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Profile: Emmanuel “Toto” Constant

 
  

Positions that Emmanuel “Toto” Constant has held:

  • Leader of the Haitian FRAPH paramilitary group


 

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Emmanuel “Toto” Constant actively participated in the following events:

 
  

October 31, 1991-October 15, 1994      Haiti, Haiti Coup

       In Haiti, the Front for the Advancement of Progress of the Haitian People (FRAPH) overthrows the government while Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide is on a visit to the UN in New York. The group rules as a repressive military regime until 1994 when a US-led UN intervention puts Aristide back in power (see September 19, 1994-October 15, 1994) [Observer, 3/2/2004; Rogozinski, 1992] The junta is responsible for the massacre of hundreds—or by some estimates, thousands—of dissidents. [Observer, 3/2/2004; The Jamaica Observer, 3/7/2004; Resource Center of the Americas, 2/24/2004] The leader of the group is Emmanuel “Toto” Constant, who later acknowledges he had support from the CIA. “Emmanuel Constant is widely alleged, and himself claims, to have been in the pay of, and under the orders of, the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) during the coup period,” Amnesty International will later report. The amount paid to Constant by the CIA during this period is $500/month. [Amnesty International, 2/7/1996; Observer, 3/7/2004; Center for Constitutional Rights, 2/18/2004; London Review of Books, 4/15/2004] Second in command is Louis-Jodel Chamblain, who had led death squads during the years of Jean-Claude “Baby Doc” Duvalier's dictatorship and who is later convicted and implicated in multiple crimes committed during this period. [Observer, 3/7/2004; The Jamaica Observer, 3/7/2004]
People and organizations involved: Louis-Jodel Chamblain, Emmanuel “Toto” Constant, Jean-Bertrand Aristide
          

October 14, 1993      Haiti Coup

       Haitian Justice Minister Guy Malary and his bodyguard are killed in an ambush. According to a CIA memorandum, dated October 28, 1993, which will later be obtained by the Center for Constitutional Rights, “FRAPH members Jodel Chamblain, Emmanuel Constant, and Gabriel Douzable met with an unidentified military officer on the morning of 14 October to discuss plans to kill Malary.” According to the Center, “Constant at the time was a paid CIA informant, earning $500 a month.” [Center for Constitutional Rights, 2/18/2004; Human Rights Watch, 2/27/04]
People and organizations involved: Emmanuel “Toto” Constant, Louis-Jodel Chamblain
          

(December 1994)      Haiti Coup

       Haitian authorities put warrants out for the arrest of FRAPH leaders Emmanuel “Toto” Constant and his deputy, Louis Jodel Chamblain who are wanted for their involvement in human rights violations that occurred during the previous three-year period of military rule. Emmanuel Constant flees to the United States. [Amnesty International, 2/7/1996]
People and organizations involved: Emmanuel “Toto” Constant, Louis-Jodel Chamblain
          

Early October 1995-October 1996      Haiti Coup

       Haiti's government and lawyers for Alerte Belance, a Haitian woman who was assaulted by FRAPH forces during the coup period (see October 31, 1991-October 15, 1994), seek the FRAPH documents (see (Late October 1994)) from the United States. But the US Defense Department refuses to provide them, saying the papers are classified and must first be reviewed before being released. The Haitian government wants to use the documents as evidence in the prosecution of FRAPH members and Belance's attorneys have subpoenaed them for use as evidence in a lawsuit against FRAPH member Emmanuel Constant who is living openly in the USA, and who has admitted being a paid CIA asset during the FRAPH's period of military rule in Haiti (see October 14, 1993). Belance's lawyers say the documents could contain important information about FRAPH's financing, their weapons, and the crimes they are accused of having committed. In October 1996, the US sends documents to Port-au-Prince, but the Haitian government refuses them on grounds that they are incomplete. [Amnesty International, 2/7/1996; Amnesty International, 3/2004; UPS, 10/10/1995]
People and organizations involved: Emmanuel “Toto” Constant, Alerte Belance
          

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