The Center for Cooperative Research
U:     P:    
Not registered yet? Register here
 
Search
 
Advanced Search


Main Menu
Home 
History Engine Sub-Menu
Timelines 
Entities 
Forum 
Miscellaneous Sub-Menu
Donate 
Links 
End of Main Menu

Volunteers Needed!
Submit a timeline entry
Donate: If you think this site is important, please help us out financially. We need your help!
Email updates
 


Click here to join: Suggest changes to existing data, add new data to the website, or compile your own timeline. More Info >>

 

Profile: Donald Riegle

 
  

Positions that Donald Riegle has held:

  • United States Senator


 

Quotes

 
  

Quote, 1994

   “[Between January 1985 and August 1990, the] executive branch of our government approved 771 different export licenses for sale of dual-use technology to Iraq.” [Sunday Herald 9/8/2002]

Associated Events

Quote, May 25, 1994

   “UN inspectors had identified many United States manufactured items that had been exported from the United States to Iraq under licenses issued by the Department of Commerce, and [established] that these items were used to further Iraq's chemical and nuclear weapons development and its missile delivery system development program.” [US Congress, 5/25/1994, Sunday Herald 9/8/2002]

Associated Events


 

Relations

 
  

No related entities for this entity.


 

Donald Riegle actively participated in the following events:

 
  

October 1, 1984-October 13, 1993      US support of Iraq WMD

       The Reagan and Bush administrations' commerce departments allow US companies and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to export chemical and biological agents as well as other dual-use items to Iraq, despite the country's known record of using chemical weapons. According to government regulations, the Commerce Department must send applications for export licenses which involve items related to national security to the appropriate US government agencies for review. Reviewing agencies include the State Department, Department of Defense, Energy Department, and Subgroup on Nuclear Export Coordination. But in many cases, the Commerce Department either does not send national security-related applications to these agencies for review, or if it does, it overrides a review agency's recommendation not to grant a license, allowing the item to be exported anyway. [Hurd and Rangwala 12/12/2002; Jentleson 1994,p. 79; Timmerman 1991, pp. 202 and 410 n5] According to two Senate Committee Reports that will be completed in 1994, one on May 25 and another on October 7, dual-use chemical and biological agents exported to Iraq from the US significantly contributed to the country's weapons arsenal. The initial May report will say the agents “were not attenuated or weakened and were capable of reproduction” and the October report will reveal that the “microorganisms exported by the United States were identical to those the United Nations inspectors found and removed from the Iraqi biological warfare program.” The 1994 investigation also determines that other exports such as plans and equipment also contributed significantly to Iraq's military capabilities. “UN inspectors had identified many United States manufactured items that had been exported from the United States to Iraq under licenses issued by the Department of Commerce, and established] that these items were used to further Iraq's chemical and nuclear weapons development and its missile delivery system development program,” Donald Riegle, the chairman of the committee, will explain. He also says that between January 1985 and August 1990, the “executive branch of our government approved 771 different export licenses for sale of dual-use technology to Iraq.” [Sunday Herald 9/8/2002; The Times 12/31/02; Yellow Times 8/20/2002 Sources: US chemical and biological warfare-related dual-use exports to Iraq and their possible impact on the health consequences of the Persian Gulf War, May 25, 1994, US senate, committee on banking, housing, and urban affairs report, May 25, 1994, US chemical and biological warfare-related dual-use exports to Iraq and their possible impact on the health consequences of the Persian Gulf War, October 7, 1994]
Biological and chemical agents -
Bacillus Anthracis, cause of anthrax. [Yellow Times 8/20/2002; Sunday Herald 9/8/2002]
Clostridium Botulinum, a source of botulinum toxin. It was sold to Iraq right up until 1992. [Yellow Times 8/20/2002; Sunday Herald 9/8/2002]
Histoplasma Capsulatam, cause of a disease attacking lungs, brain, spinal cord and heart. [Yellow Times 8/20/2002]
Brucella Melitensis, a bacteria that can damage major organs. [Yellow Times 8/20/2002; Sunday Herald 9/8/2002]
Clotsridium Perfringens, a highly toxic bacteria causing systemic illness, gas gangrene. [Yellow Times 8/20/2002; Sunday Herald 9/8/2002]
Clostridium tetani, highly toxigenic. [Yellow Times 8/20/2002; Sunday Herald 9/8/2002]
Also, Escherichia Coli (E.Coli); genetic materials; human and bacterial DNA. [Yellow Times 8/20/2002]
VX nerve gas. [Sunday Herald 9/8/2002]
Pralidoxine, an antidote to nerve gas which can also be reverse engineered to create actual nerve gas. This was sold to Iraq in March 1992, after the end of the Gulf War. [Sunday Herald 9/8/2002]
Other exports -
Chemical warfare-agent production facility plans and technical drawings. [Newsday 12/13/02]
Chemical warfare filling equipment. [Newsday 12/13/02]
Missile fabrication equipment. [Newsday 12/13/02]
Missile system guidance equipment. [Newsday 12/13/02]
Graphics terminals to design and analyze rockets. [Washington Post,3/11/1991]
Machine tools and lasers to extend ballistic missile range. [Committee on Government Operations, House, Strengthening the Export Licensing System, 2 July 1991, section National Security vs. Export Promotion: Sales to Iraq, para. 16. cited in Hurd and Rangwala 12/12/2002]
Computers to develop ballistic missiles and nuclear weapons. [Sub-committee on Commerce, Consumer and Monetary Affairs of the House Committee on Government Operations, Strengthening the Export Licensing System, 2 July 1991cited in Hurd and Rangwala 12/12/2002]
$1 million in computers, flight simulators and other technology products that went to Saad 16 research center in Iraq (see November 1986). [Washington Post,3/11/1991]
People and organizations involved: Donald Riegle  Additional Info 
          

Except where otherwise noted, the textual content of each timeline is licensed under the Creative Commons License below:

Creative Commons License Home |  About this Site |  Development |  Donate |  Contact Us
Terms of Use