US-Brazil (1961-2003) US-Brazil (1961-2003) brazil us_interventions_project 1961 brazil_1661 false 1 ------ Janio da Silva Quadros is elected president by a record margin. He mysteriously resigns, reportedly under military pressure. Joao Goulart, the vice-president, succeeds Quadros as president and aims to continue Quadros' independent foreign policy [[ | Blum, 2000 ]] ------ Joao Goulart is no communist. He is described as a “millionaire landowner and a Catholic who wears a medal of the Virgin around his neck.” He receives “a ticker-tape parade in New York City in April, and toasts the US ambassador, ‘To the Yankee Victory!’ after the ‘Cuban Missile Crisis’ in October.” [[ | Blum, 2000 ]] [[ | Lormand, n.d. ]] ====== ((+ Jo ̄o Goulart )) ((+ J¬nio da Silva Quadros )) 1962 brazil_1662 false 1 ------ Joao Goulart wins the presidency despite the CIA spending close to $20 million in an effort to thwart his election. [[ | Counterspy, 4/1979, pgs. 4-23 ]] ====== ((+ Jo ̄o Goulart )) 1962-1964 brazil_1663 false 1 ------ The CIA conducts an intensive propaganda campaign against Joao Goulart which dates from at least the 1962 election operation and which includes the financing of mass urban demonstrations. [[ | Blum, 2000 ]] ====== ((+ Jo ̄o Goulart )) 1964-1985 brazil_1667 false 1 ------ The US House Committee on Foreign Affairs will report in 1974: “[General Castelo Branco] shuts down Congress, virtually extinguishes political opposition, suspends habeas corpus for ‘political crimes,’ forbids by law criticism of the dictator, takes over labor unions, institutes police and military firing into protesting crowds, burns down peasant homes, [and] brutalizes priests, ....” [[ | US House Committee on Foreign Affairs, 12/11/74 cited in Lormand, n.d. ]] ------ Amnesty International also reports on the regime in Brazil: “Tortures range from simple but brutal blows from a truncheon to electric shocks. Often the torture is more refined: the end of a reed is placed in the anus of a naked man hanging suspended downwards on the pau de arara [parrot's perch] and a piece of cotton soaked in petrol is lit at the other end of the reed. Pregnant women have been forced to watch their husbands being tortured. Other wives have been hung naked beside their husbands and given electric shocks on the sexual parts of their body, while subjected to the worst kind of obscenities. Children have been tortured before their parents and vice versa. At least one child, the three month old baby of Virgilio Gomes da Silva was reported to have died under police torture. The length of sessions depends upon the resistance capacity of the victims and have sometimes continued for days at a time.” [[ | Blum, 2000 ]] ------ “The official Washington line was ... yes, it's unfortunate that democracy has been overthrown in Brazil ... but, still, the country has been saved from communism.” [[ | The Guardian, 7/19/2000 ]] ====== ((+ Humberto Castelo Branco )) 1964 brazil_1666 false 1 ------ Readers Digest reports on the coup: “Seldom has a major nation come closer to the brink of disaster and yet recovered than did Brazil in its recent triumph over Red subversion. The communist drive for domination-marked by propaganda, infiltration, terror-was moving in high gear. Total surrender seemed imminent—and then the people said ‘No!’ ” [[ | Blum, 2000 ]] ------ The Washington Post reports a rather different story: “In 1964, with US Ambassador Lincoln Gordon's promises of immediate recognition and petroleum support, and with a US Navy task force—an aircraft carrier, destroyers, guided missiles—in Brazilian coastal waters, US-armed elements in the military advance upon Rio with troops and tanks. Not wanting to be responsible for bloodshed among Brazilians, Goulart refuses to call on loyalist forces and flees to Uruguay.” [[ | The Washington Post, 4/3/64 cited in Lormand, n.d. ]] ====== ((+ Readers Digest )) ((+ Washington Post )) Early 1964 brazil_1664 false 1 ------ Joao Goulart nationalizes oil, expropriates unused land, and passes a law limiting the amount of profits multinationals can send out of the country. [[ | Counterspy, 4/1979, pgs. 4-23 ]] ====== ((+ Jo ̄o Goulart )) March 1964 brazil_1665 false 1 ------ A CIA-backed military coup overthrows the government of Joao Goulart. [[ | Counterspy, 4/1979, pgs. 4-23 ]] ====== ((+ Jo ̄o Goulart )) 2003 brazil_1668 false 1 ------ US President George W. Bush's brother Jeb Bush makes a large contribution to the Cancun World Trade talks,defending the US's tariff on orange juice which protects Florida's citrus industry. In 1985, the US had imported half a billion gallons of orange juice from Brazil, and 20 million gallons from the rest of the world. These figures now stand at 150 million gallons and 100 million gallons respectively as a result of the tariffs. Another Bush family member, brother Marvin Bush, may be able to explain Jeb's interest in these subsidies—he holds 30,000 shares in a business which is directly dependent on continued Brazilian tariffs to keep its business. [[ | Guerrilla News Network, 10/15/2003 ]] ====== ((+ Washington Post )) ((+ John Ellis ("Jeb") Bush ))