash or Fahad al-Quso are available, th ]] January 6-9, 2000 Malaysia Provides CIA with Information on al-Qaeda Summit and Attendees a010600monitor false 1 ------ At the CIA's request, the Malaysian Secret Service is monitoring an important al-Qaeda summit (see [[ a010500malaysiameeting ]]) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and begins passing what it knows to the CIA even before the meeting is over. Media accounts are consistent that the operatives at the meeting are photographed and even videotaped, but there is no wiretapping or other recording of their conversations. [[ | Newsweek, 6/2/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/ottawacitizen091701.html | Ottawa Citizen, 9/17/01 ]] [[,1373,564782,00.html | Observer, 10/7/01 ]] [[ | CNN, 3/14/02 ]] [[ | New Yorker, 1/14/02 ]] [[ | Canadian Broadcasting Corp., 10/29/03 ]] [[ /timeline/2003/stern081303.html | Stern, 8/13/03 ]] ------ However, Malaysian officials are not informed what to look for, and focus more on monitoring the local Malaysian and Indonesian hosts who serve as drivers than the visitors attending the meeting. [[ /timeline/2002/ap092002.html | Associated Press, 9/20/02 ]] ------ Authorities find out what hotel Khalid Almihdhar is staying at and he and his associates are photographed there [[ | Newsweek, 9/20/01 ]] [[,1373,564782,00.html | Observer, 10/7/01 ]] ------ , as well as coming and going from the condo where the meeting is held. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/1/02 ]] ------ On January 6, the CIA office in Malaysia begins passing details of the meeting to the CIA Counter Terrorism Center (CTC). Cofer Black, head of the CTC, orders that he be continually informed about the meeting, and CIA Director Tenet is frequently informed as well. [[ /timeline/2003/stern081303.html | Stern, 8/13/03 ]] ------ National Security Adviser Sandy Berger, FBI Director Louis Freeh, and other top officials are briefed, but apparently President Clinton is not. [[ | Bamford, 2004, pp 225-26 ]] ------ On January 7, Khalid Almihdhar and others go shopping, giving Malaysian security ample opportunity to collect information about them. They spend hours at Internet cafes, and after they leave, Malaysian intelligence searches the hard drives of the computers they used. [[ /timeline/2002/australian122402.html | Australian, 12/24/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2003/stern081303.html | Stern, 8/13/03 ]] ------ The video footage is apparently sent to US intelligence one month later (see [[ a0200tapeobtained ]]). However, no photos or video and few details from any of this surveillance have been publicly released. It is known that some photos show Khallad bin Attash with Almihdhar, some show Fahad al-Quso next to Almihdhar, and that some photos are of Ramzi bin al-Shibh. By January 9, all the data and footage the Malaysians have collected are in the hands of the CIA. [[ /timeline/2003/stern081303.html | Stern, 8/13/03 ]] [[ | Newsweek, 9/20/01 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((+ Tawifiq ("Khallad") bin Attash )) ((+ Fahad al-Quso )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Malaysian Secret Service )) ((+ Louis J. Freeh )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ George Tenet )) ((- William Jefferson ("Bill") Clinton )) ((+ Ramzi Bin al-Shibh )) ((+ Cofer Black )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ Sandy Berger )) [[ | Hazel Evergreen, located on the outskirts of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, is the condominium complex where the terror summit was held. ]] January 8-15, 2000 CIA Fails to Apprehend Hijackers in Thailand a010800thailand false 1 ------ Hijackers Nawaf Alhazmi and Khalid Almihdhar stay in Thailand. Khallad bin Attash, who flew there with them, is met in Bangkok by two al-Qaeda operatives who give him money. Some of this money is reportedly passed on to Alhazmi and Almihdhar for their upcoming work in the US. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommission012604.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 1/26/04 ]] ------ The CIA is trying to find Almihdhar, since they now know his full name and the fact that he has just come from an important al-Qaeda meeting (see [[ a010500malaysiameeting ]]). For six weeks, they look for him in Thailand. However, the search is unsuccessful, because, as one official puts it, &#8220;when they arrived we were unable to mobilize what we needed to mobilize.&#8221; The CIA only alerts Thailand-based CIA officers to look for these men hours after they had already arrived and disappeared into the city. However, a few days later a CIA official notifies superiors that surveillance of the men is continuing, even though the men's location is Unknown. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommission012604.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 1/26/04 ]] ------ Nevertheless, in February, the CIA rejects a request from foreign authorities to give assistance. The CIA gives up the search in early March when an unnamed foreign government tells the CIA that Nawaf Alhazmi has already flown to the US. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((+ Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Tawifiq ("Khallad") bin Attash )) January 8, 2000 Al-Qaeda Summit Ends; CIA Fails to Add Attendees to Watch List a010800departure false 1 ------ The al-Qaeda summit in Malaysia (see [[ a010500malaysiameeting ]]) ends and the participants leave. Hijackers Nawaf Alhazmi and Khalid Almihdhar fly to Bangkok, Thailand, traveling under their real names. al-Qaeda leader Khallad bin Attash also travels with them and the three sit side by side in the airplane, but bin Attash travels under the false name &#8220;Salah Said.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/ap092002.html | Associated Press, 9/20/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ The CIA knows that a &#8220;Nawaf&#8221; has attended the meeting, but does not know his last name. Shortly afterwards, the CIA is told of this airplane flight, and the fact that the person sitting next to Almihdhar on the plane is named &#8220;Nawaf Alhazmi.&#8221; CIA Headquarters asks the NSA to put Almihdhar on their watch list. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommission012604.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 1/26/04 ]] ------ However, neither Alhazmi nor Almihdhar are placed on a terror watch list. The CIA still fails to tell the FBI that Almihdhar has a valid US visa, and fails to give them Alhazmi's last name. [[ /timeline/2003/stern081303.html | Stern, 8/13/03 ]] [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ The CIA searches for the names in their databases but get no &#8220;hits.&#8221; Yet they don't search the much larger NSA databases, which had vital information on them. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommission012604.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 1/26/04 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((- Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ National Security Agency )) ((+ Tawifiq ("Khallad") bin Attash )) January 15-Early February 2000 Suspected Advance Man Helps 9/11 Hijackers Settle in San Diego a011500advanceman false 1 ------ Hijackers Nawaf Alhazmi and Khalid Almihdhar arrive in Los Angeles and stay there for two weeks. Omar al-Bayoumi, a suspected al-Qaeda advance man and possible Saudi agent, arrives in Los Angeles and visits the Saudi Consulate there. According to Newsweek, &#8220;Law-enforcement officials believe al-Bayoumi may [have] a closed-door meeting with Fahad al Thumairy, a member of the consulate's Islamic and Culture Affairs Section.&#8221; [[ | Newsweek, 7/28/03 ]] ------ (In March 2003, al Thumairy is stripped of his diplomatic visa and barred from entry to the US, reportedly because of suspected links to terrorism. [[ | Washington Post, 11/23/03 ]] ------ ) Later that same day, al-Bayoumi goes to a restaurant and meets Alhazmi and Almihdhar. Al-Bayoumi later claims that this first contact with the hijackers is accidental. However, one FBI source later recalls that before he drives to Los Angeles that day he says he is going &#8220;to pick up visitors.&#8221; [[ | Newsweek, 7/28/03 ]] [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ Al-Bayoumi returns to San Diego after inviting the two hijackers to move there; Alhazmi and Almihdhar follow him there shortly thereafter. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ The FBI's &#8220;best source&#8221; in San Diego says that al-Bayoumi &#8220;must be an intelligence officer for Saudi Arabia or another foreign power.&#8221; A former top FBI official working on the al-Bayoumi investigation claims: &#8220;We firmly believed that he had knowledge [of the 9/11 plot], and that his meeting with them that day was more than coincidence.&#8221; [[ | Newsweek, 7/28/03 ]] ------ Al-Bayoumi helps Alhazmi and Almihdhar settle in the US. After meeting them in Los Angeles and after bringing them to San Diego, he finds them a place to live. Al-Bayoumi lives at the Villa Balboa apartments with a wife and children, and the two hijackers move into the Parkwood apartments directly across the street. [[ /timeline/2001/sundaymercury102101.html | Sunday Mercury, 10/21/01 ]] [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/1/02 ]] ------ It appears the lease was actually signed by Alhazmi a few months earlier. Al-Bayoumi cosigns the lease and pays $1,500 cash for their first month's rent and security deposit. Some FBI officials claim the hijackers immediately pay him back, others claim they do not. [[ | Newsweek, 11/24/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ Within days of bringing them from Los Angeles, al-Bayoumi throws a welcoming party that introduces them to the local Muslim community. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A36963-2001Dec28&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 12/29/01 ]] ------ One associate later says an al-Bayoumi party &#8220;was a big deal ... it meant that everyone accepted them without question.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/sandiegouniontribune102501.html | San Diego Union-Tribune, 10/25/01 ]] ------ He also introduces hijacker Hani Hanjour to the community a short time later. [[ | San Diego Union-Tribune, 9/14/02 ]] ------ He tasks an acquaintance, Modhar Abdallah, to serve as their translator and help them get driver's licenses, Social Security cards, information on flight schools, and more [[ | San Diego Union-Tribune, 9/8/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> << saudis >> ((+ Modhar Abdallah )) ((+ Omar al-Bayoumi )) ((+ Fahad al Thumairy )) ((+ William Safire )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ Nawaf Alhazmi )) January 15, 2000 Hijackers Alhazmi and Almihdhar Travel to US Undetected a011500bangkokflight false 1 ------ A week after the meeting in Malaysia, hijackers Nawaf Alhazmi and Khalid Almihdhar fly together from Bangkok, Thailand, to Los Angeles, California. [[ /timeline/2001/msnbc121101.html | MSNBC, 12/11/01 ]] ------ Because the CIA has lost track of them in Thailand, no one in the US government realizes they are coming to the US. The CIA will learn this information in early March, but still will take no action. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommission012604.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 1/26/04 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ Nawaf Alhazmi )) Late November 2000-January 30, 2001 Conflicting Accounts of Jarrah's Location a1100jarrahconflict false 1 ------ When Ziad Jarrah is questioned at Dubai, United Arab Emirates, on January 30, 2001, he reveals that he has been in Pakistan and Afghanistan for the previous two months and five days, and that he is returning to Florida. [[ | Chicago Tribune, 12/13/01 ]] ------ Investigators also later confirm that &#8220;Jarrah had spent at least three weeks in January 2001 at an al-Qaeda training camp in Afghanistan.&#8221; [[ | CNN, 8/1/02 ]] ------ However, the Florida Flight Training Center, where Jarrah has been studying for the previous six months, later says he is in school there until January 15, 2001. His family later reports he arrives in Lebanon to visit them on January 26, five days before he supposedly passes through Dubai. His father had just undergone open-heart surgery, and Jarrah visits him every day in the hospital until after January 30. Pointing out this incident, his uncle Jamal Jarrah later asks, &#8220;How could he be in two places at one time?&#8221; [[ | Longman, 2002, pp 101-02 ]] ------ This is not the only example of Jarrah being in two places at the same time&#8212;there is also evidence he was in different places at once from March 1995-February 1996 (see [[ a0395jarrahdouble ]]). ====== << otherHijackers >> << ziadJarrah >> ((+ Florida Flight Training Center )) ((+ Ziad Jarrah )) [[ | Two Ziad Jarrahs. The photo on the right is from the wreckage of Flight 93. ]] Early February-Summer 2000 Hijackers Alhazmi and Almihdhar Live Openly in San Diego a0200liveopenly false 1 ------ Hijackers Nawaf Alhazmi and Khalid Almihdhar move to San Diego and live there openly. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ Hijacker Hani Hanjour joins them as a roommate in February 2000 but apparently does not stay long. [[ | San Diego Union-Tribune, 9/21/01 ]] [[ | San Diego Channel 10, 9/18/01 ]] ------ The hijackers use their real names on their rental agreement [[ /timeline/2002/senatecommittee092002.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/20/02 ]] ------ , driver's licenses, Social Security cards, credit cards [[ | Newsweek, 6/2/02 ]] ------ , car purchase, and bank account. Alhazmi is even listed in the 2000-2001 San Diego phone book. [[ | South Florida Sun-Sentinel, 9/28/01 ]] [[ | Newsweek, 6/2/02 ]] ------ Neighbors notice odd behavior: They have no furniture, they are constantly using cell phones on the balcony, constantly playing flight simulator games, keep to themselves, and strange cars and limousines pick them up for short rides in the middle of the night. [[ | Washington Post, 9/30/01 ]] [[ | Time, 9/24/01 ]] [[,8816,176069,00.html | Time, 9/24/01 (B) ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> << haniHanjour >> ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((+ William Safire )) [[ | Nawaf Alhazmi in the 2000-2001 San Diego phone book. ]] February 2000-Early September 2001 San Diego Neighbors to Hijackers See Mysterious Late Night Visits and Car Rides a0200mysteriousvisits false 1 ------ While Nawaf Alhazmi and Khalid Almihdhar live in the Parkwood Apartments in San Diego in early 2000 and then again before 9/11, neighbors note unexplained late night car rides and visits. Time reports that a neighbor, &#8220;Nancy Coker, 36, saw them getting into limos late at night, even though the car that neighbors said they drove was a gray Toyota Camry, early '90s vintage. &#8216;A week ago, I was coming home between 12 and 1 a.m. from a club. I saw a limo pick them up. It wasn't the first time. In this neighborhood you notice stuff like that. In the past couple of months, I have seen this happen at least two or three times.&#8217; &#8221; Note the comment, &#8220;a week ago,&#8221; which is further evidence the two are living in the Parkwood Apartments again just before 9/11 (see [[ a0901twoplaces ]]) (( Nancy Coker )) [[,8599,175953,00.html | Time, 9/24/01 ]] ------ Keith Link, a neighbor with a view of one of the apartments, referring to one of these hijackers, says, &#8220;People later in the evening would come and pick him up in really fancy nice cars, brand-new Lincolns. Everybody is friendly in this whole complex, except for that guy. Nobody knew him, nobody spoke to him.&#8221; Another neighbor, Sharon Flower, says, &#8220;I would see this man being picked up or dropped off at all hours of the day or night.&#8221; (( Keith Link )) (( Sharon Flower )) [[ /timeline/2001/sandiegouniontribune091501.html | San Diego Union-Tribune, 9/15/01 ]] ------ A similar pattern is seen by neighbors when the hijackers live with FBI informant Abdussattar Shaikh in the neighborhood of Lemon Grove in late 2000. Neighbor Dave Eckler later explains, &#8220;There was always a series of cars driving up to the house late at night. Sometimes they were nice cars. Sometimes they had darkened windows. They'd stay about 10 minutes.&#8221; At the time, Eckler guesses they are selling fake IDs. (( Dave Eckler )) [[,8599,175953,00.html | Time, 9/24/01 ]] ------ Neighbor Marna Adair says, &#8220;People come and go at all hours. We've always thought there was something strange going on there.&#8221; Her daughter Denise Adair adds, &#8220;We thought it was a little weird, but we never thought this [i.e., the 9/11 attacks].&#8221; (( Marna Adair )) (( Denise Adair )) [[ | Associated Press, 9/16/01 (D) ]] ------ There has never been any media speculation as to the meaning of these late night rides and official 9/11 investigations have never mentioned the issue. ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((+ Abdussattar Shaikh )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ Nawaf Alhazmi )) February 2000 CIA Obtains Videotape of Al-Qaeda Summit Malaysia, But Express Little Interest in It a0200tapeobtained false 1 ------ About a month after the Malaysia al-Qaeda summit attended by hijackers Nawaf Alhazmi, Khalid Almihdhar, Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, and others (see [[ a010500malaysiameeting ]]), &#8220;The CIA obtain[s] a surveillance videotape&#8221; from Malaysian intelligence &#8220;that shows men arriving at the meeting, according to a US intelligence official. The tape, he said, has no sound and [isn't] viewed as very significant at the time.&#8221; [[,0,999276.story | Los Angeles Times, 10/14/01 ]] ------ Contents of the tape, which might definitively prove who was at the meeting, have never been made public. ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((- Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((- Khalid Almihdhar )) February 6, 2000 Apparent Mossad Attempt to Infiltrate al-Qaeda Thwarted a020600mossadinfiltrate false 1 ------ India's largest Newsweekly reports that it appears a recent Mossad attempt to infiltrate al-Qaeda failed when undercover agents were stopped on their way to Bangladesh by Indian customs officials. These 11 men appeared to be from Afghanistan, but had Israeli passports. One expert states, &#8220;It is not unlikely for Mossad to recruit 11 Afghans in Iran and grant them Israeli citizenship to penetrate a network such as bin Laden's. They would begin by infiltrating them into an Islamic radical group in an unlikely place like Bangladesh.&#8221; [[ | The Week, 2/6/00 ]] ====== << israel >> ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Israel Institute for Intelligence and Special Tasks )) [[ | Ephrahim Halevy is head of the Israeli Mossad from 1998 to 2002. ]] Spring 2000 Payments to Suspected Hijacker Associate Increase Significantly aspring00paymentsincrease false 1 ------ According to leaks from the still-classified part of the 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, monthly payments to Omar al-Bayoumi increase significantly at this time. Al-Bayoumi has been receiving a salary from the Saudi civil authority of about $500 a month. However, shortly after hijackers Nawaf Alhazmi and Khalid Almihdhar move to San Diego, al-Bayoumi's salary increases to about $3,000 to $3,500 a month [[;en=6e8c3c717ed47134&amp;ex=1074574800&amp;pagewanted=all&amp;position= | New York Times, 7/29/03 (B) ]] ------ It is not clear whether this pay spike is from his Dallah Avco job, or an additional payment by the Saudi government [[;en=6e8c3c717ed47134&amp;ex=1074574800&amp;pagewanted=all&amp;position= | New York Times, 7/29/03 (B) ]] [[ | New York Times, 8/2/03 ]] ------ , but the pay spike appears to be a separate stream of money, because another report indicates his Dallah Avco job started with $3,000 a month payments and remained consistent. [[ | Wall Street Journal, 8/11/03 ]] ------ It also fits in with his claims to acquaintances at the time that he is receiving a regular government scholarship. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/1/02 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((- Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((- Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ Omar al-Bayoumi )) ((- Dallah Avco )) Spring 2000 CIA Paramilitary Teams Begin Working with Anti-Taliban Forces aspring00paramilitary false 1 ------ Around this time, special CIA paramilitary teams begin &#8220;working with tribes and warlords in southern Afghanistan&#8221; and help &#8220;create a significant new network in the region of the Taliban's greatest strength.&#8221; [[ | Washington Post, 11/18/01 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((- Taliban )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) March 2000 FBI Agent Apparently Destroys bin Laden E-Mail Intercepts a0300angry false 1 ------ An FBI agent, angry over a glitch in an e-mail tracking program that has somehow mixed innocent non-targeted e-mails with those belonging to al-Qaeda, reportedly accidentally destroys all of the FBI's Denver-based intercepts of bin Laden's colleagues under investigation. The tracking program is called Carnivore. However, the explanation sounds dubious and it is flatly contradicted in the same article: &#8220;A Justice Department official, speaking on condition of anonymity, said Tuesday night that the e-mails were not destroyed.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/ap052802.html | Associated Press, 5/28/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Carnivore )) Spring 2000 Saudi Suggestion to Track bin Laden's Stepmother in Planned Meeting with Bin Laden Is Rejected aspring0stepmothertrick false 1 ------ Sources who know Osama bin Laden later claim that his stepmother, Al-Khalifa bin Laden, has a second meeting with her stepson in Afghanistan (her first visit took place in the spring of 1998 (see [[ aspring98stepmother ]])). The trip is approved by the Saudi royal family. The Saudis pass the message to him that &#8220;&#8216;they wouldn't crack down on his followers in Saudi Arabia&#8217; as long as he set his sights on targets outside the desert kingdom.&#8221; In late 1999, the Saudi government had told the CIA about the upcoming trip, and suggested placing a homing beacon on her luggage. This does not happen&#8212;Saudis later claim they weren't taken seriously, and Americans claim they never received specific information on her travel plans. [[ | New Yorker, 11/5/01 ]] [[ | Washington Post, 12/19/01 ]] ====== << saudis >> << huntForBinLaden >> << binladenFamily >> ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Al-Khalifa bin Laden )) ((- Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- Saudi Binladin Group )) March 2000 US Intelligence Learns al-Qaeda May Attack West Coast a0300west false 1 ------ The US intelligence community obtains information suggesting al-Qaeda is planning attacks in specific West Coast areas, possibly involving the assassination of several public officials. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] ------ While these attacks do not materialize, this is the same month the CIA learns that two known al-Qaeda operatives have just flown to Los Angeles (see [[ a0300cialearns ]]). ====== << warnings >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Central Intelligence Agency )) March 2000 US Intelligence Learns bin Laden May Target Statue of Liberty, Skyscrapers, Other Sites a0300statue false 1 ------ US intelligence obtains information about the types of targets that bin Laden's network might strike. The Statue of Liberty is specially mentioned, as are skyscrapers, ports, airports, and nuclear power plants. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- al-Qaeda )) Spring 2000 CIA Continues Efforts to Recruit Man Close to Hamburg Cell aspring00informant false 1 ------ German investigators finally agree to the CIA's request to recruit businessman Mamoun Darkazanli as an informant. An agent of the LfV, the Hamburg state intelligence agency, casually approaches Darkazanli and asks him whether he is interested in becoming a spy. Darkazanli replies that he is just a businessman who knows nothing about al-Qaeda or terrorism. The Germans inform the local CIA representative that the approach failed. The CIA agent persists, asking the German agent to continue to try. However, when German agents ask for more information to show Darkazanli they know of his terrorist ties, the CIA fails to give them any information. As it happens, at the end of January 2000, Darkazanli had just met with Barakat Yarkas in Madrid, Spain. [[ /timeline/2002/chicagotribune111702.html | Chicago Tribune, 11/17/02 ]] ------ Darkazanli is a longtime friend and business partner of Yarkas, the most prominent al-Qaeda agent in Spain. [[,0,2368574.story?coll=la-headlines-world-manual | Los Angeles Times, 1/14/03 ]] ------ The meeting included other suspected al-Qaeda figures, and it was monitored by Spanish police. If the CIA is aware of the Madrid meeting, they do not tell the Germans. [[ /timeline/2002/chicagotribune111702.html | Chicago Tribune, 11/17/02 ]] ------ A second LfV attempt to recruit Darkazanli also fails. The CIA then attempts to work with federal German intelligence officials in Berlin to &#8220;turn&#8221; Darkazanli. Results of that effort are not known. [[ /timeline/2002/chicagotribune111702.html | Chicago Tribune, 11/17/02 ]] ====== << alQaedaInGermany >> ((+ Barakat Yarkas )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Mamoun Darkazanli )) ((+ Office for the Protection of the Constitution )) March 2000 Clinton Attempt to Fight Terrorism Financing Defeated by Republican a0300clintondefeat false 1 ------ The Clinton administration begins a push to fight terrorism financing by introducing a tough anti-money laundering bill. The bill faces tough opposition, mostly from Republicans and lobbyists who enjoy the anonymity of offshore banking, which would be affected by the legislation. Despite passing the House Banking Committee by a vote of 31 to 1 in July 2000, Senator Phil Gramm (R) refuses to let the bill come up for a vote in his Senate Banking Committee. [[ | Time, 10/15/01 ]] ------ Other efforts begun at this time to fight terrorism financing are later stymied by the new Bush administration in February 2001. ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Bush administration )) ((+ Clinton administration )) ((+ Phil Gramm )) March 2000 Bin Laden Relative Associates With Islamic Militants in Philippines a0300ibnu false 1 ------ Four Arabs allegedly visit the headquarters of the Abu Sayyaf Islamist militant group, deep in the jungles of the southern Philippines. One of them goes by the name Ibnu bin Laden and appears to be a close relative of Osama bin Laden. They give equipment and money. Just days later, Abu Sayyaf militants seize about 50 students and teachers and demand the release of Ramzi Yousef and Sheikh Omar Abdul-Rahman from US prisons in exchange for their hostages. (They are ultimately unsuccessful in winning their demands.) Osama bin Laden's ties to Abu Sayyaf go back at least to 1988, when it is believed he personally visited the Philippines. (( Wahab Akbar )) [[ | South China Morning Post, 10/11/01 ]] ====== << saudis >> << binladenFamily >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- Sheikh Omar Abdul-Rahman )) ((- Ramzi Yousef )) ((+ Ibnu bin Laden )) ((+ Abu Sayyaf )) Spring-Summer 2000 NSA Intercepts Calls Made by Hijacker Almihdhar in US, Fails to Trace Location aspring00almihdharcalls false 1 ------ Hijacker Khalid Almihdhar, while living in San Diego, telephones an al-Qaeda safe house in Yemen owned by his father-in-law (note that the facility is not named, but references in the 9/11 Congressional Inquiry report are consistent with other mentions of this safe house). This safe house has been closely monitored since 1998, as even bin Laden himself makes calls to it. The NSA intercepts these calls but doesn't realize the &#8220;Khalid&#8221; calling the safe house is calling from the US (This is only determined by an analysis of phone toll records obtained after 9/11.) The NSA had been aware of a &#8220;Khalid,&#8221; &#8220;Nawaf Alhazmi,&#8221; and his brother &#8220;Salem&#8221; having communications with this safe house in 1999. In summer 2000 there are additional communications to the safe house from &#8220;Khalid&#8221; and &#8220;Salem,&#8221; but again the NSA does not realize the meaning or importance of these calls. There may have been more communications&#8212;the section of the 9/11 Congressional Inquiry dealing with these calls is heavily censored. Some, but not all, of the information about certain calls is passed on to the FBI and CIA. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((- Salem Alhazmi )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ National Security Agency )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((- 9/11 Congressional Inquiry )) ((- Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((- al-Qaeda )) March 5, 2000 CIA Learn Hijackers Have Entered US; FBI Not Informed a0300cialearns false 1 ------ Thailand tells the CIA that hijacker Nawaf Alhazmi had flown from the January meeting in Malaysia to Los Angeles. Thai intelligence actually knew this the same day they flew to the US, but they didn't share the information until the CIA finally asked them about it around this time. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommission012604.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 1/26/04 ]] [[;position=top | New York Times, 10/17/02 ]] ------ According to a senior FBI official, the CIA also learns about hijacker Khalid Almihdhar: &#8220;In March 2000, the CIA received information concerning the entry of Almihdhar and Alhazmi into the United States.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/senatecommittee092002c.html | Michael Rolince Testimony, 9/20/02 ]] ------ The CIA disputes this, however. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ A cable is immediately sent to CIA Headquarters noting (at least) that Nawaf Alhazmi has traveled to Los Angeles. The cable is marked &#8220;Action Required: None, FYI [For Your Information].&#8221; CIA Director Tenet later claims, &#8220;Nobody read that cable in the March timeframe.&#8221; (( George Tenet )) [[;position=top | New York Times, 10/17/02 ]] ------ Yet the day after the cable is received, &#8220;another overseas CIA station note[s], in a cable to the bin Laden unit at CIA headquarters, that it had &#8216;read with interest&#8217; the March cable, &#8216;particularly the information that a member of this group traveled to the US...&#8217; &#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/senatecommittee092002.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/20/02 ]] ------ Yet again, CIA fails to put their names on a watch list, and again fails to alert the FBI so they can be tracked. [[ /timeline/2002/senatecommittee092002.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/20/02 ]] ------ Senior CIA counterterrorism official Cofer Black later says, &#8220;I think that month we watch listed about 150 people. [The watch listing] should have been done. It wasn't.&#8221; (( Cofer Black )) [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((- Khalid Almihdhar )) ((- Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Malaysian Secret Service )) ((- Federal Bureau of Investigation )) March 10, 2000 Review of Counterterrorism Efforts Show Continued Worries a03100bergerreview false 1 ------ National Security Adviser Sandy Berger chairs a Cabinet-level meeting to review the wave of attempted terror attacks around the millennium. There are counterterrorism reports that disruption efforts &#8220;have not put too much of a dent&#8221; into bin Laden's overseas network, and that it is feared &#8220;sleeper cells&#8221; of al-Qaeda operatives have taken root in the US. Some ideas, like expanding the number of Joint Terrorism Task Forces across the US, are adopted. Others, like a centralized translation unit for domestic intercepts, are not. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404d.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (D) ]] ------ In July 2004, it is revealed that the Justice Department is investigating Berger for taking classified documents relating to this review effort out of a secure reading room in 2003. Most of the documents are returned, but a few apparently are lost. [[ /timeline/2004/ap072004.html | Associated Press, 7/20/04 ]] [[ | Washington Post, 7/22/04 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Sandy Berger )) ((+ US Department of Justice )) ((- Joint Terrorism Task Force )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) March 17, 2000 Bin Laden Reportedly Ill a031700binladenweak false 1 ------ Reports suggest bin Laden appears weak and gaunt at an important meeting of supporters. He may be very ill with liver ailments, and is seeking a kidney dialysis machine. [[ /timeline/2000/ap032500.html | Associated Press, 3/25/00 ]] ------ It is believed he gets the dialysis machine in early 2001. [[ /timeline/2001/londontimes110101.html | Times of London, 11/01/01 ]] ------ He is able to talk, walk with a cane, and hold meetings, but little else. [[ /timeline/2000/deutschepresseagentur031600.html | Deutsche Presse-Agenteur, 3/16/00 ]] [[ /timeline/2000/asiaweek032400.html | Asiaweek, 3/24/00 ]] ------ The ISI is said to help facilitate his medical treatment. [[ /timeline/2002/cbs012802.html | CBS News, 1/28/02 ]] ====== << isi >> ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) March 21, 2000 Complaints About FBI Agent Are Ignored, Dubious Agent Promoted to Head FBI Investigations in Saudi Arabia a032100abdelhafiz false 1 ------ FBI agent Robert Wright, having been accused of tarnishing the reputation of fellow agent Gamal Abdel-Hafiz, makes a formal internal complaint about Abdel-Hafiz. FBI agent Barry Carmody seconds Wright's complaint. Wright and Carmody accuse Abdel-Hafiz, a Muslim, of hindering investigations by openly refusing to record other Muslims. The FBI was investigating if BMI Inc., a New Jersey based company with connections to Saudi financier Yassin al-Qadi, had helped fund the 1998 US embassy bombings. [[ /timeline/2002/wallstreetjournal112602.html | Wall Street Journal, 11/26/02 ]] [[ | ABC News, 12/19/02 ]] ------ Federal prosecutor Mark Flessner and other FBI agents back up the allegations against Abdel-Hafiz. [[ | ABC News, 12/19/02 ]] ------ Carmody also claims that Abdel-Hafiz hindered an inquiry into the possible ties to Islamic militants of fired University of South Florida Professor Sami Al-Arian by refusing to record a conversation with the professor in 1998. [[ /timeline/2003/tampatribune030403.html | Tampa Tribune, 3/4/03 ]] ------ Complaints to superiors and headquarters about this never get a response. [[ /timeline/2003/foxnews030603.html | Fox News, 3/6/03 ]] ------ Furthermore, &#8220;Far from being reprimanded, Abdel-Hafiz [is] promoted to one of the FBI's most important anti-terrorism posts, the American Embassy in Saudi Arabia, to handle investigations for the FBI in that Muslim country.&#8221; [[ | ABC News, 12/19/02 ]] ------ Abdel-Hafiz is finally suspended in February 2003, after his scandal is widely reported in the press. [[ /timeline/2003/tampatribune030403.html | Tampa Tribune, 3/4/03 ]] ------ Bill O'Reilly of Fox News claims that on March 4, 2003, the FBI threatened to fire Wright if he speaks publicly about this, one hour before Wright is scheduled to appear on Fox News. [[ /timeline/2003/foxnews030403.html | Fox News, 3/4/03 ]] ====== << saudis >> ((- Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((- Gamal Abdel-Hafiz )) ((- BMI Inc. )) ((+ Barry Carmody )) ((- Bill O'Reilly )) ((+ Robert Wright )) ((- Sami Al-Arian )) ((+ Mark Flessner )) ((- Yassin al-Qadi )) March 25, 2000 Clinton Visits Pakistan Despite Fears of ISI Ties to Al-Qaeda a032500clintonvisit false 1 ------ President Clinton visits Pakistan. It is later revealed that the US Secret Service believed that the ISI was so deeply infiltrated by Islamic militant organizations, that it begged Clinton to cancel his visit. Specifically, the US government determined that the ISI had long-standing ties with al-Qaeda. When Clinton decided to go over the Secret Service's protestations, his security took extraordinary and unprecedented precautions. For instance, an empty Air Force One was flown into the country, and the president made the trip in a small, unmarked plane. [[ | New York Times, 10/29/01 ]] ====== << isi >> ((+ William Jefferson ("Bill") Clinton )) ((- Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((- Secret Service )) April-May 2000 Alhazmi and Almihdhar Are &#8216;Dumb and Dumber&#8217; as Pilot Students a0400dumbdumber false 1 ------ On April 10, 2000, Nawaf Alhazmi takes a one hour introductory lesson at the National Air College in San Diego. Eight days later, he receives a $5,000 wire transfer in from Ali Abdul Aziz Ali in the United Arab Emirates. [[ | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/26/02 ]] ------ In May, Alhazmi and Khalid Almihdhar arrive at Sorbi's Flying Club, a small school also in San Diego. They announce that they want to learn to fly Boeing airliners. [[ | Washington Post, 9/30/01 ]] ------ They are there with someone named &#8220;Hani&#8221; &#8212;presumably hijacker Hani Hanjour&#8212;but only the two of them go up in an airplane. [[ | South Florida Sun-Sentinel, 9/28/01 ]] ------ Instructor Rick Garza says that the dream to fly big jets is the goal of practically every student who comes to the school, but he notices an unusual lack of any basic understanding of aircraft in these two. When he asks Almihdhar to draw the aircraft, Almihdhar draws the wings on backwards. Both speak English poorly, but Almihdhar in particular seems impossible to communicate with. Rather than following the instructions he was given, he would vaguely reply, &#8220;Very good. Very nice.&#8221; [[ | Chicago Tribune, 9/30/01 ]] ------ The two offer extra money to Garza if he will teach them to fly multi-engine Boeing planes, but Garza declines. [[ | Washington Post, 9/30/01 ]] ------ &#8220;I told them they had to learn a lot of other things first... It was like Dumb and Dumber. I mean, they were clueless. It was clear to me they weren't going to make it as pilots.&#8221; (( Rick Garza )) [[,1373,564782,00.html | Observer, 10/7/01 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((+ Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ Ali Abdul Aziz Ali )) ((+ National Air College )) ((+ William Safire )) ((+ Rick Garza )) ((+ Sorbi's Flying Club )) April 2000 US Granted Permission to Expand Qatar Military Base a0400qatarexpansion false 1 ------ The US obtains permission to expand greatly a military base in the Persian Gulf nation of Qatar, and construction begins shortly thereafter. The justification for expanding Al Adid, a billion-dollar base, is presumably preparedness for renewed action against Iraq. [[,0,4963731.story | Los Angeles Times, 1/6/02 ]] ------ Dozens of other US military bases sprang up in the region during the 1990s. [[ | Village Voice, 11/13/02 ]] ====== << centralAsia >> ((+ United States )) April 2000 Would-Be Hijacker Tells FBI About Plot to Fly Plane into US Building a0400niazkhan false 1 ------ Niaz Khan, a British citizen originally from Pakistan, is recruited into an al-Qaeda plot. He is flown to Lahore, Pakistan, and then trains in a compound there for a week with others on how to hijack passenger airplanes. He trains on a mock cockpit of a 767 aircraft (an airplane type used on 9/11). He is taught hijacking techniques, including how to smuggle guns and other weapons through airport security and how to get into a cockpit. He is then flown to the US and told to meet with a contact. He says, &#8220;They said I would live there for a while and meet some other people and we would hijack a plane from JFK and fly it into a building.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2004/londontimes050904.html | Times of London, 5/9/04 ]] ------ He has &#8220;no doubt&#8221; this is the 9/11 plot. However, Khan slips away and gambles away the money given to him by al-Qaeda. Afraid he would be killed for betraying al-Qaeda, he turns himself in to the FBI. For three weeks, FBI counterterrorism agents in Newark, New Jersey interview him. [[ | MSNBC, 6/3/04 ]] [[,6903,1232389,00.html | Observer, 6/6/04 ]] ------ One FBI agent recalls, &#8220;We were incredulous. Flying a plane into a building sounded crazy but we polygraphed him and he passed.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2004/londontimes050904.html | Times of London, 5/9/04 ]] ------ A former FBI official says the FBI agents believed Khan and aggressively tried to follow every lead in the case, but word came from FBI headquarters saying, &#8220;Return him to London and forget about it.&#8221; He is returned to Britain and handed over to British authorities. However, the British only interview him for about two hours, and then release him. He is surprised that authorities never ask for his help in identifying where he was trained in Pakistan, even after 9/11. [[ | MSNBC, 6/3/04 ]] ------ His case is mentioned in the 2002 9/11 Congressional Inquiry report, but the plot is apparently mistakenly described as an attempt to hijack a plane and fly it to Afghanistan. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ Niaz Khan )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) April 4, 2000 ISI Director Visits Washington and Is Told to Give Warning to Taliban a040400mahmoodvisit false 1 ------ ISI Director and &#8220;leading Taliban supporter&#8221; Lieutenant General Mahmood Ahmed visits Washington. In a message meant for both Pakistan and the Taliban, US officials tell him that al-Qaeda has killed Americans and &#8220;people who support those people will be treated as our enemies.&#8221; However, no actual action, military or otherwise, is taken against either the Taliban or Pakistan. [[ | Washington Post, 12/19/01 ]] ====== << isi >> ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((- Pakistan )) ((- Taliban )) ((+ Mahmood Ahmed )) [[ | Lieutenant General Mahmood Ahmed in 2000. ]] April 17, 2000 Arizona FBI Agent Initiates Investigation into Flight School Students, but Faces Delays a041700williams false 1 ------ Arizona FBI agent Ken Williams gets a tip that makes him suspicious that some flight students might be Islamic militants. [[;position=top | New York Times, 6/19/02 ]] ------ It appears that flight school student Zacaria Soubra is seen at a shooting range with a known jihad veteran. [[,0,3328713.story | Los Angeles Times, 10/28/01 (C) ]] ------ On this day, Williams starts a formal investigation into Soubra. [[ | Arizona Republic, 7/24/03 ]] ------ Soubra is the main focus of Williams's later memo. But Williams's work is greatly slowed because of internal politics and personal disputes. When he finally returns to this case in December 2000, he and all the other agents on the international-terrorism squad are diverted to work on a high-profile arson case. Says James Hauswirth, another Arizona agent, &#8220;[Williams] fought it. Why take your best terrorism investigator and put him on an arson case? He didn't have a choice.&#8221; The arson case is finally solved in June 2001 and Williams once again returns to the issue of Islamic militant flight school students. His memo comes out one month later instead of some time in 2000. Hauswirth writes a letter to FBI Director Mueller in late 2001, complaining, &#8220;[Terrorism] has always been the lowest priority in the division; it still is the lowest priority in the division.&#8221; Others concur that the Arizona FBI placed a low priority on terrorism cases. [[ /timeline/2002/latimes052602.html | Los Angeles Times, 5/26/02 ]] [[;position=top | New York Times, 6/19/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ James Hauswirth )) ((+ Robert S. Mueller III )) ((+ Zacaria Soubra )) ((+ Ken Williams )) April 19, 2000 Reports Indicate Israeli Organized Crime Units Dominate Ecstasy Distribution a041900israelecstasy false 1 ------ USA Today reports that &#8220;Israeli crime groups ... dominate distribution&#8221; of Ecstasy. [[ /timeline/2000/usatoday041900.html | USA Today, 4/19/00 ]] ------ The DEA also states that most of the Ecstasy sold in the US is &#8220;controlled by organized crime figures in Western Europe, Russia, and Israel.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/upi102501.html | UPI, 10/25/01 ]] ------ According to DEA documents, the Israeli &#8220;art student spy ring&#8221; &#8220;has been linked to several ongoing DEA [Ecstasy] investigations in Florida, California, Texas, and New York now being closely coordinated by DEA headquarters.&#8221; [[ | Insight, 3/11/02 ]] ====== << israel >> ((+ "Israeli art students" )) ((+ Drug Enforcement Agency )) April 20, 2000 Some Complain Clinton Administration Focusing Too Much on Terrorism a042000toomuch false 1 ------ The Washington Post writes, &#8220;With little fanfare, [President Clinton] has begun to articulate a new national security doctrine in which terrorists and other &#8216;enemies of the nation-state&#8217; are coming to occupy the position once filled by a monolithic communist superpower.&#8221; In his January 2000 State of the Union address, President Clinton predicts that terrorists and organized criminals will pose &#8220;the major security threat&#8221; to the US in coming decades. However, some claim that a &#8220;preoccupation with bin Laden has caused errors in judgment.&#8221; National Security Adviser Sandy Berger counters that the threat of large-scale terrorist attacks on US soil is &#8220;a reality, not a perception. ... We would be irresponsible if we did not take this seriously.&#8221; Counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; Richard Clarke predicts that the US's new enemies &#8220;will come after our weakness, our Achilles heel, which is largely here in the United States.&#8221; [[ | Washington Post, 4/20/00 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ William Jefferson ("Bill") Clinton )) ((+ Sandy Berger )) ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) April 24, 2000 Mohammed and Other Al-Qaeda Put on New Domestic 'No-Fly' List a042400domesticnofly false 1 ------ TIPOFF is a US no-fly list of individuals who should be detained if they attempt to leave or enter the US. There are about 60,000 names on this list by 9/11 (see [[ a121199procedures ]]). Apparently there had been no prohibition of travel inside the US, but on this day a FAA security directive puts six names on a newly created domestic no-fly list. All six are said to be associates of bomber Ramzi Yousef, including his uncle, Khalid Shaikh Mohammed. On August 28, 2001, six more names will be added to this list. Apparently all 12 names are associated with al-Qaeda or other Islamic extremist groups. 9/11 Commissioner Bob Kerrey will later note the discrepancy of the 60,000-name list with the 12-name list and comment, &#8220; seems to me, particularly with what was going on at the time, that some effort would have been made to make&#8212;to produce a larger list than [only 12 names].&#8221; [[ | 9/11 Commission, 1/27/04 ]] ------ On the day of 9/11, two of the 9/11 hijackers will be on the 60,000-name TIPOFF list but not the 12-name domestic list, so airport security does not know to stop them from boarding the planes they hijack that day (see [[ a082301watchlistadd ]]). ====== << khalidShaikMohammed >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ TIPOFF )) ((+ Federal Aviation Administration )) ((- Ramzi Yousef )) ((- Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) April 30, 2000 State Department Issues Counterterrorism Report Focused on South Asia a043000annualreport false 1 ------ The State Department issues its annual report describing the US attempt to combat terrorism. For the first time, it focuses on South Asia. The New York Times notes, &#8220;The report reserves its harshest criticism for Afghanistan&#8221; and &#8220;is also severely critical of Pakistan.&#8221; However, neither country is placed on the official list of countries sponsoring terrorism, which has remained unchanged since 1993. [[ /timeline/2000/nyt043000.html | New York Times, 4/30/00 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ US Department of State )) May 2000 CIA and FBI Again Reject Sudan's Offer to Provide al-Qaeda Files a0500joint false 1 ------ The CIA and FBI send a joint investigative team to Sudan to investigate whether that country is a sponsor of terrorism. It determines that it is not, but the US does not take Sudan off its official list of terrorist states. As in 1995 and 1996, Sudan offers to hand over its voluminous files on al-Qaeda, and the offer is again turned down. [[,1373,560675,00.html | Guardian, 9/30/01 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Sudan )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) May 17, 2000-May 2001 Bin al-Shibh US Visas Rejected, Apparently Because of Ties to USS Cole Bombing a051700binalshibhvisa false 1 ------ During these months, Hamburg al-Qaeda cell member Ramzi Bin al-Shibh tries five times to get a US visa. In 2000, he tries to a get a visa once from Germany, once from Yemen, and twice using the passport of an Indonesian named Agus Budiman, but all these attempts fail. He makes a little-reported fifth attempt made in May 2001. Bin al-Shibh is in Yemen during the two months before the bombing of the USS Cole in that country, and investigators believe he is involved in that attack (see [[ a101200cole ]]). [[ /timeline/2002/australian122402.html | Australian, 12/24/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/latimes102401.html | Los Angeles Times, 10/24/01 ]] ------ German authorities believe he is in Yemen at least the day before the attack and stays until four days after, though it isn't clear when they come to this determination. [[ | McDermott, 2005, pp 209 ]] ------ Most media accounts claim that bin al-Shibh is refused a visa on economic grounds based on fears that he would overstay his visa and work in the US. One official suggests it was &#8220;only by luck&#8221; that he was turned down. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A1503-2002Jul13&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 7/14/02 ]] [[ | CBS, 6/6/02 ]] ------ However, other accounts note that, as the London Times put it, he is &#8220;turned down on security grounds.&#8221; [[,,1-3-408590-3,00.html | London Times, 9/9/02 ]] ------ Specifically, it appears the US has suspicions he has ties to terrorism, and especially ties to the USS Cole bombing plot. Newsweek reports, &#8220;One senior law-enforcement official [tells] Newsweek that bin al-Shibh's efforts to obtain a US visa [are] rebuffed because of suspicions that he [is] tied to the bombing of the USS Cole.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/newsweek112601.html | Newsweek, 11/26/01 ]] ------ The Los Angeles Times similarly notes that &#8220;FBI agents [tell] officials of the Florida flight school&#8221; that bin al-Shibh wants to attend that he is &#8220;rejected because of unspecified involvement &#8216;with the bombing of the USS Cole...&#8217; &#8221; Hijacker Ziad Jarrah assists bin al-Shibh with his last two visa applications, and vouches for him. [[ /timeline/2001/latimes102101.html | Los Angeles Times, 10/21/01 ]] ------ Yosri Fouda, an al-Jazeera journalist who reportedly interviews bin al-Shibh and Khalid Shaikh Mohammed in 2002 (see [[ a0402foudainterview ]]), also notes that according to his US intelligence sources, bin al-Shibh's visas are &#8220;turned down because he [is] implicated in the USS Cole attack.&#8221; The interviewer he tells this to notes, &#8220;That's rather odd, because if they knew that and turned him down for that reason, you'd think they would have wondered who else was at that flight school and why? Or, even more to the point they should have issued him a visa just to get him in to the United States and grabbed him for the Cole attack.&#8221; [[ | TBS Journal, 10/02 ]] ------ But no other journalist has ever questioned why this information doesn't lead to the unraveling of the 9/11 plot. Not only is there the obvious visa connection to Ziad Jarrah while he is training at a US flight school, but also during this same time period bin al-Shibh wires money to Marwan Alshehhi, Zacarias Moussaoui, and others, usually using his own name. [[ | CBS, 6/6/02 ]] ====== << alQaedaInGermany >> ((+ Ramzi Bin al-Shibh )) ((- Zacarias Moussaoui )) ((+ Ziad Jarrah )) ((+ Agus Budiman )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((- Marwan Alshehhi )) [[ | Ramzi bin al-Shibh. ]] May 22, 2000 German Intelligence Place Two Hijacker Associates on a German Watch List a052200borderpatrol false 1 ------ By early 2000, German intelligence monitoring al-Qaeda suspect Mohammed Haydar Zammar notice that Mounir El Motassadeq and Said Bahaji, members of al-Qaeda's Hamburg cell with Mohamed Atta, regularly meet with Zammar. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ In March 2000, Germany's internal intelligence service had placed Motassadeq and Bahaji on a border patrol watch list. Their international arrivals and departures are to be reported immediately. On this day, Motassadeq flies to Istanbul, Turkey, and from there goes to an al-Qaeda training camp in Afghanistan. Unfortunately, the border patrol only notes his destination of Istanbul. Bahaji does not travel, and when he finally does the week before 9/11, it isn't noted. [[ /timeline/2003/derspiegel020303.html | Der Spiegel, 2/3/03 ]] ====== << alQaedaInGermany >> ((+ Office for the Protection of the Constitution )) ((+ Mohammed Haydar Zammar )) ((- Mohamed Atta )) ((+ Mounir El Motassadeq )) ((+ Said Bahaji )) May 30, 2000-September 11, 2001 Possible al-Qaeda Sleeper Agent Repeatedly Evades Authorities a05300almarabh false 1 ------ Nabil al-Marabh engages in many suspicious activities. He stabs his Detroit roommate in the knee during an argument on May 30, 2000. He pleads guilty in December 2000 to assault and battery with a dangerous weapon. [[ | Boston Herald, 9/20/01 ]] ------ He is given a six-month suspended sentence, but he fails to report to his probation officer. An arrest warrant is issued for him in March 2001. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/21/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/ottawacitizen102901.html | Ottawa Citizen, 10/29/01 ]] ------ Al-Marabh lives in Detroit with an al-Qaeda agent named Yousef Hmimssa. [[ | Boston Herald, 9/20/01 ]] [[ | ABC News, 1/31/02 ]] ------ Al-Marabh receives five drivers' licenses in Michigan over a period of 13 months in addition to carrying driver's licenses for Massachusetts, Illinois, Florida, and Ontario, Canada. [[ /timeline/2001/torontostar102601.html | Toronto Star, 10/26/01 ]] ------ On September 11, 2000, he obtains a Michigan license permitting him to drive semi-trucks containing hazardous materials, including explosives and caustic materials. He is still unsuccessfully trying to find a tractor-trailer driving job one month before 9/11. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/21/01 ]] [[ | ABC News, 1/31/02 ]] ------ In early 2001, he mostly lives in Toronto, Canada, with Hassan Almrei, a man running some al-Qaeda front businesses. [[ | ABC News, 1/31/02 ]] ------ Many witnesses see al-Marabh with two 9/11 hijackers at his uncle's Toronto photocopy store. On June 27, 2001, al-Marabh is arrested while trying to enter the US from Canada in the back of a tractor-trailer, carrying a false Canadian passport and citizenship card. [[ /timeline/2001/stcatherinesstandard092801.html | St. Catherines Standard, 9/28/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/stcatherinesstandard100201.html | St. Catherines Standard, 10/2/01 ]] ------ He had been illegally crossing the US-Canadian border for years. [[ /timeline/2001/ottawacitizen102901.html | Ottawa Citizen, 10/29/01 ]] ------ Despite suspicions that he is connected to al-Qaeda, the US immediately deports him to Canada. [[ | New York Times, 7/13/02 ]] ------ He spends two weeks in a Canadian prison, where he boasts to other prisoners that he is in contact with the FBI. He is ordered to live with his uncle in Toronto. These prisoners are puzzled that the FBI does not try to interview them about al-Marabh after 9/11. Al-Marabh fails to show up for a deportation hearing in August and for a court date in September. [[ /timeline/2001/stcatherinesstandard100201.html | St. Catherines Standard, 10/2/01 ]] ------ &#8220;Had Canadian security agents investigated Mr. al-Marabh when they had the chance back in June, when he was jailed by immigration authorities, they may have discovered any number of his worldwide links to convicted and suspected terrorists, including two of the [9/11 hijackers].&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/ottawacitizen102901.html | Ottawa Citizen, 10/29/01 ]] ====== << al-Marabh >> ((- Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Hassan Almrei )) ((+ Yousef Hmimssa )) ((+ Nabil al-Marabh )) [[ | Nabil al-Marabh. ]] Summer 2000-September 11, 2001 Illegal FBI Activity Leads to Suspension of Surveillance of al-Qaeda Suspects in US asummer00wiretapshutdown false 1 ------ In the summer of 2000, Royce Lamberth, chief judge of the special federal court that reviews FISA national-security wiretaps, finds out that an FBI official is misrepresenting petitions for taps on terror suspects. An investigation is launched. From this time well into 2001, the FBI is forced to shut down wiretaps of al-Qaeda-related suspects connected to the 1998 African embassy bombing. One source familiar with the case says that about 10 to 20 al-Qaeda related wiretaps have to be shut down and it becomes more difficult to get permission for new FISA wiretaps. Newsweek notes, &#8220;The effect [is] to stymie terror surveillance at exactly the moment it was needed most: requests from both Phoenix [with the Ken Williams memo] and Minneapolis [with Zacarias Moussaoui's arrest] for wiretaps [will be] turned down [by FBI superiors].&#8221; [[ | Newsweek, 5/27/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- Ken Williams )) ((+ Royce Lamberth )) ((- Zacarias Moussaoui )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) Summer 2000 San Diego Hijackers Meet Atta and Al-Bayoumi asummer00attabayoumi false 1 ------ Anonymous government sources later claim that Mohamed Atta visits fellow hijackers Nawaf Alhazmi, Khalid Almihdhar, and Omar al-Bayoumi. These same sources claim al-Bayoumi is identified after September 11 as an &#8220;advance man&#8221; for al-Qaeda. [[ | Washington Times, 11/26/02 ]] ------ Other reports have suggested Atta visited Alhazmi and Almihdhar in San Diego, but the FBI has not confirmed this. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> << mohamedAtta >> ((+ Omar al-Bayoumi )) ((+ Mohamed Atta )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ Nawaf Alhazmi )) Summer 2000 Saeed Sheikh Frequently Calls the ISI Director a0summer01mahmoodcalls false 1 ------ In 2002, French author Bernard-Henri Levy is presented evidence by government officials in New Delhi, India, that Saeed Sheikh makes repeated calls to ISI Director Mahmood Ahmed during the summer of 2000. Later, Levy gets unofficial confirmation from sources in Washington regarding these calls that the information he was given in India is correct. He notes that someone in the United Arab Emirates using a variety of aliases sends Mohamed Atta slightly over $100,000 between June and September of this year (see [[ a062900transfer ]]), and the timing of these phone calls and the money transfers may have been the source of news reports that Mahmood Ahmed ordered Saeed Sheikh to send $100,000 to Mohamed Atta (see [[ a100701mahmoodreplaced ]]). However, he also notes that there is evidence of Sheikh sending Atta $100,000 in August 2001 (see [[ a0801ransommoney ]]), so the reports could refer to that, or both $100,000 transfers could involve Mahmood Ahmed, Saeed Sheikh, and Mohamed Atta. [[ | Who Killed Daniel Pearl? by Bernard-Henri Levy, 2003, pp 320-324 ]] ====== << isi >> << saeedSheikh >> << mahmoodAhmed >> ((+ Saeed Sheikh )) ((+ Mahmood Ahmed )) ((+ Mohamed Atta )) ((+ United Arab Emirates )) June 2000 Hijackers Open Many Bank Accounts in Florida; Transactions Not Followed a0600bankaccounts false 1 ------ Mohamed Atta and other hijackers begin to open bank accounts in Florida. At least 35 accounts are opened, 14 of them at SunTrust Bank. All are opened with fake social security numbers (some with randomly made up numbers), yet none of the accounts are checked or questioned by the banks. [[ | New York Times, 7/10/02 ]] ------ One transfer from the United Arab Emirates three months later totaling $69,985 prompts the bank to make a &#8220;suspicious transaction report&#8221; to the US Treasury's Financial Crimes Enforcement Network. Apparently, no investigation into this transaction occurs. [[ | Financial Times, 11/29/01 ]] ====== << otherHijackers >> << mohamedAtta >> ((+ Mohamed Atta )) ((+ Mohamed Atta )) ((- Financial Crimes Enforcement Network )) ((+ SunTrust Bank )) Summer-December 2000 FBI Asset Withholds Information About 9/11 Hijackers Living in His San Diego House a0900shaikh false 1 ------ Hijackers Nawaf Alhazmi and Khalid Almihdhar move to the house of Abdussattar Shaikh in San Diego. [[ | San Diego Union-Tribune, 9/16/01 ]] ------ Shaikh, a local Muslim leader, is later revealed to be a &#8220;tested&#8221; undercover &#8220;asset&#8221; working with the local FBI. [[ | Newsweek, 9/9/02 ]] ------ Shaikh inexplicably fails to tell his FBI handler important details about the hijackers and appears to be lying about many matters concerning them. In early media reports, the two are said to have moved in around September [[ | South Florida Sun-Sentinel, 9/28/01 ]] [[ | San Diego Union-Tribune, 9/16/01 ]] [[ | Wall Street Journal, 9/17/01 ]] ------ but the 9/11 Congressional Inquiry implies that Shaikh lied about this, and they moved in much earlier. Alhazmi stays until December; Almihdhar appears to be mostly out of the US after June. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ Neighbors claim that Mohamed Atta is a frequent visitor, and Hani Hanjour visits as well. [[ | Chicago Tribune, 9/30/01 ]] [[ | Associated Press, 9/29/01 ]] [[ | Las Vegas Review Journal, 10/26/01 ]] [[ | San Diego Channel 10, 9/27/01 ]] [[ | San Diego Channel 10, 10/11/01 ]] ------ However, Shaikh denies Atta's visits, the FBI never mentions them, and the media appears to have forgotten about them. [[ | Associated Press, 9/29/01 ]] ------ Echoing reports from their first apartment, neighbors witness strange late night visits with Alhazmi and Almihdhar. [[ | Associated Press, 9/16/01 (D) ]] ------ For instance, one neighbor says, &#8220;There was always a series of cars driving up to the house late at night. Sometimes they were nice cars. Sometimes they had darkened windows. They'd stay about 10 minutes.&#8221; [[,8816,176069,00.html | Time, 9/24/01 (B) ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> << mohamedAtta >> ((+ Mohamed Atta )) ((+ Abdussattar Shaikh )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ William Safire )) ((- Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Nawaf Alhazmi )) [[ | Abdussattar Shaikh's house in Lemon Grove, California. ]] June 2000 Multiple Web Domains Related to 2001 and/or WTC Attack Are Registered a0600webdomains false 1 ------ Around this time, a number of very suspicious web domains are registered, including the following:,,,, august11terror. com,,,,,,,,,,,, and wterroristattack2001. com. A counterterrorism expert says, &#8220;It's unbelievable that [the registration company] would register these domain names&#8221; and &#8220;if they did make a comment to the FBI, it's unbelievable that the FBI didn't react to it.&#8221; Several of the names mention 2001 and, apparently, there were no other websites mentioning other years. Registering a site requires a credit card, so presumably, this story could provide leads, but it is unclear what leads the FBI gets from this, if any. No sites are active on 9/11. [[ /timeline/2001/cns091901.html | Cybercast News Service, 9/19/01 ]] ------ All of the domain name registrations had expired around June 2001. [[ /timeline/2001/cns092001.html | Cybercast News Service, 9/20/01 ]] ------ This story is later called an &#8220;urban legend,&#8221; but the debunkers are later themselves criticized. [[ | Insight, 3/11/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((- World Trade Center )) June 10, 2000 Almihdhar Flies from San Diego to Germany; Return Date Unclear a061000togermany false 1 ------ Hijacker Khalid Almihdhar flies from San Diego to Frankfurt, Germany. [[ /timeline/2002/senatecommittee092002.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/20/02 ]] ------ Authorities later believe that Almihdhar visits his cousin-in-law Ramzi Bin al-Shibh and bin al-Shibh's roommate Mohamed Atta and other al-Qaeda members in bin al-Shibh's cell. However, since the CIA fails to notify Germany about their suspicions of either Almihdhar or bin al-Shibh, both of whom were seen attending the al-Qaeda summit in Malaysia in January, German police fail to monitor them and another chance to uncover the 9/11 plot is missed. [[ /timeline/2002/diezeit100102.html | Die Zeit, 10/1/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ FBI Director Mueller and the congressional inquiry into 9/11 will claim that Almihdhar does not return to the US for over a year [[ /timeline/2002/senatecommittee092002.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/20/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry092602.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/26/02 ]] ------ , despite obvious evidence to the contrary. For instance, an FBI agent is told Khalid Almihdhar is in the room when he calls Almihdhar's landlord in autumn 2000 and there are indications Almihdhar attends a flight school in Arizona in early 2001. [[ /timeline/2001/arizonarepublic092801.html | Arizona Republic, 9/28/01 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> << mohamedAtta >> << alQaedaInGermany >> ((- Germany )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ Ramzi Bin al-Shibh )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Mohamed Atta )) June 29, 2000-September 18, 2000 Hijackers Receive $100,000 in Funding from United Arab Emirates Location a062900transfer false 1 ------ Someone using the aliases &#8220;Isam Mansour,&#8221; &#8220;Mustafa Ahmed al-Hisawi,&#8221; &#8220;Mr. Ali,&#8221; and &#8220;Hani (Fawaz Trdng)&#8221; sends a total of $109,910 to the 9/11 hijackers in a series of transfers between these dates. [[ /timeline/2001/msnbc121101.html | MSNBC, 12/11/01 ]] [[;STORY=/www/story/12-02-2001/0001625536 | Newsweek, 12/2/01 ]] [[;en=9e0421b0833d6666&amp;ex=1008999837&amp;pagewanted=print | New York Times, 12/10/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/financialtimes113001.html | Financial Times, 11/30/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry092602.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/26/02 ]] ------ The money is sent from Sharjah, an emirate in the United Arab Emirates that is allegedly a center for al-Qaeda's illegal financial dealings. The identity of this moneyman &#8220;Mustafa Ahmed al-Hisawi&#8221; is in dispute. It has been claimed that the name &#8220;Mustafa Ahmed&#8221; is an alias used by Saeed Sheikh, a known ISI and al-Qaeda agent who sends the hijackers money in August 2001. [[ | CNN, 10/6/01 ]] ------ India claims that Pakistani ISI Director Mahmood orders Saeed to send the hijackers the money at this time. [[ /timeline/2001/frontline100601.html | Frontline, 10/6/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/dailyexcelsior101801.html | Daily Excelsior, 10/18/01 ]] ------ French author Bernard-Henri Levy claims to have evidence from sources inside both Indian and US governments of phone calls between Sheikh and Mahmood during this same time period, and he sees a connection between the timing of the calls and the money transfers (see [[ a0summer01mahmoodcalls ]]). [[ | Who Killed Daniel Pearl? by Bernard-Henri Levy, pp 320-324 ]] ------ FBI Director Mueller's theory is that this money is sent by &#8220;Ali Abdul Aziz Ali.&#8221; However, of the four aliases used in the different transactions, Mueller connects this man only to three, and not to the alias &#8220;Mustafa Ahmed al-Hisawi.&#8221; [[;en=9e0421b0833d6666&amp;ex=1008999837&amp;pagewanted=print | New York Times, 12/10/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry092602.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/26/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/ap092602.html | Associated Press, 9/26/02 ]] ------ It appears that most of the money is sent to an account shared by Marwan Alshehhi and Mohamed Atta, who would obtain money orders and distribute the money to the other hijackers. [[ | CNN, 10/1/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/msnbc121101.html | MSNBC, 12/11/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry092602.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/26/02 ]] ------ The New York Times later suggests that the amount passed from &#8220;Mustafa Ahmed&#8221; to the Florida bank accounts right up until the day before the attack is around $325,000. The rest of the $500,000-$600,000 they receive for US expenses comes from another, still unknown source. [[ | New York Times, 7/10/02 ]] ====== << isi >> << otherHijackers >> << saeedSheikh >> << mahmoodAhmed >> ((+ Mohamed Atta )) ((+ Marwan Alshehhi )) ((+ Saeed Sheikh )) ((+ 9/11 Congressional Inquiry )) ((+ United Arab Emirates )) ((+ Mahmood Ahmed )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Ali Abdul Aziz Ali )) ((- Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Robert S. Mueller III )) ((+ Isam Mansour )) ((+ Mustafa Ahmed al-Hisawi )) ((+ Fawaz Trdng )) July 2000 Taliban Bans Poppy Growing a0700poppyban false 1 ------ In response to Western pressure, the Taliban bans poppy growing in Afghanistan. As a result, the opium yield drops dramatically in 2001, from 3,656 tons to 185 tons. Of that, 83 percent is from Northern Alliance-controlled lands. However, the effect isn't that great because there is a surplus in the West, and it is believed the Taliban have a large stockpile as well. [[,3858,4360184,00.html | Guardian, 2/21/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/reuters030302.html | Reuters, 3/3/02 ]] [[,3858,4306940,00.html | Observer, 11/25/01 ]] ====== << isi >> << drugs >> ((- Northern Alliance )) ((+ Taliban )) July 2000 Potential Informant Ignored by Australian and US Authorities a0700jackroche false 1 ------ Jack Roche, an Australian Caucasian Muslim, tries to inform on al-Qaeda for Australia or the US, but is ignored. In April, Roche returned from a trip to Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Malaysia, where he took an explosives training course and met with bin Laden, Mohammed Atef, Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, and other top al-Qaeda leaders. In Pakistan, Mohammed discussed attacking US jets in Australia and gave Roche money to start an al-Qaeda cell in Australia. Roche also met Hambali in Malaysia and was given more money there. Early this month, he tries to call the US embassy in Australia, but they ignore him. He then tries to contact The Australian intelligence agency several times, but they too ignore him. In September 2000, his housemate also tries to contact Australian intelligence about what he has learned from Roche but his call is ignored as well. Australian Prime Minister John Howard later acknowledges that authorities made a &#8220;very serious mistake&#8221; in ignoring Roche, though he also downplays the importance of Roche's information. Roche is later sentenced to nine years in prison for conspiring with al-Qaeda to blow up an Israeli embassy. [[ | BBC, 6/1/04 ]] [[,1,6914999.story | Los Angeles Times, 6/7/04 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> << warnings >> ((+ Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ John Howard )) ((+ Nurjaman Riduan Isamuddin )) ((+ Jack Roche )) ((+ Mohammed Atef )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) [[ | Jack Roche. ]] August 12, 2000 Italian Intelligence Wiretap of al-Qaeda Cell Reveals Massive Aircraft-based Strike a081200italy false 1 ------ Italian intelligence successfully wiretap the al-Qaeda cell in Milan, Italy from late 1999 until summer 2001. [[ /timeline/2002/bostonglobe080402.html | Boston Globe, 8/4/02 ]] ------ In a wiretapped conversation from this day, suspected Yemeni Abdulsalam Ali Abdulrahman tells wanted Egyptian Mahmoud Es Sayed about a massive strike against the enemies of Islam involving aircraft and the sky, a blow that &#8220;will be written about in all the newspapers of the world. This will be one of those strikes that will never be forgotten. ... This is a terrifying thing. This is a thing that will spread from south to north, from east to west: The person who came up with this program is a madman from a madhouse, a madman but a genius.&#8221; In another conversation, Abdulrahman tells Es Sayed: &#8220;I'm studying airplanes. I hope, God willing, that I can bring you a window or a piece of an airplane the next time we see each other.&#8221; The comment is followed by laughter. Beginning in October 2000, FBI experts will help Italian police analyze the intercepts and warnings. Neither Italy nor the FBI understands their meaning until after 9/11, but apparently, the Italians understand enough to give the US an attack warning in March 2001. [[ /timeline/2002/latimes052902.html | Los Angeles Times, 5/29/02 ]] [[,3604,724304,00.html | Guardian, 5/30/02 ]] [[;node=&amp;contentId=A36296-2002May30&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 5/31/02 ]] ------ The Milan cell &#8220;is believed to have created a cottage industry in supplying false passports and other bogus documents.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/bostonglobe080402.html | Boston Globe, 8/4/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> << foreignIntelligence >> ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Mahmoud Es Sayed )) ((+ Abdulsalam Ali Abdulrahman )) September 2000 Candidate George W. Bush Promises Emphasis on Countering Terrorism in US a0900bushpromise false 1 ------ George W. Bush, campaigning for president, writes in an article, &#8220;There is more to be done preparing here at home. I will put a high priority on detecting and responding to terrorism on our soil.&#8221; [[ | National Guard Magazine, 9/00 ]] ------ This repeats verbatim comments made in a speech a year before at the start of the presidential campaign [[ | Citadel, 9/23/99 ]] ------ , and in both cases the context is about weapons of mass destruction. However, after 9/11, now President Bush will say of bin Laden: &#8220;I knew he was a menace and I knew he was a problem. I was prepared to look at a plan that would be a thoughtful plan that would bring him to justice, and would have given the order to do that. I have no hesitancy about going after him. But I didn't feel that sense of urgency.&#8221; [[ | Washington Post, 5/17/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ George W. Bush )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) Autumn 2000 Hijackers Live and Work in San Diego; Connected with Other Potential Al-Qaeda Operatives aautumn00gasstation false 1 ------ Hijacker Nawaf Alhazmi works at a gas station while living in San Diego. This is the only apparent instance of any of the hijackers having a job while in the US. He and hijacker Khalid Almihdhar also frequently socialize at the gas station and Alhazmi works there on and off for about a month at some point after Almihdhar has gone overseas. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] [[;node=&amp;contentId=A36963-2001Dec28&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 12/29/01 ]] [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/1/02 ]] ------ The station, Sam's Star Mart, is owned by Osama &#8220;Sam&#8221; Mustafa. [[ | San Diego Union-Tribune, 7/25/03 ]] ------ Mustafa was first investigated by the FBI in 1991 after he tells a police officer that the US needs another Pan Am 103 attack and that he could be the one to carry out the attack. He also says all Americans should be killed because of the 1991 Iraq War. In 1994, he was investigated for being a member of the Palestinian organizations PFLP and PLO and for threatening to kill an Israeli intelligence officer living in San Diego. The investigation was closed, but reopened again in 1997 when he was tied to a possible plot in North Carolina. Apparently, it is closed again before 9/11. He also associates with Osama Basnan and others who have contacts with the hijackers. Witnesses later claim he cheers when first told of the 9/11 attacks. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ The gas station is managed by Ed Salamah. [[ | San Diego Union-Tribune, 7/25/03 ]] [[;node=&amp;contentId=A36963-2001Dec28&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 12/29/01 ]] ------ In January 2000, the brother of a known al-Qaeda operative is under surveillance and is seen chatting with Salamah. The Los Angeles FBI office is investigating this operative, and it calls Salamah about it. Salamah refuses to come to Los Angeles for an interview, and refuses to give his home address to be interviewed there. Faced with a reluctant witness, the FBI drops the matter. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] [[ | Newsweek, 7/28/03 ]] ------ The hijackers are living with an FBI informant who is aware of their contact with at least Mustafa, and that informant has given reports about Mustafa to the FBI in the past. However, the informant fails to tell the FBI about their contacts with him. The 9/11 Congressional Inquiry strongly implies that Salamah and Mustafa assisted the hijackers with the 9/11 plot, but the FBI appears uninterested in them and maintains that the hijackers received no assistance from anyone. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Osama ("Sam") Mustafa )) ((+ Osama Basnan )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ Ed Salamah )) ((+ Nawaf Alhazmi )) September-October 2000 Moussaoui Visits Malaysia After CIA Stops Surveillance There a0800moussaouimalaysia false 1 ------ Zacarias Moussaoui visits Malaysia twice, and stays at the very same condominium where the January al-Qaeda meeting (see [[ a010500malaysiameeting ]]) was held. [[ | CNN, 8/30/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/latimes020202.html | Los Angeles Times, 2/2/02 ]] [[;node=&amp;contentId=A14662-2002Feb2&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 2/3/02 ]] ------ After that meeting, Malaysian intelligence keeps watch on the condominium at the request of the CIA. However, the CIA stops the surveillance before Moussaoui arrives, spoiling a chance to expose the 9/11 plot by monitoring Moussaoui's later travels. The Malaysians later say they were surprised by the CIA's lack of interest. &#8220;We couldn't fathom it, really,&#8221; Rais Yatim, Malaysia's Legal Affairs minister, told Newsweek. &#8220;There was no show of concern.&#8221; [[ | Newsweek, 6/2/02 ]] ------ While Moussaoui is in Malaysia, Yazid Sufaat, the owner of the condominium, signs letters falsely identifying Moussaoui as a representative of his wife's company. [[ /timeline/2002/reuters092002.html | Reuters, 9/20/02 ]] [[;node=&amp;contentId=A14662-2002Feb2&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 2/3/02 ]] ------ When Moussaoui is later arrested in the US about one month before the 9/11 attacks, this letter in his possession could have led investigators back to the condominium and the connections with the January 2000 meeting attended by two of the hijackers. [[ | USA Today, 1/30/02 ]] ------ Moussaoui's belongings also contained phone numbers that could have linked him to Ramzi Bin al-Shibh (and his roommate, Mohamed Atta), another participant in the Malaysian meeting. [[,2933,40702,00.html | Associated Press, 12/12/01 (B) ]] ====== << moussaoui >> ((- Mohamed Atta )) ((- Ramzi Bin al-Shibh )) ((+ Yazid Sufaat )) ((+ Rais Yatim )) ((+ Zacarias Moussaoui )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Malaysian Secret Service )) [[ | Yazid Sufaat. ]] September 2000 General Tommy Franks Tours Central Asia to Build Military Aid Relationships a0900frankstour false 1 ------ US General Tommy Franks tours Central Asia in an attempt to build military aid relationships with nations there, but finds no takers. Russia's power in the region appears to be on the upswing instead. Russian Defense Minister Igor Sergeyev writes, &#8220;The actions of Islamic extremists in Central Asia give Russia the chance to strengthen its position in the region.&#8221; However, shortly after 9/11, Russia and China agree to allow the US to establish temporary US military bases in Central Asia to prosecute the Afghanistan war. The bases become permanent, and the Guardian will write in early 2002, &#8220;Both countries increasingly have good reasons to regret their accommodating stand. Having pushed, cajoled, and bribed its way into their Central Asian backyard, the US clearly has no intention of leaving any time soon.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/guardian011002.html | Guardian, 1/10/02 ]] ====== << centralAsia >> ((+ Thomas Franks )) ((- China )) ((- Igor Sergeyev )) ((- Russia )) [[ | General Tommy Franks. ]] September-October 2000 Predator Flights over Afghanistan Are Initiated Then Halted a0900predator false 1 ------ An unmanned spy plane called the Predator begins flying over Afghanistan, showing incomparably detailed real-time video and photographs of the movements of what appears to be bin Laden and his aides. It flies successfully over Afghanistan 16 times. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommission032404.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 ]] ------ President Clinton is impressed by a two-minute video of bin Laden crossing a street heading toward a mosque. Bin Laden is surrounded by a team of a dozen armed men creating a professional forward security perimeter as he moves. The Predator has been used since 1996, in the Balkans and Iraq. One Predator crashes on takeoff and another is chased by a fighter, but it apparently identifies bin Laden on three occasions. Its use is stopped in Afghanistan after a few trials, mostly because seasonal winds are picking up. It is agreed to resume the flights in the spring, but the Predator fails to fly over Afghanistan again until after 9/11. [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 220-21 ]] [[ | Washington Post, 12/19/01 ]] ------ On September 15, 2001, CIA Director Tenet apparently inaccurately tells President Bush, &#8220;The unmanned Predator surveillance aircraft that was now armed with Hellfire missiles had been operating for more than a year out of Uzbekistan to provide real-time video of Afghanistan.&#8221; [[;node=&amp;contentId=A50529-2002Jan28&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 1/29/02 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ William Jefferson ("Bill") Clinton )) ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ George Tenet )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) [[ | Footage from a Predator drone apparently shows bin Laden surrounded by security. ]] September 2000 Al-Qaeda Agent Testifies of Pilot Training a0900pilottraining false 1 ------ L'Houssaine Kherchtou arrives in the US to testify against other al-Qaeda agents. He reveals that from 1992 to 1995 he trained in Nairobi, Kenya, to be a pilot for al-Qaeda. His training stopped when he left al-Qaeda in 1995. [[ /timeline/2001/statedepartment022201.html | State Department, 2/22/01 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ L'Houssaine Kherchtou )) ((- al-Qaeda )) September 2000 PNAC Report Recommends Policies That Need New Pearl Harbor for Quick Implementation a0900paxamericana false 1 ------ PNAC drafts a strategy document, &#8220;Rebuilding America's Defenses: Strategies, Forces and Resources for a New Century,&#8221; for George W. Bush's team before the 2000 Presidential election. The document was commissioned by future Vice President Cheney, future Defense Secretary Rumsfeld, future Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz, Florida Governor Jeb Bush (Bush's brother), and future Vice President Cheney's Chief of Staff Lewis Libby. (( Rebuilding America's Defenses )) --- * --- The document outlines a &#8220;blueprint for maintaining global US preeminence, precluding the rise of a great power rival, and shaping the international security order in line with American principles and interests.&#8221; --- * --- PNAC states further: &#8220;The United States has for decades sought to play a more permanent role in Gulf regional security. While the unresolved conflict with Iraq provides the immediate justification, the need for a substantial American force presence in the Gulf transcends the issue of the regime of Saddam Hussein.&#8221; --- * --- PNAC calls for the control of space through a new &#8220;US Space Forces,&#8221; the political control of the Internet, and the subversion of any growth in political power of even close allies, and advocates &#8220;regime change&#8221; in China, North Korea, Libya, Syria, Iran, and other countries. --- * --- It also mentions that &#8220;advanced forms of biological warfare that can &#8216;target&#8217; specific genotypes may transform biological warfare from the realm of terror to a politically useful tool.&#8221; --- * --- However, PNAC complains that thes changes are likely to take a long time, &#8220;absent some catastrophic and catalyzing event&#8212;like a new Pearl Harbor.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2003/latimes011203.html | Los Angeles Times, 1/12/03 ]] ------ Notably, while Cheney commissioned this plan (along with other future key leaders of the Bush administration), he defends Bush's position of maintaining Clinton's policy not to attack Iraq during an NBC interview in the midst of the 2000 presidential campaign, asserting that the US should not act as though &#8220;we were an imperialist power, willy-nilly moving into capitals in that part of the world, taking down governments.&#8221; [[;node=&amp;contentId=A43909-2003Jan11&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 1/12/02 ]] ------ A British member of Parliament will later say of the report: &#8220;This is a blueprint for US world domination&#8212;a new world order of their making. These are the thought processes of fantasist Americans who want to control the world.&#8221; [[ | Sunday Herald, 9/7/02 ]] ------ Both PNAC and its strategy plan for Bush are almost virtually ignored by the media until a few weeks before the start of the Iraq war (see [[ a0203pnacnews ]]). ====== << centralAsia >> ((- Lybia )) ((- North Korea )) ((- Iraq )) ((- China )) ((+ Hasam Amin )) ((+ Elliott Abrams )) ((+ Steve Forbes )) ((+ John Ellis ("Jeb") Bush )) ((+ Aaron Friedberg )) ((+ Midge Decter )) ((+ Vin Weber )) ((+ Lewis ("Scooter") Libby )) ((+ Henry S. Rowen )) ((+ Norman Podhoretz )) ((+ Francis Fukuyama )) ((+ Richard ("Dick") Cheney )) ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) ((+ Project for the New American Century )) ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) ((+ Peter Rodman )) ((+ Steve Rosen )) ((- United States )) ((- Syria )) ((- Saddam Hussein )) ((+ George Weigel )) ((+ William J. Bennett )) ((+ Dan Quayle )) ((+ Zalmay M. Khalilzad )) ((+ Donald Kagan )) ((+ Frank Gaffney )) ((+ Fred C. Ikle )) ((+ Eliot A. Cohen )) ((+ Paula J. Dobriansky )) [[ | People involved in the 2000 PNAC report (from top left): Vice President Cheney, Florida Governor Jeb Bush, Defense Secretary Rumsfeld, Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz, Cheney Chief of Staff I. Lewis Libby, Undersecretary of State John Bolton, Und ]] Autumn 2000 FBI Informant Fails to Share Valuable Information on Hijackers aautumn00informantfails false 1 ------ While hijackers Nawaf Alhazmi and Khalid Almihdhar live in the house of an FBI informant, Abdussattar Shaikh, the informant continues to have contact with his FBI handler. The handler, Steven Butler, later claims that during summer Shaikh mentions the names &#8220;Nawaf&#8221; and &#8220;Khalid&#8221; in passing and that they are renting rooms from him. [[ | Newsweek, 9/9/02 ]] [[ | Associated Press, 7/25/03 (B) ]] [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ On one occasion, Shaikh tells Butler on the phone he cannot talk because Khalid is in the room. [[ | Newsweek, 9/9/02 ]] ------ Shaikh tells Butler they are good, religious Muslims who are legally in the US to visit and attend school. Butler asks Shaikh for their last names, but Shaikh refuses to provide them. Butler is not told that they are pursuing flight training. Shaikh tells Butler that they are apolitical and have done nothing to arouse suspicion. However, according to the 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, he later admits that Alhazmi has &#8220;contacts with at least four individuals [he] knew were of interest to the FBI and about whom [he] had previously reported to the FBI.&#8221; Three of these four people are being actively investigated at the time the hijackers are there. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ The report mentions Osama Mustafa as one, and Shaikh admits that suspected Saudi agent Omar al-Bayoumi was a friend. [[,1,7918449.story | Los Angeles Times, 7/25/03 ]] [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ The FBI later concludes Shaikh is not involved in the 9/11 plot, but they have serious doubts about his credibility. After 9/11 he gives inaccurate information and has an &#8220;inconclusive&#8221; polygraph examination about his foreknowledge of the 9/11 attack. The FBI believes he has contact with hijacker Hani Hanjour, but he claims not to recognize him. There are other &#8220;significant inconsistencies&#8221; in Shaikh's statements about the hijackers, including when he first met them and later meetings with them. The 9/11 Congressional Inquiry later concludes that had the informant's contacts with the hijackers been capitalized upon, it &#8220;would have given the San Diego FBI field office perhaps the US intelligence community's best chance to unravel the September 11 plot.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ The FBI later tries to prevent Butler and Shaikh from testifying before the 9/11 Congressional Inquiry in October 2002. Butler ends up testifying but Shaikh does not. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A9755-2002Oct10&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 10/11/02 (B) ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ Omar al-Bayoumi )) ((+ William Safire )) ((+ Abdussattar Shaikh )) ((+ Steven Butler )) ((+ Osama ("Sam") Mustafa )) [[ | Abdussattar Shaikh. ]] September 15-October 1, 2000 Sydney Olympics Officials' Top Concern: Airliner-Based al-Qaeda Attack a091500sydney false 1 ------ Olympics officials later reveal, &#8220;A fully loaded, fueled airliner crashing into the opening ceremony before a worldwide television audience at the Sydney Olympics is one of the greatest security fears for the Games.&#8221; During the Olympics, Australia has six planes in the sky at all times ready to intercept any wayward aircraft. In fact, &#8220;IOC officials [say] the scenario of a plane crash during the opening ceremony was uppermost in their security planning at every Olympics since terrorists struck in Munich in 1972.&#8221; bin Laden is considered the number-one threat. [[ | Sydney Morning Herald, 9/20/01 ]] ------ These security measures are similar to those used in the 1996 Atlanta Olympics and other events, including Clinton's second inauguration. Similar planning is already underway before 9/11 for the 2002 Winter Olympics in Utah. [[,,SB108077920066470982,00.html | Wall Street Journal, 4/1/04 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> << warnings >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) Late Autumn 2000 CIA Support for Massoud Weakens aautumn00massoudweakens false 1 ------ Covert CIA support for Ahmed Shah Massoud, the Northern Alliance guerrilla leader fighting the Taliban, is minimal and fraying. In the wake of the USS Cole bombing, the CIA develops a plan where the US would increase support for Massoud if he produces strong intelligence about bin Laden's whereabouts. Counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; Richard Clarke outlines this CIA proposal to National Security Adviser Sandy Berger, but Berger rejects it. Aid to Massoud continues to languish under the new Bush administration, until Clarke's proposal (slightly modified) is tentatively approved a week before 9/11. [[ | Washington Post, 2/23/04 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ Sandy Berger )) ((+ Bush administration )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Ahmed Shah Massoud )) October 2000-February 2001 Moussaoui Travels to London and Afghanistan a1000moussaouitravels false 1 ------ Zacarias Moussaoui had been staying in Malaysia so that he could take flight training classes at the Malaysian Flying Academy in Malacca. However, he is unhappy with the quality of training there. He takes the $35,000 given to him by his hosts, Yazid Sufaat and Hambali, and spends it to buy fertilizer to construct bombs. Then he gives up and travels to London in early December, where he meets with Ramzi Bin al-Shibh (who stays in London from December 2 to 9). Hambali sends a messenger to Khalid Shaikh Mohammed in Afghanistan to complain about Moussaoui's attitude. On December 9, Moussaoui leaves London. He makes his way to Afghanistan and meets with Mohammed. Mohammed decides to send him to take flight training classes in the US instead. He is given $35,000 in cash to pay for flying lessons by someone in Pakistan. After he enters the US in February, bin al-Shibh wires him another $14,000 from Germany. [[ | Knight Ridder, 9/9/02 ]] [[ | Washington Post, 3/28/03 ]] [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ====== << moussaoui >> ((+ Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((+ Ramzi Bin al-Shibh )) ((+ Zacarias Moussaoui )) ((+ Nurjaman Riduan Isamuddin )) ((+ Yazid Sufaat )) [[ | Zacarias Moussaoui passing through a London airport (date unknown). ]] October 12, 2000 USS Cole Bombed by al-Qaeda Militants; Investigation Thwarted a101200cole false 1 ------ The USS Cole is bombed in the Aden, Yemen, harbor by al-Qaeda militants. Seventeen US soldiers are killed. [[ | ABC News, 10/13/00 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> << warnings >> << huntForBinLaden >> << pipelinePolitics >> ((+ USS Cole )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) [[ | Damage to the USS Cole. ]] October 14-November, 2000 Investigation Into USS Cole Bombing Is Thwarted a101400colethwart false 1 ------ FBI agent John O'Neill and his team of 200 FBI investigators enter Yemen two days after the bombing of the USS Cole in an attempt to discover who was responsible. However, they are unable to accomplish much due to restrictions placed on them and due to tensions between O'Neill and US Ambassador to Yemen Barbara Bodine. All but about 50 investigators are forced to leave by the end of October. Even though O'Neill's boss visits and finds that Bodine is O'Neill's &#8220;only detractor,&#8221; O'Neill and much of his team are forced to leave in November, and the investigation stalls without his personal relationships to top Yemeni officials. [[ | New Yorker, 1/14/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/sundaytimes020302.html | Sunday Times, 2/3/02 ]] [[ | Miller, Stone, and Mitchell, 2002, pp 237 ]] ------ Increased security threats force the reduced FBI team still in Yemen to withdraw altogether in June 2001. [[ | PBS Frontline, 10/3/02 (B) ]] ------ The Prime Minister of Yemen at the time later claims that hijacker &#8220;Khalid Almihdhar was one of the Cole perpetrators, involved in preparations. He was in Yemen at the time and stayed after the Cole bombing for a while, then he left.&#8221; [[,4273,4277367,00.html | Guardian, 10/15/01 ]] ------ The Sunday Times later notes, &#8220;The failure in Yemen may have blocked off lines of investigation that could have led directly to the terrorists preparing for September 11.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/sundaytimes020302.html | Sunday Times, 2/3/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((+ Barbara Bodine )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((- USS Cole )) ((- Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ John O'Neill )) [[ | Barbara Bodine at a press conference days after the bombing of the USS Cole. ]] Between October 24 and 28, 2000 October 24, 2000-October 28, 2000 Military Holds Exercise Rehearsing Response to a Plane Crash at the Pentagon complete_911_timeline_102400mascal false 1 ------ Pentagon and Arlington County emergency responders assemble in the office of the Secretary of Defense?s conference room in the Pentagon for a mass casualty exercise (&#8220;MASCAL&#8221;). The exercise involves three mock-scenarios. One is of a commercial airliner crashing into the Pentagon and killing 342 people, while the other two involve a terrorist attack at the Pentagon?s subway stop and a construction accident. The exercises are conducted using a large-scale model of the Pentagon with a model airplane literally on fire in the central courtyard of the building. An Army medic who participates in the mock attack calls it &#8220;a real good scenario and one that could happen easily,&#8221; while a fire chief notes: &#8220;You have to plan for this. Look at all the air traffic around here.&#8221; [[ | MDW News Service, 11/3/00 ]] [[;method=full&amp;siteid=50143 | Daily Mirror, 5/24/02 ]] [[ | UPI, 4/22/04 ]] [[ | 9/11 Commission Final Report, 7/04, pp 314 ]] ====== << militaryExercises >> ((+ Pentagon )) ((+ US Department of Defense )) November 2000 Taliban Allegedly Offers to Hand bin Laden to US Officials a1100talibanoffer false 1 ------ In 1999, Kabir Mohabbat, an Afghan-American businessman, had initiated conversations about bin Laden between the US government and the Taliban. According to Mohabbat, the Taliban were ready to hand bin Laden over to a third country, or the International Court of Justice, in exchange for having the US-led sanctions against Afghanistan lifted. (Elmar Brok, a German member of the European Parliament, later confirms that he helps Mohabbat make contact with the US government in 1999.) The initial talks lead to a secret meeting this month between Taliban ministers and US officials in a Frankfurt hotel. Taliban Foreign Minister Wakil Ahmed Muttawakil reportedly says in the meeting, &#8220;You can have him whenever the Americans are ready. Name us a country and we will extradite him.&#8221; However, after this face-to-face meeting, further discussions are never held because, Brok believes, a &#8220;political decision&#8221; has been made by US officials not to continue the negotiations. He does not clarify when he believes such a decision was made. (( Elmar Brok )) [[ | Reuters, 6/5/04 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Kabir Mohabbat )) ((+ Taliban )) ((+ Ahmed )) [[ | Kabir Mohabbat. ]] November 7, 2000 Plans to Target bin Laden Delayed Pending 2000 Election a110700plansdelayed false 1 ------ In the wake of the USS Cole bombing, National Security Adviser Sandy Berger meets with Defense Secretary William Cohen to discuss a new approach to targeting bin Laden. Berger says, &#8220;We've been hit many times, and we'll be hit again. Yet we have no option beyond cruise missiles.&#8221; He once again brings up the idea of a &#8220;boots on the ground&#8221; option&#8212;a Delta Force special operation to get bin Laden. A plan is drawn up but the order to execute it is never given. Cohen and Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman Henry Shelton oppose the plan. By December 21, the CIA reports that it strongly suspects that al-Qaeda was behind the bombing, but fails to definitively make that conclusion. That makes such an attack politically difficult. Says a former senior Clinton aide, &#8220;If we had done anything, say, two weeks before the election, we'd be accused of helping [presidential candidate] Al Gore.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/time080402.html | Time, 8/4/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404d.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (D) ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- Al Gore )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Sandy Berger )) ((+ William S. Cohen )) ((+ Henry H. Shelton )) December 2000-April 2001 Israeli Investigators Deported After Identifying Two Hijackers a1200spyring false 1 ------ According to later German reports, &#8220;a whole horde of Israeli counter-terror investigators, posing as students, [follow] the trails of Arab terrorists and their cells in the United States. ... In the town of Hollywood, Florida, they [identify] ... Atta and Marwan Alshehhi as possible terrorists. Agents [live] in the vicinity of the apartment of the two seemingly normal flight school students, observing them around the clock.&#8221; Supposedly, around April, the Israeli agents are discovered and deported, terminating the investigation. [[ /timeline/2002/derspiegel100102.html | Der Spiegel, 10/1/02 ]] ====== << israel >> << mohamedAtta >> << marwanAlshehhi >> ((+ Marwan Alshehhi )) ((+ Israel Institute for Intelligence and Special Tasks )) ((+ Mohamed Atta )) December 2000 National Intelligence Estimate Report Downplays Threat to Domestic Aviation a1200threatestimate false 1 ------ A classified section of the yearly National Intelligence Estimate report given to Congress downplays any threat to domestic aviation. It says that FBI investigations confirm domestic and international terrorist groups are operating within the US but they are focusing primarily on fundraising, recruiting new members, and disseminating propaganda. While international terrorists have conducted attacks on US soil, these acts represent anomalies from their traditional targeting which focuses on US interests overseas. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ US Congress )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- Federal Bureau of Investigation )) December 2000 Incoming Bush Administration Briefed on Terrorism Threat; Apparently Ignores Recommendations a1200threat false 1 ------ CIA Director Tenet and other top CIA officials brief President-elect Bush, Vice President-elect Cheney, future National Security Adviser Rice, and other incoming national security officials on al-Qaeda and covert action programs in Afghanistan. Deputy Director for Operations James Pavitt recalls conveying that bin Laden is one of the gravest threats to the country. Bush asks whether killing bin Laden would end the problem. Pavitt says he answers that killing bin Laden would have an impact but not stop the threat. The CIA recommends the most important action to combat al-Qaeda is to arm the Predator drone and use it over Afghanistan. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommission032404.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 ]] [[;storyID=4646224 | Reuters, 3/24/04 (B) ]] ------ However, while the drone is soon armed, Bush never gives the order to use it in Afghanistan until after 9/11 (see [[ a091001predator ]]). ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ George Tenet )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ James Pavitt )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) December 2000 CIA Develops Plan to Increase Support to Massoud, Strike bin Laden a1200bluesky false 1 ------ The CIA's Counter Terrorism Center develops a plan to strike at bin Laden in Afghanistan called the &#8220;Blue Sky Memo.&#8221; It recommends increased support to anti-Taliban groups and especially a major effort to back Ahmed Shah Massoud's Northern Alliance, to tie down al-Qaeda personnel before they leave Afghanistan. No action is taken in the last few weeks of the Clinton administration; the CIA presses the ideas unsuccessfully early in the new Bush administration. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404c.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (C) ]] ------ The National Security Council counterterrorism staff also prepares a strategy paper, incorporating ideas from the Blue Sky Memo. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404d.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (D) ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ Bush administration )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- Clinton administration )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ National Security Council )) ((+ Ahmed Shah Massoud )) ((- Northern Alliance )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) December 2000 Pentagon Develops Plan to Attack al-Qaeda a1200pentagonplan false 1 ------ After the attack on the USS Cole, the military not only draws up plans to directly target bin Laden (see [[ a110700plansdelayed ]]), but also comes up with a larger plan looking at alternatives to assassination. Lt. Gen. Gregory Newbold, the director of operations for the Joint Chiefs of Staff, prepared a plan to incorporate military, economic, diplomatic, and political activities to pressure the Taliban to expel bin Laden. A &#8220;Phased Campaign Concept&#8221; calls for wider-ranging mlitary strikes against the Taliban and other targets, but doesn't include contingency plans for an invasion of Afghanistan. The concept is briefed to Deputy National Security Adviser Donald Kerrick and other officials in December 2000, but it is never acted on. The military makes no similar plans after Bush's inauguration, and the CIA's invasion plans are mostly relied upon when the US invades Afghanistan in October 2001. [[;position= | New York Times, 4/4/04 (B) ]] [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404d.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (D) ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((- Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- Gregory Newbold )) ((- Taliban )) ((+ Donald Kerrick )) Early December 2000 USS Cole Plotter al-Quso Linked to Hijackers by CIA; Information Withheld from FBI a1200alquso false 1 ------ Fahad al-Quso is arrested by the government of Yemen. [[ | PBS Frontline, 10/3/02 ]] [[ | PBS Frontline, 10/3/02 ]] ------ In addition to being involved in the USS Cole bombing (see [[ a101200cole ]]), al-Quso was at the January 2000 Malaysian meeting (see [[ a010500malaysiameeting ]]) with al-Qaeda agents Khallad bin Attash and hijackers Nawaf Alhazmi and Khalid Almihdhar. Al-Quso tells Yemeni investigators that he flew from Yemen to Bangkok in January 2000 for a secret meeting where he turned over $36,000 in cash to bin Attash. The FBI asks the CIA for more information about bin Attash and the Malaysian meeting, but later the FBI claims that the CIA does not provide the requested information that could have led them to Alhazmi and Almihdhar as well. [[;pagewanted=all&amp;position= | New York Times, 4/11/04 (B) ]] ------ For instance, there are pictures from the Malaysian meeting of al-Quso next to hijacker Khalid Almihdhar, but the CIA does not share the pictures with the FBI before 9/11. [[ | Newsweek, 9/20/01 ]] ------ Meanwhile, FBI head investigator John O'Neill believes that al-Quso is holding back important information from his Yemeni captors and wants him interrogated by the FBI. However, O'Neill had been kicked out of Yemen by his superiors a week or two before, and without his influential presence, the Yemeni government will not allow an interrogation. Al-Quso is finally interrogated days after 9/11, and he admits to meeting with Alhazmi and Almihdhar in January 2000. One investigator calls the missed opportunity of exposing the 9/11 plot through al-Quso's connections &#8220;mind-boggling.&#8221; [[ | PBS Frontline, 10/3/02 ]] ------ In April 2003, al-Quso will escape from a Yemeni prison and apparently remains free. [[ /timeline/2003/ap041103.html | Associated Press 4/11/03 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ John O'Neill )) ((+ Fahad al-Quso )) ((- Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((- Khalid Almihdhar )) [[ | Fahad al-Quso. ]] December 19, 2000 US Seeks Taliban Overthrow; Considers Russia-US Invasion of Afghanistan a121900russia false 1 ------ The Washington Post reports, &#8220;The United States has quietly begun to align itself with those in the Russian government calling for military action against Afghanistan and has toyed with the idea of a new raid to wipe out Osama bin Laden. Until it backed off under local pressure, it went so far as to explore whether a Central Asian country would permit the use of its territory for such a purpose.&#8221; Russia and the US are discussing &#8220;what kind of government should replace the Taliban. Thus, while claiming to oppose a military solution to the Afghan problem, the United States is now talking about the overthrow of a regime that controls nearly the entire country, in the hope it can be replaced with a hypothetical government that does not exist even on paper.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2000/wpost121900.html | Washington Post, 12/19/00 ]] ------ It appears that all pre-9/11 plans to invade Afghanistan involve attacking from the north with Russia. ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ Russia )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ United States )) ((- Taliban )) December 20, 2000 Clarke Plan to Neutralize al-Qaeda Deferred Pending Administration Transition a122000rollback false 1 ------ Counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; Richard Clarke submits a plan to &#8220;roll back&#8221; al-Qaeda over a period of three to five years until it is ineffectual. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404d.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (D) ]] ------ The main component is a dramatic increase in covert aid to the Northern Alliance in Afghanistan to first tie down the terrorists and then &#8220;eliminate the sanctuary&#8221; for bin Laden. Financial support for terrorist activities will be systematically attacked, nations fighting al-Qaeda will be given aid to defeat them, and the US will plan for direct military and covert action in Afghanistan. The plan will cost several hundred million dollars. However, since there are only a few weeks left before the Bush administration takes over, it is decided to defer the decision until the new administration is in place. One senior Clinton official later says, &#8220;We would be handing [the Bush administration] a war when they took office on January 20. That wasn't going to happen.&#8221; However, the plan is rejected by the Bush administration and no action is taken (see [[ a012501clarke ]]). According to one senior Bush administration official, the proposal amounts to &#8220;everything we've done since 9/11.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/time080402.html | Time, 8/4/02 ]] ------ Russia's President Vladimir Putin later claims he tried to egg on the previous Clinton administration&#8212; without success&#8212;to act militarily against the whole Taliban regime: &#8220;Washington's reaction at the time really amazed me. They shrugged their shoulders and said matter-of-factly: &#8216;We can't do anything because the Taliban does not want to turn him over.&#8217; &#8221; [[,3604,556254,00.html | Guardian, 9/22/01 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ Vladimir Putin )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Clinton administration )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Bush administration )) ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) ((- Northern Alliance )) January 2001 Hijackers Rent Post Office Box in Florida Months Before They Officially Arrive a0101postofficebox false 1 ------ Hijackers Hamza Alghamdi and Mohand Alshehri rent a post office box in Delray Beach, Florida, according to the Washington Post. Yet FBI Director Mueller later claims they do not enter the country until May 28, 2001. [[ | Washington Post, 9/30/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry092602.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/26/02 ]] ====== << otherHijackers >> ((+ Mohand Alshehri )) ((+ Hamza Alghamdi )) January-August 2001 Airlines Receive FAA Warnings, But Later Claim They Were Given No Real Hints of Possible Terrorist Attacks a0101airlinesdontknow false 1 ------ The FAA gives 15 warnings to domestic airlines between January and August 2001, but about one general security warning a month had been common for a long time. [[ | CNN, 5/17/02 ]] ------ Even a government official later calls the content of these 15 warnings &#8220;standard fare.&#8221; [[ | Miami Herald, 5/17/02 ]] ------ As one newspaper later reports, &#8220;there were so many [warnings] that airline officials grew numb to them.&#8221; [[ | St. Petersburg Times, 9/23/02 ]] ------ In May 2002, in response to recent revelations about what was known before 9/11, the major airlines will hold a press conference claiming they were never warned of a specific hijacking threat, and were not told to tighten security. For instance, an American Airlines spokesman states that the airline &#8220;received no specific information from the US government advising the carrier of a potential terrorist hijacking in the United States in the months prior to September 11, 2001. American receives FAA security information bulletins periodically, but the bulletins were extremely general in nature and did not identify a specific threat or recommend any specific security enhancements.&#8221; [[ | Miami Herald, 5/17/02 ]] ------ Bush administration officials later state that the terror information they are receiving is so vague that tighter security does not seem required. [[,0,1731679.story | Associated Press, 5/18/02 ]] ------ However, it seems that even these general warnings are never passed on to airline employees. Rosemary Dillard, a supervisor for American Airlines, states, &#8220;My job was supervision over all the flight attendants who flew out of National, Baltimore, or Dulles. In the summer of 2001, we had absolutely no warnings about any threats of hijackings or terrorism, from the airline or from the FAA.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2004/nyobserver061704.html | New York Observer, 6/17/04 ]] ------ The content of these seemingly harmless warnings remain classified after 9/11. They are said to be exempted from public disclosure by a federal statute that covers &#8220;information that would be detrimental to the security of transportation if disclosed.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2004/nyobserver061704.html | New York Observer, 6/17/04 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Federal Aviation Administration )) ((+ American Airlines )) ((+ Bush administration )) January 2001-September 11, 2001 Hijackers Witnessed Preparing False IDs in Toronto Photocopy Shop with al-Marabh a01toronto false 1 ------ Numerous witnesses later recall seeing hijackers Mohamed Atta and/or Marwan Alshehhi in Nabil al-Marabh's Toronto apartment building and photocopy shop owned by al-Marabh's uncle at various times during the year. [[ /timeline/2001/torontosun092801.html | Toronto Sun, 9/28/01 ]] [[ | ABC News, 1/31/02 ]] ------ Some of the dozens of eyewitness accounts say Atta sporadically works in the photocopy shop. [[ /timeline/2001/torontosun102101.html | Toronto Sun, 10/21/01 ]] ------ There is a large picture of bin Laden hanging in the store. [[ /timeline/2001/torontosun102101.html | Toronto Sun, 10/21/01 ]] ------ Partially completed fake IDs are found in the store and at al-Marabh's apartment. [[ /timeline/2001/torontosun092801.html | Toronto Sun, 9/28/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/torontosun101601.html | Toronto Sun, 10/16/01 ]] ------ &#8220;Forensic officers said there are similarities in the paper stock, laminates and ink seized from the downtown store and that which was used in identification left behind by the [9/11 hijackers].&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/torontosun101601.html | Toronto Sun, 10/16/01 ]] ------ US and Canadian police later determine that there is a flurry of phone calls and financial transactions between al-Marabh, Atta, and Alshehhi days before the attacks. [[ /timeline/2001/torontosun111601.html | Toronto Sun, 11/16/01 ]] ------ US intelligence also intercepts al-Marabh's associates making post-9/11 phone calls praising attacks. [[ /timeline/2001/ottawacitizen102901.html | Ottawa Citizen, 10/29/01 ]] ------ US police say al-Marabh is one of their top five suspects in the 9/11 attacks. Canadian police say he is linked through financial and phone records to some of the suicide pilots, and believe he heads a Toronto al-Qaeda cell. [[ /timeline/2001/torontosun112301.html | Toronto Sun, 11/23/01 ]] ====== << al-Marabh >> ((+ Marwan Alshehhi )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Mohamed Atta )) ((+ Nabil al-Marabh )) Early January 2001 Al-Qaeda Threat Highlighted for Powell a0101powell false 1 ------ Counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; Richard Clarke briefs Secretary of State Powell about the al-Qaeda threat. He urges decisive and quick action against al-Qaeda. Powell meets with the CSG (Counterterrorism and Security Group) containing senior counterterrorism officials from many agencies. He sees that all members of the group agree al-Qaeda is an important threat. For instance, Deputy Defense Secretary Brian Sheridan says to Powell, &#8220;Make al-Qaeda your number one priority.&#8221; [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 227-30 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Brian Sheridan )) ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) ((+ Colin Powell )) ((+ Counterterrorism and Security Group )) ((- al-Qaeda )) January-February 2001 Flight School's Repeated Warnings About Hijacker Hanjour Ignored by FAA a0101hanjourwarnings false 1 ------ In January, the Arizona flight school JetTech alerts the FAA about hijacker Hani Hanjour. No one at the school suspects Hanjour of terrorist intent, but they tell the FAA he lacks both the English and flying skills necessary for the commercial pilot's license he has already obtained. The flight school manager &#8220;couldn't believe he had a commercial license of any kind with the skills that he had.&#8221; A former employee says, &#8220;I'm still to this day amazed that he could have flown into the Pentagon. He could not fly at all.&#8221; They also note he is an exceptionally poor student who does not seem to care about passing his courses. [[ | New York Times, 5/4/02 (B) ]] ------ An FAA official named John Anthony actually sits next to Hanjour in class and observes his skills. He suggests the use of a translator to help Hanjour pass, but the flight school points out that goes &#8220;against the rules that require a pilot to be able to write and speak English fluently before they even get their license.&#8221; [[,2933,52408,00.html | Associated Press, 5/10/02 ]] ------ The FAA verifies that Hanjour's pilot's license is legitimate, but takes no other action. However, since 9/11, the FBI appears to have questions about how Hanjour got his license in 1999. They have questioned and polygraphed the Arab-American instructor who signed off on his flying skills. [[ | CBS News, 5/10/02 ]] ------ His license had in fact already expired in late 1999. [[ | Associated Press, 9/15/01 (B) ]] ------ In February, Hanjour begins advanced simulator training, &#8220;a far more complicated task than he had faced in earning a commercial license.&#8221; [[;position=top | New York Times, 6/19/02 ]] ------ The flight school again alerts the FAA about this and gives a total of five alerts about Hanjour, but no further action on him is taken. The FBI is not told about Hanjour. [[ | CBS News, 5/10/02 ]] ------ Ironically, the following July, Arizona FBI agent Ken Williams recommends in a memo that the FBI liaison with local flight schools and keep track of suspicious activity by Middle Eastern students (see [[ a071001williams ]]). ====== << otherHijackers >> << haniHanjour >> ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((- Pentagon )) ((+ John Anthony )) ((+ William Safire )) ((+ JetTech )) ((+ Federal Aviation Administration )) [[ | Hani Hanjour, from a 2000 US visa application. ]] Early 2001 Bush Staffers Less Concerned with Terrorism aearly01bushstaffers false 1 ------ Clinton and Bush staff overlap for several months while new Bush appointees are appointed and confirmed. Clinton holdovers seem more concerned about al-Qaeda than the new Bush staffers. For instance, according to a colleague, Sandy Berger, Clinton's National Security Adviser, had become &#8220;totally preoccupied&#8221; with fears of a domestic terror attack. [[ | Newsweek, 5/27/02 ]] ------ Brian Sheridan, Clinton's outgoing Deputy Defense Secretary for Special Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict, is astonished when his offers during the transition to bring the new military leadership up to speed on terrorism are brushed aside. &#8220;I offered to brief anyone, any time on any topic. Never took it up.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2004/latimes033004.html | Los Angeles Times, 3/30/04 ]] ------ Army Lieutenant General Donald Kerrick, Deputy National Security Adviser and manager of Clinton's NSC (National Security Council) staff, still remains at the NSC nearly four months after Bush takes office. He later notes that while Clinton's advisers met &#8220;nearly weekly&#8221; on terrorism by the end of his term, he does not detect the same kind of focus with the new Bush advisers: &#8220;That's not being derogatory. It's just a fact. I didn't detect any activity but what [Clinton holdover Richard] Clarke and the CSG [Counterterrorism and Security Group] were doing.&#8221; [[;node=&amp;contentId=A8734-2002Jan19 | Washington Post, 1/20/02 ]] ------ Kerrick submits a memo to the new people at the NSC, warning, &#8220;We are going to be struck again.&#8221; He says, &#8220;They never responded. It was not high on their priority list. I was never invited to one meeting. They never asked me to do anything. They were not focusing. They didn't see terrorism as the big megaissue that the Clinton administration saw it as.&#8221; Kerrick adds, &#8220;They were gambling nothing would happen.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2004/latimes033004.html | Los Angeles Times, 3/30/04 ]] ------ Bush's first Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman, Henry Shelton, later says terrorism was relegated &#8220;to the back burner&#8221; until 9/11. [[ | Washington Post, 10/2/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Bush administration )) ((+ Clinton administration )) ((+ Hugh Shelton )) ((+ National Security Council )) ((+ Donald Kerrick )) ((+ Counterterrorism and Security Group )) ((+ Sandy Berger )) ((+ Brian Sheridan )) ((- al-Qaeda )) [[ | Donald Kerrick. ]] Early 2001 Taliban Disinformation Project Is Cancelled aearly01talibandisinfo false 1 ------ The heads of the US military, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, have become frustrated by the lack of CIA disinformation operations to create dissent among the Taliban, and at the very end of the Clinton administration, they begin to develop a Taliban disinformation project of their own, which is to go into effect in 2001. When they are briefed, the Defense Department's new leaders kill the project. According to Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman Henry Shelton, &#8220;[Defense Secretary] Rumsfeld and Deputy [Defense] Secretary Paul Wolfowitz were against the Joint Staff having the lead on this.&#8221; They consider this a distraction from their core military missions. As far as Rumsfeld is concerned, &#8220;This terrorism thing was out there, but it didn't happen today, so maybe it belongs lower on the list ... so it gets defused over a long period of time.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2004/latimes033004.html | Los Angeles Times, 3/30/04 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ US Department of Defense )) ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) ((- Taliban )) ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) ((- Clinton administration )) ((- Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Hugh Shelton )) January-June 2001 Hijackers Pass Through Britain for Training or Fundraising a0101britainpassthru false 1 ------ Eleven of the 9/11 hijackers stay in or pass through Britain, according to the British Home Secretary and top investigators. Most are in Britain between April and June, just passing through from Dubai, United Arab Emirates. However, investigators suspect some stay in Britain for training and fundraising. Not all 11 names are given, but one can deduce from the press accounts that Ahmed Alghamdi, Salem Alhazmi, Ahmed Alhaznawi, Ahmed Alnami, and Saeed Alghamdi were definitely in Britain. Ahmed Alghamdi was one of several that should have been &#8220;instantly &#8216;red-flagged&#8217; by British intelligence,&#8221; because of his links to Raed Hijazi, a suspected ally of bin Laden being held in Jordan on charges of conspiring to destroy holy sites. Two of the following three also were in Britain: Wail Alshehri, Fayez Banihammad, and Abdulaziz Alomari. Apparently, the investigation concludes that the &#8220;muscle,&#8221; and leaders like Mohamed Atta and Marwan Alshehhi did not pass through Britain at this time. [[ /timeline/2001/londontimes092601.html | Times of London, 9/26/01 ]] [[;node=&amp;contentId=A32319-2001Sep26 | Washington Post, 9/27/01 ]] [[ | BBC, 9/28/01 ]] [[ | Sunday Herald, 9/30/01 ]] ------ However, police are investigating whether Atta visited Britain in 1999 and 2000, together with some Algerians. [[ | Daily Telegraph, 9/30/01 ]] ------ The London Times also writes, &#8220;Officials hope that the inquiries in Britain will disclose the true identities of the suicide team. Some are known to have arrived in Britain using false passports and fake identities that they kept for the hijack.&#8221; ====== << otherHijackers >> ((- Mohamed Atta )) ((- Raed Hijazi )) ((+ Abdulaziz Alomari )) ((+ Salem Alhazmi )) ((+ Ahmed Alhaznawi )) ((+ Ahmed Alnami )) ((+ Fayez Ahmed Banihammad )) ((+ Wail Alshehri )) ((- Marwan Alshehhi )) ((+ Saeed Alghamdi )) ((+ Ahmed Alghamdi )) January 3, 2001 Clarke Demoted by Rice and Future 9/11 Commission Executive Director a010301clarkedemoted false 1 ------ National Security Adviser Rice decides this day to retain Richard Clarke, counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; for the Clinton administration, and his staff. However, she downgrades his official position as National Coordinator for Counterterrorism. While he is still known as the counterterrorism &#8220;tsar,&#8221; he has less power and now reports to deputy secretaries instead of attending Cabinet-level meetings. He no longer is able to send memos directly to the president, or easily interact with Cabinet-level officials. [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 227-30 ]] [[,11209,1177418,00.html | Guardian, 3/25/04 ]] ------ In 2004, Rice will reveal that the person she tasks with considering changes to Clarke and his staff is Philip Zelikow, the future Executive Director of the 9/11 Commission. Zelikow recuses himself from those parts of the 9/11 Commission's investigation directly relating to his role in this and other matters. However, 9/11 victims' relatives are not satisfied. For instance, one relative says, &#8220;Zelikow has conflicts. I'm not sure that his recusal is sufficient. His fingerprints are all over that decision [to demote Clarke].&#8221; [[ | UPI, 4/10/04 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> << investigations >> ((+ Philip Zelikow )) ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) January 3, 2001 Clarke Briefs Rice on al-Qaeda Threat; Keeps Job but Loses Power a010301clarkerice false 1 ------ Richard Clarke, counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; for the Clinton administration, briefs National Security Adviser Rice and her deputy, Steve Hadley, about al-Qaeda. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A8734-2002Jan19 | Washington Post, 1/20/02 ]] ------ Outgoing National Security Adviser Sandy Berger makes an unusual appearance at the start of the meeting, saying to Rice, &#8220;I'm coming to this briefing to underscore how important I think this subject is.&#8221; He claims that he tells Rice during the transition between administrations, &#8220;I believe that the Bush administration will spend more time on terrorism generally, and on al-Qaeda specifically, than any other subject.&#8221; Clarke presents his plan to &#8220;roll back&#8221; al-Qaeda that he had given to the outgoing Clinton administration a couple of weeks earlier. [[ /timeline/2002/time080402.html | Time, 8/4/02 ]] ------ He gets the impression that Rice has never heard the term al-Qaeda before. [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 227-30 ]] [[,11209,1177418,00.html | Guardian, 3/25/04 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Sandy Berger )) ((+ Stephen Hadley )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Bush administration )) ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) January 4, 2001 FBI, CIA Miss Connection Between USS Cole Bomber and Hijackers a0101binattash false 1 ------ The FBI's investigation into the USS Cole bombing (see [[ a101200cole ]]) reveals that al-Qaeda operative Khallad bin Attash was a principal planner of the bombing [[ | Associated Press, 9/21/02 (B) ]] ------ , and that two other participants in the bombing delivered money to bin Attash at the time of the January 2000 al-Qaeda meeting (see [[ a010500malaysiameeting ]]) in Malaysia. The FBI shares this information with the CIA. Based on a description of bin Attash from an informant, CIA analysts reexamine pictures from the Malaysian meeting and identify bin Attash with both hijackers Nawaf Alhazmi and Khalid Almihdhar. CIA Director Tenet later testifies that the presence of bin Attash, a known, important al-Qaeda operative, gives the Malaysian meetings &#8220;greater significance.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommission012604.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 1/26/04 ]] ------ The CIA has already been informed that Alhazmi has entered the US in March 2000, yet once again they fail to watch list either Alhazmi or Almihdhar. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ CNN later notes that at this point the CIA, at the very least, &#8220;could have put Alhazmi and Almihdhar and all others who attended the meeting in Malaysia on a watch list to be kept out of this country. It was not done.&#8221; [[ | CNN, 6/4/02 ]] ------ More incredibly, bin Attash is not placed on the watch list at this time, despite being labeled as the principal planner of the Cole bombing. (He is finally placed on the watch list in August 2001.) [[ /timeline/2002/latimes092202.html | Los Angeles Times, 9/22/02 ]] ------ CIA headquarters is told what these CIA analysts have learned, but it appears the FBI is not told. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((- George Tenet )) ((- Khalid Almihdhar )) ((- Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Tawifiq ("Khallad") bin Attash )) [[ | Khallad bin Attash. ]] January 10, 2001-September 4, 2001 Armed Predator Drone Is Readied, but Unused a0101predator false 1 ------ Even before President Bush's official inauguration, Clinton holdover counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; Richard Clarke pushes National Security Adviser Rice and other incoming Bush officials to resume Predator drone flights over Afghanistan (originally carried out in September and October 2000) in an attempt to find and assassinate bin Laden. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A8734-2002Jan19 | Washington Post, 1/20/02 ]] [[ | CBS News, 6/25/03 ]] ------ On January 10, Rice is shown a video clip of bin Laden filmed by a Predator drone the year before. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A8734-2002Jan19 | Washington Post, 1/20/02 ]] ------ Clarke learns of an Air Force plan to arm the Predator. The original plan calls for three years of testing, but Clarke pushes so hard that the armed Predator is ready in three months. [[ | New Yorker, 7/28/03 ]] ------ A Hellfire missile is successfully test fired from a Predator on February 16, 2001. [[ | CBS News, 6/25/03 ]] ------ In early June, a duplicate of the brick house where bin Laden is believed to be living in Kandahar, Afghanistan, is built in Nevada, and destroyed by a Predator missile. The test shows that the missile fired from miles away would have killed anyone in the building, and one participant calls this the long sought after &#8220;holy grail&#8221; that could kill bin Laden within minutes of finding him. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A8734-2002Jan19 | Washington Post, 1/20/02 ]] ------ Clarke repeatedly advocates using the Predator, armed or unarmed. However, bureaucratic infighting between the CIA and the Air Force over who would pay for it and take responsibility delays its use. Clarke later says, &#8220;Every time we were ready to use it, the CIA would change its mind.&#8221; [[ | New Yorker, 7/28/03 ]] ------ Rice and Deputy National Security Adviser Steve Hadley decide to delay reconnaissance flights until the armed version is ready. In July 2001, Hadley directs the military to have armed Predators ready to deploy no later than September 1. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404d.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (D) ]] ------ The issue comes to a head in early September, but even then, a decision to use the Predator is delayed [[ | New Yorker, 7/28/03 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Stephen Hadley )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ George W. Bush )) [[ | A Predator drone. ]] January 19, 2001 UN Sanctions on Taliban Do Not Stop Illegal Trade Network a011901unsanctions false 1 ------ New United Nations sanctions against Afghanistan take effect, adding to those from November 1999. The sanctions limit travel by senior Taliban authorities, freeze bin Laden's and the Taliban's assets, and order the closure of Ariana Airlines offices abroad. The sanctions also impose an arms embargo against the Taliban, but not against Northern Alliance forces battling the Taliban. [[ /timeline/2000/ap121900.html | Associated Press, 12/19/00 ]] ------ The arms embargo has no visible effect because the sanctions fail to stop Pakistani military assistance. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommission032404.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 ]] ------ The sanctions also fail to stop the illegal trade network that the Taliban is secretly running through Ariana. Two companies, Air Cess and Flying Dolphin, take over most of Ariana's traffic. Air Cess is owned by the Russian arms dealer Victor Bout, and Flying Dolphin is owned by the United Arab Emirates' former ambassador to the US, who is also an associate of Bout. In late 2000, despite reports linking Flying Dolphin to arms smuggling, the United Nations gives Flying Dolphin permission to take over Ariana's closed routes, which it does until the new sanctions take effect. Bout's operations are still functioning and he has not been arrested. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 1/20/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/montrealgazette020502.html | Montreal Gazette, 2/5/02 ]] ------ Ariana is essentially destroyed in the October 2001 US bombing of Afghanistan. [[,0,7388562.story | Los Angeles Times, 11/18/01 ]] ====== << isi >> ((+ United Nations )) ((+ Victor Bout )) ((+ Taliban )) ((- Northern Alliance )) ((+ Flying Dolphin )) ((+ Air Cess )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Ariana Airlines )) January 20-September 10, 2001 Bush Briefed on al-Qaeda over 40 Times a012001bushbriefed false 1 ------ National Security Adviser Rice later testifies to the 9/11 Commission that in the first eight months of Bush's presidency before 9/11, &#8220;the president receive[s] at these [Presidential Daily Briefings] more than 40 briefing items on al-Qaeda, and 13 of those [are] in response to questions he or his top advisers posed.&#8221; [[ | Washington Post, 4/8/04 (C) ]] ------ The content of the warnings in these briefings are unknown. However, CIA Director George Tenet claims that none of the warnings specifically indicates terrorists plan to fly hijacked commercial aircraft into buildings in the US. [[ | New York Times, 4/4/04 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> << warnings >> ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ George Tenet )) January 21, 2001 George W. Bush Inaugurated a012101bushjr false 1 ------ George W. Bush is inaugurated as president, replacing President Bill Clinton. ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> << centralAsia >> ((+ George W. Bush )) January 21, 2001 Bush Administration Takes Over; Many Have Oil Industry Connections a012101bushjroil false 1 ------ George W. Bush is inaugurated as the 43rd US President, replacing Bill Clinton. The only Cabinet-level figure to remain permanently in office is CIA Director Tenet, appointed in 1997 and reputedly a long-time friend of George H. W. Bush. FBI Director Louis Freeh stays on until June 2001. Numerous figures in Bush's administration have been directly employed in the oil industry, including Bush, Vice President Cheney, and National Security Adviser Rice. Rice had been on Chevron's Board of Directors since 1991, and even had a Chevron oil tanker named after her. [[ | Salon, 11/19/01 ]] ------ It is later revealed that Cheney is still being paid up to $1 million a year in &#8220;deferred payments&#8221; from Halliburton, the oil company he headed. [[,2763,912515,00.html | Guardian, 3/12/03 ]] ------ Enron's ties also reach deep into the administration. [[ /timeline/2002/wpost011802.html | Washington Post, 1/18/02 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((+ Richard ("Dick") Cheney )) ((+ William Jefferson ("Bill") Clinton )) ((+ Louis J. Freeh )) ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ Enron )) ((+ George Tenet )) [[ | The Chevron oil tanker named after National Security Advisor Rice. ]] January 21-September 10, 2001 Transportation Secretary Says Bush Administration Does Nothing to Fight Terrorism a12101minetanothing false 1 ------ In 2003, Transportation Secretary Norman Mineta will be asked by the 9/11 Commission, &#8220;Did this higher level of [terrorist] chatter [before 9/11] ... result in any action across the government? I take it your answer is no.&#8221; He replies, &#8220;That?s correct.&#8221; [[,1282,-2708839,00.html | Associated Press, 5/23/03 (C) ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Norman Mineta )) ((+ 9/11 Commission )) January 24, 2001 Italians Hear of Brothers Going to US for Very, Very Secret Plan, Other Clues a012401italy false 1 ------ On this day, Italian intelligence hears an interesting wiretapped conversation eerily similar to the one from August 12, 2000 (see [[ a081200italy ]]). This one occurs between al-Qaeda operatives Mahmoud Es Sayed and Ben Soltane Adel, two members of al-Qaeda's Milan cell. Adel asks, in reference to fake documents, &#8220;Will these work for the brothers who are going to the United States?&#8221; Sayed responds angrily, saying &#8220;don't ever say those words again, not even joking! ... If it's necessary ... whatever place we may be, come up and talk in my ear, because these are very important things. You must know ... that this plan is very, very secret, as if you were protecting the security of the state.&#8221; This is only one of many clues found from the Italian wiretaps and passed on to US intelligence in March 2001. However, they apparently are not properly understood until after 9/11. Adel is later arrested and convicted of belonging to a terrorist cell, and Es Sayed flees to Afghanistan in July 2001. [[,3604,724304,00.html | Guardian, 5/30/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> << foreignIntelligence >> ((+ Mahmoud Es Sayed )) ((+ Ben Soltane Adel )) ((- al-Qaeda )) January 25, 2001 Clarke Presents Plan to Roll Back al-Qaeda, but Response Is Delayed a012501clarke false 1 ------ Counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; Richard Clarke submits a proposal to National Security Adviser Rice and &#8220;urgently&#8221; asks for a Cabinet-level meeting on the al-Qaeda threat. [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 230-31 ]] ------ He forwards his December 2000 strategy paper and a copy of his 1998 &#8220;Delenda Plan&#8221; (see [[ a082798delenda ]]). He lays out a proposed agenda for urgent action: --- * --- Approve covert assistance to Ahmed Shah Massoud's Northern Alliance fighting the Taliban. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404d.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (D) ]] --- * --- Significantly increase funding for CIA counterterrorism activity. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404d.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (D) ]] --- * --- Respond to the USS Cole bombing with an attack on al-Qaeda. (The link between al-Qaeda and that bombing had been assumed for months and is confirmed in the media two days later.) According to the Washington Post, &#8220;Clarke argue[s] that the camps [are] can't-miss targets, and they [matter]. The facilities [amount] to conveyor belts for al-Qaeda's human capital, with raw recruits arriving and trained fighters departing either for front lines against the Northern Alliance, the Afghan rebel coalition, or against American interests somewhere else. The US government had whole libraries of images filmed over Tarnak Qila and its sister camp, Garmabat Ghar, 19 miles farther west. Why watch al-Qaeda train several thousand men a year and then chase them around the world when they left?&#8221; No retaliation is taken on these camps until after 9/11. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A8734-2002Jan19 | Washington Post, 1/20/02 ]] --- * --- Go forward with new Predator drone reconnaissance missions in the spring and use an armed version when it is ready. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404d.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (D) ]] --- * --- Step up the fight against terrorist fundraising. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404d.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (D) ]] --- * --- Be aware that al-Qaeda sleeper cells in the US are not just a potential threat, but are a &#8220;major threat in being.&#8221; Additionally, more attacks have almost certainly been set in motion. [[ | PBS Frontline, 10/3/02 ]] [[;node=&amp;contentId=A8734-2002Jan19 | Washington Post, 1/20/02 ]] ------ Rice's response to Clarke's proposal is that the Cabinet will not address the issue until it has been &#8220;framed&#8221; at the deputy secretary level. However, this initial deputy meeting is not given high priority and it does not take place until April 2001. [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 230-31 ]] ------ Henry Shelton, Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman until 9/11, says, &#8220;The squeaky wheel was Dick Clarke, but he wasn't at the top of their priority list, so the lights went out for a few months. Dick did a pretty good job because he's abrasive as hell, but given the [bureaucratic] level he was at&#8221; there was no progress. [[ /timeline/2004/latimes033004.html | Los Angeles Times, 3/30/04 ]] [[ | Benjamin and Simon, 2002, pp 335-36 ]] ------ Some counterterrorism officials think the new administration responds slowly simply because Clarke's proposal originally came from the Clinton administration. [[ /timeline/2002/time080402.html | Time, 8/4/02 ]] ------ For instance, Thomas Maertenson, on the National Security Council in both the Clinton and Bush administrations, says, &#8220;They really believed their campaign rhetoric about the Clinton administration. So anything [that administration] did was bad, and the Bushies were not going to repeat it.&#8221; [[ | New York Times, 3/24/04 ]] [[ | Minneapolis Star-Tribune, 3/25/04 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ Bush administration )) ((- Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Northern Alliance )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((- Clinton administration )) ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) ((- Taliban )) ((- Ahmed Shah Massoud )) [[ | Richard Clarke. ]] January 27, 2001 Al-Qaeda's Role in USS Cole Bombing Triggers No Immediate Response a012701norevenge false 1 ------ The Washington Post reports that the US has confirmed the link between al-Qaeda and the October 2000 USS Cole bombing (see [[ a101200cole ]]). [[;contentId=A53244-2001Jan26Found=true | Washington Post, 1/27/01 ]] ------ This conclusion is stated without hedge in a February 9 briefing for Vice President Cheney. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A8734-2002Jan19 | Washington Post, 1/20/02 ]] ------ In the wake of that bombing, Bush stated on the campaign trail, &#8220;I hope that we can gather enough intelligence to figure out who did the act and take the necessary action. ... There must be a consequence.&#8221; [[;node=&amp;contentId=A8734-2002Jan19 | Washington Post, 1/20/02 ]] ------ Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz later complains that by the time the new administration is in place, the Cole bombing was &#8220;stale.&#8221; Defense Secretary Rumsfeld concurs, stating that too much time had passed to respond. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404b.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (B) ]] ------ The new Bush administration fails to resume the covert deployment of cruise missile submarines and gunships on six-hour alert near Afghanistan's borders that had begun under President Clinton. The standby force gave Clinton the option of an immediate strike against targets in Afghanistan harboring al-Qaeda's top leadership. This failure makes a possible assassination of bin Laden much more difficult. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A8734-2002Jan19 | Washington Post, 1/20/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) ((+ Bush administration )) ((+ Richard ("Dick") Cheney )) ((+ William Jefferson ("Bill") Clinton )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) January 30, 2001 Hijacker Questioned at Request of CIA, Then Released a013001jarrahdubai false 1 ------ Hijacker Ziad Jarrah is questioned for several hours at the Dubai International Airport, United Arab Emirates, at the request of the CIA for &#8220;suspected involvement in terrorist activities,&#8221; then let go. This is according to United Arab Emirates, US, and European officials, but the CIA denies the story. The CIA notified local officials that he would be arriving from Pakistan on his way back to Europe, and they wanted to know where he had been in Afghanistan and how long he had been there. US officials were informed of the results of the interrogation before Jarrah left the airport. Jarrah had already been in the US for six months learning to fly. &#8220;UAE and European intelligence sources told CNN that the questioning of Jarrah fits a pattern of a CIA operation begun in 1999 to track suspected al-Qaeda operatives who were traveling through the United Arab Emirates.&#8221; He was then permitted to leave, eventually going to the US. [[ | CNN, 8/1/02 ]] [[ | Chicago Tribune, 12/13/01 ]] ------ Some accounts place this in January 2000. ====== << otherHijackers >> << haniHanjour >> ((+ United Arab Emirates )) ((+ Ziad Jarrah )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) [[ | Ziad Jarrah flying in Florida in 2000. ]] (January 30, 2001) First National Security Council Meeting Focuses on Iraq, Not Terrorism complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_457 false 1 ------ The Bush White House holds its first National Security Council meeting. The lead discussion centers on the need to remove Saddam Hussein from power. US Secretary of Treasury Paul O'Neill, later recalling: &#8220;From the very beginning, there was a conviction, that Saddam Hussein was a bad person and that he needed to go ... From the very first instance, it was about Iraq. It was about what we can do to change this regime. Day one, these things were laid and sealed.&#8221; O'Neill will say officials never questioned the logic behind this policy. No one ever asked, &#8220;Why Saddam?&#8221; and &#8220;Why now?&#8221; Instead, the issue that needed to be resolved was how this could be accomplished. &#8220;It was all about finding a way to do it,&#8221; O'Neill will explain. &#8220;That was the tone of it. The president saying &#8216;Go find me a way to do this.&#8217; &#8221; (( Paul O'Neill )) [[ | CBS News, 1/10/04 ]] [[ | New York Times, 1/12/04 ]] [[,12271,1120959,00.html | Guardian, 1/12/04 ]] [[ | Vanity Fair, 5/04, pg 234 ]] ------ Another official who attends the meeting will later say that the tone of the meeting implied a policy much more aggressive than that of the previous administration. &#8220;The president told his Pentagon officials to explore the military options, including use of ground forces,&#8221; the official will tell ABC News. &#8220;That went beyond the Clinton administration's halfhearted attempts to overthrow Hussein without force.&#8221; (( Unnamed senior official of the Bush administration )) [[ | ABC News, 1/13/04 ]] ------ The council does more than just discuss Iraq. It makes a decision to allow the Iraqi National Congress (INC), an Iraqi opposition group, to use $4 million to fund efforts inside Iraq to compile information relating to Baghdad's war crimes, military operations, and other internal developments. The money had been authorized by Congress in late 2004. The US has not directly funded Iraqi opposition activities inside Iraq itself since 1996. [[,2763,432865,00.html | Guardian, 2/3/2005 ]] ------ After Paul O'Neill first provides his account of this meeting in 2004, the White House will attempt to downplay its significance. &#8220;... The stated policy of my administration toward Saddam Hussein was very clear,&#8221; Bush will tell reporters during a visit to Mexico In January 2004. &#8220;Like the previous administration, we were for regime change. ... And in the initial stages of the administration, as you might remember, we were dealing with desert badger or fly-overs and fly-betweens and looks, and so we were fashioning policy along those lines.&#8221; [[ | New York Times, 1/12/04 ]] ====== << pre911Plans >> << decision >> << DSM >> << iraq >> ((+ Richard B. Myers )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((- Iraqi National Congress )) ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ Colin Powell )) ((+ Paul O'Neill )) ((+ George Tenet )) Late January 2001 US Intelligence Told to Back Off from bin Laden and Saudis a0101backoff false 1 ------ The BBC later reports, &#8220;After the elections, [US intelligence] agencies [are] told to &#8216;back off&#8217; investigating the bin Ladens and Saudi royals, and that anger[s] agents.&#8221; This follows previous orders to abandon an investigation of bin Laden relatives in 1996 (see [[ a96wamy ]]), and difficulties in investigating Saudi royalty. [[ | BBC, 11/6/01 ]] ------ An unnamed &#8220;top-level CIA operative&#8221; says there is a &#8220;major policy shift&#8221; at the National Security Agency at this time. Bin Laden could still be investigated, but agents could not look too closely at how he got his money. One specific CIA investigation hampered by this new policy is an investigation in Pakistani nuclear scientist A. Q. Khan and his Khan Laboratories. Khan is considered the &#8220;father&#8221; of Pakistan's nuclear weapons capability. But since the funding for this nuclear program gets traced back to Saudi Arabia, restrictions are placed on the inquiry. [[ | Palast, 2002, pp 99-100 ]] ------ Presumably another investigation canceled is an investigation by the Chicago FBI into ties between Saudi multimillionaire Yassin al-Qadi and the US embassy bombings in August 1998 (see [[ a1098alqadi ]]), because during this month an FBI agent is told that the case is being closed and that &#8220;it's just better to let sleeping dogs lie.&#8221; Reporter Greg Palast notes that President Clinton was already hindering investigations by protecting Saudi interests. However, as he puts it, &#8220;Where Clinton said, &#8216;Go slow,&#8217; Bush policymakers said, &#8216;No go.&#8217; The difference is between closing one eye and closing them both.&#8221; [[ | Palast, 2002, pp 102 ]] ====== << saudis >> << binladenFamily >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- Yassin al-Qadi )) ((- Bin Laden Family )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- William Jefferson ("Bill") Clinton )) ((+ Abdul Qadeer Khan )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ National Security Agency )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) January 31, 2001 Bipartisan Commission Issues Final Report on Terrorism, but Conclusions Are Ignored a013101report false 1 ------ The final report of the US Commission on National Security/21st Century, co-chaired by former Senators Gary Hart (D) and Warren Rudman (R) is issued. The bipartisan report was put together in 1998 by then-President Bill Clinton and then-House Speaker Newt Gingrich. Hart and Rudman personally brief National Security Adviser Rice, Defense Secretary Rumsfeld, and Secretary of State Powell on their findings. The report has 50 recommendations on how to combat terrorism in the US, but all of them are ignored by the Bush administration. According to Senator Hart, Congress begins to take the commission's suggestions seriously in March and April, and legislation is introduced to implement some of the recommendations. Then, &#8220;Frankly, the White House shut it down... The president said &#8216;Please wait, We're going to turn this over to the vice president&#8217; ... and so Congress moved on to other things, like tax cuts and the issue of the day.&#8221; The White House announces in May that it will have Vice President Cheney study the potential problem of domestic terrorism despite the fact that this commission had just studied the issue for 2 1/2 years. Interestingly, both this commission and the Bush administration were already assuming a new cabinet level National Homeland Security Agency would be enacted eventually, even as the public remained unaware of the term and the concept. [[ | Salon, 9/12/01 ]] [[ | Salon, 4/2/04 ]] ------ Hart is incredulous that neither he nor any of the other members of this commission are ever asked to testify before the 9/11 Commission. [[ | Salon, 4/6/04 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Warren Rudman )) ((+ Gary Hart )) ((+ US Congress )) ((+ Colin Powell )) ((+ Commission on National Security/21st Century )) ((+ Bush administration )) ((+ Newt Gingrich )) ((+ Richard ("Dick") Cheney )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) ((+ 9/11 Commission )) [[ | Gary Hart (left) and Warren Rudman (right) testify before a Senate committee in 2002. ]] February 2001 Two Hijackers Seen Living in San Antonio with Swapped Identities a0201sanantonio false 1 ------ At least six people with no connections to one another later claim they recognize hijackers Satam Al Suqami and Salem Alhazmi living in San Antonio, Texas, until this month. The management of an apartment building says the two men abandoned their leases at about this time, and some apartment residents recognize them. However, all the witnesses say that Suqami was going by Alhazmi's name, and vice versa! [[;xlb=161&amp;xlc=342530 | KENS 5 Eyewitness News, 10/1/01 ]] ------ One pilot shop employee recognizes Alhazmi as a frequent visitor to the store and interested in a 757 or 767 handbook, though he also says Alhazmi used Suqami's name. [[;xlb=161&amp;xlc=348297 | KENS 5 Eyewitness News, 10/3/01 ]] ------ The apartment-leasing agent also recalls a Ziad Jarrah who once lived there in June 2001 and looked the same as the hijacker. [[ /timeline/2001/sanantonioexpressnews092201.html | San Antonio Express-News, 9/22/01 ]] [[ | Associated Press, 9/22/01 (B) ]] ------ Local FBI confirm that a Salem Alhazmi attended the nearby Alpha Tango Flight School and lived in that apartment building, but they say he is a different Salem Alhazmi who is still alive and living in Saudi Arabia. [[;xlb=161&amp;xlc=351772 | KENS 5 Eyewitness News, 10/4/01 ]] ------ However, that &#8220;Salem Alhazmi&#8221; says he has never been to the US and has proven to the authorities that he did not leave Saudi Arabia in the two years prior to 9/11. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A59320-2001Sep19&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 9/20/01 ]] ------ The FBI does not explain Satam Al Suqami's presence. Neither hijacker is supposed to have arrived in the US before April 2001. ====== << otherHijackers >> ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Salem Alhazmi )) ((+ Satam Al Suqami )) ((+ Ziad Jarrah )) ((+ Alpha Tango Flight School )) Early February 2001 Clarke Urges Cheney to Take Action Against al-Qaeda a0201clarkeurges false 1 ------ Counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; Richard Clarke briefs Vice President Cheney about the al-Qaeda threat. He urges decisive and quick action against al-Qaeda. Cheney soon visits CIA headquarters for more information about al-Qaeda. However, at later high-level meetings Cheney fails to bring up al-Qaeda as a priority issue. [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 227-30 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/time080402.html | Time, 8/4/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Richard ("Dick") Cheney )) ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) February 1, 2001 Rumsfeld Envisions Post-Saddam Iraq complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_458 false 1 ------ The Bush White House holds its second National Security Council meeting. Like the first meeting (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_457 ]]), the issue of regime change in Iraq is a central topic. [[ | CBS News, 1/10/04 ]] [[ | New York Times, 1/12/04 ]] ------ Officials discuss a memo titled &#8220;Plan for post-Saddam Iraq,&#8221; which talks about troop requirements, establishing war crimes tribunals, and divvying up Iraq's oil wealth. (( Paul O'Neill )) ------ Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld argues that by removing Saddam Hussein, the Bush administration would &#8220;demonstrate what US policy is all about.&#8221; It would also help transform the Middle East, he claims. According to Paul O'Neill, Rumsfeld talks at the meeting &#8220;in general terms about post-Saddam Iraq, dealing with the Kurds in the north, the oil fields, the reconstruction of the country's economy, and the &#8216;freeing of the Iraqi people.&#8217; &#8221; (( Paul O'Neill )) [[ | New York Times, 1/12/04 ]] ------ Other people, in addition to O'Neill, Bush, and Rumsfeld, who are likely in attendance include Vice President Dick Cheney, Secretary of State Colin Powell, National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice, Director of Central Intelligence George Tenet and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Richard B. Myers. (( National Security Presidential Directives&mdash;NSPD-1, 2/13/01] )) ====== << pre911Plans >> << preWarPlanning >> << decision >> << DSM >> << iraq >> ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((+ Colin Powell )) ((+ Paul O'Neill )) ((+ George Tenet )) ((+ Richard B. Myers )) ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) February-July 2001 Trial Presents FBI with Information About Pilot Training Scheme a0201trial false 1 ------ A trial is held in New York City for four defendants charged with involvement in the 1998 US African embassy bombings. All are ultimately convicted. Testimony reveals that two bin Laden operatives had received pilot training in Texas and Oklahoma and another had been asked to take lessons. One bin Laden aide becomes a government witness and gives the FBI detailed information about a pilot training scheme. This new information does not lead to any new FBI investigations into the matter. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A10840-2001Sep22 | Washington Post, 9/23/01 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((- al-Qaeda )) February 2001 US Fails to Back Plan to Overthrow Taliban a0201mcfarlane false 1 ------ Abdul Haq, a famous Afghan leader of the mujahedeen, convinces Robert McFarlane, National Security Adviser under President Ronald Reagan, that Haq and about 50 fellow commanders could lead a force to start a revolt against the Taliban in Southern Afghanistan. However, Haq wants to do this under the authority of Zahir Shah, the popular former king of Afghanistan, whom the US does not support. The CIA fails to give any support to Haq. Says one CIA official to McFarlane a few months later, &#8220;We don't yet have our marching orders concerning US policy; it may be that we will end up dealing with the Taliban.&#8221; Haq goes ahead with his plans without US support, and is killed in October (see [[ a102501haq ]]). [[,0,3294256.story | Los Angeles Times, 10/28/01 (B) ]] [[ | Wall Street Journal, 11/2/01 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((- Zahir Shah )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Robert C. McFarlane )) ((- Taliban )) ((+ Abdul Haq )) February 2001 Bush Administration Abandons Global Crackdown on Terrorist Funding a0201crackdown false 1 ------ According to Time magazine, &#8220;The US was all set to join a global crackdown on criminal and terrorist money havens [in early 2001]. Thirty industrial nations were ready to tighten the screws on offshore financial centers like Liechtenstein and Antigua, whose banks have the potential to hide and often help launder billions of dollars for drug cartels, global crime syndicates&#8212;and groups like Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda organization. Then the Bush administration took office.&#8221; [[ | Time, 10/15/01 ]] ------ After pressure from the powerful banking lobby, the Treasury Department under Paul O'Neill halts US cooperation with these international efforts begun in 2000 by the Clinton administration. Clinton had created a National Terrorist Asset Tracking Center in his last budget, but under O'Neill no funding for the center is provided and the tracking of terrorist financing slows down. [[ /timeline/2001/foreignaffairs0701.html | Foreign Affairs, 7/01 ]] [[ | Time, 10/15/01 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Bush administration )) ((- Clinton administration )) ((+ Paul O'Neill )) February 2001 Bin Laden's Sisters Seen Handing Money to al-Qaeda Member a0201sistersmoney false 1 ------ A former CIA anti-terrorism expert later claims that an allied intelligence agency sees &#8220;two of Osama's sisters apparently taking cash to an airport in Abu Dhabi [United Arab Emirates], where they are suspected of handing it to a member of bin Laden's al-Qaeda organization.&#8221; This is cited as one of many incidents showing an &#8220;interconnectedness&#8221; between bin Laden and the rest of his family. [[ | New Yorker, 11/5/01 ]] ====== << saudis >> << binladenFamily >> ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Bin Laden Family )) February 7, 2001 Tenet Warns Congress About bin Laden a020701tenetcongress false 1 ------ CIA Director Tenet warns Congress in open testimony that the &#8220;threat from terrorism is real, it is immediate, and it is evolving.&#8221; He says bin Laden and his global network remains &#8220;the most immediate and serious threat&#8221; to US interests. &#8220;Since 1998 bin Laden has declared that all US citizens are legitimate targets,&#8221; he says, adding that bin Laden &#8220;is capable of planning multiple attacks with little or no warning.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/ap020701.html | Associated Press, 2/7/01 ]] [[ | Sunday Herald, 9/23/01 ]] ====== << warnings >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ US Congress )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ George Tenet )) February 9, 2001 Bin Laden's Financial Network Laid Bare a020901laidbare false 1 ------ US officials claim significant progress in defeating bin Laden's financial network, despite significant difficulties. It is claimed that &#8220;bin Laden's financial and operational networks has been &#8216;completely mapped&#8217; in secret documents shared by the State Department, CIA, and Treasury Department, with much of the mapping completed in detail by mid-1997.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/upi020901.html | UPI, 2/9/01 ]] ------ Reporter Greg Palast later notes that when the US freezes the assets of terrorist organizations in late September 2001, US investigators likely knew much about the finances of those organizations but took no action before 9/11. [[;dept_id=367954&amp;newsid=7421029&amp;PAG=461&amp;rfi=9 | Santa Fe New Mexican, 3/20/03 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ US Department of the Treasury )) ((+ Greg Palast )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) February 13, 2001 NSA Breaks al-Qaeda's Secret Codes a021301broken false 1 ------ UPI, while covering a trial of bin Laden's al-Qaeda followers, reports that the NSA has broken bin Laden's encrypted communications. US officials confirm &#8220;codes were broken.&#8221; Presumably, this happened some time earlier and the codes have been changed by this time. [[ /timeline/2001/upi021301.html | UPI, 2/13/01 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ National Security Agency )) February 23-June 2001 Moussaoui Takes Lessons at Flight School Previously Used by al-Qaeda a022301moussaoui false 1 ------ Zacarias Moussaoui flies to the US. Three days later, he starts flight training at the Airman Flight School in Norman, Oklahoma. (Other Islamic extremists had previously trained at the same flight school or other schools in the area (see [[ a0999flightschool ]])). He trains there until May, but does not do well and drops out before getting a pilot's license. His visa expires on May 22, but he does not attempt to renew it or get another one. He stays in Norman, arranging to change flight schools, and frequently exercising in a gym. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry101702.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 10/17/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/msnbc121101.html | MSNBC, 12/11/01 ]] ------ According to US investigators, would-be hijacker Ramzi Bin al-Shibh later says he meets Moussaoui in Karachi (Pakistan) in June 2001. [[ | Washington Post, 11/20/02 ]] ====== << moussaoui >> ((+ Ramzi Bin al-Shibh )) ((+ Zacarias Moussaoui )) ((+ Airman Flight School )) February 26, 2001 Paul Bremer: Bush Administration Paying No Attention to Terrorism a022601bremercomment false 1 ------ Paul Bremer, who will be appointed the US administrator of Iraq in 2003, says in a speech that the Bush administration is &#8220;paying no attention&#8221; to terrorism. &#8220;What they will do is stagger along until there's a major incident and then suddenly say, &#8216;Oh my God, shouldn't we be organized to deal with this.&#8217; &#8221; Bremer speaks shortly after chairing the National Commission on Terrorism, a bipartisan body formed during the Clinton administration. [[ | Associated Press, 4/29/04 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- National Commission on Terrorism )) ((+ Paul Bremer )) ((- Bush administration )) ((- Clinton administration )) February 26, 2001 Osama Attends Son's Wedding with Other bin Laden Family Members a022601wedding false 1 ------ Bin Laden attends the wedding of his son Mohammed in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Although bin Laden is supposedly long estranged from his family, bin Laden's stepmother, two brothers, and sister are also said to attend, according to the only journalist who was invited. [[ | Reuters, 3/1/01 ]] [[ | Sunday Herald, 10/7/01 ]] ====== << saudis >> << binladenFamily >> ((+ Al-Khalifa bin Laden )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Mohammed bin Laden )) [[ | Mohammed bin Laden (center), the son of Osama bin Laden (right), marries the daughter of Mohammed Atef (left). ]] Late February 2001 Enron Influences Cheney's Energy Task Force to Help Troubled Dabhol Plant a0201enrondabhol false 1 ------ Vice President Cheney is holding a series of secret energy task force meetings to determine the Bush administration's future energy policy. Starting at this time, Enron leader Ken Lay and other Enron officials take part in a least half a dozen of these secret meetings. After one such meeting, Cheney's energy task force changes a draft energy proposal to include a provision boosting oil and natural gas production in India. The amendment is so narrow that it apparently is targeted to only help Enron's troubled Dabhol power plant in India. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A5322-2002Jan18&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 1/19/02 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> ((+ Enron )) ((+ Bush administration )) ((+ Kenneth Lay )) ((+ Richard ("Dick") Cheney )) Spring 2001 Ashcroft Doesn't Want FBI Director to Talk About Terrorism aspring01ashcroftpriorities false 1 ------ Attorney General John Ashcroft talks with FBI Director Louis Freeh before an annual meeting of special agents. Ashcroft lays out his priorities, which according to one participant is &#8220;basically violent crime and drugs.&#8221; Freeh bluntly replies that those are not his priorities and he talks about counterterrorism. &#8220;Ashcroft does not want to hear about it,&#8221; says one witness. [[ | Newsweek, 5/27/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Louis J. Freeh )) ((+ John Ashcroft )) March 2001 US and Taliban Discuss Handing over bin Laden a0301envoy false 1 ------ Taliban envoy Rahmatullah Hashimi meets with reporters, middle-ranking State Department bureaucrats, and private Afghanistan experts in Washington. He carries a gift carpet and a letter from Afghan leader Mullah Omar for President Bush. He discusses turning bin Laden over, but the US wants to be handed bin Laden and the Taliban want to turn him over to some third country. A CIA official later says, &#8220;We never heard what they were trying to say. We had no common language. Ours was, &#8216;Give up bin Laden.&#8217; They were saying, &#8216;Do something to help us give him up.&#8217; ... I have no doubts they wanted to get rid of him. He was a pain in the neck.&#8221; Others claim the Taliban were never sincere. About 20 more meetings on giving up bin Laden take place up until 9/11, all fruitless. [[ /timeline/2001/wpost102901.html | Washington Post, 10/29/01 ]] ------ Allegedly, Hashimi also proposes that the Taliban would hold bin Laden in one location long enough for the US to locate and kill him. However, this offer is refused. This report, however, comes from Laila Helms, daughter of former CIA director Richard Helms. While it's interesting that this information came out before 9/11, one must be skeptical, since Helms' job was public relations for the Taliban. [[ | Village Voice, 6/6/01 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ Rahmatullah Hashimi )) ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ Laila Helms )) ((+ Mullah Omar )) ((+ Taliban )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) March 2001 Bin Laden Targets Passenger Planes at Chicago Airport a0301chicagoairport false 1 ------ 9/11 Commissioner Bob Kerrey mentions in a public hearing, &#8220;In March 2001, another CSG [Counterterrorism Security Group] item on the agenda mentions the possibility of alleged bin Laden interests in &#8216;targeting US passenger planes at the Chicago airport,&#8217; end of quote.&#8221; [[ | 9/11 Commission, 3/24/04 ]] ------ No newspaper has ever mentioned this warning, which presumably remained classified aside from this one accidental mention by Kerrey. ====== << warnings >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Bob Kerrey )) March 2001 Al-Qaeda to Attack Inside the US in April a0301unspecified false 1 ------ An intelligence source claims that a group of al-Qaeda operatives is planning to conduct an unspecified attack inside the US in April. One of the operatives allegedly resides in the US. There are also reports of planned attacks in California and New York State for the same month, though whether this is reference to the same plot is unclear. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- al-Qaeda )) March 2001 Italians Advise US About al-Qaeda Wiretaps a0301italywiretaps false 1 ------ The Italian government gives the US information about possible attacks based on apartment wiretaps in the Italian city of Milan. [[,2933,53065,00.html | Fox News, 5/17/02 ]] ------ Presumably, the information includes a discussion between two al-Qaeda agents talking about a &#8220;very, very secret&#8221; plan to forge documents &#8220;for the brothers who are going to the United States&#8221; (see [[ a081200italy ]]). The warning may also have mentioned a wiretap the previous August involving one of the same people that discussed a massive strike against the enemies of Islam involving aircraft (see [[ a012401italy ]]). Two months later, wiretaps of the same Milan cell will also reveal a plot to attack a summit of world leaders. ====== << warnings >> << foreignIntelligence >> ((- al-Qaeda )) March 2001 Hijackers Pledge Martyrdom in Videos a0301confessions false 1 ------ Supposedly, all 13 of the &#8220;muscle&#8221; hijackers record a farewell video before leaving training in Kandahar, Afghanistan, around this time. [[ | CBS News, 10/9/02 ]] ------ Several have been released. A video of Ahmed Alhaznawi is shown by the Al Jazeera television network in April 2002. In it, he pledges to give his life to &#8220;martyrdom&#8221; and swears to send a &#8220;bloodied message&#8221; to Americans by attacking them in their &#8220;heartland.&#8221; [[,3604,685102,00.html | Guardian, 4/16/02 ]] ------ In September 2002, Al Jazeera shows a similar farewell video of Abdulaziz Alomari made around the same time. [[ /timeline/2002/ap090902.html | Associated Press, 9/9/02 ]] ------ Alomari states, &#8220;I am writing this with my full conscience and I am writing this in expectation of the end, which is near ... God praise everybody who trained and helped me, namely the leader Sheik Osama bin Laden.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/wpost091102.html | Washington Post, 9/11/02 ]] ------ Al Jazeera also shows Ahmed Alnami, Hamza Alghamdi, Saeed Alghamdi, and Wail Alshehri in Kandahar studying maps and flight manuals. [[ /timeline/2002/financialtimes091102.html | Financial Times, 9/11/02 ]] ====== << otherHijackers >> ((+ Mohand Alshehri )) ((+ Ahmed Alghamdi )) ((+ Hamza Alghamdi )) ((+ Ahmed Alnami )) ((+ Wail Alshehri )) ((+ Majed Moqed )) ((+ Ahmed Alhaznawi )) ((+ Fayez Ahmed Banihammad )) ((+ Waleed M. Alshehri )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Satam Al Suqami )) ((+ Saeed Alghamdi )) ((+ Abdulaziz Alomari )) ((+ Salem Alhazmi )) [[ | A still of Ahmed Alhaznawi from the Al Jazeera video. The WTC was digitally inserted in the video background later. ]] Spring 2001 US Customs Investigate Two Hijackers Before 9/11 aspring00customsinvestigate false 1 ------ A US Customs Service investigation finds evidence that Nabil al-Marabh has funneled money to hijackers Ahmed Alghamdi and Satam Al Suqami. [[ /timeline/2001/coxnews101601.html | Cox News Service, 10/16/01 ]] [[ | ABC News, 1/31/02 ]] ------ By summer, Customs also uncovers a series of financial transactions between al-Marabh and al-Qaeda agent Raed Hijazi. [[ | New York Times, 9/21/01 ]] [[ | Associated Press, 11/17/01 ]] ------ An individual matching al-Marabh's description is even mentioned in a prominent New York Times story about al-Qaeda in January 2001. The article states, &#8220;In early 1997, [Raed] Hijazi moved to Boston, where he had a friend from his years in Afghanistan.&#8221; [[ | New York Times, 1/15/01 ]] ====== << al-Marabh >> ((+ Ahmed Alghamdi )) ((+ Nabil al-Marabh )) ((+ Raed Hijazi )) ((+ US Customs Service )) ((+ Satam Al Suqami )) March 1, 2001 Taliban Blow Up Giant Buddha Statues, Disregard International Opinion a030101buddhas false 1 ------ The Taliban begins blowing up two giant stone Buddhas of Bamiyan (ancient statues carved into an Afghan mountainside, which are considered priceless treasures). They face great international condemnation in response, but no longer seem to be courting international recognition. Apparently, even ISI efforts to dissuade them fail. [[ /timeline/2002/time080402.html | Time, 8/4/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/time080402.html | Time, 8/4/02 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> << pipelinePolitics >> ((+ Taliban )) March-May 2001 FAA Briefs Airports on Security; They Cite, Then Dismiss Possibility of Planes as Weapons a0301faabriefing false 1 ------ A series of top-secret security briefings are given to airport officials at the top 19 airports in the US. The airports warned include those at Boston, Washington, and Newark, which are eventually used by the hijackers. A 9/11 Commission Report on this later notes, &#8220;The briefings highlight the threat posed by terrorists in general and bin Laden in particular, including his threats against aviation. The renewed interest in hijacking by terrorist groups [is] also covered.&#8221; The briefings note that if &#8220;the intent of the hijacker is not to exchange hostages for prisoners, but to commit suicide in a spectacular explosion, a domestic hijacking would probably be preferable.&#8221; But they also note that such a hijacking would be harder to carry out. Around the same time, the FAA distributes an unclassified CD-ROM presentation to airlines and airports. &#8220;The presentation cite[s] the possibility that terrorists might conduct suicide hijackings but state[s]: &#8216;Fortunately, we have no indication that any group is currently thinking in that direction.&#8217; &#8221; This briefing and presentation doesn't lead to any upgrade in security or improved passenger screening at the airports. Apparently, the information isn't widely shared with pilots, flight attendants, passenger screeners, and the like, and it doesn't lead to any specific FAA advisories or actions. [[ | New York Times, 2/10/05 ]] [[,0,584001.story | Newsday, 2/11/05 ]] [[ | New Jersey Star-Ledger, 2/11/05 ]] ------ For instance, Dave Machett, a pilot who is president of the grassroots organization Airline Pilots Security Alliance, says that &#8220;Not one word&#8221; reached the pilots. &#8220;The flight crews were kept completely in the dark about this growing threat.&#8221; [[,0,584001.story | Newsday, 2/11/05 ]] ------ 9/11 Commissioner Tim Roemer comments, &#8220;The FAA deserves to be raked over the coals for ignoring the warnings and being more concerned about reducing air traffic congestion than dealing with possible terrorist attacks.&#8221; [[ | New Jersey Star-Ledger, 2/11/05 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- Tim Roemer )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Federal Aviation Administration )) March 2001 Hijackers Continue to Associate with Suspicious Imam a0301aulaqi false 1 ------ After living together in Phoenix since December 2000, hijackers Hani Hanjour and Nawaf Alhazmi move to Falls Church, Virginia. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommission012604.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 1/26/04 ]] [[;node=&amp;contentId=A59403-2002Sep9&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 9/10/02 (B) ]] ------ They live only a few blocks from where two nephews of bin Laden with ties to terrorism go to work. They continue to live there off and on until around August. They begin attending the Dar al Hijrah mosque. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A59403-2002Sep9&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 9/10/02 (B) ]] ------ When they and Khalid Almihdhar lived in San Diego in early 2000, they attended a mosque there led by the imam Anwar Al Aulaqi. This imam moved to Falls Church in January 2001, and now the hijackers attend his sermons at the Dar al Hijrah mosque. Some later suspect that Aulaqi is part of the 9/11 plot because of their similar moves, and other reasons: --- * --- The FBI says Aulaqi had closed door meetings with hijackers Nawaf Alhazmi and Khalid Almihdhar in 2000 while all three of them were living in San Diego. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] --- * --- Police later find the phone number of Aulaqi's mosque when they search &#8220;would-be twentieth hijacker&#8221; Ramzi Bin al-Shibh's apartment in Germany. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] --- * --- The FBI was investigating Aulaqi for ties to Islamic militant groups in early 2000. --- * --- A neighbor of Aulaqi later claims that, in the first week of August 2001, Aulaqi knocks on his door and tells him he is leaving for Kuwait: &#8220;He came over before he left and told me that something very big was going to happen, and that he had to be out of the country when it happened.&#8221; [[ | Newsweek, 7/28/03 ]] --- * --- Aulaqi is apparently in the country in late September 2001, and claims not to recognize any of the hijackers. [[ | Copley News, 10/1/01 ]] --- * --- A week after 9/11, Aulaqi says the hijackers were framed, and suggests Israel was behind 9/11. [[ | Washington Post, 7/23/03 ]] --- * --- Aulaqi leaves the US in early 2002. [[ /timeline/2003/time081103 | Time, 8/11/03 ]] --- * --- In December 2002, Aulaqi briefly returns and is temporarily detained as part of the Green Quest money laundering investigation. However, he is let go. [[ | World Net Daily, 8/16/03 ]] ------ By late 2003, the US is looking for him in Yemen. [[ | New Republic, 8/21/03 ]] ------ The FBI appears to be divided about him, with some thinking he is part of the 9/11 plot and some disagreeing [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] [[ /timeline/2003/time081103 | Time, 8/11/03 ]] ------ The 9/11 Commission later reports that Aulaqi gave substantial help to the two hijackers, that his relationship with them is &#8220;suspicious,&#8221; and it cannot be discounted that he knew of the plot in advance. [[;slug=Attacks%20Hijackers%20Helpers | Associated Press, 6/27/04 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> << haniHanjour >> ((- 9/11 Commission )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- Anwar Al Aulaqi )) ((+ William Safire )) ((- 9/11 Congressional Inquiry )) ((- Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((- Germany )) ((+ Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((- Ramzi Bin al-Shibh )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) [[ | Dar al Hijrah mosque. ]] March 2001 Cheney's Energy Task Force Eyes Iraq's Oil Reserves complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_460 false 1 ------ Cheney's Energy Task Force authors a variety of documents relating to the oil industries of Iraq, United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia. [[ | Judicial Watch, 7/17/03 ]] [[ | CBS News, 1/10/04 ]] [[ | New York Times, 1/12/04 ]] --- Foreign Suitors for Iraqi Oilfield contracts --- This document, dated March 5, 2001, includes a table listing 30 countries which have interests in Iraq's oil industry. The document also includes the names of companies that have interests, the oil fields with which those interests are associated, as well as the statuses of those interests. (( Iraq Oil Foreign Suitors, page 1 )) (( Iraq Oil Foreign Suitors, page 2 )) --- Map of Iraq's oil fields --- The map includes markings for &#8220;supergiant&#8221; oil fields of 5 billion barrels or more, other oilfields, fields &#8220;earmarked for production sharing,&#8221; oil pipelines, operational refineries, and tanker terminals. (( Iraq Oil Map )) --- Other documents --- Other documents include oil field maps and project tables for both Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (( UAE Oil Project Table )) (( Saudia Arabia Oil Map )) (( Saudi Arabia Oil Project Table )) (( UAE Oil Map )) ====== << decision >> << pre911Plans >> << motivesBehindWar >> << iraq >> ((+ Richard ("Dick") Cheney )) March 4, 2001 Television Show Eerily Envisions 9/11 Attacks a030401fox false 1 ------ Contradicting the later claim that no one could have envisioned the 9/11 attacks, a short-lived Fox television program called The Lone Gunmen airs a pilot episode in which militants try to fly an airplane into the WTC. The heroes save the day and the airplane narrowly misses the building. There are no hijackers on board the aircraft; they use remote control technology to steer the plane. Ratings are good for the show, yet the eerie coincidence is barely mentioned after 9/11. Says one media columnist, &#8220;This seems to be collective amnesia of the highest order.&#8221; [[;wid=100499665&amp;so=&amp;xr=/category/preview.jhtml%3Fcid%3D1152169 | TV Guide, 6/21/02 ]] ------ In the show, the heroes also determine: &#8220;The terrorist group responsible was actually a faction of our own government. These malefactors were seeking to stimulate arms manufacturing in the lean years following the end of the Cold War by bringing down a plane in New York City and fomenting fears of terrorism.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/myersreport062002.html | Myers Report, 6/20/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- World Trade Center )) [[ | An advertisement for the Lone Gunman show. ]] March 7, 2001 Russia Submits Report on bin Laden to UN Security Council, US Fails to Act a030701russian false 1 ------ The Russian Permanent Mission at the United Nations secretly submits &#8220;an unprecedentedly detailed report&#8221; to the UN Security Council about bin Laden, his whereabouts, details of his al-Qaeda network, Afghan drug running, and Taliban connections in Pakistan. The report provides &#8220;a listing of all bin Laden's bases, his government contacts and foreign advisers,&#8221; and enough information to potentially locate and kill him. The US fails to act. Alex Standish, the editor of the highly respected Jane's Intelligence Review, concludes that the attacks of 9/11 were less of an American intelligence failure than the result of &#8220;a political decision not to act against bin Laden.&#8221; [[ | Jane's Intelligence Review, 10/5/01 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ United Nations )) ((+ Russia )) ((- al-Qaeda )) March 7, 2001 Plan to Fight al-Qaeda Considered, but with Little Urgency a030701planconsidered false 1 ------ Deputy National Security Adviser Steve Hadley chairs an informal meeting of some counterparts from other agencies to discuss al-Qaeda. They begin a broad review of the government's approach to al-Qaeda and Afghanistan. According to the New York Times, the approach is &#8220;two-pronged and included a crisis warning effort to deal with immediate threats and longer-range planning by senior officials to put into place a comprehensive strategy to eradicate al-Qaeda.&#8221; Counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; Richard Clarke again pushes for immediate decisions on assisting Ahmed Shah Massoud and his Northern Alliance in Afghanistan. Hadley suggests dealing with this as part of the broad review. Clarke supports a larger program, but he warns that delay risks the Alliance's defeat. Clarke also advocates using the armed Predator drone. However, despite an increasing number of alarming warnings following this meeting, there is little follow-up. &#8220;By June, a draft of a presidential directive authorizing an ambitious covert action plan is circulating through the upper echelons of the administration, but there seem[s] little urgency about putting the plan into effect.&#8221; [[ | New York Times, 4/4/04 ]] [[ | New York Times, 3/24/04 (D) ]] [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommission032404.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 ]] [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404d.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (D) ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ Stephen Hadley )) ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) ((- Ahmed Shah Massoud )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Northern Alliance )) March 8, 2001 US Declines to Freeze al-Qaeda's Assets Despite Call from UN and EU a030801unlist false 1 ------ The United Nations and the European Union direct their members to freeze the assets of some al-Qaeda leaders, including Sa'd Al-Sharif, bin Laden's brother-in-law and the head of his finances, but the US does not do so until after 9/11. [[ /timeline/2001/guardian101301b.html | Guardian, 10/13/01 (B) ]] ------ For a time, the US claims that Sa'd Al-Sharif helped fund the 9/11 attacks, but the situation is highly confused and his role is doubtful (see [[ a092401manyfinancers ]]). ====== << huntForBinLaden >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ European Union )) ((+ United Nations )) ((+ Sa'd Al-Sharif )) Mid-March 2001 March 15, 2001 Hijackers Meet with ID Forger a0301fairfield false 1 ------ Hijackers Ahmed Alghamdi, Majed Moqed, Hani Hanjour, and Nawaf Alhazmi stay for four days in the Fairfield Motor Inn, Fairfield, Connecticut. They meet with Eyad M. Alrababah, a Jordanian living in Bridgeport, who has been charged with providing false identification to at least 50 illegal aliens. This meeting takes place about six weeks before the FBI says Moqed and Alghamdi enter the US. [[ /timeline/2002/ap030602.html | Associated Press, 3/6/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry092602.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/26/02 ]] ====== << otherHijackers >> << haniHanjour >> ((+ Eyad M. Alrababah )) ((+ Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((+ Ahmed Alghamdi )) ((+ William Safire )) ((+ Majed Moqed )) March 15, 2001 India, Iran, Russia, and US Work in Concert to Remove Taliban a031501janes false 1 ------ Jane's Intelligence Review reports that the US is working with India, Iran, and Russia &#8220;in a concerted front against Afghanistan's Taliban regime.&#8221; India is supplying the Northern Alliance with military equipment, advisers, and helicopter technicians and both India and Russia are using bases in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan for their operation. [[ | Jane's Intelligence Review, 3/15/01 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ Iran )) ((+ Uzbekistan )) ((+ India )) ((+ Northern Alliance )) ((+ Tajikistan )) ((+ Russia )) ((+ Taliban )) March 23, 2001 DEA Issues Alert to Look Out for Israeli Spies a032301deaalert false 1 ------ The Office of National Drug Control Policy issues a National Security Alert describing &#8220;apparent attempts by Israeli nationals to learn about government personnel and office layouts.&#8221; This later becomes known through a leaked DEA document called &#8220;Suspicious Activities Involving Israeli Art Students at DEA Facilities.&#8221; A crackdown ensues and by June, around 120 Israelis are apprehended. More are apprehended later. [[ /timeline/2001/dea0601.html | DEA report, 6/01 ]] ====== << israel >> ((+ Office of National Drug Control Policy )) ((+ "Israeli art students" )) March 26, 2001 CIA Benefits from Major Software Improvements a032601improvements false 1 ------ The Washington Post reports on major improvements of the CIA's intelligence gathering capability &#8220;in recent years.&#8221; A new program called Oasis uses &#8220;automated speech recognition&#8221; technology to turn audio feeds into formatted, searchable text. It can distinguish one voice from another and differentiates &#8220;speaker 1&#8221; from &#8220;speaker 2&#8221; in transcripts. Software called Fluent performs &#8220;cross lingual&#8221; searches, translates difficult languages like Chinese and Japanese (apparently such software is much better than similar publicly available software), and even automatically assesses the contextual importance. Other new software can turn a suspect's &#8220;life story into a three-dimensional diagram of linked phone calls, bank deposits and plane trips,&#8221; while still other software can efficiently and quickly process vast amounts of video, audio, and written data. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A57318-2001Mar25&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 3/26/01 ]] ------ However, the government will later report that a number of messages about the 9/11 attacks, such as one stating &#8220;tomorrow is the zero hour,&#8221; are not translated until after 9/11 because analysts were &#8220;too swamped.&#8221; [[ | ABC News, 6/7/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Fluent )) ((+ Oasis )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) April 1, 2001-September 10, 2001 Nearly Half of FAA's Daily Intelligence Summaries Mention bin Laden or Al-Qaeda; No Action is Taken a040101faasummaries false 1 ------ In 2005 (see [[ a021005faareport ]]), it will be revealed that of the FAA's 105 daily intelligence summaries between these dates, 52 mention bin Laden, al-Qaeda, or both. Most of the mentions are &#8220;in regard to overseas threats.&#8221; None of the warnings specifically predict something similar to the 9/11 attacks, but five of them mention al-Qaeda's training for hijackings and two reports concern suicide operations unconnected to aviation. [[ | Associated Press, 2/11/05 ]] ------ One of the warnings mentions air defense measures being taken in Genoa, Italy, for the July 2001 G-8 summit to protect from a possible air attack by terrorists<ref key=" a072001summit"/>. However, the New Jersey Star-Ledger is virtually the only newspaper in the US to report this fact. [[ | New Jersey Star-Ledger, 2/11/05 ]] ------ Despite all these warnings, the FAA fails to take any extra security measures. They do not expand the use of in-flight air marshals or tighten airport screening for weapons. A proposed rule to improve passenger screening and other security measures ordered by Congress in 1996 has held up and is still not in effect by 9/11. The 9/11 Commission's report on these FAA warnings released in 2005 (see [[ a021005faareport ]]) will conclude that FAA officials were more concerned with reducing airline congestion, lessening delays, and easing air carriers' financial problems than preventing a hijacking. [[ | Associated Press, 2/11/05 ]] ------ The FAA also makes no effort to expand its list of terror suspects, which includes only a dozen names by 9/11<ref key="042400domesticnofly"/>. The former head of the FAA's civil aviation security branch later says he wasn't even aware of TIPOFF, the government's main watch list, which included the names of two 9/11 hijackers before 9/11. Nor is there any evidence that a senior FAA working group responsible for security ever meets in 2001 to discuss &#8220;the high threat period that summer.&#8221; [[ | New York Times, 2/10/05 ]] ====== << warnings >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Federal Aviation Administration )) ((- US Congress )) April 2001 FBI Translators Point to Explicit Warning from Afghanistan a0401fbitranslators false 1 ------ FBI translators Sibel Edmonds and Behrooz Sarshar will later claim to know of an important warning given to the FBI at this time. In their accounts, a reliable informant on the FBI's payroll for at least ten years tells two FBI agents that sources in Afghanistan have heard of an al-Qaeda plot to attack the US and Europe in a suicide mission involving airplanes. Al-Qaeda agents, already in place inside the US, are being trained as pilots. By some accounts, the names of prominent US cities are mentioned. It is unclear if this warning reaches FBI headquarters or beyond. The two translators later privately testify to the 9/11 Commission. [[ | World Net Daily, 4/6/04 ]] [[ | Village Voice, 4/14/04 ]] [[ | Salon, 3/26/04 ]] ------ Sarshar's notes of the interview indicate that the informant claimed his information came from Iran, Afghanistan, and Hamburg, Germany (the location of the primary 9/11 al-Qaeda cell). However, anonymous FBI officials claim the warning was very vague and doubtful. [[ /timeline/2004/chicagotribune072104.html | Chicago Tribune, 7/21/04 ]] ------ In reference to this warning and apparently others, Edmonds says, &#8220;President Bush said they had no specific information about September 11, and that's accurate. However, there was specific information about use of airplanes, that an attack was on the way two or three months beforehand, and that several people were already in the country by May of 2001. They should've alerted the people to the threat we were facing.&#8221; [[ | Salon, 3/26/04 ]] ------ She adds: &#8220;There was general information about the time-frame, about methods to be used but not specifically about how they would be used and about people being in place and who was ordering these sorts of terror attacks. There were other cities that were mentioned. Major cities with skyscrapers.&#8221; [[ | Independent, 4/2/04 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Behrooz Sarshar )) ((- George W. Bush )) ((- 9/11 Congressional Inquiry )) ((+ Sibel Edmonds )) April-May 2001 Bush, Cheney Receive Numerous al-Qaeda Warnings a0401multipleoperations false 1 ------ President George W. Bush, Vice President Dick Cheney, and national security aides are given briefing papers headlined, &#8220;Bin Laden Planning Multiple Operations,&#8221; &#8220;Bin Laden Public Profile May Presage Attack,&#8221; and &#8220;Bin Laden Network's Plans Advancing.&#8221; The exact contents of these briefings remain classified, but apparently, none specifically mentions a domestic US attack. [[ | New York Times, 4/18/04 ]] ====== << warnings >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ Richard ("Dick") Cheney )) April 2001 Wolfowitz Claims that Iraq is Involved in Terrorism complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_494 false 1 ------ During a National Security Council deputy principals meeting, Paul Wolfowitz is challenged by White House counterterrorism advisor Richard Clarke after asserting that Iraq is involved in terrorism. Recalling the meeting, Clarke tells The Guardian in a March 2004 interview: &#8220;April was an initial discussion of terrorism policy writ large and at that meeting I said we had to talk about al-Qaeda. And because it was terrorism policy writ large [Paul] Wolfowitz said we have to talk about Iraqi terrorism and I said that's interesting because there hasn't been any Iraqi terrorism against the United States. There hasn't been any for 8 years. And he said something derisive about how I shouldn't believe the CIA and FBI, that they've been wrong. And I said if you know more than I know tell me what it is, because I've been doing this for 8 years and I don't know about any Iraqi-sponsored terrorism against the US since 1993. When I said let's start talking about bin Laden, he said bin Laden couldn't possibly have attacked the World Trade Center in '93. One little terrorist group like that couldn't possibly have staged that operation. It must have been Iraq.&#8221; [[,11209,1175817,00.html | The Guardian, 3/23/04 ]] ====== << decision >> << terroristTies >> << iraq >> ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) April 1, 2001 Hijacker Gets Speeding Ticket, but His Illegal Status Is Not Noticed a040101ticket false 1 ------ Hijacker Nawaf Alhazmi is stopped by an Oklahoma police officer for speeding. His license information is run through a computer to determine whether there are any warrants for his arrest. There are none, so he is issued a ticket and sent on his way. The CIA has known that Alhazmi is an al-Qaeda operative possibly living in the US since March 2000, but has failed to share this knowledge with other agencies. [[ /timeline/2002/dailyoklahoman012002.html | Daily Oklahoman, 1/20/02 ]] [[ | Newsweek, 6/2/02 ]] ------ He also has been in the country illegally since January 2001, but this also does not raise any flags. [[ /timeline/2002/senatecommittee092002.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/20/02 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((- Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Nawaf Alhazmi )) April 2001 Speculation That Commercial Pilots Could Be Al-Qaeda Operatives a0401traumatic false 1 ------ A source with al-Qaeda connections speculates to US intelligence that &#8220;bin Laden would be interested in commercial pilots as potential terrorists.&#8221; The source warns that the US should not focus only on embassy bombings, because al-Qaeda is seeking &#8220;spectacular and traumatic&#8221; attacks along the lines of the WTC bombing in 1993. Because the source was offering personal speculation and not hard information, the information is not disseminated widely. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] [[ | New York Times, 9/18/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- World Trade Center )) April 4, 2001 Bugging Techniques Reach New Heights a040401echelon false 1 ------ The BBC reports on advances in electronic surveillance. The US's global surveillance program, Echelon, has become particularly effective in monitoring mobile phones, recording millions of calls simultaneously and checking them against a powerful search engine designed to pick out key words that might represent a security threat. Laser microphones can pick up conversations from up to a kilometer away by monitoring window vibrations. If a bug is attached to a computer keyboard, it is possible to monitor exactly what is being keyed in, because every key on a computer has a unique sound when depressed. [[ | BBC, 4/4/01 ]] ------ Furthermore, a BBC report on a European Union committee investigation into Echelon one month later notes that the surveillance network can sift through up to 90% of all Internet traffic, as well as monitor phone conversations, mobile phone calls, fax transmissions, net browsing history, satellite transmissions and so on. Even encryption may not help much. The BBC suggests that &#8220;it is likely that the intelligence agencies can crack open most commercially available encryption software.&#8221; [[ | BBC, 5/29/01 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Eiffel Tower )) April 6, 2001 Rebel Leader Warns Europe and US About Imminent Al-Qaeda Attacks a040601massoudspeech false 1 ------ Ahmed Shah Massoud, leader of the Northern Alliance fighting the Taliban in Afghanistan, has been trying to get aid from the US but his people are only allowed to meet with low level US officials. In an attempt to get his message across, he addresses the European Parliament: &#8220;If President Bush doesn't help us, these terrorists will damage the US and Europe very soon.&#8221; [[ | Dawn, 4/7/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/time080402.html | Time, 8/4/02 ]] ------ Massoud also meets privately with some CIA officials while in Europe. He tells them that his guerrilla war against the Taliban is faltering and unless the US gives a significant amount of aid, the Taliban will conquer all of Afghanistan. No more aid is forthcoming. [[ | Washington Post, 2/23/04 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ Ahmed Shah Massoud )) ((- Taliban )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- George W. Bush )) ((- Northern Alliance )) [[ | Ahmed Shah Massoud speaking before European Parliament. ]] April 8, 2001 Czech Intelligence Informant Claims Atta Met Iraqi Agent in Prague complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_163 false 1 ------ An informant for the BIS, the Czech intelligence agency, reportedly sees Iraqi diplomat Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani meeting in a restaurant outside Prague with an Arab man in his 20s. This draws concern from the intelligence community because the informant suggests the person is &#8220;a visiting &#8216;student&#8217; from Hamburg&#8212;and ... potentially dangerous.&#8221; (( Jan Kavan )) [[ | Slate, 11/19/03 ]] ------ The young man is never positively identified or seen again. Fearing that al-Ani may have been attempting to recruit the young man for a mission to blow-up Radio Free Europe headquarters, the diplomat is told to leave the country on April 18. (( Unnamed US officials )) (( Jan Kavan )) [[ | Slate, 11/19/03 ]] [[ | New York Times, 10/27/01 ]] [[ | UPI, 10/21/02 ]] ------ Information about the incident is passed on to US intelligence. After the 9/11 attacks and after it is reported on the news that Atta had likely visited Prague, the BIS informant will say the young man at the restaurant was Atta. (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_165 ]]) This information leads hawks to come up with the so-called &#8220;Prague Connection&#8221; theory, which will hold that 9/11 plotter Mohammed Atta flew to Prague on April 8, met with al-Ani to discuss the planning and financing of the 9/11 attacks, and returned to the US on either April 9 or 10. (( Unnamed BIS informant )) (( Jan Kavan )) (( Unnamed US officials )) [[ | Slate, 11/19/03 ]] [[ | New York Times, 10/27/01 ]] [[ | UPI, 10/21/02 ]] ------ The theory will be widely discounted by October 2002. (( Unnamed US officials )) (( Unnamed BIS informant )) [[ | New York Times, 10/21/02 ]] ====== << pragueConnection >> << terroristTies >> << iraq >> ((+ Jabir Salim )) ((- Radio Free Europe )) ((+ Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim Samir al-Ani )) ((- Mohamed Atta )) April 12-September 7, 2001 Hijackers Collect Multiple Drivers' License Copies a041201license false 1 ------ At least six hijackers get more than one Florida driver's license. They get the second license simply by filling out change of address forms: --- * --- Waleed Alshehri&#8212;first license May 4, duplicate May 5; --- * --- Marwan Alshehhi&#8212;first license, April 12, duplicate in June; --- * --- Ziad Jarrah&#8212;first license May 2, duplicate July 10; --- * --- Ahmed Alhaznawi&#8212;first license July 10, duplicate September 7; --- * --- Hamza Alghamdi&#8212;first license June 27, two duplicates, the second in August; and --- * --- &#8220;A sixth man&#8221; with a Florida duplicate is not named. [[ | South Florida Sun-Sentinel, 9/28/01 ]] ------ Additionally, some hijackers obtained licenses from multiple states. For instance, Nawaf Alhazmi had licenses from California, New York, and Florida at the same time, apparently all in the same name. [[ | South Florida Sun-Sentinel, 9/28/01 ]] [[ | Newsday, 9/21/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/dailyoklahoman012002.html | Daily Oklahoman, 1/20/02 ]] [[ | South Florida Sun-Sentinel, 9/28/01 ]] ====== << otherHijackers >> << marwanAlshehhi >> << mohamedAtta >> ((+ Hamza Alghamdi )) ((+ Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((+ Ahmed Alhaznawi )) ((+ Ziad Jarrah )) ((+ Marwan Alshehhi )) ((+ Waleed M. Alshehri )) [[ | The most famous image of Mohamed Atta came from his Florida driver's license. ]] April 12, 2001 Report on Energy Security Argues US Needs to Review Policy on Iraq complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_77 false 1 ------ A report commissioned by former US Secretary of State James Baker and the Council on Foreign Relations, titled &#8220;Strategic Energy Policy Challenges For The 21st Century,&#8221; is completed and submitted to Vice President Dick Cheney. The report was drafted by the James A.Baker III Institute for Public Policy. Edward L. Morse, an energy industry analyst, chaired the project, and Amy Myers Jaffe was the project's director. The paper urges the US to formulate a comprehensive, integrated strategic energy policy to address the current energy crisis, which it attributes to infrastructural restraints, rapid global economic expansion, and the presence of obstacles to foreign investment in the oil-rich Middle East. The report says the world's supply of oil is not a factor in the crisis. &#8220;The reasons for the energy challenge have nothing to do with the global hydrocarbon resource base. ... The world will not run short of hydrocarbons in the foreseeable future,&#8221; the paper insists. One of the report's recommendations is to &#8220;[r]eview policies toward Iraq&#8221; with the ultimate goal of &#8220;eas[ing] Iraqi oil-field investment restrictions.&#8221; Iraq, under the leadership of Saddam Hussein remains a &#8220;destabilizing influence ... to the flow of oil to international markets from the Middle East.&#8221; It also notes, &#8220;Saddam Hussein has also demonstrated a willingness to threaten to use the oil weapon and to use his own export program to manipulate oil markets.&#8221; Therefore, the report says, the &#8220;United States should conduct an immediate policy review toward Iraq, including military, energy, economic, and political/diplomatic assessments.&#8221; (( Strategic Energy Policy Challenges For The 21st Century )) [[ | Sunday Herald, 10/05/02 ]] [[ | Sydney Morning Herald, 12/26/02 ]] ====== << motivesBehindWar >> << pre911Plans >> << decision >> << DSM >> << iraq >> ((+ James Baker )) ((+ Edward L. Morse )) ((+ Council on Foreign Relations )) ((+ Richard ("Dick") Cheney )) ((+ James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy of Rice University )) ((+ Amy Myers Jaffe )) {{ excerpt_strategic_energy_policy_challenges_for_the_21st_century_2 }} {{ excerpt_strategic_energy_policy_challenges_for_the_21st_century_4 }} {{ excerpt_strategic_energy_policy_challenges_for_the_21st_century_3 }} April 17-26, 2001 Joint Chiefs of Staff Holds Exercise for Continuity of Government if US is Attacked; Proposal to Simulate Airliner Crash into Pentagon Rejected a041701positiveforce false 1 ------ The Joint Chiefs of Staff holds a large, worldwide exercise called Positive Force, which focuses on the Defense Department's ability to conduct large-scale military operations and coordinate these operations. [[ | CJCSI, 8/14/00 ]] ------ The 2001 Positive Force exercise is a &#8220;continuity of operations exercise,&#8221; meaning it deals with government contingency plans to keep working in the event of an attack on the US. [[,11209,1192226,00.html | Guardian, 4/15/04 ]] ------ Over a dozen government agencies, including NORAD, are invited to participate. The exercise prepares them for various scenarios, including non-combatant evacuation operations, cyber attacks, rail disruption, and power outages. [[ | Provider Update, 10/01 ]] [[ | GlobalSecurity [.org], 6/09/02 ]] ------ Apparently, one of the scenarios that was considered for this exercise involved &#8220;a terrorist group hijack[ing] a commercial airliner and fly[ing] it into the Pentagon.&#8221; But the proposed scenario, thought up by a group of Special Operations personnel trained to think like terrorists, was rejected. Joint Staff action officers and White House officials said the additional scenario is either &#8220;too unrealistic&#8221; or too disconnected to the original intent of the exercise. [[ | Air Force Times, 4/13/04 ]] [[ | Boston Herald, 4/14/04 ]] [[,11209,1192226,00.html | Guardian, 4/15/04 ]] [[ | Washington Post, 4/14/04 (G) ]] [[ | New York Times, 4/14/04 ]] ====== << militaryExercises >> ((+ Bush administration )) ((+ US Department of Defense )) ((- Pentagon )) April 18, 2001 FAA Warns Airlines About Middle Eastern Hijackers a041801middleeast false 1 ------ The FAA sends a warning to US airlines that Middle Eastern militants could try to hijack or blow up a US plane and that carriers should &#8220;demonstrate a high degree of alertness.&#8221; The warning stems from the April 6, 2001, conviction of Ahmed Ressam over a failed plot to blow up Los Angeles International Airport during the millennium celebrations. This warning expires on July 31, 2001. [[,0,1731679.story | Associated Press, 5/18/02 ]] ------ This is one of 15 general warnings issued to airlines in 2001 before 9/11 (see [[ a0101airlinesdontknow ]]), but it is more specific than usual. [[ | CNN, 3/02 ]] [[ | CNN, 5/17/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- Ahmed Ressam )) ((+ Federal Aviation Administration )) ((- Los Angeles International Airport )) April 23-June 29, 2001 Al-Qaeda Muscle Team Arrives in US at This Time or Earlier a042301muscle false 1 ------ The 13 hijackers commonly known as the &#8220;muscle&#8221; allegedly first arrive in the US. The muscle provides the brute force meant to control the hijacked passengers and protect the pilots. [[ | Washington Post, 9/30/01 ]] ------ According to FBI Director Mueller, they all pass through Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and their travel was probably coordinated from abroad by Khalid Almihdhar. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry092602.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/26/02 ]] ------ However, some information contradicts their official arrival dates: --- * --- April 23: Waleed Alshehri and Satam Al Suqami arrive in Orlando, Florida. Suqami in fact arrived before February 2001. Alshehri was leasing a house near Washington in 1999 and 2000 with Ahmed Alghamdi. He also lived with Ahmed Alghamdi in Florida for seven months in 1997. [[ /timeline/2001/telegraph092001.html | Daily Telegraph, 9/20/01 ]] ------ Alshehri appears quite Americanized in the summer of 2001, frequently talking with an apartment mate about football and baseball, even identifying himself a fan of the Florida Marlins baseball team. [[ | Associated Press, 9/21/01 ]] --- * --- May 2: Majed Moqed and Ahmed Alghamdi arrive in Washington. Both actually arrived by mid-March 2001. Ahmed Alghamdi was living with Waleed Alshehri near Washington until July 2000. He also lived with Waleed Alshehri in Florida for seven months in 1997. [[ /timeline/2001/telegraph092001.html | Daily Telegraph, 9/20/01 ]] --- * --- May 28: Mohand Alshehri, Hamza Alghamdi, and Ahmed Alnami allegedly arrive in Miami, Florida. According to other reports, however, both Mohand Alshehri and Hamza Alghamdi arrived by January 2001. --- * --- June 8: Ahmed Alhaznawi and Wail Alshehri arrive in Miami, Florida. --- * --- June 27: Fayez Banihammad and Saeed Alghamdi arrive in Orlando, Florida. --- * --- June 29: Salem Alhazmi and Abdulaziz Alomari allegedly arrive in New York. According to other reports, however, Alhazmi arrived before February 2001. ------ After entering the US (or, perhaps, reentering), the hijackers arriving at Miami and Orlando airports settle in the Fort Lauderdale, Florida, area along with Mohamed Atta, Marwan Alshehhi, and Ziad Jarrah. The hijackers, arriving in New York and Virginia, settle in the Paterson, New Jersey, area along with Nawaf Alhazmi and Hani Hanjour. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry092602.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/26/02 ]] ------ Note the FBI's early conclusion that 11 of these muscle men &#8220;did not know they were on a suicide mission.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/observer101401.html | Observer, 10/14/01 ]] ------ CIA Director Tenet's later claim that they &#8220;probably were told little more than that they were headed for a suicide mission inside the United States&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/cia061802.html | CIA Director Tenet Testimony, 6/18/02 ]] ------ and reports that they did not know the exact details of the 9/11 plot until shortly before the attack [[ | CBS News, 10/9/02 ]] ------ are contradicted by video confessions made by all of them in March 2001 (see [[ a0301confessions ]]). ====== << otherHijackers >> ((- Ziad Jarrah )) ((- Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((- Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((- William Safire )) ((- George Tenet )) ((- Marwan Alshehhi )) ((+ Ahmed Alnami )) ((+ Ahmed Alhaznawi )) ((+ Majed Moqed )) ((+ Ahmed Alghamdi )) ((+ Hamza Alghamdi )) ((+ Mohand Alshehri )) ((+ Wail Alshehri )) ((+ Saeed Alghamdi )) ((- Mohamed Atta )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ Fayez Ahmed Banihammad )) ((+ Salem Alhazmi )) ((+ Abdulaziz Alomari )) ((+ Satam Al Suqami )) ((+ Waleed M. Alshehri )) [[ | This Ahmed Al-Haznawi picture is a photocopy of his 2001 US visa application. ]] April 24, 2001 US Military Planned for Attacks Against Americans in 1960s To Use as Justification for Attacking Cuba a042401northwoods false 1 ------ James Bamford's book, Body of Secrets, reveals a secret US government plan named Operation Northwoods. All details of the plan come from declassified military documents. (( Operation Northwoods )) [[ /timeline/2001/ap042401.html | Associated Press, 4/24/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/baltimoresun042401.html | Baltimore Sun, 4/24/01 ]] [[ | ABC News, 5/1/01 ]] [[;contentId=A77283-2001May25Found=true | Washington Post, 4/26/01 ]] ------ The heads of the US military, all five Joint Chiefs of Staff, proposed in a 1962 memo to stage attacks against Americans and blame Cuba to create a pretext for invasion. Says one document, &#8220;We could develop a Communist Cuban terror campaign in the Miami area, in other Florida cities and even in Washington. ... We could blow up a US ship in Guantanamo Bay and blame Cuba. Casualty lists in US newspapers would cause a helpful wave of indignation.&#8221; In March 1962, Lyman L. Lemnitzer, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, presented the Operation Northwoods plan to President John Kennedy and Defense Secretary Robert McNamara. The plan was rejected. Lemnitzer then sought to destroy all evidence of the plan. [[ /timeline/2001/baltimoresun042401.html | Baltimore Sun, 4/24/01 ]] [[ | ABC News, 5/1/01 ]] ------ Lemnitzer was replaced a few months later, but the Joint Chiefs continued to plan &#8220;pretext&#8221; operations at least through 1963. [[ | ABC News, 5/1/01 ]] ------ One suggestion in the plan was to create a remote-controlled drone duplicate of a real civilian aircraft. The real aircraft would be loaded with &#8220;selected passengers, all boarded under carefully prepared aliases,&#8221; and then take off with the drone duplicate simultaneously taking off near by. The aircraft with passengers would secretly land at a US military base while the drone continues along the other plane's flight path. The drone would then be destroyed over Cuba in a way that places the blame on Cuban fighter aircraft. [[ | Harper's, 7/1/01 ]] ------ Bamford says, &#8220;Here we are, 40 years afterward, and it's only now coming out. You just wonder what is going to be exposed 40 years from now.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/insight073001.html | Insight, 7/30/01 ]] ------ Some 9/11 skeptics later claim that the 9/11 attacks could have been orchestrated by elements of the US government, and see Northwoods as an example of how top US officials could hatch such a plot. [[ /timeline/2004/oaklandtribune032704.html | Oakland Tribune, 3/27/04 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- Robert McNamara )) ((- Lyman L. Lemnitzer )) ((+ James Bamford )) ((- John F. Kennedy )) ((- Operation Northwoods )) [[ | The first lines of the declassified Northwoods document. ]] April 30, 2001 Annual Terrorism Report Says Focusing on bin Laden Is Mistake a043001annualreport false 1 ------ The US State Department issues its annual report on terrorism. The report cites the role of the Taliban in Afghanistan, and notes the Taliban &#8220;continued to provide safe haven for international terrorists, particularly Saudi exile Osama bin Laden and his network.&#8221; However, as CNN describes it, &#8220;Unlike last year's report, bin Laden's al-Qaeda organization is mentioned, but the 2001 report does not contain a photograph of bin Laden or a lengthy description of him and the group. A senior State Department official told CNN that the US government made a mistake last year by focusing too tightly on bin Laden and &#8216;personalizing terrorism ... describing parts of the elephant and not the whole beast.&#8217; &#8221; [[ | CNN, 4/30/01 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ US Department of State )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- Taliban )) ((- al-Qaeda )) April 30, 2001 Wolfowitz in Deputy Secretary Meeting: Who Cares About [bin Laden]? a043001deputies false 1 ------ The Bush administration finally has its first Deputy Secretary-level meeting on terrorism. [[ /timeline/2002/time080402.html | Time, 8/4/02 ]] ------ According to counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; Richard Clarke, he advocates that the Northern Alliance needs to be supported in the war against the Taliban, and the Predator drone flights need to resume over Afghanistan so bin Laden can be targeted. [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 231 ]] ------ Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz says the focus on al-Qaeda is wrong. He states, &#8220;I just don't understand why we are beginning by talking about this one man bin Laden,&#8221; and &#8220;Who cares about a little terrorist in Afghanistan?&#8221; Wolfowitz insists the focus should be Iraqi-sponsored terrorism instead. He claims the 1993 attack on the WTC must have been done with help from Iraq, and rejects the CIA's assertion that there has been no Iraqi-sponsored terrorism against the US since 1993. (A spokesperson for Wolfowitz later calls Clarke's account a &#8220;fabrication.&#8221;) [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 30, 231 ]] [[ | Newsweek, 3/22/04 ]] ------ Wolfowitz repeats these sentiments immediately after 9/11 and tries to argue that the US should attack Iraq. Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage agrees with Clarke that al-Qaeda is an important threat. Deputy National Security Adviser Steve Hadley, chairing the meeting, brokers a compromise between Wolfowitz and the others. The group agrees to hold additional meetings focusing on al-Qaeda first (in June and July), but then later look at other terrorism, including any Iraqi terrorism. [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 30, 231-32 ]] ------ Vice President Cheney's Chief of Staff I. Lewis &#8220;Scooter&#8221; Libby and Deputy CIA Director John McLaughlin also attend the hour-long meeting. [[ /timeline/2002/time080402.html | Time, 8/4/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- Northern Alliance )) ((+ Richard Armitage )) ((+ Bush administration )) ((+ Stephen Hadley )) ((- Taliban )) ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) ((+ Richard ("Dick") Cheney )) ((+ Promis )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ John McLaughlin )) ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) May-July 2001 9/11 Attacks Originally Planned for Early Date complete_911_timeline_0501earlydate false 1 ------ In 2001, bin Laden apparently pressures Khalid Shaikh Mohammed for an attack date earlier than 9/11. According to information obtained from the 9/11 Commission (apparently based on a prison interrogation of Mohammed), bin Laden first requests an attack date of May 12, 2001, the seven-month anniversary of the USS Cole bombing. Then, when bin Laden learns from the media that Israel's Prime Minister Ariel Sharon would be visiting the White House in June or July 2001, he attempts once more to accelerate the operation to coincide with his visit. [[ | 9/11 Commission Report, 6/16/04 (B) ]] ------ The surge of warnings around this time could be related to these original preparations. ====== << warnings >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- Ariel Sharon )) ((+ Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((- USS Cole )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) May 2001 Cheney's Energy Plan Foresees Government Helping US Companies Expand Into New Markets a0501energyplan false 1 ------ Vice President Cheney's national energy plan is released to the public. It calls for expanded oil and gas drilling on public land and easing regulatory barriers to building nuclear power plants. [[,1282,-2232112,00.html | Associated Press, 12/9/02 ]] ------ There are several interesting points, little noticed at the time. It suggests that the US cannot depend exclusively on traditional sources of supply to provide the growing amount of oil that it needs. It will also have to obtain substantial supplies from new sources, such as the Caspian states, Russia, and Africa. It also notes that the US cannot rely on market forces alone to gain access to these added supplies, but will also require a significant effort on the part of government officials to overcome foreign resistance to the outward reach of American energy companies. [[ /timeline/2002/japantoday043002.html | Japan Today, 4/30/02 ]] ------ The plan was largely decided through Cheney's secretive Energy Task Force. Both before and after this, Cheney and other Task Force officials meet with Enron executives (including one meeting a month and a half before Enron declares bankruptcy in December 2001). Two separate lawsuits are later filed to reveal details of how the government's energy policy was formed and whether Enron or other players may have influenced it, but as of mid-2005 the Bush administration has successfully resisted all efforts to release these documents. [[,1282,-2232112,00.html | Associated Press, 12/9/02 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> ((+ Enron )) ((+ Bush administration )) ((+ Richard ("Dick") Cheney )) May 2001 Report Warns of al-Qaeda Infiltration from Canada a0501canadacrossing false 1 ------ US intelligence obtains information that al-Qaeda is planning to infiltrate the US from Canada and carry out an operation using high explosives. The report does not say exactly where, when, or how an attack might occur. Two months later, the information is shared with the FBI, the INS, the US Customs Service, and the State Department, and it will be shared with President Bush in August. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] [[;node=&amp;contentId=A36754-2002Sep18&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 9/19/02 (B) ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ US Customs Service )) ((+ Immigration and Naturalization Service )) ((+ US Department of State )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ George W. Bush )) May-August 2001 Hijackers Take Practice Flights and Enjoy Las Vegas Diversions a0501lasvegas false 1 ------ A number of the hijackers make at least six trips to Las Vegas. It is probable they met here after doing practice runs on cross-country flights. At least Mohamed Atta, Marwan Alshehhi, Nawaf Alhazmi, Ziad Jarrah, Khalid Almihdhar and Hani Hanjour were involved. All of these &#8220;fundamentalist&#8221; Muslims drink alcohol, gamble, and frequent strip clubs. They even have strippers perform lap dances for them. [[ | San Francisco Chronicle, 10/4/01 ]] [[ | Newsweek, 10/15/01 ]] ====== << otherHijackers >> << marwanAlshehhi >> << mohamedAtta >> << haniHanjour >> << ziadJarrah >> ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((+ William Safire )) ((+ Ziad Jarrah )) ((+ Marwan Alshehhi )) ((+ Mohamed Atta )) May 2001 Bush, Who Has Yet to Take Any Action Against al-Qaeda, Is Tired of Swatting at Flies a0501swatting false 1 ------ It is claimed that after a routine briefing by CIA Director Tenet to President Bush regarding the hunt for al-Qaeda leader Abu Zubaida, Bush complains to National Security Adviser Rice that he is tired of &#8220;swatting at flies&#8221; and wants a comprehensive plan for attacking terrorism. Counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; Richard Clarke already has such a plan, but it has been mired in bureaucratic deadlock since January. After this, progress remains slow. [[ /timeline/2002/time080402.html | Time, 8/4/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404d.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (D) ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- George Tenet )) ((- Richard A. Clarke )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((- George W. Bush )) ((- Abu Zubaida )) May-July 2001 NSA Picks Up Word of&#8216;Imminent Terrorist Attacks&#8217; a0501nsapicksup false 1 ------ Over a two-month period, the NSA reports that &#8220;at least 33 communications indicating a possible, imminent terrorist attack.&#8221; None of these reports provide any specific information on where, when, or how an attack might occur. These reports are widely disseminated to other intelligence agencies. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/msnbc091802.html | MSNBC, 9/18/02 ]] ------ National Security Adviser Rice later reads what she calls &#8220;chatter that was picked up in [2001s] spring and summer. &#8216;Unbelievable news coming in weeks,&#8217; said one. &#8216;A big event ... there will be a very, very, very, very big uproar.&#8217; &#8216;There will be attacks in the near future.&#8217; &#8221; [[ | Washington Post, 4/8/04 (C) ]] ------ The NSA director later claims that all of the warnings were red herrings. [[ /timeline/2002/senatecommittee101702b.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 10/17/02 (B) ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ National Security Agency )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) May 1, 2001-September 11, 2001 FAA Briefs Airlines on Security, But Only About Overseas Threats a0501faaairlinebriefing false 1 ------ The FAA conducts 27 briefings for airline companies in this time period. However, each briefing only addresses hijacking threats overseas. This is despite the fact that from March to May, the FAA conducted briefings for US airports that raised concerns about hijackings in the domestic US, and even told airports that if hijackers wanted to end a hijacking with a suicidal &#8220;spectacular explosion&#8221; it would make more sense to do it in the domestic US (see [[ a0301faabriefing ]]). Also during roughly the same May to September time period, about half of the FAA's daily intelligence briefings mention bin Laden or al-Qaeda, and one of those specifically referred to an al-Qaeda plot using planes as weapons. Even though some of these mentions are connected to domestic threats, airlines are only briefed about the overseas threats (see [[ a040101faasummaries ]]). [[ | New Jersey Star-Ledger, 2/11/05 ]] [[,0,584001.story | Newsday, 2/11/05 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Federal Aviation Administration )) ((- al-Qaeda )) May-June 2001 Muslim Convert Inadvertently Learns of 9/11 Plot a0501lindh false 1 ------ John Walker Lindh, a young Caucasian man from California who has converted to Islam, travels to Peshawar, Pakistan, in an attempt to fight for Islamic causes. He had been studying the Koran for about six months elsewhere in Pakistan, but otherwise had no particularly special training, qualifications, or connections. Within days, he is accepted into al-Qaeda and sent to the al Faruq training camp in Afghanistan. Seven other US citizens are already training there. He inadvertently learns details of the 9/11 attacks. In June, he is told by an instructor that &#8220;bin Laden had sent forth some fifty people to carry out twenty suicide terrorist operations against the United States and Israel.&#8221; He learns that the 9/11 plot is to consist of five attacks, not the four that actually occur. The other fifteen operations are to take place later. He is asked if he wants to participate in a suicide mission, but declines. [[ | Bamford, 2004, pp 234-36 ]] [[ | Mahoney, 2003, pp 162, 216 ]] ------ Author James Bamford comments, &#8220;The decision to keep CIA employees at arm's length from [al-Qaeda] was a serious mistake. At the same moment the CIA was convinced al-Qaeda was impenetrable, a number of American citizens were secretly joining al-Qaeda in Afghanistan&#8212;and being welcomed with open arms.&#8221; [[ | Bamford, 2004, pp 161 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((- Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ John Walker Lindh )) [[ | John Walker Lindh. ]] May 2001 Iranian Tells of Plot to Attack WTC a0501iranian false 1 ------ An Iranian in custody in New York City tells local police of a plot to attack the World Trade Center. No more details are known. [[,2933,53065,00.html | Fox News, 5/17/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- World Trade Center )) May 2001 Bin Laden Associates Head West, Prepare for Martyrdom a0501departed false 1 ------ The Defense Department gains and shares information indicating that seven people associated with bin Laden have departed from various locations for Canada, Britain, and the US. The next month, the CIA learns that key operatives in al-Qaeda are disappearing while others are preparing for martyrdom. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] [[;node=&amp;contentId=A36754-2002Sep18&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 9/19/02 (B) ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- Central Intelligence Agency )) May 2001 Warnings About Impending Terrorist Attack Fail to Alert White House a0501impendingwarning false 1 ------ Around this time, intercepts from Afghanistan warn that al-Qaeda could attack an American target in late June or on the July 4 holiday. However, the White House's Counterterrorism and Security Group does not meet to discuss this prospect. This group also fails to meet after intelligence analysts overhear conversations from an al-Qaeda cell in Milan suggesting that bin Laden's agents might be plotting to kill Bush at the European summit in Genoa, Italy, in late July. In fact, the group hardly meets at all. By comparison, the Counterterrorism and Security Group met two or three times a week between 1998 and 2000 under Clinton. [[ | New York Times, 12/30/01 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Counterterrorism and Security Group )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- George W. Bush )) May 2001 Hijackers Take Advantage of New, Anonymous Visa Express Procedure a0501visaexpress false 1 ------ The US introduces the &#8220;Visa Express&#8221; program in Saudi Arabia, which allows any Saudi Arabian to obtain a visa through his or her travel agent instead of appearing at a consulate in person. An official later states, &#8220;The issuing officer has no idea whether the person applying for the visa is actually the person in the documents and application.&#8221; [[ | US News and World Report, 12/12/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/senatecommittee092002.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/20/02 ]] ------ At the time, warnings of an attack against the US led by the Saudi Osama bin Laden are higher than they had ever been before&#8212; &#8220;off the charts&#8221; as one senator later puts it. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 5/18/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] ------ A terrorism conference had recently concluded that Saudi Arabia was one of four top nationalities in al-Qaeda. [[ /timeline/2002/minneapolisstartribune051902.html | Minneapolis Star-Tribune, 5/19/02 ]] ------ Five hijackers&#8212;Khalid Almihdhar, Abdulaziz Alomari, Salem Alhazmi, Saeed Alghamdi, and Fayez Ahmed Banihammad&#8212;use Visa Express over the next month to enter the US. [[ /timeline/2002/senatecommittee092002.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/20/02 ]] ------ Even 9/11 mastermind Khalid Shaikh Mohammed will successfully get a US Visa through this program in July (using a false name but real photograph), despite a posted $2 million reward for his capture. [[ /timeline/2004/latimes012704.html | Los Angeles Times, 1/27/04 ]] ------ Only three percent of Saudi visa applicants are turned down by US consular officers in fiscal 2000 and 2001. In contrast, about 25 percent of US visa seekers worldwide are rejected. Acceptance is even more difficult for applicants from countries alleged to have ties to terrorism such as Iraq or Iran. [[;node=nation/specials/attacked&amp;contentId=A14788-2001Oct30&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 10/31/01 ]] ------ The widely criticized program is finally canceled in July 2002. ====== << otherHijackers >> << saudis >> << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((+ Saeed Alghamdi )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((- Salem Alhazmi )) ((+ Abdulaziz Alomari )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Fayez Ahmed Banihammad )) ((+ Saudi Arabia )) [[ | A portion of Salem Alhazmi's New Jersey identification card. ]] May 2001 Medics Train for Airplane Hitting Pentagon a0501medicstrain false 1 ------ The Tri-Service DiLorenzo Health Care Clinic and the Air Force Flight Medicine Clinic, both housed within the Pentagon, train for a scenario involving a hijacked 757 airliner being crashed into the Pentagon. It is reported that the purpose of the training is &#8220;to fine-tune their emergency preparedness.&#8221; [[;issueID=31 | US Medicine, 10/01 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> << militaryExercises >> ((- Pentagon )) ((+ Air Force Flight Medicine Clinic )) ((+ Tri-Service DiLorenzo Health Care Clinic )) May 2001 US Gives Taliban Millions a0501talibanaid false 1 ------ Secretary of State Powell announces that the US is granting $43 million in aid to the Taliban government, purportedly to assist hungry farmers who are starving since the destruction of their opium crop occurred in January on orders of the Taliban. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 5/22/01 ]] ------ This follows $113 million given by the US in 2000 for humanitarian aid. [[ /timeline/2001/statedepartment121101.html | State Department Fact Sheet, 12/11/01 ]] ------ A Newsday editorial notes that the Taliban &#8220;are a decidedly odd choice for an outright gift ... Why are we sending these people money&#8212;so much that Washington is, in effect, the biggest donor of aid to the Taliban regime?&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/newsday052901.html | Newsday, 5/29/01 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> << drugs >> ((+ Colin Powell )) ((+ Taliban )) May 2001 US Military Drafts Scenario for Afghan Operation a0501kernan false 1 ------ General William Kernan, commander in chief of the Joint Forces Command, later mentions: &#8220;The details of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan which fought the Taliban and al-Qaeda after the September 11 attacks, were largely taken from a scenario examined by Central Command in May 2001.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/afp072302.html | Agence France-Presse, 7/23/02 ]] ------ This seems to contradict other accounts suggesting the military made no Afghanistan invasion plans or preparations after Bush took office (see [[ a1200pentagonplan ]]). ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((- Taliban )) ((- George W. Bush )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ William Kernan )) May 2001 Tenet Visits Pakistan; Armitage Calls on India a0501armitage false 1 ------ Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage, a former covert operative and Navy Seal, travels to India on a publicized tour while CIA Director Tenet makes a quiet visit to Pakistan to meet with President General Musharraf. Armitage has long and deep Pakistani intelligence connections (as well as a role in the Iran-Contra affair). It would be reasonable to assume that while in Islamabad, Tenet, in what was described as &#8220;an unusually long meeting,&#8221; also meets with his Pakistani counterpart, ISI Director Mahmood. A long-time regional expert with extensive CIA ties publicly says, &#8220;The CIA still has close links with the ISI.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/sapra052701.html | SAPRA, 5/22/01 ]] [[ | Times of India, 3/7/01 ]] ====== << isi >> ((+ Richard Armitage )) ((+ George Tenet )) ((- Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) ((+ Mahmood Ahmed )) ((+ Pervez Musharraf )) ((- Central Intelligence Agency )) [[ | Richard Armitage. ]] May 6-September 6, 2001 Some Hijackers Work Out at Gyms, Some Merely Hang Out a050601gyms false 1 ------ The hijackers work out at various gyms, presumably getting in shape for the hijacking. Ziad Jarrah appears to train intensively from May to August, and Mohamed Atta and Marwan Alshehhi also take exercising very seriously. [[ | New York Times, 9/23/01 ]] [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/20/01 ]] ------ However, these three are presumably pilots who would need the training the least. For instance, Jarrah's trainer says, &#8220;If he wasn't one of the pilots, he would have done quite well in thwarting the passengers from attacking.&#8221; [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/20/01 ]] ------ For instance, Hani Hanjour, Majed Moqed, Khalid Almihdhar, Nawaf Alhazmi, and Salem Alhazmi work out for only four days in early September. [[ | Associated Press, 9/21/01 ]] ------ Three others&#8212;Waleed Alshehri, Wail Alshehri and Satam al-Suqami&#8212; &#8220;simply clustered around a small circuit of machines, never asking for help and, according to a trainer, never pushing any weights. &#8216;You know, I don't actually remember them ever doing anything... They would just stand around and watch people.&#8217; &#8221; [[ | New York Times, 9/23/01 ]] ------ Those three also had a one month membership in Florida&#8212;whether they ever actually worked out there is unknown. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/20/01 ]] ====== << otherHijackers >> << ziadJarrah >> << marwanAlshehhi >> << mohamedAtta >> ((+ Satam Al Suqami )) ((+ Waleed M. Alshehri )) ((+ Ziad Jarrah )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((+ Majed Moqed )) ((+ Salem Alhazmi )) ((+ Marwan Alshehhi )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Wail Alshehri )) ((+ Mohamed Atta )) ((+ William Safire )) [[ | Ziad Jarrah's computer record at the US1 Fitness gym. ]] May 8, 2001 Cheney Heads Task Force Responding to Domestic Attacks, but No Action Is Taken Before 9/11 a050801cheneytaskforce false 1 ------ Bush entrusts Vice President Cheney to head the new Office of National Preparedness, a part of FEMA. This office is supposed to oversee a &#8220;national effort&#8221; to coordinate all federal programs for responding to domestic attacks. Cheney informs the press: &#8220;One of our biggest threats as a nation&#8221; may include &#8220;a terrorist organization overseas. We need to look at this whole area, oftentimes referred to as homeland defense.&#8221; The focus is on state-funded terrorists using weapons of mass destruction, and neither bin Laden nor al-Qaeda is mentioned. [[ | New York Times, 7/8/02 ]] ------ Cheney's task force is supposed to report to Congress by October 1, 2001, after a review by the National Security Council. Bush states that he &#8220;will periodically chair a meeting of the National Security Council to review these efforts.&#8221; [[;node=&amp;contentId=A8734-2002Jan19 | Washington Post, 1/20/02 ]] ------ In July, two senators send draft counterterrorism legislation to Cheney's office, but a day before 9/11, they are told it might be another six months before he gets to it. The task force is just beginning to hire staff a few days before 9/11. Former Senator Gary Hart (D) later implies that this task force is created to prevent Congress from enacting counterterrorism legislation proposed by a bipartisan commission he had co-chaired in January. [[ | Salon, 4/2/04 ]] [[ | Salon, 4/6/04 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- US Congress )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- National Security Council )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Gary Hart )) ((+ Richard ("Dick") Cheney )) ((+ Office of National Preparedness )) [[ | Vice President Dick Cheney on television, May 8, 2001. ]] May 10, 2001 Ashcroft Omits Counterterrorism from List of Goals a051001listofgoals false 1 ------ Attorney General Ashcroft sends a letter to department heads telling them the Justice Department's new agenda. He cites seven goals, but counterterrorism is not one of them. Yet just one day earlier, he testified before Congress and said of counterterrorism, &#8220;The Department of Justice has no higher priority.&#8221; [[ | New York Times, 2/28/02 ]] ------ Dale Watson, head of the FBI's Counterterrorism Division, recalls nearly falling out of his chair when he sees counterterrorism not mentioned as a goal. [[ | 9/11 Commission Report, 4/13/04 ]] ------ In August, a strategic plan is distributed, listing the same seven goals and 36 objectives. Thirteen objectives are highlighted, but the single objective relating to counterterrorism is not highlighted. [[ | New York Times, 2/28/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Dale Watson )) ((+ US Department of Justice )) ((+ John Ashcroft )) ((+ Counterterrorism Division )) May 11, 2001 New York City Practices for Biological Terrorist Attack complete_911_timeline_051101oemexercise false 1 ------ New York City's Office of Emergency Management (OEM), which is located in World Trade Center Building 7, organizes a bio-terrorism drill where militant extremists attack the city with bubonic plague and Manhattan is quarantined. The &#8220;tabletop exercise&#8221; is called RED Ex&#8212;meaning &#8220;Recognition, Evaluation, and Decision-Making Exercise&#8221; &#8212;and involves about seventy different entities, agencies, and locales from the New York area. Federal legislation adopted in 1997 requires federal, state, and local authorities to conduct regular exercises as part of the Domestic Preparedness Program (DPP). The US Defense Department chose New York City as the venue for RED Ex due to its size, prominence, and level of emergency preparedness. Various high-level officials take part, including Mayor Rudolph Giuliani, OEM Director Richard Sheirer, Fire Commissioner Thomas Von Essen, and Police Commissioner Bernard Kerik. Agencies and organizations that participate include New York City Fire Department, New York City Police Department, the FBI, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The exercise is supposedly so intense that, according to one participant, &#8220;five minutes into that drill, everybody forgot it was a drill.&#8221; [[ | New York City Government, 5/11/01 ]] [[ | New York City Government, 9/5/01, pp 74 ]] [[ | New York Sun, 12/20/03 ]] [[ | 9/11 Commission, 5/18/04 ]] ------ According to OEM Director Richard Sheirer, &#8220;Operation RED Ex provided a proving ground and a great readiness training exercise for the many challenges the city routinely faces, such as weather events, heat emergencies, building collapses, fires, and public safety and health issues.&#8221; [[ | New York City Government, 5/11/01 ]] ------ In his prepared testimony before the 9/11 Commission, Bernard Kerik later states: &#8220;The City, through its OEM, had coordinated plans for many types of emergencies; and those plans were tested frequently.&#8221; The types of emergencies they prepared for, he states, included &#8220;building collapses&#8221; and &#8220;plane crashes.&#8221; [[ | Kerik Testimony, 5/18/04 ]] ------ Considering Richard Sheirer's comments, RED Ex appears to be one example where the city tests for building collapses. Details about training for airplanes crashing into New York City remain unknown. The second part of this exercise, called Tripod, is scheduled to take place in New York on September 12, 2001, but is cancelled due to the 9/11 attacks. ====== << militaryExercises >> ((+ US Department of Defense )) ((+ Rudolph ("Rudy") Giuliani )) ((+ New York City Fire Department )) ((+ Bernard Kerik )) ((+ New York City Police Department )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Federal Emergency Management Agency )) ((- National Air College )) ((- World Trade Center )) May 15, 2001 CIA Hides al-Qaeda Meeting Information from FBI a051501ciahides false 1 ------ A supervisor at the CIA's Counter Terrorism Center sends a request to CIA headquarters for the surveillance photos of the January 2000 al-Qaeda meeting in Malaysia (see [[ a010500malaysiameeting ]]). Three days later, the supervisor explains the reason for his interest in an e-mail to a CIA analyst: &#8220;I'm interested because Khalid Almihdhar's two companions also were couriers of a sort, who traveled between [the Far East] and Los Angeles at the same time ([H]azmi and [S]alah).&#8221; Hazmi refers to hijacker Nawaf Alhazmi, and Salah Said is the alias al-Qaeda leader Khallad bin Attash traveled under during the meeting. Apparently, the supervisor receives the photos. Toward the end of May, a CIA analyst contacts a specialist working at FBI headquarters about the photographs. The CIA wants the FBI analyst to review the photographs and determine if a person who had carried money to Southeast Asia for bin Attash in January 2000 could be identified. The CIA fails to tell the FBI analyst anything about Almihdhar or Alhazmi. Around the same time, the CIA analyst receives an e-mail mentioning Alhazmi's travel to the US. These two analysts travel to New York the next month and again the CIA analyst fails to divulge what he knows. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((- Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((- Khalid Almihdhar )) ((- Tawifiq ("Khallad") bin Attash )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) May 16, 2001 US Strengthens Military Relations with Central Asian Republics a051601franks false 1 ------ US General Tommy Franks, later to head the US occupation of Afghanistan, visits the capital of Tajikistan. He says the Bush administration considers Tajikistan &#8220;a strategically significant country&#8221; and offers military aid. This follows a visit by a Department of Defense official earlier in the year. The Guardian later asserts that by this time, &#8220;US Rangers were also training special troops in Kyrgyzstan. There were unconfirmed reports that Tajik and Uzbek special troops were training in Alaska and Montana.&#8221; [[,4273,4264545,00.html | Guardian, 9/26/01 ]] ====== << centralAsia >> ((+ Thomas Franks )) ((- Bush administration )) May 23, 2001 Former Unocal Employee Becomes Bush's Special Assistant to Middle East and Central Asia a052301khalilzad false 1 ------ Zalmay Khalilzad is appointed Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for Gulf, Southwest Asia and Other Regional Issues on the National Security Council. Khalilzad was an official in the Reagan and George H. W. Bush administrations. During the Clinton years, he worked for Unocal. After 9/11, he will be appointed as special envoy to Afghanistan. [[ | Independent, 1/10/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/statedepartment2001.html | State Department profile, 2001 ]] ------ He previously worked under Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz and helped him write a controversial 1992 plan for US world domination.(see [[ a030892dominanceplan ]]) [[;position=top | New York Times, 3/22/03 ]] ------ He was a member of the neoconservative think tank Project for the New American Century. The Asia Times notes, &#8220;It was Khalilzad&#8212;when he was a huge Taliban fan&#8212;who conducted the risk analysis for Unocal (Union Oil Company of California) for the infamous proposed $2 billion, 1,500 kilometer-long Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan [TAP] gas pipeline.&#8221; [[ | Asia Times, 12/25/03 ]] ------ After 9/11, he will be appointed as special envoy to Afghanistan and become what some call the &#8220;real president&#8221; of that country (see [[ a010102khalilzad ]]). ====== << pipelinePolitics >> ((+ Zalmay M. Khalilzad )) ((- Unocal )) ((+ National Security Council )) ((- Project for the New American Century )) ((- Taliban )) ((- Paul Wolfowitz )) [[ | Zalmay Khalilzad. ]] May 29, 2001 US Citizens Overseas Cautioned a0529overseascaution false 1 ------ The State Department issues an overseas caution connected to the conviction of defendants in the bombing of the US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. That warning says, &#8220;Americans citizens abroad may be the target of a terrorist threat from extremist groups&#8221; with links to bin Laden. The warning will be reissued on June 22. [[ | CNN, 6/23/01 ]] ====== << warnings >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ US Department of State )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) May 30, 2001 Yemenis Are Caught Taking Suspicious New York Photos a053001yemenis false 1 ------ Two Yemeni men are detained after guards see them taking photos at 26 Federal Plaza in New York City. They are questioned by INS agents and let go. A few days later, their confiscated film is developed, showing photos of security checkpoints, police posts, and surveillance cameras of federal buildings, including the FBI's counterterrorism office. The two men are later interviewed by the FBI and determined not to be a threat. However, they had taken the pictures on behalf of a third person living in Indiana. By the time the FBI looks for him, he has fled the country and his documentation is found to be based on a false alias. In 2004, the identity of the third man is reportedly still unknown. The famous briefing given to President George W. Bush on August 6, 2001 (see [[ a080601ranchmemo ]]), will mention the incident, warning that the FBI is investigating &#8220;suspicious activity in this country consistent with the preparations for hijackings or other types of attacks, including recent surveillance of federal buildings in New York.&#8221; When Bush's August 6 briefing is released in 2004, a White House fact sheet fails to mention the still missing third man. [[ /timeline/2001/nypost070101.html | New York Post, 7/1/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/nypost091601.html | New York Post, 9/16/01 ]] [[ | Washington Post, 5/16/04 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- George W. Bush )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) May 30, 2001 FBI Warned of Major al-Qaeda Operation in the US Involving Hijackings, Explosives, and/or New York City a053001ressamwarns false 1 ------ Ahmed Ressam is convicted in the spring of 2001 for attempting to bomb the Los Angeles International Airport (see [[ a121499ressam ]]). Facing the likelihood of life in prison, he starts cooperating with authorities in an attempt to reduce his sentence. On this day, he details his experiences in al-Qaeda training camps and his many dealings with top al-Qaeda deputy Abu Zubaida. According to FBI notes from Ressam's interrogation, Zubaida asked Ressam to send him original Canadian passports to help Zubaida &#8220;get people to America.&#8221; Zubaida &#8220;wanted an operation in the US&#8221; and talked about the need to get explosives into the US for this operation, but Ressam makes it clear this was a separate plot from the one he was involved with. Notes from this day further explain that Ressam doesn't know if any explosives made it into the US because once an operation was initiated, operators were not supposed to talk about it to anyone. There's no concrete evidence that Ressam knows any detail of the 9/11 attacks. [[ | Newsweek, 4/28/05 ]] ------ However, Fox News reports that roughly around this time Ressam testifies &#8220;that attack plans, including hijackings and attacks on New York City targets, [are] ongoing.&#8221; [[,2933,53065,00.html | Fox News, 5/17/02 ]] ------ Ressam will repeat some of this in a public trial a month later<ref key=" a070801ressampublicwarning"/>. Questioned shortly after 9/11, Ressam will point out that given what he's already told his US interrogators, the 9/11 attacks should not be surprising. He notes that he'd described how Zubaida talked &#8220;generally of big operations in [the] US with big impact, needing great preparation, great perseverance, and willingness to die.&#8221; Ressam had told of &#8220;plans to get people hired at airports, of blowing up airports, and airplanes.&#8221; Apparently, the FBI waits until July to share the information from this debriefing with other intelligence agencies, the INS, Customs Service, and the State Department. Ressam's warnings are first mentioned to Bush in his now famous August 6, 2001 briefing (see [[ a080601ranchmemo ]]), but as Newsweek notes, &#8220;The information from Ressam that was contained in [Bush's] PDB [is] watered down and seem[s] far more bland than what the Algerian terrorist was actually telling the FBI.&#8221; Zubaida's second plot is boiled down to one sentence: &#8220;Ressam also said that in 1998 Abu Zubaida was planning his own US attack.&#8221; [[ | Newsweek, 4/28/05 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- Abu Zubaida )) ((- Los Angeles International Airport )) ((+ Ahmed Ressam )) ((- George W. Bush )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) [[ | Ahmed Ressam. ]] May 31, 2001 Tightly Organized System of al-Qaeda Cells Found in US a053101trial false 1 ------ The Wall Street Journal summarizes tens of thousands of pages of evidence disclosed in a recently concluded trial of al-Qaeda operatives. They are called &#8220;a riveting view onto the shadowy world of al-Qaeda.&#8221; The documents reveal numerous connections between al-Qaeda and specific front companies and charities. They even detail a &#8220;tightly organized system of cells in an array of American cities, including Brooklyn, N.Y.; Orlando, Fla.; Dallas, Tex.; Santa Clara, Calif.; Columbia, Mo., and Herndon, Va.&#8221; The 9/11 hijackers had ties to many of these same cities and charities. [[ | Wall Street Journal, 5/31/01 ]] ====== << warnings >> Summer 2001 Military Plans Reducing Domestic Air Defenses Still Further asummer01reducingdefenses false 1 ------ During this period, apparently, there are only 14 fighter planes on active alert to defend the continental US (and six more defending Canada and Alaska). [[ /timeline/2003/bergenrecord120503.html | Bergen Record, 12/5/03 ]] ------ However, in the months before 9/11, rather than increase the number, the Pentagon was planning to reduce the number still further. Just after 9/11, the Los Angeles Times will report, &#8220;While defense officials say a decision had not yet been made, a reduction in air defenses had been gaining currency in recent months among task forces assigned by [Defense Secretary] Rumsfeld to put together recommendations for a reassessment of the military.&#8221; By comparison, in the Cold War atmosphere of the 1950s, the US had thousands of fighters on alert throughout the US. [[,0,891325.story | Los Angeles Times, 9/15/01 (B) ]] ------ As late as 1998, there were 175 fighters on alert status. [[ /timeline/2003/bergenrecord120503.html | Bergen Record, 12/5/03 ]] ------ Also during this time, FAA officials try to dispense with &#8220;primary&#8221; radars altogether, so that if a plane were to turn its transponder off, no radar could see it. NORAD rejects the proposal [[ | Aviation Week and Space Technology, 6/3/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- Donald Rumsfeld )) ((+ Federal Aviation Administration )) ((+ US Department of Defense )) Summer 2001 Hijackers Use a Variety of Means to Get into Cockpit During Test Flights asummer01hijackersintocockpits false 1 ------ According to the Boston Globe, during various cross-country test run flights in the summer of 2001, &#8220;Some of the hijackers were seen videotaping crews on their flights. Other times, they asked for cockpit tours. Two also rode in the cockpit of the planes of one national airline, said a pilot who requested anonymity. The practice, known as &#8216;jumpseating,&#8217; allows certified airline pilots to use a spare seat in the cockpit when none is available in the passenger cabin. Airlines reciprocate to help pilots get home or to the city of their originating flight.&#8221; [[ | Boston Globe, 11/23/01 ]] ====== << otherHijackers >> Early June 2001 Taliban Leader Claims Interest in Resolving bin Laden Issue a0601liftsanctions false 1 ------ Reclusive Taliban leader Mullah Omar says the Taliban would like to resolve the bin Laden issue, so there can be &#8220;an easing and then lifting of UN sanctions that are strangling and killing the people of [Afghanistan].&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/upi061401.html?StoryID=1 | UPI, 6/14/01 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Mullah Omar )) Summer 2001 FBI Neglects Chance to Infiltrate al-Qaeda Training Camp asummer01assetvalidation false 1 ------ A confidential informant tells an FBI field office agent that he has been invited to a commando-training course at a camp operated by al-Qaeda in Afghanistan. The information is passed up to FBI headquarters, which rejects the idea of infiltrating the camp. An &#8220;asset validation&#8221; of the informant, a routine but critical exercise to determine whether information from the source was reliable, is also not done. The FBI later has no comment on the story. [[ /timeline/2002/usnews061002.html | US News and World Report, 6/10/02 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) June 2001 US Intelligence Warns of Spectacular Attacks by al-Qaeda Associates a0601advisory false 1 ------ US intelligence issues a terrorist threat advisory, warning US government agencies that there is a high probability of an imminent attack against US interests: &#8220;Sunni extremists associated with al-Qaeda are most likely to attempt spectacular attacks resulting in numerous casualties.&#8221; The advisory mentions the Arabian Peninsula, Israel, and Italy as possible targets for an attack. Afterwards, intelligence information provided to senior US leaders continues to indicate that al-Qaeda expects near-term attacks to have dramatic consequences on governments or cause major casualties. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- al-Qaeda )) June 2001 CIA Fears Al-Qaeda Will Strike on Fourth of July. a0601fourth false 1 ------ The CIA provides senior US policy makers with a classified warning of a potential attack against US interests that is thought to be tied to Fourth of July celebrations in the US. [[ | Sunday Herald, 9/23/01 ]] ====== << warnings >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) Summer 2001 Pentagon's Police Force Holds Various, Unknown Emergency Drills asummer01pentagondrills false 1 ------ The Pentagon's police force, the Defense Protective Service (DPS), conducts emergency drills throughout summer 2001. Some members of the DPS subsequently assist in directing rescue efforts at the Pentagon on 9/11. [[,0,5807563.story | Los Angeles Times, 9/13/01 (C) ]] ====== << militaryExercises >> June-July 2001 Terrorist Threat Reports Surge, Frustration with White House Grows a0601surge false 1 ------ Terrorist threat reports, already high in the preceding months, surge even higher. President Bush, Vice President Cheney, and national security aides are given briefing papers with headlines such as &#8220;Bin Laden Threats Are Real&#8221; and &#8220;Bin Laden Planning High Profile Attacks.&#8221; The exact contents of these briefings remain classified, but according to the 9/11 Commission they consistently predict upcoming attacks that will occur &#8220;on a catastrophic level, indicating that they would cause the world to be in turmoil, consisting of possible multiple&#8212;but not necessarily simultaneous&#8212;attacks.&#8221; CIA Director Tenet later recalls that by late July the warnings coming in could not get any worse. He feels that President Bush and other officials grasp the urgency of what they are being told. [[ | 9/11 Commission Report, 4/13/04 (B) ]] ------ But Deputy CIA Director John McLaughlin later states that he feels a great tension, peaking these months, between the Bush administration's apparent misunderstanding of terrorism issues and his sense of great urgency. McLaughlin and others are frustrated when inexperienced Bush officials question the validity of certain intelligence findings. Two unnamed, veteran Counter Terrorism Center officers deeply involved in bin Laden issues are so worried about an impending disaster that they consider resigning and going public with their concerns. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404c.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (C) ]] ------ Dale Watson, head of counterterrorism at the FBI, wishes he had &#8220;500 analysts looking at Osama bin Laden threat information instead of two.&#8221; [[ | 9/11 Commission Report, 4/13/04 (B) ]] ====== << warnings >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ George Tenet )) ((+ John McLaughlin )) ((+ Richard ("Dick") Cheney )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Bush administration )) ((+ Dale Watson )) ((+ George W. Bush )) June 2001 Enron Shuts Down Expensive Indian Plant Afghan Pipeline Fails to Materialize a0601dabholshutdown false 1 ------ Enron's power plant in Dabhol, India, is shut down. The failure of the $3 billion plant, Enron's largest investment, contributes to Enron's bankruptcy in December. Earlier in the year, India stopped paying its bill for the energy from the plant, because energy from the plant cost three times the usual rates. [[ /timeline/2001/nyt032001.html | New York Times, 3/20/01 ]] ------ Enron had hoped to feed the plant with cheap Central Asian gas, but this hope was dashed when a gas pipeline through Afghanistan was not completed. The larger part of the plant is still only 90 percent complete when construction stops around this time. [[ /timeline/2001/nyt032001.html | New York Times, 3/20/01 ]] ------ Enron executives meet with Commerce Secretary Donald L. Evans about its troubled Dabhol power plant during this year [[ /timeline/2002/nyt022102.html | New York Times, 2/21/02 ]] ------ , and Vice President Cheney lobbies the leader of India's main opposition party about the plant this month. [[ /timeline/2002/nyt022102.html | New York Times, 2/21/02 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> ((+ Enron )) ((+ Richard ("Dick") Cheney )) ((+ India )) ((+ Donald L. Evans )) June 1-2, 2001 Military Conducts Exercises Based on Scenario in which Cruise Missiles Are Launched against US a060101amalgamvirgo false 1 ------ The US military conducts Amalgam Virgo 01, a multi-agency planning exercise sponsored by NORAD involving the hypothetical scenario of a cruise missile being launched by &#8220;a rogue [government] or somebody&#8221; from a barge off the East Coast. Bin Laden is pictured on the cover of the proposal for the exercise. [[ /timeline/2002/afps060402.html | American Forces Press Service, 6/4/02 ]] ------ The exercise takes place at Tyndall Air Force Base in Florida. [[ | Global Security, 4/14/02 ]] ------ The next Amalgam Virgo exercise, scheduled to take place the following year, will involve two simultaneous commercial aircraft hijackings. Planning for the exercises begins before 9/11 (see [[ abefore091101virgo2 ]]). ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> << militaryExercises >> ((+ US Department of Defense )) ((+ North American Aerospace Defense Command )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) [[ | Bin Laden is pictured on the cover of the first Amalgam Virgo exercise. ]] June or July 2001 Hijackers Plan Attacks from German University a0601scalemodel false 1 ------ Mohamed Atta, Marwan Alshehhi, and an unknown third person are seen in the ground-floor workshops of the architecture department at this time, according to at least two witnesses from the Hamburg university where Atta had studied. They are seen on at least two occasions with a white, three-foot scale model of the Pentagon. Between 60 and 80 slides of the Sears building in Chicago and the WTC are found to be missing from the technical library after 9/11. [[ /timeline/2002/sundaytimes020302.html | Sunday Times, 2/3/02 ]] ====== << alQaedaInGermany >> << mohamedAtta >> << otherHijackers >> ((+ Marwan Alshehhi )) ((+ Mohamed Atta )) ((- World Trade Center )) ((- Pentagon )) Summer 2001 Threat Alerts Increase to Record High asummer01portergoss false 1 ------ Congressman Porter Goss (R), Chairman of the House Intelligence Committee, later says on the intelligence monitoring of US-designated terrorist groups, &#8220;The chatter level [goes] way off the charts&#8221; around this time and stays high until 9/11. Given Goss's history as a CIA operative, presumably he is kept &#8220;in the know&#8221; to some extent. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 5/18/02 ]] ------ A later Congressional report states: &#8220;Some individuals within the intelligence community have suggested that the increase in threat reporting was unprecedented, at least in terms of their own experience.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] ------ Two counterterrorism officials later describe the alerts of this summer as &#8220;the most urgent in decades.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Porter J. Goss )) Early June 2001 Extensive ISI Support for Taliban Continues a060isisupport false 1 ------ UPI reporters visiting Taliban leader Mullah Omar note, &#8220;Saudi Arabia and the [United Arab Emirates] secretly fund the Taliban government by paying Pakistan for its logistical support to Afghanistan. Despite Pakistan's official denials, the Taliban is entirely dependent on Pakistani aid. This was verified on the ground by UPI. Everything from bottled water to oil, gasoline and aviation fuel, and from telephone equipment to military supplies, comes from Pakistan.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/upi061401.html?StoryID=1 | UPI, 6/14/01 ]] ====== << isi >> << saudis >> ((+ Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) ((+ Mullah Omar )) ((+ Taliban )) ((- Saudi Arabia )) ((- United Arab Emirates )) June 2001 US Still Fails to Aid Taliban Resistance a0601massoudaid false 1 ------ The US considers substantially aiding Ahmed Shah Massoud and his Northern Alliance. As one counterterrorism official put it, &#8220;You keep [al-Qaeda terrorists] on the front lines in Afghanistan. Hopefully you're killing them in the process, and they're not leaving Afghanistan to plot terrorist operations.&#8221; A former US special envoy to the Afghan resistance visits Massoud this month. Massoud gives him &#8220;all the intelligence he [has] on al-Qaeda&#8221; in the hopes of getting some support in return. However, he gets nothing more than token amounts and his organization isn't even given &#8220;legitimate resistance movement&#8221; status. [[ /timeline/2002/time080402.html | Time, 8/4/02 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ Ahmed Shah Massoud )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ United States )) ((+ Northern Alliance )) Summer 2001 Bin Laden Speech Mentions 20 Martyrs in Upcoming Attack; Other Hints of Attack Spread Widely asummer01binladenspeech false 1 ------ Word begins to spread within al-Qaeda that an attack against the US is imminent, according to later prison interrogations of Khalid Shaikh Mohammed. Many within al-Qaeda are aware that Mohammed has been preparing operatives to go to the US. Additionally, bin Laden makes several remarks hinting at an upcoming attack, spawning rumors throughout Muslim extremist circles worldwide. For instance, in a recorded speech at the al Faruq training camp in Afghanistan, bin Laden specifically urges trainees to pray for the success of an upcoming attack involving 20 martyrs. [[ | 9/11 Commission Report, 6/16/04 (B) ]] ------ There are other indications that knowledge of the attacks spreads in Afghanistan. The Daily Telegraph later reports that &#8220;the idea of an attack on a skyscraper [is] discussed among [bin Laden's] supporters in Kabul.&#8221; At some unspecified point before 9/11, a neighbor in Kabul sees diagrams showing a skyscraper attack in a house known as a &#8220;nerve center&#8221; for al-Qaeda activity. [[;$sessionid$XG1AOZ0QHKRWHQFIQMGSFFWAVCBQWIV0?xml=/news/2001/11/16/wdiag16.xml&amp;sSheet=/news/2001/11/16/ixhomer.html&amp;_requestid=116141 | Daily Telegraph, 11/16/01 ]] ------ US soldiers will later find forged visas, altered passports, listings of Florida flight schools and registration papers for a flight simulator in al-Qaeda houses in Afghanistan. [[ | New York Times, 12/6/01 ]] ------ A bin Laden bodyguard later claims that in May 2001 he hears bin Laden tell people in Afghanistan that the US would be hit with an attack, and thousands would die. [[,11209,849294,00.html | Guardian, 11/28/01 ]] ====== << warnings >> << insiderTrading >> << foreignIntelligence >> ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((- Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) Summer 2001 Classified al-Qaeda Surveillance Program Curtailed asummer01catchersmitt false 1 ------ According to Newsweek, the Justice Department curtails &#8220;a highly classified program called &#8216;Catcher's Mitt&#8217; to monitor al-Qaeda suspects in the United States.&#8221; This is apparently because a federal judge severely chastised the FBI for improperly seeking permission to wiretap terrorists. [[ | Newsweek, 3/22/04 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ US Department of Justice )) ((- al-Qaeda )) Summer 2001 Tenet Believes Something Is Happening asummer01tenetpounding false 1 ------ Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage later claims that at this time, CIA Director &#8220;Tenet [is] around town literally pounding on desks saying, something is happening, this is an unprecedented level of threat information. He didn't know where it was going to happen, but he knew that it was coming.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ====== << warnings >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- Richard Armitage )) ((+ George Tenet )) [[ | CIA Director George Tenet. ]] June 2001 Clarke Asks for Different Job as White House Fails to Share His Urgency a0601clarkewantsout false 1 ------ Counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; Richard Clarke asks for a transfer to start a new national program on cyber security. His request is granted, and he is to change jobs in early October 2001. He makes the change despite the 9/11 attacks. He claims that he tells National Security Adviser Rice and her deputy Steve Hadley, &#8220;Perhaps I have become too close to the terrorism issue. I have worked it for ten years and to me it seems like a very important issue, but maybe I'm becoming like Captain Ahab with bin Laden as the White Whale. Maybe you need someone less obsessive about it.&#8221; [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 25-26 ]] [[ | White House, 10/9/01 ]] ------ He later claims, &#8220;My view was that this administration, while it listened to me, either didn't believe me that there was an urgent problem or was unprepared to act as though there were an urgent problem. And I thought, if the administration doesn't believe its national coordinator for counterterrorism when he says there's an urgent problem, and if it's unprepared to act as though there's an urgent problem, then probably I should get another job.&#8221; [[ | New York Times, 3/24/04 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Stephen Hadley )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) June 2001 Hijackers Meet in London a0601londonsafehouse false 1 ------ British investigators believe that at least five of the hijackers have a &#8220;vital planning meeting&#8221; held in a safe house in north London, Britain. [[ /timeline/2001/londontimes092601.html | Times of London, 9/26/01 ]] ------ Authorities suspect that Mustapha Labsi, an Algerian now in British custody, trains the hijackers in this safe house, as well as previously training the hijackers in Afghanistan. [[ | Daily Telegraph, 9/30/01 ]] ====== << otherHijackers >> ((+ Mustapha Labsi )) Summer 2001 FBI Tells Local Law Enforcement There Is No Credible Threat of Terrorism In the US asummer01nocrediblethreat false 1 ------ The FBI shares information on terrorist threats with state and local law enforcement entities through National Law Enforcement Threat System (NLETS) reports. However, at this time, the heightened state of alert for an attack in the US is not reflected at all in these NLETS reports. The 9/11 Congressional Inquiry notes, &#8220;In a May 2001 NLETS report, for example, the FBI assessed the risk of terrorism as &#8216;low,&#8217; and, in a July 2, 2001 NLETS report, stated that the FBI had no information indicating a credible threat of terrorist attack in the United States, although the possibility of such an attack could not be discounted.&#8221; Further reports focus only on the potential of attacks against US interests overseas. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] ------ On July 5 and 6, 2001, counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; Richard Clarke specifically warns FBI officials that al-Qaeda is planning &#8220;something spectacular,&#8221; and says, &#8220;They may try to hit us at home. You have to assume that is what they are going to do.&#8221; Yet apparently the FBI doesn't pass any of Clarke's warnings or sense of urgent emergency to the state and local emergency responders (see [[ a070501csgmeeting ]]) (see [[ a070601clarkebriefs ]]). ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ National Law Enforcement Threat System )) ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) Summer 2001 Saudi and Taliban Leaders Reportedly Discuss Bin Laden asummer01sauditaliban false 1 ------ An Asia Times article published just prior to 9/11 claims that Crown Prince Abdullah, the de facto ruler of Saudi Arabia, makes a clandestine visit to Pakistan around this time. After meeting with senior army officials, he visits Afghanistan with ISI Director Mahmood. They meet Taliban leader Mullah Omar and try to convince him that the US is likely to launch an attack on Afghanistan. They insist bin Laden be sent to Saudi Arabia, where he would be held in custody and not handed over to any third country. If bin Laden were to be tried in Saudi Arabia, Abdullah would help make sure he is acquitted. Mullah Omar apparently rejects the proposal. The article suggests that Abdullah is secretly a supporter of bin Laden and is trying to protect him from harm. [[ | Asia Times, 8/22/01 ]] ------ A similar meeting may also take place about a week after 9/11 (see [[ a091901saudiisi ]]). ====== << saudis >> << isi >> ((+ Abdullah bin Abdulaziz al-Saud )) ((+ Mahmood Ahmed )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Mullah Omar )) [[ | Crown Prince Abdullah. ]] June 2001 Germans Warn of Plan to Use Aircraft as Missiles on US and Israeli Symbols a0601german false 1 ------ German intelligence warns the CIA, Britain's intelligence agency, and Israel's Mossad that Middle Eastern militants are planning to hijack commercial aircraft to use as weapons to attack &#8220;American and Israeli symbols, which stand out.&#8221; A later article quotes unnamed German intelligence sources who state the information was coming from Echelon surveillance technology, and that British intelligence had access to the same warnings. However, there were other informational sources, including specific information and hints given to, but not reported by, Western and Near Eastern news media six months before 9/11. [[ /timeline/2001/faz091101.html | Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 9/11/01 ]] [[ | Washington Post, 9/14/01 ]] [[,2933,53065,00.html | Fox News, 5/17/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> << foreignIntelligence >> ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Israel Institute for Intelligence and Special Tasks )) ((+ UK Secret Intelligence Service )) Summer 2001 NSA Fails to Share Intercepted Information About Calls Between Atta and Mohammed asummer01intercept false 1 ------ Around this time, the NSA intercepts telephone conversations between Khalid Shaikh Mohammed and Mohamed Atta, but apparently does not share the information with any other agencies. The FBI has a $2 million reward for Mohammed at the time, while Atta is in charge of operations inside the US. [[ | Knight Ridder, 6/6/02 ]] [[ | Independent, 6/6/02 ]] ------ The NSA either fails to translate these messages in a timely fashion or fails to understand the significance of what was translated. [[ | Knight Ridder, 6/6/02 ]] ====== << khalidShaikMohammed >> ((+ Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((+ Mohamed Atta )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ National Security Agency )) June 2001 DEA Draws Up Report on Israeli Spies a0601deareport false 1 ------ The DEA's Office of Security Programs prepares a 60-page internal memo on the Israeli &#8220;art student spy ring.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/dea0601.html | DEA report, 6/01 ]] ------ The Memo is a compilation of dozens of field reports, and was meant only for the eyes of senior officials at the Justice Department (of which the DEA is adjunct), but it is leaked to the press around December 2001. The report connects the spies to efforts to foil investigations into Israeli organized crime activity involving the importation of the drug Ecstasy. The spies also appear to be snooping on top-secret military bases. For instance, on April 30, 2001, an Air Force alert was issued from Tinker Air Force Base in Oklahoma City concerning &#8220;possible intelligence collection being conducted by Israeli art students.&#8221; Tinker AFB houses AWACS surveillance craft and Stealth bombers. By the time of the report, the US has &#8220;apprehended or expelled close to 120 Israeli nationals&#8221; but many remain at large. [[ /timeline/2002/lemonde030502.html | Le Monde, 3/5/02 ]] [[ | Salon, 5/7/02 ]] ------ An additional 20 or so Israeli spies are apprehended between June and 9/11. [[ /timeline/2001/foxnews121201.html | Fox News, 12/12/01 ]] ====== << israel >> ((- "Israeli art students" )) ((+ Office of Security Programs )) ((+ US Department of Justice )) [[ | The cover of the DEA report, as depicted on television. ]] Summer 2001 Pakistani Intelligence Rescues bin Laden Associate a2001alkhadir false 1 ------ Egyptian investigators track down a close associate of bin Laden named Ahmed al-Khadir, wanted for bombing the Egyptian embassy in Islamabad in 1995. Egyptians surround the safe house in Pakistan where al-Khadir is hiding. They notify the ISI to help arrest him, and the ISI promises swift action. Instead, a car sent by the ISI filled with Taliban and having diplomatic plates arrives, grabs al-Khadir and drives him to safety in Afghanistan. Time magazine later reports the incident as demonstrating the strong ties between the ISI and both the Taliban and al-Qaeda. [[,13673,501020506-233999,00.html | Time, 5/6/02 ]] ====== << isi >> ((+ Taliban )) ((+ Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Ahmed al-Khadir )) Early June 2001 Counterterrorism Plan Circulated, but Contingency Plans Are Not Created a0601plancirculated false 1 ------ Deputy National Security Adviser Steve Hadley circulates a draft presidential directive on policy toward al-Qaeda. Counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; Richard Clarke and his staff regard the new approach as essentially the same as the proposal that they developed in December 2000 and presented to the Bush administration in January 2001. The draft has the goal of eliminating al-Qaeda as a threat over a multi-year period, and calls for funding through 2006. It has a section calling for the development of contingency military plans against al-Qaeda and the Taliban. Hadley contacts Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz to tell him these contingency plans will be needed soon. However, no such plans are developed before 9/11. Defense Secretary Rumsfeld and others later admit that the contingency plans available immediately after 9/11 are unsatisfactory. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404b.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (B) ]] [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404d.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (D) ]] ------ The draft is now discussed in three more deputy-level meetings. ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- Taliban )) ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Bush administration )) ((+ Stephen Hadley )) [[ | Steve Hadley. ]] June 1, 2001 New Policy: Only Defense Secretary May Approve Fighter Jet Launch a060101newpolicy false 1 ------ According to the New York Observer and government documents, the procedure for dealing with hijackings within the United States changes on this date. It requires that, with the exception of &#8220;immediate responses,&#8221; requests for military assistance must be forwarded to the defense secretary (Donald Rumsfeld) for approval. Rumsfeld later claims that protection against a domestic terrorist attack is not his responsibility; it is instead &#8220;a law-enforcement issue.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2004/nyobserver061704.html | New York Observer, 6/17/04 ]] [[ /timeline/1990s/cjcsi073197.html | CJCSI, 7/31/97 ]] [[ | Department of Defense, 6/1/01 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) June 4, 2001 Illegal Afghans Overheard Discussing New York City Hijacking Attack a060401cayman false 1 ------ At some point in 2000, three men claiming to be Afghans but using Pakistani passports entered the Cayman Islands, possibly illegally. [[ | Miami Herald, 9/20/01 ]] ------ In late 2000, Cayman and British investigators began a yearlong probe of these men, which lasts until 9/11. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/20/01 ]] ------ They are overheard discussing hijacking attacks in New York City during this period. On this day, they are taken into custody, questioned, and released some time later. This information is forwarded to US intelligence. [[,2933,53065,00.html | Fox News, 5/17/02 ]] ------ In late August, a letter to a Cayman radio station will allege these same men are agents of bin Laden &#8220;organizing a major terrorist act against the US via an airline or airlines.&#8221; [[ | Miami Herald, 9/20/01 ]] [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/20/01 ]] ====== << warnings >> << foreignIntelligence >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) June 9, 2001 FBI Agent Writes Memo Claiming His Agency Is Not Trying to Catch Known Terrorists Living in the US a060901wright false 1 ------ Robert Wright, an FBI agent who spent ten years investigating terrorist funding, writes a memo that slams the FBI. He states, &#8220;Knowing what I know, I can confidently say that until the investigative responsibilities for terrorism are transferred from the FBI, I will not feel safe... The FBI has proven for the past decade it cannot identify and prevent acts of terrorism against the United States and its citizens at home and abroad. Even worse, there is virtually no effort on the part of the FBI's International Terrorism Unit to neutralize known and suspected international terrorists living in the United States.&#8221; [[ | Cybercast News Service, 5/30/02 ]] ------ He claims the &#8220;FBI was merely gathering intelligence so they would know who to arrest when a terrorist attack occurred&#8221; rather than actually trying to stop the attacks. [[ | UPI, 5/30/02 ]] ------ Wright's shocking allegations are largely ignored when they first become public a year later. He is asked on CNN's Crossfire, one of the few outlets to cover the story at all, &#8220;Mr. Wright, your charges against the FBI are really more disturbing, more serious, than [Coleen] Rowley's [on August 28, 2001]. Why is it, do you think, that you have been ignored by the media, ignored by the congressional committees, and no attention has been paid to your allegations?&#8221; The Village Voice says that the problem is partly because he went to the FBI and asked permission to speak publicly instead of going straight to the media as Rowley did. The FBI put severe limits on what details Wright can divulge. He is now suing them. [[ | Village Voice, 6/19/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Robert Wright )) ((- Coleen Rowley )) ((- International Terrorism Unit )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) [[ | Robert Wright. ]] June 11, 2001 FBI and CIA Hold Shouting Match over Information on Al-Qaeda; CIA Still Withholds Information a061101shoutingmatch false 1 ------ A CIA analyst and FBI analyst travel to New York and meet with FBI officials at FBI headquarters about the USS Cole investigation. The CIA analyst has already shown photographs from the al-Qaeda Malaysia meeting (see [[ a010500malaysiameeting ]]) attended by hijackers Nawaf Alhazmi and Khalid Almihdhar to an FBI analyst, but failed to explain what he knows about them. The CIA analyst now shows the same photos to the additional FBI agents. He wants to know if they can identify anyone in the photos for a different case he is working on. &#8220;The FBI agents recognized the men from the Cole investigation, but when they asked the CIA what they knew about the men, they were told that they did not have clearance to share that information. It ended up in a shouting match.&#8221; [[ | ABC News, 8/16/02 ]] ------ The CIA analyst later admits that at the time, he knows Almihdhar had a US visa, that Alhazmi had traveled to the US in March, that al-Qaeda leader Khallad bin Attash had been recognized in one of the photos, and that Alhazmi was known to be an experienced operative. However, he does not tell any of this to any FBI agent. He does not let them keep copies of the photos either. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ He promises them more information later, but the FBI agents do not receive more information until after 9/11. [[ /timeline/2002/senatecommittee092002.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/20/02 ]] ------ Two days after this meeting, Almihdhar has no trouble getting a new, multiple reentry US visa. [[ | US News and World Report, 12/12/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/senatecommittee092002.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/20/02 ]] ------ CIA Director Tenet later claims, &#8220;Almihdhar was not who they were talking about in this meeting.&#8221; When Senator Carl Levin (D) reads the following to Tenet&#8212; &#8220;The CIA analyst who attended the New York meeting acknowledged to the joint inquiry staff that he had seen the information regarding Almihdhar's US visa and Alhazmi's travel to the United States but he stated that he would not share information outside of the CIA unless he had authority to do so.&#8221; &#8212;Tenet claims that he talked to the same analyst, who told him something completely different. [[;position=top | New York Times, 10/17/02 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((- Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Tawifiq ("Khallad") bin Attash )) June 12, 2001 Sting Operation Exposes al-Qaeda, ISI, and Drug Connections; Investigators Face Obstacles to Learn More a061201sting false 1 ------ Operation Diamondback, a sting operation uncovering an attempt to buy weapons illegally for the Taliban, bin Laden, and others, ends with a number of arrests. An Egyptian named Diaa Mohsen and a Pakistani named Mohammed Malik are arrested and accused of attempting to buy Stinger missiles, nuclear weapon components, and other sophisticated military weaponry for the Pakistani ISI. [[ /timeline/2001/sunsentinel082301.html | South Florida Sun-Sentinel, 8/23/01 ]] [[ | Washington Post, 8/2/02 (B) ]] ------ Malik appears to have had links to important Pakistani officials and Kashmiri militants, and Mohsen claims a connection to a man &#8220;who is very connected to the Taliban&#8221; and funded by bin Laden. [[ | Washington Post, 8/2/02 (B) ]] [[ /timeline/2002/msnbc080202.html | MSNBC, 8/2/02 ]] ------ Some other ISI agents came to Florida on several occasions to negotiate, but they escaped being arrested. They wanted to pay partially in heroin. One mentioned that the WTC would be destroyed. These ISI agents said some of their purchases would go to the Taliban in Afghanistan and/or militants associated with bin Laden. [[ | Washington Post, 8/2/02 (B) ]] [[ /timeline/2002/msnbc080202.html | MSNBC, 8/2/02 ]] ------ Both Malik and Mohsen lived in Jersey City, New Jersey. [[ /timeline/2001/jerseyjournal062001.html | Jersey Journal, 6/20/01 ]] ------ Mohsen pleads guilty after 9/11, &#8220;but remarkably, even though [he was] apparently willing to supply America's enemies with sophisticated weapons, even nuclear weapons technology, Mohsen was sentenced to just 30 months in prison.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/msnbc080202.html | MSNBC, 8/2/02 ]] ------ Malik's case appears to have been dropped, and reporters find him working in a store in Florida less than a year after the trial ended. [[ /timeline/2002/msnbc080202.html | MSNBC, 8/2/02 ]] ------ Malik's court files remain completely sealed, and in Mohsen's court case, prosecutors &#8220;removed references to Pakistan from public filings because of diplomatic concerns.&#8221; [[ | Washington Post, 8/2/02 (B) ]] ------ Also arrested are Kevin Ingram and Walter Kapij. Ingram pleads guilty to laundering $350,000 and he is sentenced to 18 months in prison. [[ /timeline/2001/ap120101.html | Associated Press, 12/1/01 ]] ------ Ingram was a former senior investment banker with Deutsche Bank, but resigned in January 1999 after his division suffered costly losses. [[ /timeline/2001/jerseyjournal062001.html | Jersey Journal, 6/20/01 ]] ------ Walter Kapij, a pilot with a minor role in the plot, is given the longest sentence, 33 months in prison. [[ /timeline/2002/palmbeachpost011202.html | Palm Beach Post, 1/12/02 ]] ------ Informant Randy Glass plays a key role in the sting, and has thirteen felony fraud charges against him reduced as a result, serving only seven months in prison. Federal agents involved in the case later express puzzlement that Washington higher-ups did not make the case a higher priority, pointing out that bin Laden could have gotten a nuclear bomb if the deal was for real. Agents on the case complain that the FBI did not make the case a counterterrorism matter, which would have improved bureaucratic backing and opened access to FBI information and US intelligence from around the world. [[ | Washington Post, 8/2/02 (B) ]] [[ /timeline/2002/msnbc080202.html | MSNBC, 8/2/02 ]] ------ Federal agents frequently couldn't get prosecutors to approve wiretaps. [[ /timeline/2002/coxnews080202.html | Cox News Service, 8/2/02 ]] ------ Glass says, &#8220;Wouldn't you think that there should have been a wire tap on Diaa [Mohsen]'s phone and Malik's phone?&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/wpbf080502.html | WPBF Channel 25, 8/5/02 ]] ------ An FBI supervisor in Miami refused to front money for the sting, forcing agents to use money from US Customs and even Glass's own money to help keep the sting going. [[ /timeline/2002/coxnews080202.html | Cox News Service, 8/2/02 ]] ====== << isi >> << drugs >> << randyGlass >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- Taliban )) ((- World Trade Center )) ((+ US Customs Service )) ((+ Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) ((+ Randy Glass )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Operation Diamondback )) ((+ Walter Kapij )) ((+ Mohammed Malik )) ((+ Kevin Ingram )) ((+ Diaa Mohsen )) [[ | Kevin Ingram, Randy Glass, and Diaa Mohsen in August 1999. ]] June 12, 2001 CIA Learns Khalid Shaikh Mohammed Is Sending Operatives to US to Meet Up With Operatives Already Living There a061201ksmsending false 1 ------ A CIA report says that a man named &#8220;Khaled&#8221; is actively recruiting people to travel to various countries, including the US, to stage attacks. CIA headquarters presume from the details of this report that Khaled is Khalid Shaikh Mohammed. On July 11, the individual source for this report is shown a series of photographs and identifies Mohammed as the person he called &#8220;Khaled.&#8221; [[ | 9/11 Commission Final Report, 7/22/04 ]] [[ | USA Today, 12/12/02 ]] ------ This report also reveals that --- * --- al-Qaeda operatives heading to the US would be &#8220;expected to establish contact with colleagues already living there.&#8221; --- * --- Mohammed himself had traveled to the US frequently, and as recently as May 2001. --- * --- He is a relative of bomber Ramzi Yousef. --- * --- He appears to be one of bin Laden's most trusted leaders. --- * --- He routinely tells others that he can arrange their entry into the US as well. ------ However, the CIA doesn't find this report credible because they think it is unlikely that he would come to the US. Nevertheless, they consider it worth pursuing. One agent replies, &#8220;If it is KSM, we have both a significant threat and an opportunity to pick him up.&#8221; The CIA disseminates the report to all other US intelligence agencies, military commanders, and parts of the Treasury and Justice Departments. The 9/11 Congressional Inquiry will later request that the CIA inform them how CIA agents and other agencies reacted to this information, but the CIA does not respond to this. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] ------ On July 23, 2001, the US consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia will give Mohammed a US visa (he uses an alias but his actual photo appears on his application) (see [[ a072301ksmvisa ]]). Also, during this summer and as late as September 10, 2001, the NSA will intercept phone calls between Mohammed and Mohamed Atta, but the NSA will not share this information with any other agencies (see [[ asummer01intercept ]]). ====== << khalidShaikMohammed >> << warnings >> ((- Ramzi Yousef )) ((+ US Department of the Treasury )) ((+ US Consulate, Jedda, Saudi Arabia Office )) ((+ US Department of Justice )) ((+ Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) June 13, 2001 Bin Laden Wants to Assassinate Bush with an Explosives-Filled Airplane a061301egypt false 1 ------ Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak later claims that Egyptian intelligence discovers a &#8220;communiqu&#233; from bin Laden saying he wanted to assassinate President Bush and other G8 heads of state during their summit in Genoa, Italy&#8221; on this day. The communiqu&#233; specifically mentions this would be done via &#8220;an airplane stuffed with explosives.&#8221; The US and Italy are sent urgent warnings of this. [[ | New York Times, 9/26/01 ]] ------ Mubarak claims that Egyptian intelligence officials informed American intelligence officers between March and May 2001 that an Egyptian agent had penetrated al-Qaeda. Presumably, this explains how Egypt is able to give the US these warnings. [[ | New York Times, 6/4/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> << foreignIntelligence >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- George W. Bush )) ((+ Hosni Mubarak )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) June 13, 2001 Counterterrorism Not Part of Bush Defense Plan a061301natoheads false 1 ------ At President Bush's first meeting with NATO heads of state in Brussels, Belgium, Bush outlines his five top defense issues. Missile defense is at the top of the list. Terrorism is not mentioned at all. This is consistent with his other statements before 9/11. Almost the only time he ever publicly mentions al-Qaeda or bin Laden before 9/11 is later in the month, in a letter that renews Clinton administration sanctions on the Taliban. [[ | CNN, 6/13/01 ]] [[ | Washington Post, 4/1/04 ]] ------ He only speaks publicly about the dangers of terrorism once before 9/11, in May, except for several mentions in the context of promoting a missile defense shield. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A8734-2002Jan19 | Washington Post, 1/20/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- Clinton administration )) ((- Taliban )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ George W. Bush )) June 14, 2001 us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_356 false 1 ------ The Shanghai Five (see [[ us_plans_to_use_military_force_against_iran_354 ]]) becomes known as the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) and expands to include Uzbekistan. [[ | BBC, 6/11/2001 ]] ------ SCO member-states agree unanimously to take the organization to a &ldquo;higher level&rdquo; and expand its mission beyond the original objectives of resolving border disputes and dealing with Islamic separatists to include issues such as regional economic development, commerce, and investment. [[ | Shanghai Cooperation website, 6/20/2005 ]] ------ Leaders of the organization's member-states say they hope the SCO will counterbalance US dominance of world affairs. According to Chinese President Jiang Zemin, the organization will foster &ldquo;world multi-polarization&rdquo; and contribute to the &ldquo;establishment of a fair and reasonable international order.&rdquo; [[ | Associated Press, 6/15/2001 ]] ------ During their meeting in Shanghai, members sign a letter of support for the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty, which the United States has said it wants to scrap to make way for a missile defense shield. [[ | BBC, 6/15/2001 ]] ------ SCO members say the defense system will have a &ldquo;negative impact on world security.&rdquo; [[ | Associated Press, 6/15/2001 ]] ------ One Russian official at the meeting says the 1972 ABM Treaty is the &ldquo;cornerstone of global stability and disarmament.&rdquo; [[ | BBC, 6/15/2001 ]] ------ China and Russia also discuss collaborating on a joint program to develop a radar system capable of tracking US F-117A stealth fighter planes. [[ | CNN, 6/20/2001 ]] ====== << centralAsia >> ((+ Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) )) June 16, 2001 Major Simulated Terrorist Attack Exercise is Held in Pennsylvania a061601westmoreland false 1 ------ A major training exercise based upon a simulated terrorist attack is held in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, which neighbors Somerset County where Flight 93 crashes on 9/11. The exercise, called Mall Strike 2001, is conducted in Greengate Mall, Hempfield, and involves over 600 emergency first responders and emergency managers responding to the simulated release of a toxic chemical agent and the simulated release of radiation and radiological contamination. [[ | Westmoreland County Annual Financial Report, 2001 ]] [[ | Connellsville Daily Courier, 9/11/02 ]] ------ Mall Strike is organized by the Pennsylvania Region 13 Working Group: a 13-county organization that began preparing for terrorist attacks in 1998. When Flight 93 crashes on September 11, the Region 13 Working Group's chair immediately contacts other members of the group and emergency teams are quickly deployed to the crash site. The group's four years of preparing and working together &#8220;allowed them to develop and train teams that could work efficiently together during an event of this magnitude.&#8221; [[ | Department of Homeland Security, 3/12/03 ]] ====== << militaryExercises >> ((+ Mall Strike 2001 )) June 20, 2001 Time Magazine Mentions al-Qaeda Using Planes as Weapons a062001neonaziwarning false 1 ------ Time magazine reports: &#8220;For sheer diabolical genius (of the Hollywood variety), nothing came close to the reports that European security services are preparing to counter a bin Laden attempt to assassinate President Bush at next month's G8 summit in Genoa, Italy. According to German intelligence sources, the plot involved bin Laden paying German neo-Nazis to fly remote-controlled model aircraft packed with Semtex into the conference hall and blow the leaders of the industrialized world to smithereens. (Paging Jerry Bruckheimer).&#8221; The report only appears on the website, and not in the US version of the magazine. [[,8599,131866,00.html | Time, 6/20/01 ]] ------ This report follows warnings given by Egypt the week before. In addition, there are more warnings before the summit in July. James Hatfield, author of an unflattering book on Bush called Fortunate Son, repeats the claim in print a few days later, writing: &#8220;German intelligence services have stated that bin Laden is covertly financing neo-Nazi skinhead groups throughout Europe to launch another terrorist attack at a high-profile American target.&#8221; [[ | Online Journal, 7/3/01 ]] ------ Two weeks later, Hatfield apparently commits suicide. However, there is widespread speculation that his death was payback for his revelation of Bush's cocaine use in the 1970s. [[ | Salon, 7/20/01 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ James Hatfield )) ((- George W. Bush )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) June 21, 2001 Senior al-Qaeda Officials Say Important Surprises Coming Soon a062101mebc false 1 ------ A reporter for the Middle East Broadcasting Company interviews Osama bin Laden. Keeping a promise made to Taliban leader Mullah Omar, bin Laden does not say anything substantive, but Ayman al-Zawahiri and other top al-Qaeda leaders promise that &#8220;[the] coming weeks will hold important surprises that will target American and Israeli interests in the world.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/ap062401.html | Associated Press, 6/24/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/ap062501 | Associated Press, 6/25/01 ]] ------ The reporter says, &#8220;There is a major state of mobilization among the Osama bin Laden forces. It seems that there is a race of who will strike first. Will it be the United States or Osama bin Laden?&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/reuters062301.html | Reuters, 6/23/01 ]] ------ After 9/11, the reporter concludes, &#8220;I am 100 percent sure of this, and it was absolutely clear they had brought me there to hear this message.&#8221; [[ | Bamford, 2004, pp 236 ]] ------ The reporter is also shown a several-months-old videotape with bin Laden declaring to his followers, &#8220;It's time to penetrate America and Israel and hit him them where it hurts most.&#8221; [[ | CNN, 6/21/01 ]] ------ Author James Bamford theorizes that the original 9/11 plot involved a simultaneous attack on Israel and that shoe bomber Richard Reid may have originally wanted to target an Israeli aircraft around this time. For instance, Reid flies to Tel Aviv, Israel on July 12, 2001, to test if airline security would check his shoes for bombs. [[ | Bamford, 2004, pp 236-39 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ James Bamford )) ((+ Ayman al-Zawahiri )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Mullah Omar )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) June 25, 2001 Hijacker Opens Bank Account in Dubai a062501banihammad false 1 ------ Hijacker Fayez Banihammad opens a bank account in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE), with 9/11 paymaster &#8220;Mustafa Ahmed al-Hawsawi.&#8221; That name is a likely alias for Saeed Sheikh, who is known to visit Dubai frequently in this time period. [[ /timeline/2001/msnbc121101.html | MSNBC, 12/11/01 ]] ------ Banihammad flies to the US the next day. Banihammad gives power of attorney to &#8220;al-Hawsawi&#8221; on July 18, and then &#8220;al-Hawsawi&#8221; sends Banihammad Visa and ATM cards in Florida. Banihammad uses the Visa card to buy his airplane ticket for 9/11. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A34751-2001Dec12&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 12/13/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/msnbc121101.html | MSNBC, 12/11/01 ]] ------ The same pattern of events occurs for some other hijackers, though the timing is not fully known. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry092602.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/26/02 ]] ------ Visa cards are given to several other hijackers in Dubai. [[ /timeline/2001/londontimes120101.html | Times of London, 12/1/01 ]] ------ Other hijackers, including Hani Hanjour, Abdulaziz Alomari, and Khalid Almihdhar, open foreign bank and credit card accounts in the UAE and in Saudi Arabia. Majed Moqed, Saeed Alghamdi, Hamza Alghamdi, Ahmed Alnami, Ahmed Alhaznawi, Wail Alshehri, and possibly others purchase travelers checks in the UAE, presumably with funds given to them when they pass through Dubai. It is believed that &#8220;al-Hawsawi&#8221; is in Dubai every time the hijackers pass through. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry092602.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/26/02 ]] ====== << otherHijackers >> ((+ Ahmed Alnami )) ((+ Hamza Alghamdi )) ((+ Saeed Alghamdi )) ((+ Majed Moqed )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ Ahmed Alhaznawi )) ((+ Wail Alshehri )) ((+ Abdulaziz Alomari )) ((+ William Safire )) ((+ Mustafa Ahmed al-Hawsawi )) ((+ Saeed Sheikh )) ((+ Fayez Ahmed Banihammad )) June 26, 2001 US, Russia, and Regional Powers Cooperate to Oust Taliban a062601russiaplan false 1 ------ An Indian magazine reports more details of the cooperative efforts of the US, India, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Iran against the Taliban regime: &#8220;India and Iran will &#8216;facilitate&#8217; US and Russian plans for &#8216;limited military action&#8217; against the Taliban if the contemplated tough new economic sanctions don't bend Afghanistan's fundamentalist regime.&#8221; Earlier in the month, Russian President Vladimir Putin told a meeting of the Confederation of Independent States that military action against the Taliban may happen, possibly with Russian involvement using bases and forces from Uzbekistan and Tajikistan as well. [[;ctg= | IndiaReacts, 6/26/01 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((- Taliban )) ((+ Russia )) ((+ Vladimir Putin )) ((+ Tajikistan )) ((+ Iran )) ((+ Bob Kerry )) ((+ India )) June 26, 2001 State Department Issues Worldwide Caution; Military on Alert Overseas a062601worldwidecaution false 1 ------ The State Department issues a worldwide caution warning American citizens of possible attacks. [[ | CNN, 3/02 ]] ------ Also around this time, US military forces in the Persian Gulf are placed on heightened alert and naval ships there are sent out to sea, and other defensive steps are taken overseas. This is in response to a recent warning the week before where an al-Qaeda video was shown, saying, &#8220;It's time to penetrate America and Israel and hit them where it hurts most.&#8221; However, as author James Bamford later notes, &#8220;No precautions were ever taken within the United States, only overseas.&#8221; [[ | Bamford, 2004, pp 241 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ US Department of State )) June 27, 2001 India and Pakistan Discuss Building Pipeline Project Through Iran a062701iranpipe false 1 ------ The Wall Street Journal reports that Pakistan and India are discussing jointly building a gas pipeline from Central Asian gas fields through Iran to circumvent the difficulties of building the pipeline through Afghanistan. Iran has been secretly supporting the Northern Alliance to keep Afghanistan divided so no pipelines could be put through it. [[ /timeline/2001/wallstreetjournal062701.html | Wall Street Journal, 6/27/01 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> ((+ Northern Alliance )) ((+ India )) ((+ Pakistan )) June 27-July 16, 2001 Counterterrorism Plan Delayed with More Deputies Meetings a062701deputies false 1 ------ The first Bush administration deputy-secretary-level meeting on terrorism in late April is followed by three more deputy meetings. Each meeting focuses on one issue: one meeting is about al-Qaeda, one about the Pakistani situation, and one on Indo-Pakistani relations. Counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; Richard Clarke's plan to roll back al-Qaeda, which has been discussed at these meetings, is worked on some more, and is finally approved by National Security Adviser Rice and the deputies on August 13. It now can move to the Cabinet-level before finally reaching President Bush. The Cabinet-level meeting is scheduled for later in August, but too many participants are on vacation, so the meeting takes place in early September. [[;node=&amp;contentId=A8734-2002Jan19 | Washington Post, 1/20/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommission032404.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 ]] [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404d.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (D) ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((- George W. Bush )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Bush administration )) June 28, 2001 Tenet Warns of Imminent al-Qaeda Attack a062801tenetwarns false 1 ------ CIA Director Tenet writes an intelligence summary for National Security Adviser Rice: &#8220;It is highly likely that a significant al-Qaeda attack is in the near future, within several weeks.&#8221; A highly classified analysis at this time adds, &#8220;Most of the al-Qaeda network is anticipating an attack. Al-Qaeda's overt publicity has also raised expectations among its rank and file, and its donors.&#8221; [[ | Washington Post, 5/17/02 ]] ------ Apparently, the same analysis also adds, &#8220;Based on a review of all source reporting over the last five months, we believe that [bin Laden] will launch a significant terrorist attack against US and/or Israeli interests in the coming weeks. The attack will be spectacular and designed to inflict mass casualties against US facilities or interests. Attack preparations have been made. Attack will occur with little or no warning.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportpartb072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 (B) ]] ------ This warning is shared with &#8220;senior Bush administration officials&#8221; in early July. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] ------ Apparently, these warnings are largely based on a warning given by al-Qaeda leaders to a reporter a few days earlier. Counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; Richard Clarke also later asserts that Tenet tells him around this time, &#8220;It's my sixth sense, but I feel it coming. This is going to be the big one.&#8221; [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 235 ]] ====== << warnings >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ George Tenet )) ((+ Bush administration )) ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) June 29, 2001 Surveillance Indicates Al-Qaeda Will Attack Genoa Summit With More Than One Plane a062901genoaplanes false 1 ------ The Italian Secret Service SISDE records a meeting in the Finsbury Park mosque, in northern London, Britain. Sheikh Abu Hamza al-Masri (an Afghanistan war veteran heading a radical Islamic group), Mustapha Melki (linked to al-Qaeda member Abu Doha), and a man only known as Omar talk to each other. Notes of the meeting state, &#8220;Abu Hamza proposed an ambitious but unlikely plot which involved attacks carried by planes.&#8221; This is apparently a reference to an attack on the upcoming G8 summit in Genoa scheduled in several weeks. But unlike other reports of an al-Qaeda attack on that summit, this refers to an attack using more than one plane. The notes of the meeting conclude, &#8220;The belief that Osama bin Laden is plotting an attack is spreading among the radical Islamic groups.&#8221; [[ | Discovery News, 9/13/01 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ Italian Secret Service )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Secret Service )) ((+ Khalid el-Masri )) ((+ Mustapha Melki )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Abu Doha )) [[ | Abu Hamza al-Masri. ]] Late Summer 2001 Jordan Warns US That Aircraft Will Be Used in Major Attack Inside the US alatesummer01jordan false 1 ------ Jordanian intelligence (the GID) makes a communications intercept deemed so important that King Abdullah's men relay it to Washington, probably through the CIA station in Amman. To make doubly sure the message gets through it is passed through an Arab intermediary to a German intelligence agent. The message states that a major attack, code named &#8220;The Big Wedding,&#8221; is planned inside the US and that aircraft will be used. &#8220;When it became clear that the information was embarrassing to Bush administration officials and congressmen who at first denied that there had been any such warnings before September 11, senior Jordanian officials backed away from their earlier confirmations.&#8221; The Christian Science Monitor calls the story &#8220;confidently authenticated&#8221; even though Jordan has backed away from it. [[ /timeline/2002/iht052102.html | International Herald Tribune, 5/21/02 ]] [[ | Christian Science Monitor, 5/23/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> << foreignIntelligence >> ((+ Abdullah II ibn al-Hussein )) ((+ Bush administration )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) Late Summer 2001 US Intelligence Learns al-Qaeda Is Considering Mounting Operations in the US alatesummer01intheus false 1 ------ US intelligence learns that an al-Qaeda operative is considering mounting operations in the US. There is no information on the timing or specific targets. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- al-Qaeda )) Late Summer 2001 US Contingency Plans to Attack Afghanistan asummer01north false 1 ------ According to a later Guardian report, &#8220;reliable western military sources say a US contingency plan exist[s] on paper by the end of the summer to attack Afghanistan from the north.&#8221; [[,4273,4264545,00.html | Guardian, 9/26/01 ]] ====== << huntForBinLaden >> Late September-Early October 2001 Bin Laden Reportedly Agrees to Face International Tribunal; US Not Interested? a0901extradition false 1 ------ Leaders of Pakistan's two Islamic parties are negotiating bin Laden's extradition to Pakistan to stand trial for the 9/11 attacks during this period, according to a later Mirror article. Under the plan, bin Laden will be held under house arrest in Peshawar and will face an international tribunal, which will decide whether to try him or hand him over to the US. According to reports in Pakistan (and the Daily Telegraph ), this plan has been approved by both bin Laden and Taliban leader Mullah Omar. [[;method=full | Mirror, 7/8/02 ]] ------ Based on the first priority in the US's new &#8220;war on terror&#8221; proclaimed by President Bush, the US presumably would welcome this plan. For example, Bush had just announced, &#8220;I want justice. And there's an old poster out West, I recall, that says, &#8216;Wanted: Dead or Alive.&#8217; &#8221; [[ | ABC News, 9/17/01 ]] ------ Yet, Bush's ally in the war on terror, Pakistani President Musharraf, rejects the plan (stating that his reason for doing so was because he &#8220;could not guarantee bin Laden's safety&#8221;). Based on a US official's later statements, it appears that the US did not want the deal: &#8220;Casting our objectives too narrowly&#8221; risked &#8220;a premature collapse of the international effort [to overthrow the Taliban] if by some lucky chance Mr. bin Laden was captured.&#8221; [[;method=full | Mirror, 7/8/02 ]] ====== << afghanistan >> ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Mullah Omar )) ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ Pervez Musharraf )) Late June 2001 FAA Disregards Recommended Antiterrorist Measures a0601clarke false 1 ------ Counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; Richard Clarke gives a direct warning to the FAA to increase security measures in light of an impending terrorist attack. The FAA refuses to take such measures. [[ | New Yorker, 1/14/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Federal Aviation Administration )) ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) July 2001 India Warns US of Possible Terror Attacks a0701india false 1 ------ India gives the US general intelligence on possible terror attacks; details are not known. US government officials later confirm that Indian intelligence had information &#8220;that two Islamist radicals with ties to Osama bin Laden were discussing an attack on the White House,&#8221; but apparently, this particular report is not given to the US until two days after 9/11. [[,2933,53065,00.html | Fox News, 5/17/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> << foreignIntelligence >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) Late October-Early November 2001 Al-Qaeda Fighters, Bin Laden Said to Move into Jalalabad Without Hindrance a1101convoyjalalabad false 1 ------ Since late October, US intelligence reports began noting that al-Qaeda fighters and leaders were moving into and around the Afghanistan city of Jalalabad. By early November, bin Laden is said to be there. Knight Ridder Newspapers reports that &#8220;American intelligence analysts concluded that bin Laden and his retreating fighters were preparing to flee across the border. However, the US Central Command, which was running the war, made no move to block their escape. &#8216;It was obvious from at least early November that this area was to be the base for an exodus into Pakistan,&#8217; said one intelligence official, who spoke only on condition of anonymity. &#8216;All of this was known, and frankly we were amazed that nothing was done to prepare for it.&#8217; &#8221; The vast majority of leaders and fighters are eventually able to escape into Pakistan. [[ | Knight Ridder, 10/20/02 ]] ====== << afghanistan >> ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Osama bin Laden )) Late August-Early December 2001 Fighters from Langley Air Force Base Deployed to Iceland for Operation Northern Guardian a0801northernguardian false 1 ------ In late August 2001, two-thirds of the 27th Fighter Squadron are sent overseas. Six of the squadron's fighters and 115 people go to Turkey to enforce the no-fly zone over northern Iraq as part of Operation Northern Watch. Another six fighters and 70 people are sent to Iceland to participate in &#8220;Operation Northern Guardian.&#8221; The fighter groups will not return to Langley until early December. [[ | Flyer, 7/1/03 ]] ------ (Note that the word &#8220;operation&#8221; specifies that Operation Northern Guardian and Northern Watch are not exercises, but actual military actions or missions. [[ | CJCSM, 4/23/98 ]] [[ | Defense Department, 11/30/04 ]] ------ ) Operation Northern Guardian is based at Naval Air Station Keflavik, Iceland, the host command for the NATO base in that country. The US sometimes assists Iceland with extra military forces in reaction to Russian military maneuvers in the region. Approximately 1,800 US military personnel and 100 Defense Department civilians are involved. [[ | Flyer, 6/4/04 ]] [[ | GlobalSecurity [.org], 4/9/02 ]] [[ | Iceland Defense Force website, 6/30/04 ]] ------ The 27th is one of three F-15 fighter squadrons that make up the 1st Fighter Wing, the &#8220;host unit&#8221; at Langley Air Force Base in Langley, Virginia. The other two are the 71st and 94th Fighter Squadrons. [[ | Langley Air Force Base, 11/03 ]] [[ | GlobalSecurity [.org], 8/02/04 ]] ------ Langley is one of two &#8220;alert&#8221; sites that can be called upon by NORAD for missions in the northeast region of the US. [[ | 9/11 Commission Report, 6/17/04 ]] ------ Langley's 71st Fighter Squadron also participates in Operation Northern Watch and Operation Northern Guardian at some (unstated) time during 2001. [[ | Air Combat Command News Service, 6/13/02 ]] ------ Whether this deployment of fighters diminishes Langley's ability to respond on 9/11 is unknown. However, Air Force units are cycled through deployments like operations Northern and Southern Watch by the Aerospace Expeditionary Force (AEF) Center, which is at Langley Air Force Base. [[ | CJCSM, 4/23/98 ]] [[ | GlobalSecurity [.org] Aerospace Expeditionary Force page, 04/26/05 ]] ------ And according to NORAD Commander Larry Arnold, &#8220;Prior to Sept. 11, we'd been unsuccessful in getting the AEF Center to be responsible for relieving our air defense units when they went overseas.&#8221; [[ | Air War Over America, by Leslie Filson, 1/04, pp 99 ]] ====== << militaryExercises >> ((+ US Department of Defense )) ((+ Operation Northern Watch )) ((+ Operation Northern Guardian )) ((+ 27th Fighter Squadron )) ((- Langley Air Force Base )) ((- 94th Fighter Squadron )) ((+ 71st Fighter Squadron )) ((- North American Aerospace Defense Command )) July 2001 MASCAL Training Exercise Held at Fort Belvoir a830fortbelvoirmascal false 1 ------ A MASCAL (mass casualty) training exercise is held at Fort Belvoir. It is &#8220;designed to enhance the first ready response in dealing with the effects of a terrorist incident involving an explosion.&#8221; [[ | MDW News Service, 7/5/01 ]] ====== << militaryExercises >> << dayOf911 >> ((+ Fort Belvoir )) July 2001 CIA Learns Impending Attack Widely Known in Afghanistan a0701afghanknowledge false 1 ------ The CIA hears an individual who had recently been in Afghanistan say, &#8220;Everyone is talking about an impending attack.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] [[;node=&amp;contentId=A36615-2002Sep18&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 9/19/02 ]] ------ This corresponds with evidence that bin Laden and others were telling many in Afghanistan about the attacks at this time (see [[ asummer01binladenspeech ]]). ====== << warnings >> ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) Mid-September 2001 Neoconservatives Look to Tie Iraq to 9/11 complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_64 false 1 ------ At the behest of Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz, former CIA director James Woolsey and a team of Justice and Defense Department officials fly to London on a US government plane to look for evidence tying Osama bin Laden and Saddam Hussein to the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center. It is the second such mission undertaken by Woolsey this year. He reportedly made an earlier trip in February. Woolsey is looking for evidence to support the theory (see [[ complete_timeline_of_the_2003_invasion_of_iraq_2890 ]]) that Ramzi Yousef, the mastermind behind the 1993 WTC bombing, was actually an Iraqi agent who had assumed the identity of a Pakistani student named Abdul Basit. On at least one of the trips, Woolsey visits the Swansea Institute, where Basit studied, to see if Basit's fingerprints match those of Yousef, who is now serving a life sentence in a Colorado prison. Matching fingerprints would discredit the theory. According to Knight Ridder, &#8220;Several of those with knowledge of the trips said they failed to produce any new evidence that Iraq was behind the attacks.&#8221; [[ | Knight Ridder, 10/11/01 ]] [[,6903,573893,00.html | Observer 10/14/01 ]] [[ | Daily Telegraph, 10/26/01 ]] ------ Woolsey's activities in South Wales attract the attention of British authorities who are &#8220;intrigued&#8221; that a former CIA chief is &#8220;asking these questions.&#8221; [[ | Knight Ridder, 10/11/01 ]] ------ The trip, sponsored by the Pentagon, is not approved by Secretary of State Colin Powell or CIA director George Tenet. [[ | Knight Ridder, 10/11/01 ]] [[ | The Village Voice, 11/21/01 ]] ====== << decision >> << iraq >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- Saddam Hussein )) ((- Abdul Basit )) ((- Ramzi Yousef )) ((+ Paul Wolfowitz )) ((+ James Woolsey )) ((- George Tenet )) ((- Colin Powell )) July 1, 2001 Senators Warn of Al-Qaeda Attack Within Three Months a070101feinstein false 1 ------ Senators Dianne Feinstein (D) and Richard Shelby (R), both members of the 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, appear on CNN's &#8220;Late Edition with Wolf Blitzer,&#8221; and warn of potential attacks by bin Laden. Feinstein says, &#8220;One of the things that has begun to concern me very much as to whether we really have our house in order, intelligence staff have told me that there is a major probability of a terrorist incident within the next three months.&#8221; [[ | CNN, 3/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Richard Shelby )) ((+ Dianne Feinstein )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) July 2, 2001 FBI Warns of Possible al-Qaeda Attacks; Little Action Results a070201fbiwarn false 1 ------ The FBI issues a warning of possible al-Qaeda attacks to law enforcement agencies, stating, &#8220;[T]here are threats to be worried about overseas. While we cannot foresee attacks domestically, we cannot rule them out.&#8221; It further states, &#8220;[T]he FBI has no information indicating a credible threat of terrorist attack in the United States.&#8221; It asks law enforcement agencies to &#8220;exercise vigilance&#8221; and &#8220;report suspicious activities&#8221; to the FBI. Two weeks later, acting FBI Director Thomas Pickard has a conference call with all field office heads mentioning the heightened threat. However, FBI personnel later fail to recall any heightened sense of threat from summer 2001. Only those in the New York field office took any action or recall this later. [[ | CNN, 3/02 (H) ]] [[ | 9/11 Commission Report, 4/13/04 (B) ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Thomas Pickard )) July 2, 2001 Osama bin Laden Periodically Undergoes Dialysis with Approval of the ISI a070201renal false 1 ------ Indian sources claim that &#8220;bin Laden, who suffers from renal deficiency, has been periodically undergoing dialysis in a Peshawar military hospital with the knowledge and approval of the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), if not of [Pakistani President] Musharraf himself.&#8221; [[ | SARPA, 7/2/01 ]] ------ While one might question the bias of an Indian newspaper on this issue, highly respected intelligence newsletter Jane's Intelligence Digest later reports the story, and adds, &#8220;None of [these details] will be unfamiliar to US intelligence operatives who have been compiling extensive reports on these alleged activities.&#8221; [[ | Jane's Intelligence Digest, 9/20/01 ]] ------ CBS will later report bin Laden had emergency medical care in Pakistan the day before 9/11. [[ /timeline/2002/cbs012802.html | CBS News, 1/28/02 ]] ------ If these stories are true, it appears Pakistan could have captured bin Laden for the US at any time. The Jane's Intelligence Digest article adds, &#8220;It is becoming clear that both the Taliban and al-Qaeda would have found it difficult to have continued functioning&#8212;including the latter group's terrorist activities&#8212;without substantial aid and support from Islamabad [Pakistan].&#8221; [[ | Jane's Intelligence Digest, 9/20/01 ]] ====== << isi >> ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) ((- Taliban )) July 3, 2001 Tenet Makes Urgent Request a070301tenetrequest false 1 ------ CIA Director Tenet makes an urgent special request to 20 friendly foreign intelligence services, asking for the arrests of anyone on a list of known al-Qaeda operatives. [[ | Washington Post, 5/17/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ George Tenet )) July 3, 2001 Rare Discussion Takes Place Between National Security Advisers on Terrorism a070301principals false 1 ------ This is one of only two dates that Bush's national security leadership discusses terrorism. (The other discussion occurs on September 4.) Apparently, the topic is only mentioned in passing and is not the focus of the meeting. This group, made up of the national security adviser, CIA director, defense secretary, secretary of state, Joint Chiefs of staff chairman and others, met around 100 times before 9/11 to discuss a variety of topics, but apparently rarely terrorism. The White House &#8220;aggressively defended the level of attention [to terrorism], given only scattered hints of al-Qaeda activity.&#8221; This lack of discussion stands in sharp contrast to the Clinton administration and public comments by the Bush administration. [[ /timeline/2002/time080402.html | Time, 8/4/02 ]] ------ Bush said in February 2001, &#8220;I will put a high priority on detecting and responding to terrorism on our soil.&#8221; A few weeks earlier, Tenet told Congress, &#8220;The threat from terrorism is real, it is immediate, and it is evolving.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/ap062802.html | Associated Press, 6/28/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Clinton administration )) ((+ Bush administration )) ((- US Congress )) ((+ George Tenet )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((+ Richard B. Myers )) ((+ Colin Powell )) ((+ Donald Rumsfeld )) July 4-14, 2001 Bin Laden Reportedly Receives Lifesaving Treatment in Dubai, Said to Meet with CIA While There a070401dubai false 1 ------ Bin Laden, America's most wanted criminal with a $5 million bounty on his head, supposedly receives lifesaving treatment for renal failure from American specialist Dr. Terry Callaway at the American hospital in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. He is possibly accompanied by Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri (who is said to be bin Laden's personal physician, al-Qaeda's second-in-command, and leader of Egypt's Islamic Jihad), plus several bodyguards. Callaway supposedly treated bin Laden in 1996 and 1998, also in Dubai. Callaway later refuses to answer any questions on this matter. [[ /timeline/2001/lefigaro103101.html | Le Figaro, 10/31/01 ]] [[ | Agence France-Presse, 11/1/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/londontimes110101.html | Times of London, 11/01/01 ]] ------ During his stay, bin Laden is visited by &#8220;several members of his family and Saudi personalities,&#8221; including Prince Turki al Faisal, then head of Saudi intelligence. [[,1361,584444,00.html | Guardian, 11/1/01 ]] ------ On July 12, bin Laden reportedly meets with CIA agent Larry Mitchell in the hospital. Mitchell apparently lives in Dubai as an Arab specialist under the cover of being a consular agent. The CIA, the Dubai hospital, and even bin Laden deny the story. The two news organizations that broke the story, Le Figaro and Radio France International, stand by their reporting. [[ /timeline/2001/lefigaro103101.html | Le Figaro, 10/31/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/rfi110101.html | Radio France International, 11/1/01 ]] ------ The explosive story is widely reported in Europe, but there are only two, small wire service stories on it in the US. [[ | UPI, 11/1/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/reuters111001.html | Reuters, 11/10/01 ]] ------ The Guardian claims that the story originated from French intelligence, &#8220;which is keen to reveal the ambiguous role of the CIA, and to restrain Washington from extending the war to Iraq and elsewhere.&#8221; The Guardian adds that during his stay bin Laden is also visited by a second CIA officer. [[,1361,584444,00.html | Guardian, 11/1/01 ]] ------ In 2003, reporter Richard Labeviere will provide additional details of what he claims happened in a book entitled &#8220;The Corridors of Terror.&#8221; He claims he learned about the meeting from a contact in the Dubai hospital. He claims the event was confirmed in detail by a Gulf prince who presented himself as an adviser to the Emir of Bahrain. This prince claimed the meeting was arrange by Prince Turki al-Faisal, Saudi Arabia's intelligence director. The prince said, &#8220;By organizing this meeting...Turki thought he could start direct negotiations between [bin Laden] and the CIA on one fundamental point: that bin Laden and his supporters end their hostilities against American interests.&#8221; In exchange, the CIA and Saudis would allow bin Laden to return to Saudi Arabia and live freely there. The meeting is said to be a failure. [[ | Reuters, 11/14/03 ]] ------ On July 15, Larry Mitchell reportedly returns to CIA headquarters to report on his meeting with bin Laden. [[ /timeline/2001/rfi110101.html | Radio France International, 11/1/01 ]] ------ French terrorism expert Antoine Sfeir says the story of this meeting has been verified and is not surprising: It &#8220;is nothing extraordinary. Bin Laden maintained contacts with the CIA up to 1998. These contacts have not ceased since bin Laden settled in Afghanistan. Up to the last moment, CIA agents hoped that bin Laden would return to the fold of the US, as was the case before 1989.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/lefigaro110101.html | Le Figaro, 11/1/01 ]] ------ A CIA spokesman calls the entire account of bin Laden's stay at Dubai &#8220;sheer fantasy.&#8221; [[ | Reuters, 11/14/03 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> << saudis >> ((+ Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Ayman al-Zawahiri )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Terry Callaway )) ((+ Larry Mitchell )) ((+ Islamic Jihad )) ((+ Turki bin Faisal bin Abdul Aziz al Saud )) [[ | The American Hospital in Dubai. ]] July 4, 2001 Hijacker Who Should Have Been on Watch List Re-enters US Without Difficulty a070401khalidreenters false 1 ------ Hijacker Khalid Almihdhar reenters the US. The CIA and FBI have recently been showing interest in him, but have still failed to place him on a watch list of US-designated terrorists. Had he been placed on a watch list by this date, he would have been stopped and possibly detained as he tried to enter the US. He enters on a new US visa obtained in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, on June 13, 2001. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ The FBI notes that he returns just days after the last of the hijacker &#8220;muscle&#8221; has entered the US, and speculates that he returns because his job in bringing them over is finished. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((- US Consulate, Jedda, Saudi Arabia Office )) ((- Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) July 5, 2001 Clarke Warns of Something Really Spectacular; FAA and FBI Respond Poorly a070501csgmeeting false 1 ------ At the request of National Security Adviser Rice and White House Chief of Staff Andrew Card, counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; Richard Clarke leads a meeting of the Counterterrorism and Security Group, attended by officials from a dozen federal agencies. They discuss intelligence regarding terrorism threats and potential attacks on US installations overseas. Two attendees recall Clarke stating that &#8220;something really spectacular is going to happen here, and it's going to happen soon.&#8221; One who attended the meeting later calls the evidence that &#8220;something spectacular&#8221; is being planned by al-Qaeda &#8220;very gripping.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/time080402.html | Time, 8/4/02 ]] [[ | Washington Post, 5/17/02 ]] ------ Clarke directs every counterterrorist office to cancel vacations, defer non-vital travel, put off scheduled exercises, and place domestic rapid-response teams on much shorter alert. By early August, all of these emergency measures are no longer in effect. [[ | CNN, 3/02 ]] [[ | Washington Post, 5/17/02 ]] ------ The FAA issues general and routine threat advisories that don't reflect the level of urgent emergency expressed by Clarke, Tenet, and others (see [[ a0101airlinesdontknow ]]). FAA Administrator Jane Garvey later claims she was unaware of a heightened threat level, but in 2005 it will be revealed that about half of the FAA's daily briefings in this time period referred to bin Laden or al-Qaeda (see [[ a040101faasummaries ]]). [[ | New York Times, 4/18/04 ]] ------ Clarke says rhetorically that he wants to know if a sparrow has fallen from a tree. A senior FBI official attends the meeting and promises a redoubling of efforts. However, just five days later, when FBI agent Ken Williams sends off his memo speculating that al-Qaeda may be training operatives as pilots in the US, the FBI fails to share this information with any other agency. [[ | Washington Post, 5/17/02 ]] [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 236-37 ]] ------ The FBI also fails to tell Clarke about the arrest of Zacarias Moussaoui (see [[ a081501moussaouiarrest ]]), or what they know about Nawaf Alhazmi and Khalid Almihdhar (see [[ a082301watchlistadd ]]). ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- Khalid Almihdhar )) ((- Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((+ Ken Williams )) ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((- George Tenet )) ((+ Andrew Card )) ((- Zacarias Moussaoui )) ((- Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Federal Aviation Administration )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((+ Counterterrorism and Security Group )) July 5, 2001 Genoa Planes as Weapons Threat Helps Inspire Bush to Ask For Famous August 2001 Briefing a070501bushdirects false 1 ------ In 2002, Newsweek will report, &#8220;The White House acknowledged for the first time, [President] Bush was privately beginning to worry about the stream of terror warnings he was hearing that summer, most of them aimed at US targets abroad. On July 5, five days before the Phoenix memo (see [[ a071001williams ]]), Bush directed [Condoleezza] Rice to figure out what was going on domestically.&#8221; [[ | Newsweek, 5/27/02 ]] ------ In 2004, President Bush will explain why he requested this. &#8220;[T]he reason I did is because there had been a lot of threat intelligence from overseas. And part of it had to do with the Genoa [Italy] G8 conference that I was going to attend.&#8221; [[ | New York Times, 4/13/04 (D) ]] ------ Though he doesn't mention it, the chief security concern at the late July 2001 conference he mentions is intelligence that al-Qaeda plans to fly an airplane into the conference. This threat is so widely reported before the conference (with some reports before July 5 (see [[ a061301egypt ]]) (see [[ a0701summit ]])) that the attack is called off<ref key=" a072001summit"/>. For instance, in late June, Time magazine mentioned a German intelligence report of a bin Laden plot &#8220;to fly remote-controlled model aircraft packed with Semtex into the conference hall and blow the leaders of the industrialized world to smithereens.&#8221; (see [[ a062001neonaziwarning ]]) ------ Bush's request will result in the later-famous August 6, 2001 briefing entitled, &#8220;bin Laden Determined to Strike in US.&#8221; (see [[ a080601ranchmemo ]]) [[ | New York Times, 4/13/04 (D) ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> << warnings >> ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((+ George W. Bush )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- al-Qaeda )) July 6, 2001 Clarke Tells Rice to Prepare for 3 to 5 Simultaneous Attacks; No Apparent Response a070601threetofive false 1 ------ Counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; Richard Clarke sends National Security Advisor Rice an e-mail message &#8220;outlining a number of steps agreed on&#8221; at the Counterterrorism and Security Group meeting the day before, &#8220;including efforts to examine the threat of weapons of mass destruction and possible attacks in Latin America. One senior administration official [says] Mr. Clarke [writes] that several agencies, including the FBI, the CIA, and the Pentagon, [have] been directed to develop what the official [says are] &#8216;detailed response plans in the event of three to five simultaneous attacks.&#8217; &#8221; However, no response or follow-up action has been pointed out. [[;position= | New York Times, 4/4/04 (B) ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) ((- Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- US Department of Defense )) ((- Counterterrorism and Security Group )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((- Federal Bureau of Investigation )) July 6, 2001 Clarke Briefs Senior Security Officials on al-Qaeda Threat a070601clarkebriefs false 1 ------ One day after heading a meeting on al-Qaeda with the Counterterrorism and Security Group, counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; Richard Clarke heads a similar meeting at the White House with senior security officials at the FAA, Immigration, Secret Service, Coast Guard, Customs, and other agencies. The CIA and FBI give briefings on the growing al-Qaeda threat. The CIA says al-Qaeda members &#8220;believe the upcoming attack will be &#8216;spectacular,&#8217; qualitatively different from anything they have done to date.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404d.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (D) ]] ------ Then Clarke says, &#8220;You've just heard that CIA thinks al-Qaeda is planning a major attack on us. So do I. You heard CIA say it would probably be in Israel or Saudi Arabia. Maybe. But maybe it will be here. Just because there is no evidence that says that it will be here, does not mean it will be overseas. They may try to hit us at home. You have to assume that is what they are going to do. Cancel summer vacations, schedule overtime, have your terrorist reaction teams on alert to move fast. Tell me, tell each other, about anything unusual.&#8221; [[ | Clarke, 2004, pp 236 ]] ------ Despite this and other warnings to the FBI, the FBI continues to inform state and local agencies that the chances of a terrorist attack is low (see [[ asummer01nocrediblethreat ]]). ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ US Customs Service )) ((+ US Coast Guard )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Immigration and Naturalization Service )) ((- Counterterrorism and Security Group )) ((+ Federal Aviation Administration )) ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Secret Service )) July 8, 2001 Prominent Prisoner Publicly Warns of al-Qaeda Intent to Export Violence to US Soil a070801ressampublicwarning false 1 ------ About a month after al-Qaeda prisoner Ahmed Ressam told US interrogators new details of al-Qaeda plans to attack the US (see [[ a053001ressamwarns ]]), he conveys similar information during a public trial. As the Los Angeles Times reports at the time, &#8220;Testifying in the New York trial of an accused accomplice, Ressam said his [al-Qaeda] colleagues are intent on exporting violence to US soil. &#8216;If one is to carry out an operation, it would be better to hit the biggest enemy. I mean America,&#8217; he told a federal jury. Ressam also identified a number of other Algerian terrorists who had been part of his original attack team [to bomb the Los Angeles airport in 2000], most of whom remain at large.&#8221; [[ | Los Angeles Times, 7/8/01 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Ahmed Ressam )) July 8-19, 2001 Atta, Bin Al-Shibh, Alshehhi, and Others Meet in Spain to Finalize Attack Plans a070801spainmeeting false 1 ------ Mohamed Atta travels to Spain again (his first trip was in January). Three others cross the Atlantic with him but their names are not known, as they apparently use false identities. [[ /timeline/2001/elmundo093001.html | El Mundo, 9/30/01 ]] ------ Ramzi Bin al-Shibh, a member of his Hamburg terrorist cell, arrives in Spain on July 9, and stays until July 16. [[;ei=1&amp;en=0ebc043fda0aed98 | New York Times, 5/1/02 ]] ------ Hijacker Marwan Alshehhi also comes to Spain at about the same time and leaves on July 17. [[ | Associated Press, 6/30/02 ]] ------ Alshehhi must have traveled under another name, because US immigration has no records of his departure or return. [[ /timeline/2002/justicedepartment052002.html | Department of Justice, 5/20/02 ]] ------ Investigators believe Atta, Alshehhi, and bin al-Shibh meet with at least three Unknown others in a secret safe house near Tarragona. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/1/02 ]] [[ | Associated Press, 6/30/02 ]] ------ It is theorized that the final details of the 9/11 attacks are set at this meeting. [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/1/02 ]] ------ Atta probably meets with, and is hosted by, Barakat Yarkas and other Spanish al-Qaeda members. [[ /timeline/2001/iht112101.html | International Herald Tribune, 11/21/01 ]] ------ One of the unknowns at the meeting could be Yarkas's friend Mamoun Darkazanli, a German with connections to the Hamburg al-Qaeda cell. Darkazanli travels to Spain and meets with Yarkas during the time Atta is there. He travels with an unnamed Syrian Spanish suspect, who lived in Afghanistan and had access there to al-Qaeda leaders. [[,0,2368574.story?coll=la-headlines-world-manual | Los Angeles Times, 1/14/03 ]] ------ The Spanish newspaper La Vanguardia later reports that Atta also meets with fellow hijackers Waleed Alshehri and Wail Alshehri on July 16. [[ | Associated Press, 9/27/01 ]] ------ Strangely enough, on July 16, Atta stayed in the same hotel in the town of Salou that had hosted FBI counterterrorist expert John O'Neill a few days earlier, when he made a speech to other counterterrorism experts on the need for greater international cooperation by police agencies to combat terrorism. Bin al-Shibh arrived in Salou on July 9, which means he would have been there when the counter-terrorist meeting took place. [[ | Miller, Stone, and Mitchell, 2002, pp 135 ]] ====== << otherHijackers >> << marwanAlshehhi >> << mohamedAtta >> ((+ Mohamed Atta )) ((+ Marwan Alshehhi )) ((+ International Herald Tribune )) ((+ Mamoun Darkazanli )) ((+ John O'Neill )) ((+ Barakat Yarkas )) ((+ Ramzi Bin al-Shibh )) ((+ Wail Alshehri )) July 10, 2001 FBI Agent Sends Memo Warning That Inordinate Number of Muslim Extremists Are Learning to Fly in Arizona a071001williams false 1 ------ Phoenix, Arizona, FBI agent Ken Williams sends a memorandum warning about suspicious activities involving a group of Middle Eastern men taking flight training lessons in Arizona. The memo is titled: &#8220;Zakaria Mustapha Soubra; IT-OTHER (Islamic Army of the Caucasus),&#8221; because it focuses on Zakaria Soubra, a Lebanese flight student in Prescott, Arizona, and his connection with a terror group in Chechnya that has ties to al-Qaeda. It is subtitled: &#8220;Osama bin Laden and Al-Muhjiroun supporters attending civil aviation universities/colleges in Arizona.&#8221; [[ | Fortune, 5/22/02 ]] [[ | Arizona Republic, 7/24/03 ]] ------ The memo is based on an investigation Williams had initiated in 2000, but had trouble pursuing because of the low priority the Arizona FBI office gave terror investigations. In the memo, Williams does the following: --- * --- Names nine other suspect students from Pakistan, India, Kenya, Algeria, the United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia. [[ /timeline/2002/diezeit100102.html | Die Zeit, 10/1/02 ]] ------ Hijacker Hani Hanjour, attending flight school in Arizona in early 2001, is not mentioned in the memo, but one of his acquaintances is. Another person on the list is later arrested in Pakistan in March 2002 with al-Qaeda leader Abu Zubaida. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] [[;node=&amp;contentId=A43165-2003Jul24&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 7/25/03 (C) ]] --- * --- Notes that he interviewed some of these students, and heard some of them make hostile comments about the US. Additionally, he noticed that they were suspiciously well informed about security measures at US airports. [[ /timeline/2002/diezeit100102.html | Die Zeit, 10/1/02 ]] --- * --- Notes an increasing, &#8220;inordinate number of individuals of investigative interest&#8221; taking flight lessons in Arizona. [[ /timeline/2002/diezeit100102.html | Die Zeit, 10/1/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] --- * --- Suspects that some of the ten people he has investigated are connected to al-Qaeda. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ He discovered that one of them was communicating through an intermediary with Abu Zubaida. [[ | San Jose Mercury News, 5/23/02 ]] ------ Potentially this is the same member of the list mentioned above who is later captured with Abu Zubaida. --- * --- Discusses connections between several of the students and a radical group called Al-Muhajiroun. [[ | San Jose Mercury News, 5/23/02 ]] ------ This group supported bin Laden, and issued a fatwa, or call to arms, that included airports on a list of acceptable terror targets. [[ | Associated Press, 5/22/02 ]] ------ Soubra, the main focus of the memo, is a member of Al-Muhajiroun and an outspoken radical, but he is later cleared of any ties to terrorism. [[,0,3328713.story | Los Angeles Times, 10/28/01 (C) ]] ------ Though Williams doesn't include it in his memo, in the summer of 1998 the leader of Al-Muhajiroun publicized a fax sent by bin Laden to him that listed al-Qaeda's four objectives in fighting the US. The first objective was &#8220;bring down their airliners.&#8221; (see [[ asummer98bringdown ]]). [[,0,3328713.story | Los Angeles Times, 10/28/01 (C) ]] --- * --- Warns of a possible &#8220;effort by Osama bin Laden to send students to the US to attend civil aviation universities and colleges&#8221; [[ | Fortune, 5/22/02 ]] ------ , so they can later hijack aircraft. [[ /timeline/2002/diezeit100102.html | Die Zeit, 10/1/02 ]] --- * --- Recommends that the &#8220;FBI should accumulate a listing of civil aviation universities/colleges around the country. FBI field offices with these types of schools in their area should establish appropriate liaison. FBI [headquarters] should discuss this matter with other elements of the US intelligence community and task the community for any information that supports Phoenix's suspicions.&#8221; [[ | Arizona Republic, 7/24/03 ]] ------ (The FBI has already done this, but because of poor FBI communications, Williams is not aware of the report.) --- * --- Recommends that the FBI ask the State Department to provide visa data on flight school students from Middle Eastern countries, which will facilitate FBI tracking efforts. [[ | New York Times, 5/4/02 ]] ------ The memo is emailed to six people at FBI headquarters in the bin Laden and Radical Fundamentalist Units, and to two people in the FBI New York field office. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ He also shares some concerns with the CIA. [[ | San Jose Mercury News, 5/23/02 ]] ------ One anonymous government official who has seen the memo says, &#8220;This was as actionable a memo as could have been written by anyone.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/insight052702.html | Insight, 5/27/02 ]] ------ However, the memo is merely marked &#8220;routine,&#8221; rather than &#8220;urgent.&#8221; It is generally ignored, not shared with other FBI offices, and the recommendations are not taken. One colleague in New York replies at the time that the memo is &#8220;speculative and not very significant.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/diezeit100102.html | Die Zeit, 10/1/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ------ Williams is unaware of many FBI investigations and leads that could have given weight to his memo. Authorities later claim that Williams was only pursuing a hunch, but one familiar with classified information says, &#8220;This was not a vague hunch. He was doing a case on these guys.&#8221; [[ | San Jose Mercury News, 5/23/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- Al-Muhajiroun )) ((- Islamic Army of the Caucasus )) ((- Abu Zubaida )) ((- Zakaria Mustapha Soubra )) ((- William Safire )) ((+ Ken Williams )) ((- Radical Fundamentalist Unit )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) [[ | FBI agent Ken Williams. ]] July 12, 2001 Ashcroft Reputedly Uninterested in Terrorism a071201ashcroftdoesnthear false 1 ------ On July 5, the CIA briefed Attorney General Ashcroft on the al-Qaeda threat, warning that a significant terrorist attack is imminent, and a strike could occur at any time. [[ | 9/11 Commission Report, 4/13/04 (B) ]] ------ On this day, acting FBI Director Tom Pickard briefs Ashcroft about the terror threat inside the US. Pickard later swears under oath that Ashcroft tells him, &#8220;[I do] not want to hear about this anymore.&#8221; Ashcroft, also under oath, later categorically denies the allegation, saying, &#8220;I did never speak to him saying that I didn't want to hear about terrorism.&#8221; However, Ruben Garcia, head of the Criminal Division, and another senior FBI official corroborate Pickard's account. Ashcroft's account is supported by his top aide, but another official in Ashcroft's office who could also support Ashcroft's account says he cannot remember what happened. Pickard briefs Ashcroft on terrorism four more times that summer, but he never mentions al-Qaeda to Ashcroft again before 9/11. [[ | MSNBC, 6/22/04 ]] ------ Pickard later makes an appeal to Ashcroft for more counterterrorism funding; Ashcroft rejects the appeal on September 10, 2001 (see [[ a091001ashcroftopposes ]]). [[ | 9/11 Commission Report, 4/13/04 ]] ------ Pickard later says, &#8220;Before September 11th, I couldn't get half an hour on terrorism with Ashcroft. He was only interested in three things: guns, drugs, and civil rights.&#8221; [[ | Miller, Stone, and Mitchell, 2002, pp 293 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Ruben Garcia )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ John Ashcroft )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Thomas Pickard )) July 13, 2001 CIA Reexamines Malaysia Meeting but Major League Killer Is Not Put on Watch List a071301reexamine false 1 ------ The same supervisor of the CIA's Counter Terrorism Center (CTC) who expressed interest two months earlier in surveillance photos from the al-Qaeda Malaysia meeting (see [[ a010500malaysiameeting ]]) now finds a cable he had been looking for regarding that same meeting. The cable, from January 2001, discusses al-Qaeda leader Khallad bin Attash's presence at the meeting. The supervisor explains later that bin Attash's presence at the meeting had been troubling him. He writes an e-mail to the CTC, stating, &#8220;[Bin Attash] is a major league killer, who orchestrated the Cole attack (see [[ a101200cole ]]) and possibly the Africa bombings (see [[ a080798embassy ]]).&#8221; Yet bin Attash is still not put on a terrorist watch list. An FBI analyst assigned to the CTC is given the task of reviewing all other CIA cables about the Malaysian meeting. It takes this analyst until August 21&#8212;over five weeks later&#8212;to put together that Khalid Almihdhar had a US visa and that Nawaf Alhazmi had traveled to the US. Yet other CIA agents are already very aware of these facts but are not sharing the information. Working with immigration officials, this analyst then learns that Almihdhar entered and left the US in 2000, and entered again on July 4, 2001, and that Alhazmi appears to still be in the US. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ====== << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- Tawifiq ("Khallad") bin Attash )) ((- Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((+ Immigration and Naturalization Service )) ((- Khalid Almihdhar )) Mid-July 2001 July 15, 2001 John O'Neill Rails Against White House and Saudi Obstructionism a0701oneillrails false 1 ------ FBI counterterrorism expert John O'Neill privately discusses White House obstruction in his bin Laden investigation. O'Neill says, &#8220;The main obstacles to investigate Islamic terrorism were US oil corporate interests and the role played by Saudi Arabia in it.&#8221; He adds, &#8220;All the answers, everything needed to dismantle Osama bin Laden's organization, can be found in Saudi Arabia.&#8221; O'Neill also believes the White House is obstructing his investigation of bin Laden because they are still keeping the idea of a pipeline deal with the Taliban open (see [[ a072101berlin ]]). [[ | CNN, 1/8/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/cnn010902.html | CNN, 1/9/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/irishtimes111901.html | Irish Times, 11/19/01 ]] [[ | Brisard, Dasquie and Madsen, 2002, pp xxix ]] ====== << saudis >> ((+ John O'Neill )) ((- Bush administration )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- Taliban )) Mid-July 2001 July 15, 2001 Tenet Warns Rice About Major Attack a0701tenetwarns false 1 ------ CIA Director Tenet has a special meeting with National Security Adviser Rice and her aides about al-Qaeda. Says one official at the meeting, &#8220;[Tenet] briefed [Rice] that there was going to be a major attack.&#8221; Another at the meeting says Tenet displays a huge wall chart showing dozens of threats. Tenet does not rule out a domestic attack but says an overseas attack is more likely. [[ /timeline/2002/time080402.html | Time, 8/4/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ George Tenet )) Mid-July 2001 July 15, 2001 More G-8 Summit Warnings Describe Plane as Flying Bomb a0701summit false 1 ------ US intelligence reports another spike in warnings related to the July 20-22 G-8 summit in Genoa, Italy. The reports include specific threats discovered by the head of Russia's Federal Bodyguard Service that al-Qaeda will try to kill Bush as he attends the summit. [[ | CNN, 3/02 ]] ------ Two days before the summit begins, the BBC reports: &#8220;The huge force of officers and equipment which has been assembled to deal with unrest has been spurred on by a warning that supporters of Saudi dissident Osama bin Laden might attempt an air attack on some of the world leaders present.&#8221; [[ | BBC, 7/18/01 ]] ------ The attack is called off. ====== << warnings >> ((- George W. Bush )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) July 16, 2001 British Spy Agencies Warn al-Qaeda Is in The Final Stages of Attack in the West a071601britishwarning false 1 ------ British spy agencies send a report to British Prime Minister Tony Blair and other top officials warning that al-Qaeda is in &#8220;the final stages&#8221; of preparing an attack in the West. The prediction is &#8220;based on intelligence gleaned not just from [British intelligence] but also from US agencies, including the CIA and the National Security Agency,&#8221; which cooperate with the British. &#8220;The contents of the July 16 warning would have been passed to the Americans, Whitehall sources confirmed.&#8221; The report states there is &#8220;an acute awareness&#8221; that the attack is &#8220;a very serious threat.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/londontimes061402.html | Times of London, 6/14/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> << foreignIntelligence >> ((+ Tony Blair )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Central Intelligence Agency )) July 16, 2001 New York Taxi Driver Tells of E-mails Warning Imminent al-Qaeda Attack on New York and Washington a071601taxidriver false 1 ------ A Village Voice reporter is told by a New York taxi driver, &#8220;You know, I am leaving the country and going home to Egypt sometime in late August or September. I have gotten e-mails from people I know saying that Osama bin Laden has planned big terrorist attacks for New York and Washington for that time. It will not be safe here then.&#8221; He does in fact return to Egypt for that time. The FBI, which is not told about this lead until after 9/11, interrogates and then releases him. He claims that many others knew what he knew prior to 9/11. [[ | Village Voice, 9/25/02 (B) ]] ====== << insiderTrading >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) July 18, 2001 FBI, FAA Issues Another Warning a071801domestic false 1 ------ The FBI issues another warning to domestic law enforcement agencies about threats stemming from the convictions in the millennium bomb plot trial. The FAA also issues a warning, telling the airlines to &#8220;use the highest level of caution.&#8221; [[ | CNN, 3/02 ]] ------ This is another one of 15 general warnings issued to airlines in 2001 before 9/11 (see [[ a0101airlinesdontknow ]]), but it is more specific than usual. [[ | CNN, 3/02 ]] [[ | CNN, 5/17/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Federal Aviation Administration )) July 20-22, 2001 During G-8 Summit, Italian Military Prepare Against Attack from the Sky a072001summit false 1 ------ The G8 summit is held in Genoa, Italy. Acting on previous warnings that al-Qaeda would attempt to kill President Bush and other leaders, Italian authorities surround the summit with antiaircraft guns. They keep fighters in the air and close off local airspace to all planes. [[ /timeline/2001/latimes092701.html | Los Angeles Times, 9/27/01 ]] ------ The warnings are taken so seriously that Bush stays overnight on an aircraft carrier offshore, and other world leaders stay on a luxury ship. [[ /timeline/2001/cnn071801.html | CNN, 7/18/01 ]] ------ No attack occurs. US officials at the time state that the warnings were &#8220;unsubstantiated&#8221; but after 9/11, they will claim success in preventing an attack. [[ /timeline/2001/latimes092701.html | Los Angeles Times, 9/27/01 ]] ====== << warnings >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ George W. Bush )) [[ | Extra security precautions for the G8 Summit in Genoa. ]] July 21, 2001 US Official Threatens Possible Military Action Against Taliban by October if Pipeline Is Not Pursued a072101berlin false 1 ------ Three former American officials, Tom Simons (former US Ambassador to Pakistan), Karl Inderfurth (former Deputy Secretary of State for South Asian Affairs), and Lee Coldren (former State Department expert on South Asia) meet with Pakistani and Russian intelligence officers in a Berlin hotel. [[ | Salon, 8/16/02 ]] ------ This is the third of a series of back-channel conferences called &#8220;brainstorming on Afghanistan.&#8221; Taliban representatives sat in on previous meetings, but boycotted this one due to worsening tensions. However, the Pakistani ISI relays information from the meeting to the Taliban. [[,3604,556254,00.html | Guardian, 9/22/01 ]] ------ At the meeting, Coldren passes on a message from Bush officials. He later says, &#8220;I think there was some discussion of the fact that the United States was so disgusted with the Taliban that they might be considering some military action.&#8221; [[,4273,4264545,00.html | Guardian, 9/26/01 ]] ------ Accounts vary, but former Pakistani Foreign Secretary Niaz Naik later says he is told by senior American officials at the meeting that military action to overthrow the Taliban in Afghanistan is planned to &#8220;take place before the snows started falling in Afghanistan, by the middle of October at the latest.&#8221; The goal is to kill or capture both bin Laden and Taliban leader Mullah Omar, topple the Taliban regime, and install a transitional government of moderate Afghans in its place. Uzbekistan and Russia would also participate. Naik also says, &#8220;It was doubtful that Washington would drop its plan even if bin Laden were to be surrendered immediately by the Taliban.&#8221; [[ | BBC, 9/18/01 ]] ------ One specific threat made at this meeting is that the Taliban can choose between &#8220;carpets of bombs&#8221; &#8212;an invasion&#8212;or &#8220;carpets of gold&#8221; &#8212; the pipeline. [[ | Brisard, Dasquie and Madsen, 2002, pp 43 ]] ------ Naik contends that Tom Simons made the &#8220;carpets&#8221; statement. Simons claims, &#8220;It's possible that a mischievous American participant, after several drinks, may have thought it smart to evoke gold carpets and carpet bombs. Even Americans can't resist the temptation to be mischievous.&#8221; Naik and the other American participants deny that the pipeline was an issue at the meeting. [[ | Salon, 8/16/02 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> << counterterrorismBefore911 >> << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ Tom Simons )) ((+ Karl Inderfurth )) ((+ Niaz Naik )) ((+ Bush administration )) ((+ Taliban )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Russia )) ((+ Lee Coldren )) ((+ Uzbekistan )) ((+ Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) ((- Mullah Omar )) [[ | Niaz Naik. ]] July 23, 2001 Mohammed Given US Visa a072301ksmvisa false 1 ------ Khalid Shaikh Mohammed is granted a visa to enter the US, despite being under a federal terrorism indictment, having a $2 million reward on his head, and being one of only a dozen people in the world on a US domestic no-fly list (see [[ a042400domesticnofly ]]). There is no evidence that he actually uses his visa to travel to the US. Investigators speculate that he may have considered a trip to shepherd some aspect of the 9/11 plot. He applied for the visa using a Saudi passport and an alias (Abdulrahman al Ghamdi), but the photo he submitted is really of him. He uses the new, controversial Visa Express program that allows Saudis to apply for US visas without having to appear in person at any point during the application process (see [[ a0501visaexpress ]]). [[ /timeline/2004/latimes012704.html | Los Angeles Times, 1/27/04 ]] ------ Just a month earlier, the CIA passed a warning to all US intelligence agencies, certain military commanders, and parts of the Justice and Treasury Departments saying that Mohammed may be attempting to enter the US (see [[ a061201ksmsending ]]). However, either this warning isn't given to immigration officials or else they fail to notice his application. [[ /timeline/2004/latimes012704.html | Los Angeles Times, 1/27/04 ]] ====== << khalidShaikMohammed >> ((+ Khalid Shaikh Mohammed )) ((- Central Intelligence Agency )) ((- US Department of Justice )) ((- US Department of the Treasury )) [[ | The photograph of Khalid Shaikh Mohammed on his 2001 US visa application. ]] July 24, 2001 World Trade Center Ownership Changes Hands For the First Time a072401silverstein false 1 ------ Private businessman Larry Silverstein's $3.2 billion purchase of the World Trade Center is finalized, giving him de facto ownership with a 99-year lease of the building. [[ /timeline/2001/ireizine072601.html | Ireizine, 7/26/01 ]] ------ It is the only time the WTC has ever changed hands. It was previously owned by the New York Port Authority, a bi-state government agency. [[ | ICSC, 4/27/01 ]] ------ After 9/11, Silverstein attempts to get $7 billion in insurance for the 9/11 destruction of the WTC towers. [[,11209,601872,00.html | Guardian, 10/24/01 ]] ------ In late 2004, he will be tentatively awarded $2.2 billion, double what insurance companies offered to pay him. [[ | UPI, 12/6/04 ]] ------ A judge also makes a ruling that keeps open the possibility he could eventually receive as much as $6.4 billion. [[ /timeline/2004/ap120704.html | Associated Press, 12/7/04 ]] ====== << otherPost911Events >> ((+ New York Port Authority )) ((+ World Trade Center )) ((+ Larry Silverstein )) [[ | Larry Silverstein. ]] July 26, 2001 Ashcroft Stops Flying Commercial Airlines; Refuses to Explain Why a072601ashcroft false 1 ------ CBS News reports that Attorney General Ashcroft has stopped flying commercial airlines due to a threat assessment, but &#8220;neither the FBI nor the Justice Department ... would identify [to CBS] what the threat was, when it was detected or who made it.&#8221; [[ | CBS News, 7/26/01 ]] ------ &#8220;Ashcroft demonstrated an amazing lack of curiosity when asked if he knew anything about the threat. &#8216;Frankly, I don't,&#8217; he told reporters.&#8221; [[ | San Francisco Chronicle, 6/3/02 ]] ------ It is later reported that he stopped flying in July based on threat assessments made on May 8 and June 19. In May 2002, it is claimed the threat assessment had nothing to do with al-Qaeda, but Ashcroft walked out of his office rather than answer questions about it. [[,2933,52982,00.html | Associated Press, 5/16/02 ]] ------ The San Francisco Chronicle concludes, &#8220;The FBI obviously knew something was in the wind. ... The FBI did advise Ashcroft to stay off commercial aircraft. The rest of us just had to take our chances.&#8221; [[ | San Francisco Chronicle, 6/3/02 ]] ------ CBS's Dan Rather later asks of this warning: &#8220;Why wasn't it shared with the public at large?&#8221; [[;node=&amp;contentId=A14749-2002May26&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 5/27/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ John Ashcroft )) ((+ US Department of Justice )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) [[ | Attorney General John Ashcroft. ]] July 27, 2001 Rice Briefed on Terrorist Threats, Advised to Keep Ready a072701ricebriefed false 1 ------ Counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; Richard Clarke reports to National Security Adviser Rice and her deputy Steve Hadley that the spike in intelligence indicating a near-term attack appears to have ceased, but he urges them to keep readiness high. Intelligence indicates that an attack has been postponed for a few months. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404d.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (D) ]] ------ In early August, CIA Director Tenet also reports that intelligence suggests that whatever terrorist activity might have been originally planned has been delayed. [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommissionreport032404c.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 (C) ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) ((+ George Tenet )) ((+ Stephen Hadley )) July 28, 2001 Captured Operative Had Links That Could Have Led to Moussaoui, 9/11 Plot a072901beghal false 1 ------ High-level al-Qaeda operative Djamel Beghal is arrested in Dubai on his way back from Afghanistan. Earlier in the month the CIA sent friendly intelligence agencies a list of al-Qaeda agents they wanted to be immediately apprehended, and Beghal was on the list (see [[ a070301tenetrequest ]]). Beghal quickly starts to talk, and tells French investigators about a plot to attack the American embassy in Paris. Crucially, he provides new details about the international-operations role of top al-Qaeda deputy Abu Zubaida, whom he had been with a short time before. [[ /timeline/2002/time080402.html | Time, 8/4/02 ]] [[ | New York Times, 12/28/01 (B) ]] ------ One European official says Beghal talks about &#8220;very important figures in the al-Qaeda structure, right up to bin Laden's inner circle. [He] mention[s] names, responsibilities and functions&#8212;people we weren't even aware of before. This is important stuff.&#8221; [[,8816,182881,00.html | Time, 11/12/01 ]] ------ One French official says of Beghal's interrogations, &#8220;We shared everything we knew with the Americans.&#8221; [[ | Time, 5/19/02 ]] ------ The New York Times later reports that, &#8220;Enough time and work could have led investigators from Mr. Beghal to an address in Hamburg where Mohamed Atta and his cohorts had developed and planned the Sept. 11 attacks.&#8221; Beghal had frequently associated with Zacarias Moussaoui. However, although Moussaoui is arrested (see [[ a081501moussaouiarrest ]]) around the same time that Beghal is revealing the names and details of all his fellow operatives, Beghal is apparently not asked about Moussaoui. [[ /timeline/2002/time080402.html | Time, 8/4/02 ]] [[ | New York Times, 12/28/01 (B) ]] ====== << warnings >> << moussaoui >> ((- Mohamed Atta )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Zacarias Moussaoui )) ((+ Djamel Beghal )) [[ | Djamel Beghal. ]] Late July 2001 Taliban Foreign Minister Tries to Warn US and UN of Huge Attack Inside the US a0701muttawakil false 1 ------ Taliban Foreign Minister Wakil Ahmed Muttawakil learns that bin Laden is planning a &#8220;huge attack&#8221; on targets inside America. The attack is imminent, and will kill thousands. He learns this from Tahir Yildash, leader of the rebel Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU), which is allied with al-Qaeda at the time. Muttawakil sends an emissary to pass this information on to the US consul general, and another US official, &#8220;possibly from the intelligence services,&#8221; also attends the meeting. The message is not taken very seriously; one source blames this on &#8220;warning fatigue&#8221; from too many warnings. In addition, the emissary supposedly is from the Foreign Ministry, but did not say the message came from Muttawakil himself. The emissary then takes the message to the Kabul offices of UNSMA, the political wing of the UN. They also fail to take the warning seriously. [[ | Independent, 9/7/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/reuters090702.html | Reuters, 9/7/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> << foreignIntelligence >> ((+ Mullah Wakil Ahmed Muttawakil )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Tahir Yildash )) [[ | Taliban Foreign Minister Wakil Muttawakil. ]] Late July 2001 Ex-House Judiciary Committee's Chief Investigator Tries to Warn About Plans to Strike Buildings in New York a0701schippers false 1 ------ David Schippers, noted conservative Chicago lawyer and the House Judiciary Committee's chief investigator in the Clinton impeachment trial, claims two days after 9/11 that he had tried to warn federal authorities about plans to strike buildings in lower Manhattan. Schippers says, &#8220;I was trying to get people to listen to me because I had heard that the terrorists had set up a three-pronged attack:&#8221; an American airplane, the bombing of a federal building in the heartland and a massive attack in lower Manhattan. He tries contacting Attorney General Ashcroft, the White House, and even the House managers with whom he had worked, but nobody returns his phone calls. &#8220;People thought I was crazy. What I was doing was I was calling everybody I knew telling them that this has happened,&#8221; he says. &#8220;I'm telling you the more I see of the stuff that's coming out, if the FBI had even been awake they would have seen it.&#8221; He also claims to know of ignored warnings about the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, and evidence that Middle Easterners were connected with that attack. [[ | Indianapolis Star, 5/18/02 ]] ------ Other mainstream sources have apparently shied away from Schippers' story, but he has added details in an interview on the partisan Alex Jones Show. He claims that FBI agents in Chicago and Minnesota first contact him and tell him that an attack is going to occur in lower Manhattan. A group of these agents reportedly wants to testify about what they know, but first want legal protection from government retribution. [[ /timeline/2001/alexjonesshow101001.html | Alex Jones Show, 10/10/01 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ John Ashcroft )) ((+ David Schippers )) ((- Federal Bureau of Investigation )) [[ | David Schippers. ]] July 31, 2001 FAA Issues General Hijacking Warning a073101faawarning false 1 ------ The FAA issues another warning to US airlines, citing no specific targets but saying, &#8220;terror groups are known to be planning and training for hijackings, and we ask you therefore to use caution.&#8221; These alerts will expire by 9/11. Note that pilots and flight attendants later claim they were never told about warnings such as these. The airlines also disagree about the content of pre-9/11 warnings generally. [[ | CNN, 3/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/ananova051702.html | Ananova, 5/17/02 ]] ------ For instance, American Airlines states these warnings were &#8220;extremely general in nature and did not identify a specific threat or recommend any specific security enhancements.&#8221; The text of these warnings remains classified. (( American Airlines )) [[ /timeline/2002/ananova051702.html | Ananova, 5/17/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Federal Aviation Administration )) Late July 2001 Argentina Relays Warning to the US a0701argentina false 1 ------ Argentina's Jewish community receives warnings of a major attack against the United States, Argentina, or France from &#8220;a foreign intelligence source.&#8221; The warning is then relayed to the Argentine security authorities. It is agreed to keep the warning secret in order to avoid panic while reinforcing security at Jewish sites in the country. Says a Jewish leader, &#8220;It was a concrete warning that an attack of major proportion would take place, and it came from a reliable intelligence source. And I understand the Americans were told about it.&#8221; Argentina has a large Jewish community that has been bombed in the past, and has been an area of al-Qaeda activity. [[ | Forward, 5/31/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> << foreignIntelligence >> ((- al-Qaeda )) Late July 2001 Egypt Warns CIA of 20 al-Qaeda Operatives in US; Four Training to Fly; CIA Is Not Interested a0701egypt false 1 ------ CBS later reports, in a long story on another topic: &#8220;Just days after [Mohamed] Atta return[s] to the US from Spain, Egyptian intelligence in Cairo says it received a report from one of its operatives in Afghanistan that 20 al-Qaeda members had slipped into the US and four of them had received flight training on Cessnas. To the Egyptians, pilots of small planes didn't sound terribly alarming, but they [pass] on the message to the CIA anyway, fully expecting Washington to request information. The request never [comes].&#8221; [[ | CBS News, 10/9/02 ]] ------ This appears to be just one of several accurate Egyptian warnings from their informants inside al-Qaeda. ====== << warnings >> << foreignIntelligence >> ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) Early August 2001 Moussaoui Moves to Minnesota a0801moussaouiminnesota false 1 ------ Zacarias Moussaoui moves from Oklahoma to Minnesota some time in early August, in order to attend flight school training there. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry101702.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 10/17/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/msnbc121101.html | MSNBC, 12/11/01 ]] ====== << moussaoui >> ((+ Zacarias Moussaoui )) August 1-2, 2001 Hijackers Illegally Purchase Virginia Identity Cards a080101dmv false 1 ------ Hijackers Hani Hanjour and Khalid Almihdhar meet Luis Martinez-Flores, an illegal immigrant from El Salvador, in a 7-Eleven parking lot in Falls Church, Virginia. Martinez-Flores is paid $100 cash to accompany the two to a local Department of Motor Vehicles office and sign forms attesting to their permanent residence in Virginia. Given new state identity cards, the cards are used the next day to get Virginia identity cards for several (five to seven) additional hijackers, including Abdulaziz Alomari, Ahmed Alghamdi, Majed Moqed, and Salem Alhazmi. [[ | Arizona Daily Star, 9/28/01 ]] [[ | Washington Post, 9/30/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/wallstreetjournal101601.html | Wall Street Journal, 10/16/01 ]] ====== << otherHijackers >> << haniHanjour >> ((+ Luis Martinez-Flores )) ((+ Abdulaziz Alomari )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ Ahmed Alghamdi )) ((+ Majed Moqed )) ((+ Salem Alhazmi )) ((+ William Safire )) [[ | This Amhed Al-Ghamdi photo comes from his Virginia ID card, the only one publicly released by the 9/11 Commission. ]] August 2001 Russia Warns US of Suicide Pilots a0801putinwarning false 1 ------ Russian President Vladimir Putin warns the US that suicide pilots are training for attacks on US targets. [[,2933,53065,00.html | Fox News, 5/17/02 ]] ------ The head of Russian intelligence also later states, &#8220;We had clearly warned them&#8221; on several occasions, but they &#8220;did not pay the necessary attention.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/afp091601.html | Agence France-Presse, 9/16/01 ]] ------ A Russian newspaper on September 12, 2001, claims, &#8220;Russian Intelligence agents know the organizers and executors of these terrorist attacks. More than that, Moscow warned Washington about preparation to these actions a couple of weeks before they happened.&#8221; Interestingly, the article claims that at least two of the militants were Muslim radicals from Uzbekistan. [[ /timeline/2001/izvestia091201.html | Izvestia, 9/12/01 ]] ====== << warnings >> << foreignIntelligence >> ((+ Vladimir Putin )) August 2001 Bush Administration Rejects Plan to Capture Al-Zawahiri a0801alzawahirinotcaptured false 1 ------ The US receives intelligence that bin Laden's right-hand man, Ayman al-Zawahiri, is receiving medical treatment at a clinic in San'a, Yemen. However, the Bush administration rejects a plan to capture him, as officials are not 100 percent sure the patient is al-Zawahiri. Officials later regret the missed opportunity. [[ | ABC News, 2/20/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Bush administration )) ((+ Ayman al-Zawahiri )) [[ | Ayman al-Zawahiri. ]] August 1, 2001 Actor Communicates Concerns to Stewardess That Airplane Will Be Hijacked; Warning Forwarded to the FAA a080101woods false 1 ------ Actor James Woods, flying first class on an airplane, notices four Arabic-looking men, the only other people in the first class section. He concludes they are Islamic militants intent on hijacking the plane, acting very strangely (for instance, only talking in whispers). [[ | Boston Globe, 11/23/01 ]] ------ He tells a flight attendant, &#8220;I think this plane is going to be hijacked,&#8221; adding, &#8220;I know how serious it is to say this.&#8221; He conveys his worries to the pilots, and they assure him that the cockpit would be locked. [[ | New Yorker, 5/27/02 ]] ------ The flight staff later notifies the FAA about these suspicious individuals. Though the government will not discuss this event, it is highly unlikely that any action is taken regarding the flight staff's worries [[ | New Yorker, 5/27/02 ]] ------ Woods is not interviewed by the FBI until after 9/11. Woods says the FBI believes that all four men took part in the 9/11 attacks, and the flight he was on was a practice flight for them. [[ /timeline/2002/oreillyfactor021502.html | O'Reilly Factor, 2/14/02 ]] ------ Woods believes one was Khalid Almihdhar and another was Hamza Alghamdi. [[ | New Yorker, 5/27/02 ]] ------ The FBI later reports that this may have been one of a dozen test run flights starting as early as January. Flight attendants and passengers on other flights later recall men looking like the hijackers who took pictures of the cockpit aboard flights and/or took notes. [[ | Associated Press, 5/29/02 ]] ------ The FBI has not been able to find any evidence of hijackers on the flight manifest for Woods' flight. [[ | New Yorker, 5/27/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> << otherHijackers >> ((+ James Woods )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ Federal Aviation Administration )) ((- Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Hamza Alghamdi )) [[ | James Woods. ]] August 2001 Persian Gulf Informant Gives Ex-CIA Agent Information About &#8216;Spectacular Terrorist Operation&#8217; a0801gulfinformant false 1 ------ Former CIA agent Robert Baer is advising a prince in a Persian Gulf royal family, when a military associate of this prince passes information to him about a &#8220;spectacular terrorist operation&#8221; that will take place shortly. He is given a computer record of around 600 secret al-Qaeda operatives in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. The list includes ten names that will be placed on the FBI's most wanted terrorists list after 9/11. He is also given evidence that a Saudi merchant family had funded the USS Cole bombing on October 12, 2000, and that the Yemeni government is covering up information related to that bombing. At the military officer's request, he offers all this information to the Saudi Arabian government. However, an aide to the Saudi defense minister, Prince Sultan, refuses to look at the list or to pass the names on (Sultan is later sued for his complicity in the 9/11 plot in August 2002). Baer also passes the information on to a senior CIA official and the CIA's Counter Terrorism Center, but there is no response or action. Portions of Baer's book describing his experience are blacked out, having been censored by the CIA. [[ /timeline/2002/financialtimes011202.html | Financial Times, 1/12/02 ]] [[ | Baer, 2002, pp 55-58 ]] ====== << warnings >> << saudis >> << foreignIntelligence >> ((- Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ Saudi Arabia )) ((- Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ USS Cole )) ((+ Robert Baer )) August 1, 2001 Atta, Alshehhi, and Moussaoui Possibly Meet in Oklahoma City Motel a080101oklamotel false 1 ------ A motel owner in Oklahoma City later claims that Zacarias Moussaoui and hijackers Mohamed Atta and Marwan Alshehhi all come to his motel on this day. Although the FBI has investigated this lead, they have not commented on it, and prosecutors have not attempted to use the incident as evidence in their case against Moussaoui. It is widely admitted that the case against Moussaoui is not strong (for instance, Newsweek states: &#8220;there's nothing that shows Moussaoui ever had contact with any of the 9/11 hijackers&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/newsweek080502.html | Newsweek, 8/5/02 ]] ------ ). The LA Weekly speculates the FBI may want to ignore this lead because it &#8220;could force the FBI to reopen its investigation of Middle Eastern connections to the 1995 Oklahoma City blast, because convicted bombers Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols reportedly stayed at the same motel, interacting with a group of Iraqis during the weeks before the bombing.&#8221; [[ | La Weekly, 8/2/02 (B) ]] ====== << moussaoui >> ((+ Timothy McVeigh )) ((- Terry Nichols )) ((- Zacarias Moussaoui )) ((- Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Marwan Alshehhi )) ((+ Mohamed Atta )) August-October 2001 Britain Seeks Indian Assistance in Catching Saeed Sheikh a0801saeedcatch false 1 ------ British intelligence asks India for legal assistance in catching Saeed Sheikh sometime during August 2001. Saeed has been openly living in Pakistan since 1999 and has even traveled to Britain at least twice during that time, despite having kidnapped Britons and Americans in 1993 and 1994. [[ | Times of London, 4/21/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/vanityfair0802.html | Vanity Fair, 8/02 ]] ------ According to the Indian media, informants in Germany tell the internal security service there that Saeed helped fund hijacker Mohamed Atta. [[ /timeline/2001/frontline100601.html | Frontline, 10/6/01 ]] ------ On September 23, it is revealed, without explanation, that the British have asked India for help in finding Saeed. [[ /timeline/2001/londontimes092301.html | Times of London, 9/23/01 ]] ------ Saeed Sheikh's role in training the hijackers and financing the 9/11 attacks soon becomes public knowledge, though some elements are disputed. [[ | Daily Telegraph, 9/30/01 ]] [[ | CNN, 10/6/01 ]] [[ | CNN, 10/8/01 ]] ------ The Gulf News claims that the US freezes the assets of Pakistani militant group Jaish-e-Mohammed on October 12, 2001, because it has established links between Saeed Sheikh and 9/11. [[ /timeline/2001/gulfnews101101.html | Gulf News, 10/11/01 ]] ------ However, in October, an Indian magazine notes, &#8220;Curiously, there seems to have been little international pressure on Pakistan to hand [Saeed] over&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/frontline100601.html | Frontline, 10/6/01 ]] ------ , and the US does not formally ask Pakistan for help to find Saeed until January 2002. ====== << isi >> ((- Pakistan )) ((- Mohamed Atta )) ((+ India )) ((+ United States )) ((- Saeed Sheikh )) ((+ Jaish-e-Mohammed )) ((+ Britain )) Early August 2001 Mass Casualty Exercise at the Pentagon Includes a Plane Hitting the Building a0801masscasualtyexercise false 1 ------ A mass casualty exercise, involving a practice evacuation, is held at the Pentagon. General Lance Lord of US Air Force Space Command, one of the participants in the exercises, later recalls: &#8220;[It was] purely a coincidence, the scenario for that exercise included a plane hitting the building.&#8221; Lord will also say that on 9/11, &#8220;our assembly points were fresh in our minds&#8221; thanks to this practice. [[ | Air Force Space Command News Service, 9/5/02 ]] ====== << militaryExercises >> ((- Pentagon )) ((+ Lance Lord )) Early August 2001 Saeed Sheikh Receives Ransom Money; Sends $100,000 to Atta a0801ransommoney false 1 ------ The ransom for a wealthy Indian shoe manufacturer kidnapped in Calcutta, India, two weeks earlier is paid to an Indian gangster named Aftab Ansari. Ansari is based in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and has ties to the ISI and Saeed Sheikh. Ansari gives about $100,000 of the about $830,000 in ransom money to Saeed, who sends it to hijacker Mohamed Atta. [[,0,3136680.story | Los Angeles Times, 1/23/02 ]] [[ | Independent, 1/24/02 ]] ------ A series of recovered e-mails shows the money is sent just after August 11. This appears to be one of a series of Indian kidnappings this gang carries out in 2001. [[ /timeline/2002/indiatoday021402.html | India Today, 2/14/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/timesofindia021402.html | Times of India, 2/14/02 ]] ------ Saeed provides training and weapons to the kidnappers in return for a percentage of the profits. [[ | Frontline, 2/2/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/indiatoday022502.html | India Today, 2/25/02 ]] ====== << isi >> ((- Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) ((+ Mohamed Atta )) ((+ Aftab Ansari )) ((+ Saeed Sheikh )) August 2001 US Learns of Plot to Crash Airplane into US Embassy in Nairobi a0801nairobiplot false 1 ------ US intelligence learns of a plot to either bomb the US embassy in Nairobi, Kenya, from an airplane or crash an airplane into it. Two people who were reportedly acting on instructions from bin Laden met in October 2000 to discuss this plot. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry091802.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/18/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) August 2001 Moroccan Informant Warns US of Large Scale, Imminent Attack in New York a0801hassandabou false 1 ------ According to simultaneous reports in a French magazine and a Moroccan newspaper, a Moroccan agent named Hassan Dabou has penetrated al-Qaeda to the point of getting close to bin Laden by this time. Dabou claims he learns that bin Laden is &#8220;very disappointed&#8221; that the 1993 bombing had not toppled the WTC, and plans &#8220;large scale operations in New York in the summer or fall of 2001.&#8221; Dabou is called to the US to report this information directly, and in so doing blows his cover, losing his ability to gather more intelligence. The International Herald Tribune later calls the story &#8220;not proved beyond a doubt&#8221; but intriguing, and asks the CIA to confirm or deny the story. The CIA has refused to do so. [[ /timeline/2001/afp112201.html | Agence France-Presse, 11/22/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/iht052102.html | International Herald Tribune, 5/21/02 ]] [[,,3-324191,00.html | Times of London, 6/12/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> << foreignIntelligence >> ((- World Trade Center )) ((+ Hassan Dabou )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ al-Qaeda )) August 1, 2001 FBI Reissues Warning That Overseas Law Enforcement Agencies May Be Targets a080101reissues false 1 ------ With the approaching third anniversary of the US embassy bombings in Africa, the FBI reissues a warning that overseas law enforcement agencies may be targets. [[ | CNN, 3/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) Early August 2001 Government Informant Warns Congressmen of Plan to Attack the WTC a0801glass false 1 ------ Randy Glass, a former con artist turned government informant, later claims that he contacts the staff of Senator Bob Graham [D] and Representative Robert Wexler [D] at this time and warns them of a plan to attack the WTC, but his warnings are ignored. [[ /timeline/2002/palmbeachpost101702.html | Palm Beach Post, 10/17/02 ]] ------ Glass also tells the media at this time that his recently concluded informant work has &#8220;far greater ramifications than have so far been revealed,&#8221; and, &#8220;potentially, thousands of lives [are] at risk.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/sunsentinel080701.html | South Florida Sun-Sentinel, 8/7/01 ]] ------ Glass was a key informant in a sting operation involving ISI agents who were illegally trying to purchase sophisticated US military weaponry in return for cash and heroin. He later claims that in July 1999, one ISI agent named Rajaa Gulum Abbas pointed to the WTC and said, &#8220;Those towers are coming down.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/palmbeachpost101702.html | Palm Beach Post, 10/17/02 ]] ------ Most details apparently remain sealed. For instance Glass claims that his sealed sentencing document dated June 15, 2001, lists threats against the WTC and Americans. [[ /timeline/2002/wpbf080502.html | WPBF Channel 25, 8/5/02 ]] ------ Florida State Senator Ron Klein, who had dealings with Glass before 9/11, later says he is surprised it took so many months for the US to listen to Glass: &#8220;Shame on us.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/palmbeachpost101702.html | Palm Beach Post, 10/17/02 ]] ------ Klein recalls getting a warning from Glass, though he cannot recall if it mentions the WTC specifically. He says he was told US intelligence agencies would look into it. [[ /timeline/2002/wptv100702.html | WPTV, 10/7/02 ]] ------ Senator Graham later acknowledges that his office had contact with Glass before 9/11, and was told about a WTC attack: &#8220;I was concerned about that and a dozen other pieces of information which emanated from the summer of 2001.&#8221; However, Graham will say that he personally was unaware of Glass's information until after 9/11. [[ /timeline/2002/palmbeachpost101702.html | Palm Beach Post, 10/17/02 ]] ------ In October 2002, Glass will testify under oath before a private session of the 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, stating, &#8220;I told [the inquiry] I have specific evidence, and I can document it.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/palmbeachpost101702.html | Palm Beach Post, 10/17/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> << randyGlass >> ((+ Robert Wexler )) ((- Rajaa Gulum Abbas )) ((- Ron Klein )) ((+ Randy Glass )) ((- World Trade Center )) ((+ Bob Graham )) [[ | Randy Glass. ]] Early August 2001 CIA's Concern over Planned bin Laden Strikes Inside US Are Heightened a0801heightened false 1 ------ The Associated Press later reports that the &#8220;CIA had developed general information a month before the attacks that heightened concerns that bin Laden and his followers were increasingly determined to strike on US soil.&#8221; A CIA official affirms, &#8220;[t]here was something specific in early August that said to us that [bin Laden] was determined in striking on US soil.&#8221; [[ | Associated Press, 10/3/01 ]] ====== << warnings >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) August 2001 Six Hijackers Live Near Entrance to NSA a0801nsaentrance false 1 ------ At least six 9/11 hijackers, including all of those who boarded Flight 77, live in Laurel, Maryland, from about this time. They reportedly include Hani Hanjour, Majed Moqed, Khalid Almihdhar, Nawaf Alhazmi, and Salem Alhazmi. Laurel, Maryland, is home to a Muslim cleric named Moataz Al-Hallak who teaches at a local Islamic school and has been linked to bin Laden. He has testified three times before a grand jury investigating bin Laden. NSA expert James Bamford later states, &#8220;The terrorist cell that eventually took over the airliner that crashed into the Pentagon ended up living, working, planning and developing all their activities in Laurel, Maryland, which happens to be the home of the NSA. So they were actually living alongside NSA employees as they were plotting all these things.&#8221; [[ | Washington Post, 9/19/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/bbc062102.html | BBC, 6/21/02 ]] ====== << otherHijackers >> << haniHanjour >> << alhazmiAndAlmihdhar >> ((+ William Safire )) ((+ Salem Alhazmi )) ((+ Majed Moqed )) ((+ Nawaf Alhazmi )) ((+ Khalid Almihdhar )) ((+ National Security Agency )) ((- Pentagon )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Moataz Al-Hallak )) Early August 2001 Britain Warns US Again; Specifies Multiple Airplane Hijackings a0801british false 1 ------ Britain gives the US another warning about an al-Qaeda attack. The previous British warning on July 16, 2001 (see [[ a071601britishwarning ]]), was vague as to method, but this warning specifies multiple airplane hijackings. This warning is said to reach President Bush. [[ | Sunday Herald, 5/19/02 ]] ====== << warnings >> << foreignIntelligence >> ((+ al-Qaeda )) ((+ George W. Bush )) August 2, 2001 US Official Secretly Meets Taliban Ambassador in Last Attempt to Secure Pipeline Deal a080201rocca false 1 ------ Christina Rocca, Director of Asian Affairs at the State Department, secretly meets the Taliban ambassador in Islamabad, apparently in a last ditch attempt to secure a pipeline deal. Rocca was previously in charge of contacts with Islamic guerrilla groups at the CIA, and oversaw the delivery of Stinger missiles to Afghan mujahedeen in the 1980s. [[ /timeline/2001/irishtimes111901.html | Irish Times, 11/19/01 ]] [[ | Salon, 2/8/02 ]] [[ | Brisard, Dasquie and Madsen, 2002, pp 45 ]] ====== << pipelinePolitics >> ((+ Taliban )) ((+ Christina Rocca )) August 4, 2001 Nothing New in Bush Letter to Pakistani President a080401pakistaniletter false 1 ------ President Bush sends a letter to Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf, warning him about supporting the Taliban. However, the tone is similar to past requests dating to the Clinton administration. There had been some discussion that US policy toward Pakistan should change. For instance, at the end of June, counterterrorism &#8220;tsar&#8221; Richard Clarke &#8220;urged that the United States [should] think about what it would do after the next attack, and then take that position with Pakistan now, before the attack.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommission032404.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 ]] ------ Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage later acknowledges that a new approach to Pakistan is not yet implemented by 9/11. (( Richard Armitage )) [[ /timeline/2004/independentcommission032404.html | 9/11 Commission Report, 3/24/04 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> << isi >> ((- Taliban )) ((- Clinton administration )) ((+ Richard A. Clarke )) ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ Pervez Musharraf )) August 4, 2001 Possible 20th Hijacker Denied Entry to US a080401maybe20thhijacker false 1 ------ A Saudi named Mohammed Al-Qahtani is stopped at the Orlando, Florida, airport and denied entry to the US. Jose Melendez-Perez, the customs official who stops him, later says he was suspicious of Al-Qahtani because he had arrived with no return ticket, no hotel reservations, spoke little English, behaved menacingly, and offered conflicting information on the purpose of his travel. At one point, Al-Qahtani said that someone was waiting for him elsewhere at the airport. After 9/11, surveillance cameras show that Mohamed Atta was at the Orlando airport that day. 9/11 Commissioner Richard Ben-Veniste says: &#8220;It is extremely possible and perhaps probable that [Al-Qahtani] was to be the 20th hijacker.&#8221; Al-Qahtani boards a return flight to Saudi Arabia. He is later captured in Afghanistan and sent to a US military prison at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Melendez-Perez says that before 9/11, customs officials were discouraged by their superiors from hassling Saudi travelers, who were seen as big spenders. [[ /timeline/2004/latimes012704.html | Los Angeles Times, 1/27/04 ]] ====== << otherHijackers >> << mohamedAtta >> ((+ Mohammed Al-Qahtani )) ((+ Mohamed Atta )) [[ | Customs agent Jose Melendez-Perez. ]] August 4-30, 2001 Bush Nearly Sets Record for Longest Presidential Vacation a080401bushvacation false 1 ------ President Bush spends most of August 2001 at his Crawford, Texas, ranch, nearly setting a record for the longest presidential vacation. While it is billed a &#8220;working vacation,&#8221; news organizations report that Bush is doing &#8220;nothing much&#8221; aside from his regular daily intelligence briefings. [[ /timeline/2001/abcnews080301.html | ABC News, 8/3/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/wpost080701.html | Washington Post, 8/7/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/salon082901.html | Salon, 8/29/01 ]] ------ One such unusually long briefing at the start of his trip is a warning that bin Laden is planning to attack in the US (see [[ a080601ranchmemo ]]), but Bush spends the rest of that day fishing. By the end of his trip, Bush has spent 42 percent of his presidency at vacation spots or en route. [[ /timeline/2001/wpost080701.html | Washington Post, 8/7/01 ]] ------ At the time, a poll shows that 55 percent of Americans say Bush is taking too much time off. [[ /timeline/2001/usatoday080701.html | USA Today, 8/7/01 ]] ------ Vice President Cheney also spends the entire month in a remote location in Wyoming. [[ | Jackson Hole News and Guide, 8/15/01 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ George W. Bush )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((+ Richard ("Dick") Cheney )) August 6, 2001 Perle's Concern About Iraq, North Korea, and Iran Before 9/11 Becomes Axis of Evil Afterward a080601preaxis false 1 ------ Richard Perle, head of the Defense Policy Board and foreign policy adviser to Bush, is asked about new challenges now that the Cold War is over. He cites three: &#8220;We're concerned about Saddam Hussein, We're concerned about the North Koreans, about some future Iranian government that may have the weapon they're now trying so hard to acquire...&#8221; [[ | Australian Broadcasting Corp., 8/6/01 ]] ------ Note that these three nations are the same three named in Bush's famous January 2002 &#8220;axis of evil&#8221; speech. [[ | CNN, 1/29/02 ]] ====== << iraq >> << pre911Plans >> ((- North Korea )) ((- Saddam Hussein )) ((- Iran )) ((+ Richard Perle )) August 6, 2001 Justice Department Reaffirms Wall Policy a080601wallpolicy false 1 ------ In testimony before the 9/11 Commission, Attorney General Ashcroft complains, &#8220;[T]he single greatest structural cause for September 11 was the wall that segregated criminal investigators and intelligence agents.&#8221; However, on this day, Ashcroft's Assistant Attorney General, Larry Thompson, writes a memo reaffirming the policy that is later criticized as this &#8220;wall.&#8221; [[ | 9/11 Commission Thompson Testimony, 12/8/03 ]] [[ | Washington Post, 4/18/04 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- John Ashcroft )) ((+ 9/11 Commission )) After August 6, 2001 &#8216;Bin Laden Determined to Strike in US&#8217; Memo Is Not Acted Upon aafter080601noaction false 1 ------ The 9/11 Commission will later state that after the now famous &#8220;bin Laden Determined to Strike in US&#8221; memo is given to President Bush on August 6, 2001 (see [[ a080601ranchmemo ]]), &#8220;We have found no indication of any further discussion before September 11 among the president and his top advisers of the possibility of a threat of an al-Qaeda attack in the United States.&#8221; [[ | Newsweek, 4/28/05 ]] ------ 9/11 Commissioner Bob Kerrey will later state to CNN,&#8220;[B]y the way, there's a credible case that the president's own negligence prior to 9/11 at least in part contributed to the disaster in the first place. ... [I]n the summer of 2001, the government ignored repeated warnings by the CIA, ignored, and didn't do anything to harden our border security, didn't do anything to harden airport country, didn't do anything to engage local law enforcement, didn't do anything to round up INS and consular offices and say we have to shut this down, and didn't warn the American people. The famous presidential daily briefing on August 6, we say in the report that the briefing officers believed that there was a considerable sense of urgency and it was current. So there was a case to be made that wasn't made. ... The president says, if I had only known that 19 Islamic men would come into the United States of America and on the morning of 11 September hijack four American aircraft, fly two into the World Trade Center, one into the Pentagon, and one into an unknown Pennsylvania that crashed in Shanksville, I would have moved heaven and earth. That's what he said. Mr. President, you don't need to know that. This is an Islamic Jihadist movement that has been organized since the early 1990s, declared war on the United States twice, in '96 and '98. You knew they were in the United States. You were warned by the CIA. You knew in July they were inside the United States. You were told again by briefing officers in August that it was a dire threat. And what did you do? Nothing, so far as we could see on the 9/11 Commission.&#8221; [[ | CNN, 11/8/04 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- George W. Bush )) ((+ Bush administration )) ((- World Trade Center )) ((- Pentagon )) ((- Central Intelligence Agency )) [[ | Bush being briefed at his ranch on August 6, 2001. ]] August 6, 2001 Suspicious Trading of Companies Affected by 9/11 May Begin by This Date a080601suspicioustrading false 1 ------ Insider trading based on advanced knowledge of the 9/11 attacks may have begun on this date, if not earlier. Investigators later discover a large number of put option purchases (a speculation that the stock will go down) that expire on September 30 at the Chicago Board Options Exchange are bought on this date. If exercised, these options would have led to large profits. One analyst later says, &#8220;From what I'm hearing, it's more than coincidence.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2001/reuters092001.html | Reuters, 9/20/01 ]] ====== << insiderTrading >> ((+ Chicago Board Options Exchange )) August 6, 2001 Bush Briefing Titled Bin Laden Determined to Strike in US a080601ranchmemo false 1 ------ President Bush receives a classified intelligence briefing at his Crawford, Texas ranch indicating that bin Laden might be planning to hijack commercial airliners. The memo provided to him is titled &#8220;bin Laden Determined to Strike in US&#8221; The entire memo focuses on the possibility of terrorist attacks inside the US. [[ | Newsweek, 5/27/02 ]] [[ | New York Times, 5/15/02 ]] ------ Incredibly, the New York Times later reports that Bush &#8220;[breaks] off from work early and [spends] most of the day fishing.&#8221; [[ | New York Times, 5/25/02 ]] ------ The existence of this memo is kept secret, until it is leaked in May 2002, causing a storm of controversy. While National Security Adviser Rice claims the memo is only one and a half pages long; other accounts state it is 11 1/2 pages instead of the usual two or three. [[ | Newsweek, 5/27/02 ]] [[ | New York Times, 5/15/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/diezeit100102.html | Die Zeit, 10/1/02 ]] ------ She disingenuously asserts that, &#8220;It was an analytic report that talked about [bin Laden]'s methods of operation, talked about what he had done historically, in 1997, in 1998. ... I want to reiterate, it was not a warning. There was no specific time, place, or method mentioned.&#8221; [[ | White House, 5/16/02 ]] ------ A page and a half of the contents are released on April 10, 2004, after Rice testifies before the 9/11 Commission. [[ | Washington Post, 4/10/04 ]] ------ Rice testifies that the memo is mostly historic regarding bin Laden's previous activities, and she says it contains no specific information that would have prevented an attack. The memo, as released, states as follows: --- * --- Clandestine, foreign government, and media reports indicate bin Laden since 1997 has wanted to conduct terrorist attacks in the US. Bin Laden implied in US television interviews in 1997 and 1998 that his followers would follow the example of World Trade Center bomber Ramzi Yousef and "bring the fighting to America." --- * --- After US missile strikes on his base in Afghanistan in 1998, bin Laden told followers he wanted to retaliate in Washington, according to a -REDACTED-service. --- * --- An Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ) operative told -REDACTED- service at the same time that bin Laden was planning to exploit the operative's access to the US to mount a terrorist strike. --- * --- The millennium plotting in Canada in 1999 may have been part of bin Laden's first serious attempt to implement a terrorist strike in the US. Convicted plotter Ahmed Ressam has told the FBI that he conceived the idea to attack Los Angeles International Airport himself, but that in ---, Laden lieutenant Abu Zubaida encouraged him and helped facilitate the operation. Ressam also said that in 1998 Abu Zubaida was planning his own US attack. --- * --- Ressam says bin Laden was aware of the Los Angeles operation. --- * --- Although bin Laden has not succeeded, his attacks against the US Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in 1998 demonstrate that he prepares operations years in advance and is not deterred by setbacks. Bin Laden associates surveyed our embassies in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam as early as 1993, and some members of the Nairobi cell planning the bombings were arrested and deported in 1997. --- * --- Al Qaeda members -- including some who are US citizens -- have resided in or traveled to the US for years, and the group apparently maintains a support structure that could aid attacks. Two al-Qaeda members found guilty in the conspiracy to bomb our embassies in East Africa were US citizens, and a senior EIJ member lived in California in the mid-1990s. --- * --- A clandestine source said in 1998 that a bin Laden cell in New York was recruiting Muslim-American youth for attacks. --- * --- We have not been able to corroborate some of the more sensational threat reporting, such as that from a -REDACTED- service in 1998 saying that bin Laden wanted to hijack a US aircraft to gain the release of "Blind Sheikh" Omar Abdel Rahman and other US-held extremists. --- * --- Nevertheless, FBI information since that time indicates patterns of suspicious activity in this country consistent with preparations for hijackings or other types of attacks, including recent surveillance of federal buildings in New York. --- * --- The FBI is conducting approximately 70 full-field investigations throughout the US that it considers bin Laden-related. CIA and the FBI are investigating a call to our embassy in the UAE in May saying that a group or bin Laden supporters was in the US planning attacks with explosives. [[ | 9/11 Commission, 7/22/2004 ]] ------ The 9/11 Congressional Inquiry calls it &#8220;a closely held intelligence report for senior government officials&#8221; presented in early August 2001. [[ /timeline/2003/congressreportparta072403.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 7/24/03 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> << warnings >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- Los Angeles International Airport )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((- Ramzi Yousef )) ((- Ahmed Ressam )) ((- 9/11 Commission )) ((- Abu Zubaida )) ((+ George W. Bush )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) ((+ Condoleezza Rice )) ((- Egyptian Islamic Jihad )) ((- World Trade Center )) [[ | President Bush at his Crawford, Texas, ranch on August 6, 2001. Advisors wait with classified briefings. ]] August 7, 2001 Version of Bush's al-Qaeda Briefing Is Incomplete, Poorly Distributed a080701poorlydistributed false 1 ------ One day after Bush receives a Presidential Daily Briefing entitled, &#8220;bin Laden Determined to Strike in US,&#8221; a version of the same material is given to other top government officials. However, this Senior Executive Intelligence Brief (SEIB) does not contain the most important information from Bush's briefing. It does not mention that there are 70 FBI investigations into possible al-Qaeda activity, does not mention a May 2001 threat of US-based explosives attacks, and does not mention FBI concerns about recent surveillance of buildings in New York City. Typically, this type of memo &#8220;goes to scores of Cabinet-agency officials from the assistant secretary level up and does not include raw intelligence or sensitive information about ongoing law enforcement matters,&#8221; according to the Associated Press. Some members of Congress later express concern that policy makers were given an incomplete view of the terrorist threat. [[,1282,-3970551,00.html | Associated Press, 4/13/04 (B) ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((- Osama bin Laden )) ((- al-Qaeda )) ((- George W. Bush )) ((+ Bush administration )) ((- Federal Bureau of Investigation )) August 8-15, 2001 Israel Reportedly Warns of Major Assault on the US a0801mossadwarning false 1 ------ At some point between these dates, Israel warns the US that an al-Qaeda attack is imminent. [[,2933,53065,00.html | Fox News, 5/17/02 ]] ------ Reportedly, two high-ranking agents from the Mossad come to Washington and warn the FBI and CIA that from 50 to 200 terrorists have slipped into the US and are planning &#8220;a major assault on the United States.&#8221; They say indications point to a &#8220;large scale target,&#8221; and that Americans would be &#8220;very vulnerable.&#8221; They add there could be Iraqi connections to the al-Qaeda attack. [[ | Daily Telegraph, 9/16/01 ]] [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/20/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2001/ottawacitizen091701.html | Ottawa Citizen, 9/17/01 ]] ------ The Los Angeles Times later retracts its story after a CIA spokesperson says, &#8220;There was no such warning. Allegations that there was are complete and utter nonsense.&#8221; [[ | Los Angeles Times, 9/21/01 (B) ]] ------ Other newspapers do not retract it. ====== << israel >> << warnings >> << foreignIntelligence >> ((- al-Qaeda )) ((+ Israel Institute for Intelligence and Special Tasks )) ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Central Intelligence Agency )) August 13-15, 2001 Moussaoui Immediately Raises Suspicions at Flight School a081301moussaoui false 1 ------ Zacarias Moussaoui trains at the Pan Am International Flight School in Minneapolis, Minnesota, where he pays $8,300 ($1500 by credit card and the remainder in cash) to use a Boeing 474 Model 400 aircraft simulator. After just one day of training most of the staff is suspicious that he is a terrorist, especially after they discuss with him &#8220;how much fuel [is] on board a 747-400 and how much damage that could cause if it hit[s] anything.&#8221; Staff members call the FBI with their concerns later that day. [[ | New York Times, 2/8/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry101702.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 10/17/02 ]] ------ They are suspicious because: --- * --- In contrast to all the other students at this high-level flight school, he has no aviation background, little previous training, and no pilot's license. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry101702.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 10/17/02 ]] --- * --- He wants to fly a 747 not because he plans to be a pilot, but as an &#8220;ego boosting thing.&#8221; [[ | New York Times, 10/18/02 ]] ------ Yet within hours of his arrival, it is clear he &#8220;was not some affluent joyrider.&#8221; [[ | New York Times, 2/8/02 ]] --- * --- He is &#8220;extremely&#8221; interested in the operation of the plane's doors and control panel. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry101702.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 10/17/02 ]] ------ He also is very keen to learn the protocol for communicating with the flight tower, despite having no plans to become an actual pilot. [[ | New York Times, 2/8/02 ]] --- * --- He is evasive and belligerent when asked about his background. When an instructor, who notes from his records that Moussaoui is from France, attempts to greet him in French, Moussaoui appears not to understand, saying that he had spent very little time in France and that he is from the Middle East. The instructor considers it odd that Moussaoui did not specify the Middle Eastern country. [[ | Minneapolis Star-Tribune, 12/21/01 ]] [[;node=&amp;contentId=A49567-2002Jan1&amp;notFound=true | Washington Post, 1/2/02 ]] --- * --- He tells a flight instructor he is not a Muslim, but the instructor senses he is lying about this. [[ | New Yorker, 9/30/02 ]] --- * --- He says he would &#8220;love&#8221; to fly a simulated flight from London to New York, raising fears he has plans to hijack such a flight. [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry101702.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 10/17/02 ]] ------ His original e-mail to the flight school similarly stated he wanted to be good enough to fly from London to New York. [[ | New York Times, 2/8/02 ]] --- * --- He pays for thousands of dollars in expenses from a large wad of cash. [[ | New York Times, 2/8/02 ]] --- * --- He seems determined to pack a large amount of training in a short period for no apparent reason. [[ | New York Times, 2/8/02 ]] --- * --- He mostly practices flying in the air, not taking off or landing (although reports claiming he did not want to take off or land at all appear to be an exaggeration). [[ | New York Times, 2/8/02 ]] [[ | Slate, 5/21/02 ]] [[ | Minneapolis Star-Tribune, 12/21/01 ]] [[ | New York Times, 5/22/02 ]] ------ Failing to get much initial interest from the FBI, the flight instructor tells the FBI agents, &#8220;Do you realize how serious this is? This man wants training on a 747. A 747 fully loaded with fuel could be used as a weapon!&#8221; [[ | New York Times, 2/8/02 ]] ====== << moussaoui >> ((+ Federal Bureau of Investigation )) ((+ Pan Am International Flight School )) ((+ Zacarias Moussaoui )) August 14, 2001 Atta's Hamburg Associates Purchase Tickets to Pakistan a081401twoalgerians false 1 ------ Two apparent associates of Mohamed Atta's Hamburg al-Qaeda cell, Ismail Ben Mrabete and Ahmed Taleb, purchase tickets to fly to Pakistan on September 3, 2001. They will be joined on that flight by cell member Said Bahaji. All three will disappear into Afghanistan thereafter. It is later discovered that Taleb had been in e-mail contact with al-Qaeda leader Abu Zubaida. [[ | Chicago Tribune, 2/25/03 ]] ------ Note that these purchases occur one day before Zacarias Moussaoui's arrest in Minnesota, suggesting the date for the 9/11 attacks was set before his arrest (see [[ a081501moussaouiarrest ]]). ====== << alQaedaInGermany >> ((+ Abu Zubaida )) ((+ Said Bahaji )) ((+ Ismail Ben Mrabete )) ((+ Ahmed Taleb )) Mid-August 2001 August 15, 2001 Afghan Leader Organizes Taliban Resistance Without US Support a0801haq false 1 ------ Abdul Haq, a famous Afghan leader of the mujahedeen, returns to Peshawar, Pakistan, from the US. Having failed to gain US support, except for that of some private individuals such as former National Security Adviser Robert McFarlane, Haq begins organizing subversive operations in Afghanistan. [[,0,3294256.story | Los Angeles Times, 10/28/01 (B) ]] [[ | Wall Street Journal, 11/2/01 ]] ------ He is later killed entering Afghanistan in October 2001, after his position is reportedly betrayed to the Taliban by the ISI. ====== << huntForBinLaden >> ((+ Pakistan Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence )) ((+ Robert C. McFarlane )) ((+ Taliban )) ((+ Abdul Haq )) August 15, 2001 CIA Counterterrorism Head: We Are Going to Be Struck Soon a081601coferblack false 1 ------ Cofer Black, head of the CIA's Counter Terrorism Center, says in a speech to the Department of Defense's annual Convention of Counterterrorism, &#8220;We are going to be struck soon, many Americans are going to die, and it could be in the US.&#8221; Black later complains that top leaders are unwilling to act at this time unless they are given &#8220;such things as the attack is coming within the next few days and here is what they are going to hit.&#8221; [[ | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 9/26/02 (B) ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> << warnings >> ((+ Cofer Black )) [[ | Cofer Black. ]] August 15, 2001 Moussaoui Is Arrested; FBI Headquarters Uninterested a081501moussaouiarrest false 1 ------ Based on the concerns of flight school staff, Zacarias Moussaoui is arrested and detained in Minnesota on the excuse of an immigration violation. [[ | Time, 5/27/02 ]] ------ The FBI confiscates his possessions, including a computer laptop, but does not have a search warrant to search through them. When arresting him, they note that he possesses two knives, fighting gloves, and shin guards, and has prepared &#8220;through physical training for violent confrontation.&#8221; An FBI interview of him adds more concerns. For example, he states that he is in the US working as a &#8220;marketing consultant&#8221; for a computer company, but is unable to provide any details of his employment. Nor can he convincingly explain his $32,000 bank balance. [[ /timeline/2001/msnbc121101.html | MSNBC, 12/11/01 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/congressionalinquiry101702.html | 9/11 Congressional Inquiry, 10/17/02 ]] ------ An FBI report states that when asked about his trips to Pakistan, &#8220;the questioning caused him to become extremely agitated, and he refused to discuss the matter further.&#8221; The report also notes, &#8220;Moussaoui was extremely evasive in many of his answers.&#8221; [[ | CNN, 9/28/02 ]] ------ His roommate is interviewed on the same day, and tells agents that Moussaoui believes it is &#8220;acceptable to kill civilians who harm Muslims,&#8221; that Moussaoui approves of Muslims who die as &#8220;martyrs, and that Moussaoui might be willing to act on his beliefs.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/wpost052402.html | Washington Post, 5/24/02 ]] ------ Minnesota FBI agents quickly become frustrated at the lack of interest in the case from higher ups, and grow increasingly concerned. [[ | New York Times, 2/8/02 ]] ====== << moussaoui >> ((+ FBI Minnesota field office )) ((+ FBI Headquarters )) ((+ Zacarias Moussaoui )) [[ | Zacarias Moussaoui. ]] August 15-28, 2001 Moussaoui Arrest Raises Serious Concerns of Airplane-based Attack with Local FBI; Washington Headquarters Ignores Pleas for Search Warrant Until After 9/11 complete_911_timeline_081501arrest false 1 ------ See chapter 10. ====== << warnings >> August 16, 2001 FAA Issues Warning; Airlines Say Warning Not Received a081601faawarning false 1 ------ The FAA issues a warning to airlines concerning disguised weapons. According to later testimony by National Security Adviser Rice, the FAA is concerned about reports that the terrorists have made breakthroughs in disguising weapons as cell phones, key chains, and pens. (( Condoleezza Rice )) [[ | CNN, 3/02 ]] [[ /timeline/2002/reuters051602.html | Reuters, 5/16/02 ]] ------ However, the major airlines later deny receiving such notification. For instance, a Delta spokesperson states: &#8220;We were not aware of any warnings or notifications of any specific threats.&#8221; [[ /timeline/2002/foxnews051602.html | Fox News, 5/16/02 ]] ====== << counterterrorismBefore911 >> ((+ Federal Aviation Administration )) August 17 and 31, 2001 Tenet Briefs President Bush; Fails to Mention Moussaoui complete_911_timeline-636 false 1 ------ CIA records show that Tenet briefed the president twice in August&#8212;once in Crawford, Texas, on August 17, and once in Washington, on August 31. By the time of the second briefing, Tenet is aware of Zacarias Moussaoui's arrest <ref key="a081501moussaouiarrest"/>, but, apparently, he fails to tell Bush about it. [[ | Washington Post, 4/15/04 (B) ]] ------ In April 2004, Tenet will testify under oath before the 9/11 Commission that he had no direct communication with President Bush during the month of August. [[;position= | New York Times, 4/15/04 ]] ------ This is quickly discovered to be untrue. A CIA spokesperson will then claim, &#8220;He momentarily forgot [about the briefings].&#8221; [[ | Washington Post, 4/15/04 (B) ]] ====== << moussaoui >> ((- 9/11 Commission )) ((- Zacarias Moussaoui )) ((+ George Tenet )) ((+ George W. Bush )) August 19, 2001 FBI's Best al-Qaeda Expert Under Investigation for Trivial Issue, His Resignation Soon Follows a081901timessmear false